Why The Romans Were So Effective In Battle – Full Documentary

Why The Romans Were So Effective In Battle - Full Documentary

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General Knowledge History Quiz:

The Roman Army was a highly effective war machine that constantly adapted and evolved in order to defeat new rivals and conquer new territories, ensuring Rome remained the dominant superpower for many centuries.

it may have been the greatest army of all time conquering and controlling an empire that stretched across the ancient Western world it was ruthless disciplined and feared by all not just by his enemies who died in their millions but by its own Empress who often paid the price of the Army's wrath and yet these soldiers were builders as well as destroyers helping to spread a culture that became the bedrock of Western civilization what was it that made this army so dominant how was it able to rule reshape the classical world and why did it eventually fall this is the story of the Roman warship the glory that was Rome was built largely upon the power of its army until it discovered how to wage war Rome was just another small Italian farming settlement but there was something different about the Romans they had a unique ability to turn themselves into a political and military power without equal the city that would dominate the ancient world for centuries began as early as 1000 BC archaeologists have found the remains of dwellings from that period on Rome's Palatine Hill for many centuries later the Roman emperors built their palaces early Rome was dominated by a neighbor the Etruscans from what is now Tuscany to the north Etruscan Kings took control of Rome around 600 BC and ruled it for a century before the Romans expelled Rome then began creating the political and military system we recognized today Rome became a republic with the Senate and two chief executives the consuls who were elected for one-year terms to handle important matters including the military Rome had to learn how to fight because it occupied an important trading crossroads on the Tiber River and it was always skirmishing with envious neighbors as early as 500 BC Rome had an army of 6,000 been called a legion from the Latin word meaning conscription but this was a far cry from the professional Roman army that would later dominate the world they are citizen soldiers they are part-time soldiers they get recruited for the campaigning season they leave their fields their work to go off and fight in the army at the end of the campaign they're back bringing the harvest bringing in the vintage buying the fields every year able-bodied Roman men were summoned by trumpet to report for enlistment but not all men only landowners were trusted to fight for Rome because they had something to protect service was regarded as a duty and an honor and a must for any Roman seeking political power the Roman people are reluctant to vote for people who cannot show their war rooms them many stories of people standing for politics in the forum ripping their clothes to show their wounds to demonstrate that they have fought for Rome in battle Romans had to provide their own armor and weapons so the wealthiest the officers had a helmet armor a spear a sword and a shield while the poorest the front ranks had no owner and had only slings and stones for weapons the early Roman army was modeled on the Greeks especially the basic tactical formation the Greek army used the so called phalanx a tight-knit rolling infantry formation which came at the enemy like a forest of Spears your whole army lined up facing forward in lines and then the first few ranks would hold out their spears and their shields and the army would move forward and mass the object was to simply push aside the enemy and in in the course of it kill as many as possible Roma's first major victory was against his old nemesis the Etruscan a Rome conquered the nearby city of AE in 396 BC but the Romans didn't have long to celebrate six years later they met an entirely new kind of enemy when Celtic warriors on the north swept down upon Rome the Celts were people linked by language culture and style of warfare and Celtic tribes were spread across Europe from Ireland to France and Switzerland and 390 BC a Celtic army thrashed the Roman legion and over an ro [Applause] the Celtic method of fighting was very disturbing to them the Celts simply ran at you with hundreds and thousands of men yelling shouting banging on metal objects blowing their horns they really terrified the Romans the Celts left the city only after the Romans bribed them with gold this was Rome's wake-up call it needed to rethink its whole military strategy if it was to survive that one way was through training Roman soldiers had to go through the toughest training in the ancient world there were four long hard months of basic training and anyone who couldn't stand the pace was either discharged or put on rations of foul-tasting barley until they got it right basic training began with marching and plodding up soldiers had to be able to march more than 20 miles in five hours carrying a full pack in weapons training recruits were given dummy swords shields and javelins that weigh twice as much as the real thing is to build muscles the Romans I think in this early period should really be seen as the the zulus of the Mediterranean world they are highly militarized society and like the Zulus they don't let no warriors have sex so when they come into battle they're very tough as the army gruel Armour became standardized for all soldiers and provided by the state I'm wearing a male shirts for body protection and you can see it's made of small individual pieces of metal which are fashioned into rings and then linked together it's biggest advantage of course is to take slashing blows across because the male links all sit together if an enemy hit me with a sword in a slashing way it would actually take the blow the disadvantage of male was that it doesn't in fact take a stabbing at all if you stab through the male the point of the sword will actually pierce the rings beginning in the 1st century AD the Romans also used segments and plate armor held together by leather straps it was so much more complicated than male armor that soldiers needed help to put it on you can see all the protections on the top rather than round the legs and things and the reason for that is that when you've got D the counts fight in you their long slashing swords needed all that protection up on the top rather than bottom they also give you a chance to run the Roman helmet gradually redesigned over the centuries aim to give maximum protection without blocking the sensors you can see it's a round bowl protecting the top of my head round because it's got very good glancing blow action a square helmet would take the blow words a round helmet the blow would glance off large cheek pieces to protect the side of my face and a small neck guard at the back to actually take an over hand below protecting the back of my neck now obviously you can see there's no covering on my face or on my ears in fact and the Romans decided that it was a lot better for a soldier to be able to see around him and hear orders very vital in back further protection came from the Roman shield smaller and round and early times developing later into a bigger rectangular one it was made of layers of wood glued together bound and covered with leather and but think about the Roman shield is it is curved not flat like most shields at the time this gives me protection all around my body and if I coming at you in battle it's not only a defensive weapon it's an offensive weapon I can smash you in the face and then while you're off pilots draw the sword and pin under your ribs when it came to offensive weapons the first one the Roman soldier would use in battle was the javelin the great thing about the Roman javelin is when you threw it the enemy couldn't throw it back these are delivered in volleys of hundreds as they rain down the hard iron tent will punch through the armor the weight of the handle will bend this soft metal shank it'll be useless and can't throw it back the shield is useless you probably hurt you're in big trouble but the weapon that won the Empire and cabinet was the Roman sword once the Germans have been expended the Roman legion would then move in with probably the most vicious of his weapons the short sword or Gladius in Latin very much a close quarter weapon it's much shorter than you will envisage a sort of a medieval broadsword today because it actually is much shorter it's designed with a very broad base tapering to a very very sharp point and the idea of this weapon was purely to stab the soldier was trained to actually stab into an enemy soldier mainly in the stomach area because of course there's no bone for it to actually get jammed in and of course a quick stab when withdrawls put him out of action one way or the other now the soldier was trying not to use an overhand blow but purely a stabbing action in the modern wire sole use the bayonet really the thing about this Roman swords is shortened to the point that issues for stabbing rather than slashing barbarians this or don't like hours and long and broad and it's all an ego trip on the battlefield sloshing around above their heads all style that's all it is and while they're doing that it's up and under stabbed into the ribs remember so we make them into me to the barbarians the Roman army was ready to use their weapons and training to build an empire and the first victims were their fellow Italians the basic unit of the Roman army was the Legion and over time it became highly structured eventually the Legion evolved into a unit of 4,800 soldiers it was divided into ten cohorts of 480 men each which in turn contains six centuries not 100 men that he won't expect but 80 soldiers each century had ten groups of eight men who shared a tent a legionary commanders were usually political appointments Roman nobleman doing service as they climbed the political ladder their military ability varied greatly and so much of the real running of the army felled the officers beneath them the most famous of these was the Centurion and charge of a century of soldiers as Rome's Empire rule Centurions became career soldiers working their way up through the ranks Centurions usually had at least 15 years experience it was their job to train the men discipline them and lead them in battle because they'd seen so many campaigns they understood the traditions of the army they knew how the army could actually solve particular problems which he might encounter in future campaigns so they were very much the living essence of the Roman legions I mean the equipment of a Roman centurion you can always immediately tell the Centurion because his crest goes across his helmet in this case the crest is made of horsehair although sometimes they were made of feathers and if he'd been given military awards you can see they're worn on a harness on the chest Centurions were career officers who took the term literally Centurions Demma had to retire we find some cases people over 80 is still serving so this of course helps to secure uniformity of standards and training and so on throughout throughout the empire you see careers of the Centurions who've been all over the place in their very long lifetime Centurions could make a soldier's life hell they demanded bribes to excuse soldiers from the less popular duties and used their vine staffs to deliver punishment one Centurion Luke Ilyas was nicknamed give me another for his practice of breaking his staff over soldiers backs it was later murdered by his own men after its early defeat by Celtic warriors in 390 BC the Roman army changed its battle tactics they did away with the rigid phalanx formation it had borrowed from the Greeks and used smaller fighting units called men apples or handfuls highly maneuverable groups of less than 150 men this allowed the the Roman army to operate more effectively perhaps on on rather rougher ground but also it allowed them to move groups of soldiers around to the flanks and to the rear of enemy armies well the basis of the Roman army was its infantry the foot soldier each Legion also had an attachment of up to 300 cavalry the Romans were not natural horses so they adapted tactics and gear from their enemies including the Celts one example was the military saddle saddle on top of it is a very odd-looking Beast to most people now it doesn't look like a modern saddle at all the most obvious feature other four horns on it and the four horns are there because of the thing that is obviously missing there are no stirrups at all the Romans didn't ride with stirrups the saddle that developed after they'd fought with the Celts had this these horns as a very significant feature if you've got no stirrups as I said you can't lean out sideways very safely on a flat saddle these horns in Abele to do that the saddle looks sure compared to a modern saddle because the back horns press against your backside the front horns go under your thigh and you can lean out probably to about 45 degrees with relative safety part of the Cavalry's job was to harass the enemy and the riders carry special light javelins for that purpose as you pass that enemy you can lob several of them at them they're not going to do a huge amount of damage but your purpose isn't necessarily to do a lot of damage it's to make the formation break up so the infantry can get in and win in battle the cavalry lined up on the wings of the legions the infantry formed three horizontal lines so they could take turns at being the frontline until the battle was won as the Romans formed up to start the pathway they bang their swords against their shields now frightening drumroll until the order came to charge as the two sides closed in on each other the Roman foot lions would launch their javelins disrupting the enemy formation the infantry would form wedges to break up the enemy lines and allow close-in fighting that was when the short Romans stabbing sword would come into its own the fighting itself might be only twenty minutes or so sometimes it was a lot longer but it was very difficult to fight for a great length of time and this massive weight of armor that Roman soldiers and often their enemies wore part of the reason for Roman success in in battle was undoubtedly to do with training once an enemy cracked the Romans did not surround them instead and usually left an easy escape route so that the cavalry could come in and cut them down as they fled by 270 BC Rome controlled much of the Italian peninsula but unlike many ancient powers it did not simply pillages defeated neighbors it turned them into allies sometimes offering them Roman citizenship that way as Rome expands the people human conquerors are integrated all part of the Roman army and become the troops for the next wave of conquest out so it's a cumulative process and then I think key to the success and the growth of this Empire Rome's expansion made a clash inevitable with Carthage another Mediterranean superpower and when that clash came it would produce the most horrendous war the ancient world had ever seen Rome's expansion in the 200s BC brought it into conflict with another empire across the Mediterranean the city of Carthage in baden-baden easier commanded an empire stretching across northern Africa in 264 BC Rome and Carthage began fighting over control of Sicily / Carthage had colonies and Rome found itself at a disadvantage Carthage had a great Navy and Rome had almost none Rome began building one the most of its soldiers had never sailed so they practiced on dry land pretending to row in unison to get a feel for it and when it came time for the real sea battles Rome had a trick up its sleeve it developed a kind of gangplank called a Corvis that hooked onto Carthaginian ships so that the Roman soldiers could board them turning naval battles into more familiar land battles and that way Rome routed the Carthaginian fleet Rome won Sicily Corsica and Sardinia but Carthage did not accept the defeat in 218 BC Carthage hit back under one of the most feared warriors Rome would ever face Hannibal and this time the target was Rome itself Hannibal was a man clearly with tremendous determination a great personal hatred of Rome which he'd inherited from his family who'd fought the Romans before and it's also very clear that he had great personal magnetism Hannibal marched his army through Spain and France and across the Alps into Italy accompanied by three dozen elephants most of Hannibal's elephants died on journey over the Alps in fact his elephants played absolutely no role in the subsequent campaign I nevertheless they represent the skill and boldness that Hannibal portrayed in coming over the Alps so early in the campaigning season and surprising the Romans but the help of Celtic warriors who joined him on the way Hannibal won early victories against Roman legions said to meet him then in 216 BC came a major showdown at Cana in southern Italy Hannibal had about 40,000 troops while the Romans and their allies had nearly twice that number but Hannibal was a master tactician when the Roman legions made the usual thrust towards his Center Hannibal let them advance then encircle them it was a disaster for the Roman army some fifty thousand Romans and allies were killed there was panic and Rome but cries of Hannibal is at the gates but Hannibal was never able to capture role because Rome's ingenious policy of creating allies paid off once again what defeats had over the fact that the Romans have got eight nine ten times as many men able to be impressed into the army as Hannibal has got they can lose fifty thousand men in a day and they keep on fighting because they've got the manpower and no other state in the ancient world could ever achieve anything like that Rome practice total war against Hannibal as an emergency measure they called up every available man even slaves and set legions to Carthage held Spain to stop supplies and reinforcements from reaching Hannibal the wars on on this scale are fights for survival literally for survival if you lose these kind of wars in the early period your city is destroyed your women and children are dispersed across the Mediterranean world that's the end of it all societies are destroyed if battles are lost it took fifteen years of fighting before Hannibal was forced out of Italy he returned to Carthage to defend it against the counter-attack by the Romans who finally defeated Hannibal in 202 BC but despite the victory rome maintained a paranoid fear of Carthage and provoked a third war in 149 BC it took the Roman legions three years to breach Carthage's huge city walls and then the Romans slaughtered unknown thousands of Carthaginians and so of 50,000 survivors into slavery finally the Romans leveled the city crowded into the ground and according to legend sowed it with salt so that nothing would ever grow there again any Roman army was capable of extreme brutality particularly in the sack of a city which had resisted them which they then managed to break into under those circumstances it seems to have been normal Roman practice almost policy to slaughter absolutely everybody in everything including animals everybody was just chopped to pieces absolute carnage after defeating Carthage Rome also added Greece as a province after destroying the city of Corinth many other conquests followed so that by 100 BC Rome was undisputed master of the Mediterranean the Romans justified their expansion in a way that many modern-day politicians would understand they always convinced themselves that they fight defensive Wars no Roman war no matter how offensive or imperialist it might look to us to the Romans it was always a matter of defense always fending off an attack so in a sense that's how they justified a Mediterranean conquest as rulers of a rapidly expanding Empire the legions had to get used to a lot of travel and that meant travel on foot when Roman soldiers marched they carried up to 50 pounds of equipment on their backs including weapons armor cooking utensils rations and tools for building a temporary camp most armies relied on natural defenses if the Romans carried the tools to build a new camp wherever they were a new one each day if necessary they dug a defensive ditch around the whole camp five feet wide and three feet deep then built a palisade with the snakes they carried with them it was as though the Romans had their own fortified city wherever they went the primary purpose of a Roman marching camp is psychological rather than military it's the idea that in enemy territory every night you make a small city in what is not your territory and the enemy look on seeing their territory pockmarked by the advance of Roman armies the camps were a classic example of the Romans passion for order every camp had an identical plan each leather tent was put up in the same position each time so that the soldiers knew exactly where they were the soldiers had a great sense of security during the night they knew exactly where their officers were and the fact that their comrades work were guarding them as well the Roman obsession with order extended to the discipline of the troops cab sentries who fell asleep to be stoned to death for having endangered the whole regiment it wasn't as exceptional as it might sound given the general background of what Roman society was like people were used to flogging they were used to fairly frequent public executions so the Roman army was indeed pretty draconian but not as different from the rest of society as badly I think one infamous form of harsh discipline was decimation the killing of one men in 10 of regiments that showed cowardice in battle the men were selected by luck and clubbed to death by their comrades roman obedience was based on fear if a Roman soldier was faced by a crisis in battle that Roman soldier that unit of soldiers would stand their ground because they were more likely to survive a desperate fight in battle than to survive if they ran away one famous case of decimation came when Roman legions suffered several defeats during a revolt led by an escaped gladiator a warrior called Spartacus the Roma Norway was so busy conquering and building an empire on foreign soil that it had no standing army back home in Italy and that left it open to surprise attack that's just what happened in 73 BC in a revolt led by a foreign slave named Spartacus who had been forced to become a gladiator conditions for all slaves were relatively cruel and brutal and particularly for gladiators who were kept chained in barracks and were brutally treated Spartacus led a revolt by fellow gladiators against their conditions and was soon joined in the uprising by slaves in the countryside millions of slaves were brought back into Italy a lot of them were prisoners of war a lot of them were ex warriors and therefore although many of them were kept in barracks and many of them are trained to be gladiators they were a potential security risk because there were no legions stationed in Italy at the time new legions had to be quickly raised and trained but Spartacus said his men using guerilla tactics defeated each Legion centimetres and his band remained at large in Italy for three years the roman senate finally gave the nobleman marcus crassus the power to quell the revolt the show he was serious he began by decimating two of the legions that had lost the Spartacus then raised six new legions and met the Spartans in open warfare their tactics were so unconventional they refused to give battle until the very end in a conventional way they confounded the expectations of the generals and the army is sent against them in a sense their mistake and what lost them their final battle was to behave like Roman soldier the fighter conventional pitch battle had they stuck to guerrilla warfare their revolt might have been even more effective than it was the legions defeated the rebel army and killed Spartacus and then Crassus lined the Appian Way outside Rome with 6000 crucified sparticles a lesson to anyone who opposed Rome and her army in the early days of the Roman army soldiers were called away for only a few months at a time between spring and harvest but the expanding Empire that long campaigns overseas and for property owners he only been eligible for the legions military service became an ever-increasing hardship by 100 BC Rome had about 130,000 men in uniform one Roman man and eight was a soldier and he was required to do up to six years of service in one stretch and a maximum of 16 years over his lifetime the legions needed a bigger pool of manpower to draw on and the man who made it possible was the Consul Marius himself a great general twice he had saved Rome from invasion with victories over German tribes in the fields near XR Palace and southern France and 102 BC Marius army killed so many Germans one hundred thousand by one account that farmers had bumper crops for years afterwards because of the blood and bones in the soil as console marius decided to throw the ranks open to all Roman citizens whether they owned land or not this meant poor Romans could volunteer for a secure and prestigious job with good pay and trap they could become career soldiers the Roman army was now on its way to becoming a full-time professional force but volunteers still had to meet strict requirements they had to be tall preferably literate and have good character references certain professions were preferred including blacksmiths and hunters those incident not suitable included Weaver's and tavern keepers new recruits had to pass an interview and a medical exam and then had to take an oath to perform whatever they were commanded for the Roman state and to not shrink from death they were then given three gold pieces and sent to the provinces for training but many of these new Torah soldiers were already looking beyond three gold pieces as the army kept adding new conquests soldiers were increasingly focused on the spoils of war the amount of booty are over to bring back from cities like Corinth in 1 4 6 BC so enormous that I think it did encourage massive greed and an increasing level of brutality among Roman soldiers increasingly soldiers turn their loyalty from the Roman state to their own generals who could make them rich and the generals being Roman aristocrats saw their legions as tickets to wealth and power intimately related as the general and his army the general promises his army land booty settlement after the war has finished and the army promises the general not only success in conquest but votes back in Rome afterwards this led to a new class of super generals all the political ambitions there was Maria's himself a consul for many years his rival sulla who won victories in the eastern Mediterranean and became dictator of Rome for a time Pompey the great for conquered Syria and Palestine and the most famous general of all Julius Caesar Julius Caesar represents as close as I think you can get to naked ambition in the first century BC there's a famous story of Julius Caesar age 31 in further Spain coming across a statue of that great Conqueror Alexander the Great and suddenly bursting into tears and his entourage say why Caesar are you crying and he says this man by my age had conquered most of the world and I have done nothing within a few years the world would know that Caesar had done a great deal of all Rome's great generals none created more fame bloodshed loyalty and hatred than Julius Caesar he was a nobleman who worked his way up the political ladder and used his military command in Spain to pillage enough booty to buy votes in Rome he was made a consul and formed a political alliance the triumvirate of the rival general Pompey and Marcus Crassus the richest man in Rome Cesar then had himself made governor of northern Italy and southern France which made him commander of several legions he was anxious for more conquests and his chance soon came in 58 BC a Celtic people the helvetii II asked Caesars permission to migrate from Switzerland to western France across Roman Allies territory in what was then called goal instead of agreed Caesar decided to attack the Caesar of course is a cynic he needs a war he needs the booty derived from that to finance his political campaigns before he goes on campaign in Gaul he is deeply in debt Gaul will provide the booty for repaying his creditors Caesar said six legions against the Helvetii is three hundred and sixty thousand men women and children more than half the haveli was slaughtered and the survivors forced to return to their homelands it was a part of the political struggle at Rome in the late Republic Pompey his great rival was Rome's best general so Caesar competing against Pompey he has to be a better general after dispatching the Helvetii he Cesar said after a German tribe that had crossed the Rhine and marched his troops 120 miles in five days to the Alsace region again the Romans slaughtered thousands Caesar then turned west towards Belgium and repeated the dos against the tribe there ceases political foes in Rome decried his actions but both Romans cheered him on because he was defeating goals the very same Celtic people who'd sacked Rome in 390 BC the Romans fear of Celtic people's like the goals was more than historical it was also physically partly the sheer size of the Celts the Italians were fairly small people and compared them the goals for example were haps enormous you know some of six-footers that the Italians weren't used to for example we're told that Julius Caesar was tall for a room when he was only 5 foot 6 to the Romans anyone who didn't speak Latin or Greek such as the Celts was looked down upon as a barbarian because the language sounded like sheep baa baa the Romans have a very particular view of themselves and that is to see themselves as people who've developed the powers of the mind to control the body barbarians on the other hand are people who are led by physical desire sex and drugs and rock and roll they don't have a proper education so they go for the nearest thrill but the Celts that Caesar was fighting at gold but far from barbarians as we know the Germans they lived in organized towns like this reconstruction in France and there were master iron workers who probably invented the chainmail armor that the Romans adopted and the Celts artwork was anything but barbaric it still regarded as one of the great artistic traditions of Europe as warriors the so-called barbarians were no match for seas as well-trained legions Celtic warriors did not fight as a unit they fought for individual glory the big men like to show up dressed in fancy shiny armor stand at the front and engage in warfare that was no doubt fairly brutal but was fairly small scale they couldn't plan total war in the way that the Romans could plan they didn't have fully trained legions they didn't have logistic backup also the Celts were up against a brilliant commander and Julius Caesar he was ambitious hungry for victories and used daring and original tactics he was noted for the speed and surprise of his movements and he really brought those techniques to perfection in using his legions on the other hand he was a little reckless part of his daring and he often got himself in terrible scrapes but he was so quick and so perceptive of the enemy's intentions that he was always able to get himself out from the word go he was prepared to adapt I mean coming up against the Germans for the first time in his first campaign enormous sums of cavalry he had virtually none no problem he simply gets in horses and tells one Legion right boys your organ recovery suddenly has 5,000 calories Cesar knew he asked a lot of his soldiers and so he went out of his way to cultivate an intense loyalty from he didn't ask them to do anything that he didn't do and he often dismissed his bodyguard and had his horse led away and actually stood in the ranks with the troops and his troops were very loyal to him not surprisingly these loyal soldiers were also becoming wealthy soldiers throw booty and slaves the spoils of war were often won through great brutality Caesar himself boasted that his campaigns in Gaul left a million dead and a million enslaved Cesar just carried out what I've called actually a big-game hunt he took his legions back and forth across call slaughtering troops pillaging towns killing women children the Romans were terribly cruel on the Celts defeated enemies were often made into slaves slavery was tremendously important to Rome 40% of the Italian population were slaves the same percentage as the American South before the Civil War slaves are fundamental to Rome's war effort essentially slaves free this Roman citizen to fight in the army without slavery it would have been impossible for Rome so effectively to initiate these wars of conquest caesar's wars of conquest went on for nine years he was the ultimate example of everything the Roman army had become in its first 500 years dedicated ambitious ruthless and caesar would not stop with foreign conquests with his army behind him he would conquer his enemies in Rome and take the title of dictator for life

42 thoughts on “Why The Romans Were So Effective In Battle – Full Documentary”

  1. Roman civilization fascinates us because it is our cultural matrix. So much time has passed but the umanity, capable of grandiose deeds and even of the worst infamies is always the same of that far era.

  2. Rome didn't pay the Gauls anything, the Senate was going to but the former consul Marcus Furius Camillus raised (who had been exiled) raised an army and confronted the Gauls. He said Rome is defended with Iron not Gold, he then crushed them in battle and was named dictator. If you didn't defeat Rome utterly then you would face their terrible wrath (Carthage being the best example).

  3. Roman soldiers were trained with better weapon, elite troops killing machine, and better formation supported by flags and drum signal so Roman commander know the enemy situation. In other hand, Roman enemy like Brits or Gaul were no more than farmers with no military training and charged blindly in mass, into Roman traps. Roman people themselves were brainwashed with word like Savages, Barbarians so they feel it's ok to leave homeland and invade others. Nowadays word like Barbarians were changed into "terrorists" so superpower nations can destroy innocent civilians from nation that can not protect themselves.

  4. A roman re-enactment group that I saw in action recently referred to the Kenturion rather than centurion. I was told that in Roman latin the C was pronounced as K and that Caesar was pronounced Kaiser.

  5. Nos tantum erant Romanorum vicit. Nos semper proeliis vicit inimicos nostros, et pugnabit in nos direxerunt ad sanguinem et sudore. Nos invasit alot de gentibus Scottorum seorsum. Interea dum nos horribiles illas Pictos Britannorum tincidunt. Itaque relinquentes ad nostrum huns eruditionis est.

  6. I mean no offense but when you put a non fit man in ancient armor it doesn’t look right.
    When you describe a Roman soldier you describe him as extremely fit and muscular, then we switch to a non fit man. Hire models please.

  7. So… I recently found a very interesting fact about the Roman Empire, specifically the late Roman Empire. As of 2017, The US spends roughly 3% of it’s GDP on it’s military. Towards the later Roman Empire, Rome spent roughly 4% on it’s military. Rome spent more on it’s military than the US does now!

    I find that extremely interesting.

  8. Im sure this has already been mentioned here before. Gladiators were not generally mistreated. They were very expensive to acquire and train. They were most likely treated like we treat race horses today.

    Great video. We all have a lot to learn from history.

  9. Third comment,the Romans did not offer citizenship until a major war called the Socii war in which they fought against allies that wanted status within the empire,Rome learns that’s the secret to the army and the empire.

  10. Two comments ,One what happened to the Marian reforms;not a word there and Two The Roman army had soldiers from everywhere and as a nice touch,where you were recruited was not where you served.

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