Korean War – Battle of Inchon 1950 – COLD WAR DOCUMENTARY



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In the new episode of our animated historical documentary series on the Korean War, we will cover the counter-attack of the UN forces led by the USA in what was later called the Drive North. This video also features the battle of Inchon of 1950

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This video was narrated by Officially Devin (

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إنه سبتمبر عام 1950 قوات الأمم المتحدة
التي تقودها الولايات المتحدة تدافع عن جزء من شبه الجزيرة الكورية يسمى
محيط بوسان ضد القوات الكورية الشمالية. ومع ذلك ، فإن الحرب الكورية بدأت للتو و
الأميركيون يركزون قواتهم حولها شبه الجزيرة للرد. مرحبا بكم في الثانية
حلقة في سلسلة لدينا على الحرب الكورية! إذا أنت مهتم بتاريخ هذا
عصر ، لا تنسى للتحقق من الثانية لدينا قناة – الحرب الباردة – الرابط في
الزاوية اليسرى في الأعلى . الراعي لهذا الفيديو – War Thunder! اللعب على الانترنت مجانا لعبة القتال متاحة على أجهزة الكمبيوتر ، PS4 و Xbox ، وفي اللعب المتبادل بين المنصات
مع عدم وجود شراء ضروري – مجرد تحميل واللعب! حرب الرعد لديه ترسانة لا تضاهى
أكثر من 1200 دبابة دقيقة تاريخيا ، الطائرات والمروحيات والسفن من 1930s
إلى في التسعينيات ، يمكن لعبها عبر 80 ميدان معركة كبير
الحرب العالمية الثانية والحرب الباردة. عظيم الرسومات والموسيقى والمؤثرات الصوتية وواقعية
نماذج الفيزياء والأضرار تزج تماما أكثر من 20 مليون لاعب في جميع أنحاء العالم في
معارك ضخمة. ثلاثة أوضاع مختلفة تسمح الجميع لتحديد مستوى الواقعية المناسبة
بالنسبة لهم. المطورين نشطة للغاية و باستمرار تقديم تحديثات رئيسية مجانية ل
لعبة وإضافة ميزات جديدة ، والمركبات ، والخرائط! فما تنتظرون؟ العب حرب الرعد
مجاني على PS و Playstation 4 و Xbox One! ادعم قناتنا والحصول على طائرة متميزة ،
دبابة أو سفينة ، وحساب لمدة ثلاثة أيام ترقية باعتبارها BONUS عن طريق الضغط على الرابط في
الوصف! قوات الأمم المتحدة كانت قادرة على صد
هجوم القوات الكورية الشمالية على بوسان محيط بحلول سبتمبر 1950. هدف الجيش الشعبي الكوري
كان لإنهاء الحرب في أقرب وقت ممكن ، وكانت الخطة لمواصلة مهاجمة
دفاعات الأمم المتحدة في الباقي فقط الأراضي التي لا تسيطر عليها الجيش الشعبي الكوري – بوسان
محيط. من أجل تخفيف وضع المدافعين
محيط بوسان ، الجنرال ماك آرثر والقيادة العسكرية للأمم المتحدة تعتزم
مفاجأة الكوريين الشماليين بهبوط وراء خطوطهم. بصرف النظر عن تقليل
الضغط على محيط بوسان ، هذه الخطوة تهدف إلى خفض العرض والاتصالات
خطوط الجيش الشعبي الكوري ، تسبب الذعر بينهم ، إجبار قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري على القتال على عدد
من الجبهات ، واستعادة عاصمة الجنوب كوريا في أقرب وقت ممكن.
نوقش عدد من مواقع الهبوط. في مرحلة ما كان ميناء كونسان يجري
ناقش كخيار أكثر تفضيلا ، ولكن يعتقد ماك آرثر أن بقعة الهبوط ينبغي
أن يكون غير متوقع من قبل الكوريين. في النهاية، تم اختيار ميناء إنتشون الخطير والصعب
كمكان هبوط. كان في إنتشون ممران بحريان فقط للدخول
الميناء الخاص به ، والذي كان من الممكن حمايته بسهولة عن طريق البحر الألغام. لكن ماك آرثر حسبت ذلك
لن يتوقع الكوريون الشماليون الهبوط في مثل هذا المكان الصعب. علاوة على ذلك ، كان سيول
قريبة جدا من إنتشون ، وهبوط ناجح سوف تسمح فرصة لتحرير سيول من قبل
قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري تعافت من صدمة الهبوط. وبالتالي ، فإن عملية الكروميت كان
أطلقت. قبل الهبوط في إنتشون ، القوات الأمريكية
استخدمت أساليب الخداع لإرباك الشمال الكوريين. قصف الأمريكيون البعض الآخر
بقع الهبوط المحتملة ونجحت في تحويل انتباه الجيش الشعبي الكوري إلى حد ما.
في 13 سبتمبر ، الأمريكية و بدأت القوات البحرية البريطانية قصف الشمال
الدفاعات الكورية في إنتشون وولميدو. بعد يومين ، في 15 سبتمبر ، الأمم المتحدة
بدأت القوات تهبط على ما يسمى الأخضر ، الشواطئ الزرقاء والحمراء في وقرب إنتشون.
وكان الهبوط الأول على الشاطئ الأخضر – الجانب الشمالي من جزيرة Wolmido. ال
تتألف قوة الهبوط من الكتيبة الثالثة ، مشاة البحرية الخامسة ، بقيادة المقدم روبرت
Taplett وتسعة M26 بيرشينج الدبابات من USMC 1st دبابة الكتيبة. قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري كانت
فاق عددهم بشكل كبير وخسر أكثر من 200 رجل مقابل 14 ضحية بين الأمم المتحدة
القوات. تم أخذ Wolmido بالكامل من قبلهم في غضون ساعات قليلة.
حتى بعد هزيمتهم في الشاطئ الأخضر ، القيادة الكورية الشمالية تعتقد ذلك
كان هذا الهجوم تسريبًا وهبوطًا رئيسيًا كان يجري في كونسان. قليل جدا
قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري كانت تدافع عن انشيون، و كان الهبوط في الأمم المتحدة في الشواطئ الحمراء والزرقاء ناجحًا
دون الكثير من الضحايا. الجيش الشعبي الكوري في 22 فوج المشاة ، الذي أحضر في البداية
للدفاع عن إنتشون ، وكان أمر بالانسحاب إلى سيول.
كان الهدف التالي من قوات الأمم المتحدة هو مسيرة في سيول واستعادتها في أقرب وقت ممكن.
في اليوم التالي ، التقسيمات البحرية الأولى والخامسة بدأت مسيرة نحو سيول. 17 سبتمبر
كان حتى نجاحا أكبر لقوات الأمم المتحدة. كانوا قادرين على هزيمة قوة الجيش الشعبي الكوري مقاومة
مسيرتهم نحو سيول ، وتدمير ستة دبابات تي 34 وقتل 200 رجل.
بعد ذلك كانت الفرقة البحرية الخامسة قادرة للقبض على مطار كيمبو في غاية الأهمية.
سابقا كان سلاح الجو الأمريكي يطير من اليابان لمهامهم. القبض على كيمبو
سمح لهم المطار باستخدام مطار داخل كوريا. منذ الجيش الشعبي الكوري لم يكن قادرا على تدمير
مطار كيمبو في الوقت المناسب ، وكان المطار في الغالب اليسار في براعة وجاهزة للاستخدام للأمريكيين.
جميع محاولات الجيش الشعبي الكوري لاستعادة كيمبو تم صد المطار.
حقيقة أن الجيش الشعبي الكوري ركزت في الغالب على بوسان محيط جعل الدفاع ضد أمريكا
الهبوط وراء خطوطهم ضعيفة نسبيا غير مستعد. ما يقرب من 7K قوات من
78 فوج المشاة المستقل و 25 كان لواء المشاة يدافع عن سيول
المنطقة ضد حوالي 40 ألف من قوات الأمم المتحدة ، عدد الذي أصبح ممكنا بسبب استمرار
هبوط القوات الأمريكية ، مثل 7 فرقة مشاة.
في 19 سبتمبر ، في المساء فوج المشاة الحادي والثلاثون من الفرقة السابعة
الاشتباك مع قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري في ضواحي سيول. في 25 سبتمبر القوات الأمريكية
دخلت سيول. كان محصنا بشدة. ال كان على الأميركيين الانخراط في فرض الضرائب من منزل إلى منزل
القتال ضد قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري ، الذين كانوا يدافعون بعنف. ومع ذلك ، بحلول 28 سبتمبر
كانت قوات الأمم المتحدة قادرة على هزيمة أي أعشاش المقاومة في سيول وتولى السيطرة الكاملة
حول المدينة. تكبدت قوات الأمم المتحدة أكثر من 500 خسارة
بين الهبوط في إنتشون وأخذ سيول ، في حين أن خسائر الجيش الشعبي الكوري كانت الطريق
أكثر أهمية في 35K. هزائم وأعقب الجيش الشعبي الكوري وتقدم كوريا الجنوبية
من مجازر Namyangju و Goyang koyang Cave ، فيها مئات المدنيين يشتبه في
قتل التعاطف الشيوعي من قبل الشرطة الكورية الجنوبية والميليشيات المحلية.
في وقت واحد تقريبا إلى الهبوط في إنتشون ، بدأت قوات الأمم المتحدة عمليات الاختراق
من محيط بوسان ، الذي دافعوا عنه بشراسة ، وترتبط مع القوى التي
هبطت في إنتشون. عشية الهجوم ، الذي تم إطلاقه في 16 سبتمبر ، المخابرات الأمريكية
يقدر أن الجيش الشعبي الكوري لديه 13 فرقة مشاة على الخط بدعم من 1 فرقة مدرعة و
لواءان مدرعان ، مع سلاح الجيش الشعبي الكوري النصف الجنوبي من الجبهة بعد 6 مشاة
الانقسامات مع دعم المدرعة – قوة من 47417 رجل ، والثاني فيلق على الشمال
والنصف الشرقي من الجبهة بعد 7 مشاة الانقسامات مع دعم مدرعة – قوة
من 54000 رجل. هذا جعل ما مجموعه 101417 جنود العدو حول محيط.
وقدرت تشكيلات الجيش الشعبي الكوري في متوسط ​​قوة 75 في المئة في القوات و
معدات. كان لدى قوات الأمم المتحدة 140 ألف رجل. الأمم المتحدة كانت الاستراتيجية للجيش الأمريكي الثامن وجيوش جمهورية كوريا
لاختراق محيط بوسان ودمج مع الوحدات التي هبطت حديثا من
السلك العاشر. الهجوم سيكون بقيادة فرقة مشاة الولايات المتحدة ال 24 ، مع 1st
انقسام الفرسان في العمق ، في حين أن 25 و 2 فرقة مشاة سوف تقدم من
اليسار وجمهورية كوريا الأول والثاني من السلك من اليمين. في 16 سبتمبر ، بدأ الهجوم.
كانت قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري لا تزال قادرة على ذلك تقديم مقاومة قوية لقوات الأمم المتحدة.
استغرق الأمر 3 أيام بالنسبة لهم لإجبار Naktong النهر وجعل الكوريين الشماليين الانسحاب وراء
ذلك. حتى 19 سبتمبر كان هناك شجاع KPA المقاومة في كل مكان وليس مؤشرا
الانسحاب الطوعي ؛ عموما تقدم الأمم المتحدة كانت طفيفة واشترى فقط على حساب
قتال عنيف وخسائر عديدة. ثم في ليلة 18-19 سبتمبر ،
بدأت الانقسامات السابعة والسادسة للجيش الشعبي الكوري في الانسحاب في الجزء الجنوبي من الخط ، حيث هم
كانت بعيدة عن كوريا الشمالية. الفرقة السادسة تركت وراءها تأخير منظم وفعال بشكل جيد
الأطراف لتغطية عمليات السحب. في ال 19 من سبتمبر ، سقطت Waegwan إلى 5 RCT الولايات المتحدة ،
والقسم الأول لجمهورية كوريا في الجبال اخترقت شمال تايجو إلى نقاط وراء
خطوط الشعب KPA 1 و 13th. هؤلاء الانقسامات ثم بدأت الانسحاب.
بحلول 23 سبتمبر ، كانت قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري تماما على الانسحاب بالطبع. الاخير
القوات الكورية الشمالية في كوريا الجنوبية لا تزال تقاتل هزم عندما الجنرال والتون ووكر
اندلع الجيش الثامن من محيط بوسان ، الانضمام إلى الجيش فيلق X في تنسيق
الهجوم على قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري. من بين 70 ألف جندي من الجيش الشعبي الكوري حول بوسان ، المزيد
أكثر من نصفهم قتلوا أو أسروا. ومع ذلك، لأن قوات الأمم المتحدة قد ركزت على اتخاذ
سيول بدلا من قطع انسحاب الجيش الشعبي الكوري الشمال ، ما تبقى من 30000 جندي كوري شمالي
هرب إلى الشمال عبر نهر يالو. لكن الكوريين الشماليين عانوا عددا كبيرا
من الخسائر وخسر غالبية من الدبابات والمدفعية.
في 29 سبتمبر ، كوريا الجنوبية تم استعادة الحكومة في سيول. قواتهم
واصل تقدمه وذهب الماضي 38 موازية. حذرت الصين أنه إذا كانت الولايات المتحدة
القوات عبرت 38 موازية أنها سوف تدخل. ومع ذلك في 7 أكتوبر ،
سمحت الأمم المتحدة للقوات الأمريكية بالعبور في كوريا الشمالية.
بحلول 19 أكتوبر ، عاصمة كوريا الشمالية تم القبض على بيونغ يانغ من قبل قوات الأمم المتحدة. على
في 26 أكتوبر ، قامت الولايات المتحدة بالهبوط في Riwon و Wonsan ، ولكن كلاهما كان
اتخذت بالفعل من قبل الجيش الكوري الجنوبي. بواسطة ثم عانى الجيش الشعبي الكوري حوالي 200،000 رجل
قتل أو جرح ، ليصبح المجموع 335000 خسائر منذ نهاية يونيو 1950 ، و
قد فقدت 313 دبابة. كان الزخم بشكل حاسم على جانب
قوات الامم المتحدة. عدم القدرة على اختراق محيط بوسان ، يعاني الكثير من الضحايا
في محاولة للقيام بذلك ، وناجحة الأمريكية هبطت الهبوط في إنتشون مسار
الحرب الأهلية الكورية. لقد أصبح واضحا هذا فقط في حالة التدخل الأجنبي
يمكن أن تقدم قوات الأمم المتحدة يمكن أن يكون المتوقفة. صرح ستالين بوضوح تردده
لنشر القوات السوفيتية ، لكنه طلب ذلك أرسل الصينيون 5-6 فرق إلى كوريا.
سيثبت التدخل الصيني القادم لتكون قوة قوية بما فيه الكفاية لتحقيق الجمود
في الحرب الأهلية الكورية. حرب الرعد لديها تكرسانة لا مثيل لها من أكثر
من 1200 دبابة دقيقة تاريخيا ، الطائرات ، طائرات الهليكوبتر والسفن من 1930s إلى
1990s ، للعب في 80 ساحات القتال الرئيسية من
الحرب العالمية الثانية والحرب الباردة. دعم لدينا قناة والحصول على طائرة متميزة ، دبابة أو
سفينة وترقية حساب لمدة ثلاثة أيام باعتبارها مكافأة
عن طريق الضغط على الرابط في الوصف! نحن نخطط للحديث أكثر عن الكورية
الحرب على قناة الملوك والجنرالات وقناتنا الثانية "الحرب الباردة"
الرابط الذي يمكنك أن تجد في الوصف أو في الزاوية اليسرى العليا ، لذلك تأكد من ذلك
مشترك في كليهما. نود أن نعبر امتناننا لمؤيدي باتريون و
أعضاء القناة ، الذين يجعلون إنشاء مقاطع الفيديو لدينا ممكن. الآن ، يمكنك أيضا دعم
لنا عن طريق شراء البضائع لدينا عبر الرابط

How America became a superpower



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America grew from a colony to a superpower in 200 years.

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2:07 Correction: Cuba seceded from the US in 1902.

With over 800 military bases around the globe, the US is easily the most powerful nation on earth. But it wasn’t always this way. The US once played an insignificant role in global affairs. In this 8-minute video, you can see the transformation.

Military budget data:

US foreign bases based on David Vine’s book, “Base Nation”

Troop numbers: “Total Military Personnel and Dependent End Strength By Service, Regional Area, and Country”. Defense Manpower Data Center. November 7, 2016.

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現代美國是人類歷史上最強大的國家。 美國擁有800多個軍事基地和佔37%的全球軍費開支 並成為一個廣泛互聯的全球系統的領導者,該系統已經幫助推動了一個 前所未有的繁榮和降低衝突 了解美國在美國的地位
世界,以及為什麼它對世界如此關鍵 我們所知道的政治,你必須回去
到這個國家的建國 在以前從任何意義上講,美國都不是一個全球大國。 在其存在的最初70年中,
美國在這​​兩個地區擴張 並最終影響到北美
在一波擴張主義浪潮中到達太平洋 導致居住在美洲大陸的土著人民被屠殺。 但早期的美國人被深深分裂為
該國是否應該擴大 太平洋和大西洋。 這成為民事後的一次重大辯論
戰爭時,有些領導人喜歡戰後 國務卿西沃德認為,美國
應該推動成為一個全球大國。 西沃德成功地推動了購買計劃
來自俄羅斯的阿拉斯加,但他試圖購買 格陵蘭島和冰島,以及加勒比地區附屬領土
,全都被國會封鎖。 那是因為一些美國人,包括
在國會山的許多人都有強烈的反帝國主義傾向。 這些人擔心美國的到來
更多地參與全球政治 因為必須整合來自“劣等”的人口
比賽。 而這種反對派採用了重大檢查
帝國主義的擴張沖動。 但是在19世紀晚期發生了一些事情
這將改變關於美國擴張主義的辯論。 工業革命產生了爆炸性
經濟增長和美國經濟增長 需要一個更集中的國家和官僚機構
管理不斷增長的經濟。 權力集中在聯邦政府,
使擴張主義總統更容易, 像威廉麥金利一樣,單方面推動
美國在國外的影響力。 關鍵轉折點發生在1898年,當時是總統
麥金萊將這個國家拖入戰爭 西班牙在古巴島上儘管激烈
反對。 崛起的美國輕鬆擊敗了奄奄一息
西班牙帝國,收購波多黎各,關島, 和菲律賓在這個過程中(1898年)。 在接下來的兩年裡,美國將兼併
夏威夷王國(1898年),威克島 (1899年)和美屬薩摩亞(1900年)。 幾年後,美國控制了
巴拿馬運河區(1903年)並派兵到 佔領多米尼加共和國(1916年),它也
購買了美屬維爾京群島(1917年)。 這段快速收購的時間很遠
領土使美國成為真正的地圖 全球力量。 在此期間,美國也開始使用
它有助於保護其日益增長的商業廣告 和國外的軍事利益,安裝
在尼加拉瓜等地的親美政權 並在國際上發揮重要作用
關於西方在中國的存在的外交。 第一次世界大戰展示了美國的多少
影響力增長了。 美國的干預不僅是戰爭結束的決定性因素 但威爾遜總統參加了巴黎和平會議
結束戰爭和嘗試的會議 制定和平條款。 他率先成為美國最雄心勃勃的人物
外交政策倡議,一個國際 組織,稱為國際聯盟,
旨在促進全球和平與合作。 聯盟,重拍全球的批發努力
政治,顯示了美國人多麼雄心勃勃 外交政策已成為。 然而,孤立主義仍然是一個主要的力量
美國。 然而,孤立主義仍然是一個主要的力量
美國。 國會阻止美國加入
威爾遜的國際聯盟 項目。 在大蕭條和崛起期間
希特勒,美國更受關注 自己的地區比歐洲的事務
但最終,美國不斷增長 國外糾纏不可能
它完全不受全球事務的影響。 在東亞,日益增長的日本帝國
對美國人的財產構成直接威脅 和部隊使美國和日本陷入衝突。 這最終導致珍珠港襲擊,使美國陷入第二次世界大戰。 第二次世界大戰將改變美國
全球存在永遠。 美國是唯一的大國
在戰爭期間避免經濟破壞 它是唯一配備原子的國家
武器。 因此,它處於獨特的位置
和平的條件 – 並且,有目的 為了防止另一場戰爭,它花了
優點。 最著名的例子是創作
聯合國 聯合國憲章建立了國際體系
法律禁止征服戰爭,如同 那些由納粹和日本人發動的。 它還作為國際論壇
社區可以權衡糾紛,並且 幫助解決它們。 這樣,美國人希望,大國
可以妥協解決他們的分歧 和法律而不是戰爭。 但雖然聯合國是最著名的
戰後機構,它不是唯一的。 來自所有44個盟國的730名代表
在一個小小的度假天堂聚集在一起 新罕布什爾。他們的目標?建立一個可以防止再次出現大蕭條的全球金融體系 和世界大戰。 由此產生的協議稱為布雷頓森林協議,最終成為該協議的支柱 全球金融體系。 導致世界銀行和國際貨幣基金組織。 通過創建這些機構的聯合國
各國致力於深入發展 捲入世界的問題。 但問題是世界第二大問題
權力 – 蘇聯 – 看到的東西 不同。 第二次世界大戰使盟友擺脫了民主
西方和共產主義東方在對抗 希特勒,但這不能持久。 美國看到蘇聯擴張
東歐和其他地區成為直接威脅 它的自由貿易世界的願景。 “在很大程度上,以某種形式” 社會主義傳播了人類統治的陰影 在地球的大多數國家 而……陰影正在侵蝕我們自己的自由。 害怕蘇聯對西方的意圖
歐洲,美國和其他歐洲國家 創建了北大西洋公約組織,
一個軍事聯盟意味著阻止俄羅斯 入侵歐洲其他國家。 在全球範圍內,美國致力於實施一項名為的戰略
“遏制” – 所謂的因為它 旨在遏制共產主義的傳播
全球各地。 這場新的全球鬥爭意味著美國
所有人都不得不到處施加影響 時間。 而不是解散大規模軍事
為第二次世界大戰創造的機器,它的輪子 大部分時間都在轉 這有兩個主要結果:第一,美國是
與國家結成不太可能的聯盟 像沙特阿拉伯,以色列和韓國,
把他們看作是反對共產主義的堡壘 影響他們的地區。 其次,美國經常開始介入
偷偷地,在幾十個國家中遏制 蘇聯影響力。 有時這意味著支持同情
其他時候,像伊朗這樣的獨裁者 為反叛者提供武器和金錢
1979年在阿富汗,1985年在尼加拉瓜。 在冷戰期間,美國進行了乾預
在全球數以百計的爭議中, 最終在每個角落都有一系列複雜的聯盟,緊張和關係 地球的。 柏林牆倒塌後,美國可能會有
退出這個系統,切斷關係 與其盟友和縮小規模
它的軍事。 雖然美國做了軍事
支出,大部分是軍人 冷戰時期的基礎設施和聯盟仍然存在。 總統喬治HW布什和比爾克林頓
決定它是在美國和美國 世界對美國的利益,
現在是地球上唯一的超級大國,繼續下去 積極管理全球事務。 “我們應該而且我們必須成為和平締造者” 北約,僅作為反擊工具而創建
蘇聯人,在一起,甚至擴大, 保持歐洲國家團結的一種方式
沒有蘇聯威脅。 華盛頓對像這樣的國家的支持
表面上,以色列和日本完好無損 作為防止這些地區戰爭的手段。 全球聯盟和機構系統
為了在寒冷期間保持和平而創建 戰爭變得永久 – 美國人也是如此
需要的軍事和政治承諾 讓它們繼續運行。 該系統今天仍在運行,沒有領先
冷戰以來的美國政客 嚴重要求拆除他們 – 除了唐納德特朗普。 特朗普對此表示矛盾
這些承諾。 但他一直認為美國人
盟友並沒有為其付出足夠的代價 保護,並質疑自由貿易的價值。 這使北約甚至世界貿易組織受到質疑。 在某些時候,我們不得不說,你知道嗎,如果是日本我們會更好 在朝鮮保護自己免受這種瘋子的傷害。 如果韓國要開始保護自己,我們會更好 – 和沙烏地阿拉伯? – 沙烏地阿拉伯?絕對。 這與共識有很大分歧
自那以來一直主導美國的外交政策 1945年,更接近孤立主義
來到它之前。 因此,川普總統將對川普的一些候選人的想法採取行動,並推翻幾十年 機構建設和聯盟的價值? 我們很快就會發現。

Chemistry is fun. No, seriously! | Jordin Metz | TEDxTufts



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How do you feel about chemistry? If you dislike chemistry, or think it’s inaccessible, you’re not alone. Jordin Metz wants to break down the barriers to chemistry, …

Today in History for August 1st



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Highlights of this day in history: A shooting rampage takes place at the University of Texas clock tower; Germany declares war on Russia in World War I; Adolf …

The Jazz of Physics | Stephon Alexander | TEDxSanDiego



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Music has a mysterious power, and in this talk Stephon Alexander explores the parallel between jazz music and the functioning of our universe. Stephon’s …

Ghosts of Gettysburg (Documentary)



This upload is 100% Non Profit.

Ghosts of Gettysuburg (parts one and two) takes a look at America’s bloodiest battle, and the ghosts it may have left behind. Based on the Ghost of Gettysburg books, this documentary shares interesting information about the Civil War, and those who have witnessed the paranormal in the area share their experiences.

in great deeds something abides on great fields something stays farms change and pass bodies disappear but spirits linger to consecrate ground for the vision place of souls men and women from generations that know us not shall come through this deathless field to ponder and dream Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain the Battle of Gettysburg was the most important battle ever fought on American soil in a very real sense the fate of the nation hang in the balance here for three days in July of 1863 men of the North and the South fought with as much passion courage and conviction as ever recorded in the history of warfare the fighting transformed the rush they near countryside into a killing field littered with bodies of the dead and dying the very soul of the nation was torn open here leaving huge physical and psychological wounds echoes of the battle continue to reverberate even today in its aftermath some say that wounds open during that distant July over a century ago may still be festering and that Gettysburg has a huge unseen population of tormented restless souls caught somewhere between life and death for almost 20 years writer and historian mark Nesbitt has researched and written about poltergeist activity in Gettysburg [Applause] this may very well be acre for acre and the most haunted place in America it seems as if that whenever there is a traumatic experience a battle where many men have died or where there's a great expenditure of emotional energy it seems like that's a place where ghosts if you want to call them that linger or spirits linger when they're torn from this life too suddenly when their lives are left unfinished it seems that is a place where those may remain approximately 200,000 men came here for three days and in July of 1863 51,000 became casualties killing and missing in those three days the fascination with ghost stories I think comes from a question that we all have what happens after we die what happens to the dead mark Nesbit's interest in ghosts came about when he was working for the Park Service interestingly some of the best stories came from Park Rangers themselves while I worked for them I did various things such as night patrol and whenever I would finish night patrol I'd end up talking to a few people afterwards and they would ask me well since you've been out on the battlefield at night have you seen any ghosts out there and I would have to admit no I didn't see any ghosts and so they would say well have you heard the story about this ghost or let me tell you what happened to me out on the battlefield and just being a natural collector of things I started jotting these down and that's how I began collecting these stories the ghosts of Gettysburg do not just linger on the battlefield they seem to inhabit every nook and cranny of the town itself even the college campus what we call Gettysburg College today was once known as Pennsylvania College and it was much much smaller than it is today there were only three buildings on Pennsylvania College campus there was a Linnaean Hall there was a building called the White House and a very very large out of his called old dorm today called Pennsylvania Hall the fighting occurred just a few hundred years to the North College campus that meant that any structure back there was immediately confiscated by the surgeons and used as hospital to every single structure was filled overflowing with the wounded refuse of the battle dorm being one of the largest structures in the area was also filled overflowing the lower floors they used mostly for the operating rooms the upper floors for the recovery rooms it's July taught the lower floors soon began became sticky with Gore he sweat amputations were common thing and that's where the bone out the window or bones out the window on both sides or doors or whatever they carried them out in baskets or however they did it you know the old belief that the National Cemetery is the only place that anybody was buried doing it battle at Gettysburg I think it's a fictitious as these people were dumping stuff they weren't carrying them out other places and being real cautious and careful as they might be today at a hospital or something like that I believe if they dug the areas and I'm certainly not advocating come dig on my campus because you will be arrested if you do that but I believe if they dug down they probably run tons of artifacts probably some bones and it's um it probably would be pretty amazing when the hell they'd run into because it's been there for so long old dorm now is the administration building for Gettysburg College and the people over there hard-working individuals they work sometimes late late into the night and to administrators were working late one night and decided finally that they were exhausted and decided to wrap it up so they walked down the hall together to the elevator the same elevator they had taken hundreds of times before down to the exit on the first floor they got in the elevator push the button for the first floor and the elevator descended three two one and then continued past the first floor down to the basement little did they know that the elevator was taking them to a special 40 courtesy of the ghosts of Gettysburg of course they assume that this the elevator was acting up and so they punched the button for the first floor again but instead of the elevator going up it stopped at the basement the doors opened to reveal horrifying scene out of time and reason instead of a cleaned up area that they had seen so many many times before that was a storage area in the basement the doors open to reveal a civil war Hospital see amputations going orderlies walking around carrying armloads of severed limbs surgeons working and sweating in this man-made hell needed souls of writhing in the corner waiting to be operated on other people agony far reaches of this area the women almost panicked the scene was just so unbelievable and incredible to them they punched frantically at the buttons trying to punch the first floor button to get them out of this one of the surgeons looked up from the from the grisly task and back into the beseeching me to come in and help with his never-ending ordeal that he'd been going through for 120 years and of course to enter this scene was the last thing I wanted to do all they wanted to do is leave they punched frantically at the buttons again and finally slowly the doors began to close and the elevator took them back to the first one of the women immediately reported the incident to campus security something had frightened her because she obviously just by her emotions and her mannerisms was scared literally scared to death the individual making the report was an administrator for the college the person I had known prior to the incident and after the incident always pretty level-headed very normal we went over and the elevator was fine the mechanisms in the elevator was fine there was nothing in the basement we checked the building to make sure it wasn't a college prank there's no indication of any kind of outside entry anything unusual that would warrant thinking that this was somebody that had made up the story just for attention I think people are frightened of ghosts because it's the unknown suddenly you're confronted with the situation you've never been in before and certainly something like a an apparition that shouldn't be there or appears to be in the wrong place at the wrong time is gonna Frank's servant Frank me as writer of the ghosts of Gettysburg books Mach Nesbitt has developed a unique perspective on his elusive subject matter to rule out hoax each story must go through a rigid process of authentication before being published what I try and do is interview the people I talked to them at least three sometimes four times before I finally write the story down the first time either they call me or someone refers them to me I'll give them a call have them tell me the story usually I'll call them again and talk to them again and then have an eye-to-eye interview with them and that's sometimes it will reveal more about the person it's very difficult to lie to somebody when you're going face to face another fabled Gettysburg ghost story emanating from the college campus occurred at Stevens which along with Pennsylvania Hall is legendary for its poltergeist activity Stevens all on the gettysburg college campus was not here at the time of the battle it was built between 1865 and 1868 perhaps one of the more recurrent stories of Steven's Hall is what the women there who live there have called Blueboy it goes back to the time perhaps when Stevens Hall was used as a preparatory school for Gettysburg College and also may have its roots back in time when Gettysburg had a an orphanage on the south end of town apparently there was a cruel headmistress there some people say that some of the women who lived in Stevens rescued a young boy from this cruel headmistress mistress and hid him in their room over one winter here at Gettysburg the women were confronted by a knock on the door and the headmistress of Stevens Hall when they had were hiding this young man they hustled him out onto the windowsill because it was the only place to hide when the headmistress opened the door she searched around the room and couldn't find this young man and then told these women that they would have to come downstairs and talk with her for a while for about an hour she grilled them in front of the cozy warm fire and of course that thoughts kept going back to this young man in the dead of the harsh Pennsylvania winter the freezing young boy was forced to cling to the bench three stories above the ground finally the headmistress let them go a molded up the stairs through open the window and couldn't find the young boy anymore they ran back downstairs trying to find any evidence of fact that he had fallen and he could find nothing there was no mark guy in the snow below the window where he may have fallen no footprints nothing no evidence at all where he may have gone the mysterious disappearance of the young boy from the ledge has never been fully explained a mystery remains and maybe a ghost for over the last 80 or 90 years nearly every generation of women living in Stephens Hall has reported encounters with an apparition may have named the blue boy [Applause] strange part about the faces that has taken on a bluish tinge the color of human skin after it's been exposed to long heat and cold weather even more mysterious are messages possibly sent from the blue boy to women presently living on the third floor of the old horn we may never solve the Blueboy riddle of ghosts throughout history remain one of life's great mysteries dr. Charles Emmons of the sociology and anthropology departments of the college has spent years exploring the Shadowlands of the Gettysburg landscape I think it's normal in our society not to believe in ghosts perhaps 12 to 20 percent believe in ghosts and less than 10 percent probably have had a ghost experience and if you want to be scientific about it you should be skeptical the only thing that bothers me is that some people just don't look at the evidence so we have a choice between ignoring the evidence and sticking with safe normal science or examining the absurd and perhaps learn something that goes beyond science at this point one building in the Gettysburg area that has spawned its share of ghost law is the Cashtown in the Cashtown Inn is another one of these buildings or structures that certainly a lot of emotional energy swirled around at one time and perhaps lingers in the in itself was there for years and years and years before the Battle of Gettysburg but played an important part in the campaign the end was built about 1800 one of the earlier innkeepers here started demanding cash payment only for services usually people travel on those days like to either do it with trade barter or working off but he'd have none he used to demand cash payment thus the word passed up and down the Turnpike when you came through this cluster of homes you better have cash money therefore that's how the town got his name of cash town derive from that innkeeper who did demand cash payments during the Civil War the inn became a landmark to the Confederate Army few buildings anywhere in the country including the south they house more Confederate generals and officers in a cash town in debt because just about all his Lee's army came past this front door and it was easy to stop here and fill their canteens on and the troopers and come in here with the generals and officers and partake of liquor and also information everyone from General Lee to General Hill I'm sure general Longstreet part of you'll score all these staff officers brigade commander division commanders all came through that front door at the end the Cashtown end had seen so much activity during the war days that I honestly do believe that there was something left behind here because all these old structures but the events that unfolded around them into decisions that were made in these places it would have to generate some sort of energy I personally believe that there's something in the end that you really can't put your hands on it you can't personally see I get to fill the presents and I've had enough of people tell me stories that I can't dismiss all them and I do try to explain most of the way it's just being an old building with a lot of drafts and a lot of cold areas and a lot of noises a lot of creeks but when there's certain people from different parts of the country tell you enough of stories and they don't know anything about these books that's been written or different things have been done on this here you almost have to find truth and what's what they're saying rule number four at the end has received the most attention because of reports of our science solids and Happiness by various guests we have people from here pacifically asked to stay in room number four and that's because they have an interest in spirits too but I explained to them that if there is a spirit of the Cashtown in that he's not confined to any particular room or space and has been stories told about him being seen or things happen in different parts of the end you can pick it up again like some kind of radio waves or some kind of movie that was left behind there is an attachment to the place of some kind but we don't really know how it works now it's possible that it's just the spirit hanging around in that place and the energy is focused in that area one phenomenon that continues to astonish proprietor Bob Buckley is the continual recurrence of a Confederate soldier in the hallways those who've seen him always describe exactly the same cinema the people who have said they've seen this image in this place be it employees here over the years or people who stayed here and visited here they all described this image the same way and that's nothing I can't explain the way I've never seen him given a dramatic effect like with this sword or a gun or a saber drawn I never say did you see this image what did it did it have a hat did it have a short coat I let the people explain to me what they saw and so many times their description comes out almost exactly the same and I cannot figure that out these are evidential cases in the sense that many people report the same kind of event in the same spot where the same traumatic events occurred during the battle or throughout the hundreds of years of Gettysburg history over the years two photographs taken at the inn have spawned their share of controversy and interest some say the inn's apparitions have been caught on film we have a photograph here that was taken around the turn of the century we assume that there is one person in this picture having this photograph taken and if you look off to the left of this photograph there's a there's another image there but this gentleman standing at attention and facing towards Gettysburg and he much does look like he could be a a Confederate soldier with a short coat and a cap beyond and in those days to get your photograph taken it was an event and you would stand side by side you would not be standing apart on the porch and standing very rigid and not even facing the camera some people have suggested this could be an apparition Liyana photo taken recently has added even more mystery to the ins ghostly reputation so I got a photograph from some people had passed by and took a picture of the inn and had sent me a copy and in one of our windows upstairs it's a very clear image of something looking out our window it was taken the perfectly cloudy day and of all the photographs I've had people give me over the years of supposedly images and faces into glass this is one I cannot explain away because it's so real-looking and the fact that there's nobody in the place we've tried to recreate it on cloudy days you cannot find any kind of reflection in that window that would would do what this particular picture did another historic place where ghosts seemed to linger is the Gettysburg park itself one bizarre incident that happened at the park involved a group of visiting dignitaries one of the very first stories that I heard about the battlefield that's been whispered about and talked about by the Park Rangers through the years is a story about a group of visiting dignitaries who had been taken on a battlefield tour by the National Park Service special tour was arranged just for them they visited the various sites and they got to a one of the battle sites and got out of their car and they were about to observe and he explained the battle action in that area they looked down into little valley and lo and behold there was a unit down there a civil war unit dressed just like they would have been at the time of the war they began maneuvering marching forward marching doing the flank maneuvers the column left and the the wheeling and evolution is what they call it of a regiment in battle drill the dignitaries were very very pleased that the National Park Service would put on this demonstration just for their benefit what they may have seen was the PAC's Phantom Regiment over the years numerous visitors have witnessed exactly the same scene when I got back to the headquarters of the National Park they thanked the person that was in charge very very much for that wonderful demonstration of the reenactment group that he had scheduled for them of course the individual that was in charge of everything was nonplussed he had scheduled no reenactors for the battlefield that day and knew of no battlefield re-enactors at work at the site at that time of course they all have to check in and make sure that they are certified so they may they may go out on the battlefield the foreign dignitaries who saw this apparent reenactment on the battlefield thought it was real they had no idea that it was an apparition until later we have many people seeing the same thing which means it's an evidential case it's not just one person's hallucination there have been some reenactment cases if you want to call him that in which the soldiers were not realistic looking there were shadowy shapes they may not have moved around collective apparitions but not full like this one there have been other observations like this on the battlefield but this is I think the best one some ghosts are menacing but most seem to be just lost wandering souls there's no doubt that people having seen film and TV have this idea that ghosts are malevolent and are attempting to harm someone but this is I don't believe this is the case the idea that they're caught between worlds trying to work out problems I think is fairly prevalent the ghost stories that I've collected the ghosts appear to be just more or less stuck in this particular area and many people even learn to live with the ghosts that inhabit their homes a friend of mine who was going on to a distinguished log of career in Baltimore told me the story of how she was at a a party at a one of the fellows who lived in one of the apartments here in Gettysburg the kids like to get together and have parties just like any other college town it was a Friday night party at the home of other college students who were renting civil war house the civil war house was designed like many other civil war homes the older part of the house was in the bath and at the front of the house was the living room which had been added in the 1930s or 40s she was in the modern section of the house and the party was going on and she looked through a couple of doors into the older section house that she noticed a young man standing I was very struck by the fact that she looked sad when I looked closer I realized that it seemed there were tears running down his face and it seemed as if he wanted to move forward into the rest of the house where the party was taking place but couldn't for some reason was being held back she waved to him to try and get him to join the party but he didn't respond it's almost as if he can't make it into the modern section of the house I turned to be boarded and was standing next to me he was one of the students who lived in the house and asked him who was standing in the doorway and his only response to me was oh you see him too and he explained that there was a ghost living in the house that all of the occupants of the house was seeing the ghost from time to time and they had just become used to him being around I think that's a very interesting haunting case and what's especially interesting about it is that the ghost seems to be paying attention to the party something is happening that seems to be of interest to the ghost this is a case where people are not afraid of the ghost they know that other people have seen it and it's not a traumatic situation other people might react differently and be just so upset by anything apparently paranormal that they would want to leave up until that time I didn't believe it all in ghosts I was very skeptical and now I do believe I was told that the house where this took place had been used as a field hospital during the battle and that there had been a drummer boy who'd been wounded and taken to that location none of it was scary I was very surprised it was just very sad because he was so sad there are those though who will never believe a ghost story I have collected in just three years or four years approximately hundred 30 stories of ghostly activity sightings on the battlefield and in the environs of Gettysburg if someone says that ghosts exist and they're gonna have to prove that to these 130 or so individuals who have seen these things have actually experienced this virtually every major religion on the face of the earth believes in some sort of life after death whether this life after death that the religions believe in manifests itself in ghostly activity or whether it manifests itself in reincarnation or heaven certainly that points to some sort of existence after death yes yes I do somewhat I think there's something out there some other world that we don't know about yet what it is I don't know Mach Nesbitt is definitely not alone in his interest with the spirit world even the Civil War residents of the white house were fascinated by it Abraham Lincoln was involved in the spiritual world he allegedly had seances at the White House certainly his wife was involved Mary Todd Lincoln was interested in the spiritual a number of residents of the White House have noticed or even sometimes complained about presences in the White House so many of the presidents have seen Eretz in in the most famous house in America it seems ghosts can be very territorial one ghost in particular seems to have laid claim to the devil's den area of the Gettysburg National Park one morning a woman came in to the Park Service headquarters and asked her are there any ghosts out at Devil's Den and of course the official Park Service dance is not to recognize the the other world out of Gettysburg battlefield the history and the things that really happened out there are tough enough to explain but the Ranger was interested in so she asked the woman why what did you see out there and the woman said well I was out there early this morning and I kind of got turned around and lost and so I got out of my car walked into Devil's Den and decided I was gonna take a picture was a pretty morning and I needed a couple more shots on my camera and she said I had the camera up to my eye and all of a sudden I felt a presence pure looking pores over there and the woman said I turned and went to take a picture and when I turned around he was gone he just disappeared the woman wasn't the only witness of the ghost of Devil's Den over the years there have been other sightings of the scraggly apparition and each time he has been described as looking exactly the same like a war where his soldier from a long ago Texas regiment one of the regiment's its most associated with Devil's Den is the first Texas fought so hard sacrificed so much to drive the Union soldiers out of Devil's Den many of the Texas regiments from hoods division were described by their own contemporaries as being rather rather rugged looking remember Texas was the frontier back then the war hospital ghosts in the basement of Pennsylvania Hall and Gettysburg College aren't the only groups that have been spotted on the old campus since the war each graduating class has had its share of ghost stories to tell I think it probably is haunted in fact one of the people in one of my classes constantly comes in and she tells us stories of things that happen to her in her house all of the the quads here were actually burning our grounds for soldiers so every time I walk over them at night I think about it and I mean it just gives you an eerie feeling when you walk across campus really late sometimes there's a persistent sighting of a sentry or a guard or some columnist signalmen up in the cupola of old dorm the rumor goes that robert e lee used the cupola for a while as a lookout post we were not sure whether he did or not but it certainly makes sense that he would be up there since it was the highest spot in the area I interviewed one of the people firsthand who had the experience and one of my students that I worked with very closely saw it himself I believe him if he said it and he knows of another person who did and there was at least one other time or someone was interviewed for a paper in my class the person saw the same thing essentially on the cupola the campus theater also has a history of ghost activity there's a story that comes from client theater and the story is that there is a certain officer general officer dressed in Confederate uniform who appears on certain nights he was seen by a couple of stagehands they were preparing the stage there was a chair in the middle of the stage one stage hand was up on a ladder another one who had just walked onto the stage the one on the ladder looked down and happened to see in the empty chair the general sitting there called to the other one as the other one turned and got a glimpse of an the general disappear ghost sightings have been reported in many other buildings on campus back at Stevens Hall the blue boy isn't the only unannounced visitor to the girls dorm there are numerous reports of the sighting of a young girl in some of the rooms who doesn't really belong there she seems to be interested in the clothing of the modern day when he inhabited Stevens at this time the women come back from a late night date open the door to their room and they see a young girl standing there the woman ran into the closet after her and could find no intruder no young woman in the closet and no route of escape from that closet on campus another resident of Gettysburg who had a ghostly encounter was a woman who worked late at night typing papers for college professors her poltergeist encounter ran the full spectrum of ghostly communication ghosts seem to be able to communicate on not just a visual level but an auditory level on a olfactory level and a tactile level as well so there are many different manifestations of ghosts the woman had never felt comfortable since moving into a huge old house located on Broadway one night she found out why I began to have these feelings that something was wrong I just didn't feel that we were alone in the house that I felt another presence there I started feeling a sensation that someone was behind me you know how you feel when someone is standing behind you and I turned around and nobody was there this is strange besides the feeling that something was watching her she was also overcome by the sensation that she was sitting in the middle of a cold spot a phenomenon that often accompanies ghost sightings it's a chill that you cannot explain I mean no amount of cold weather has ever given me this type of chill I've never had a cold from say snow or anything like that to chill the very core of me and this chill does it it goes right cold spots are very interesting I found that all of the people who had a feeling of cold had the feeling of cold before the apparition occurred most people if you ask them would assume that you feel cold because you're scared scared by the ghost but in all of my cases people got cold first and then had the apparition most of all though there lingered the feeling that she was not alone feeling persisted just this overbearing feeling that something was behind me and I turned around at one point I got up walked out into the next room I felt more and more ill at ease that something was there something was wanting me out of the family room or at least off the bottom floor the first floor the house the fear became really intense still there was always the possibility that her mind was playing games with her she had a job to do and a pressing deadline so she decided to go back to work being haunted was not the first thing that came to mind when she tried to figure out what was happening but finally the feeling became too much I felt that whatever it was just wanted me out of the way so I accommodated it and I left and I just felt but I needed to get upstairs right away I stopped and looked back toward the library and when I did I saw this large column of blue light coming from the family room that I had just left it was just long symmetrical glowing blue light a label is to say I didn't stay long in that spot I mean I don't even remember making it up the rest of the stairs at night the incident profoundly scared and confused her but not enough to drive her from the house she's probably wondering if this is really happening and if she should give it full attention it's um it's a difficult thing to decide I don't think she was necessarily entirely freaked out about the situation she was concerned she was upset in particular moment and but she would decide to just leave run away go upstairs and it would go away I think it's she didn't think it was that serious that she had to leave within days she returned to her nocturnal work habits but now she also observed the light patterns made by cars passing the house believing there must be some rational reason for the mysterious blue light I would stand late at night after I turned out the lights and wait for a car to come by to turn the corner to come down in front of the house to see if lights from the street would cast this light in the library never once did I ever see a car light cast the same shadow or the same light in the room still she began to experience the same sensations as before the chilling cold spots and the intense feeling that she was not alone also on this night came the sounds I started hearing sounds coming from the library of papers being rattled around it sounded like someone was going through my husband's desk when the noises started getting much worse much louder more intense and when once I got up enough nerve I got up and went in to check it out of course nothing was there I went back to my typing and was trying to overcome the fear that I had of what I had just seen almost immediately the noises in the other room started up again she decided that was it she wasn't gonna work anymore she started going up the stairs and pause just for a second to look around to see if maybe her eyes won't playing tricks on her and the blue column was there not only wasn't standing in the doorway but as she paused it started moving out of the doorway and towards her used to say she sprinted up the rest of the stairs and this shook her up for a while because she didn't go back to her late night work for several nights although frightening these strange encounters were also intriguing and they began to tap into something that ghosts may not have expected in the woman grit and determination for she decided not to be run out of her own house by the apparition I couldn't give into it and more than that I wasn't going to allow anything that I couldn't see scare me from living my life the way I wanted to live having failed to scare away the ghosts saved its greatest performance for the last I had to stop and look over my shoulder again and there in the doorway was the blue column of light and and the column of light the distinct features all in all I thought it was quite handsome quite dashing but yet at the same time it scared the Dickens out of me he had this puzzled expression on his face as if he was saying why aren't you leaving it was like why are you still here by showing himself the ghosts have made the game clear this was a battle for territory suddenly she knew what to do it sounds like an exorcism I don't know how to take this exactly it could be that she just somehow made the the spirit feel that it wasn't worth the conflict she was arguing back she had dealt with the trauma and it wouldn't occur to her again there's something in me that says sometimes if you can put a face to your fear will help you to overcome that what I experienced in that house was something paranormal what I experienced this room tourists and townspeople alike are drawn to the Gettysburg ghost phenomena now emanating from the town square are the ghosts of Gettysburg Turner's spawned by the stories in mark Nesbit's books it's just eerie because it all happened around here and then they have all these you know it's like they have so much proof that it happened me I've never been to this part of Gettysburg before I'm more familiar with the battleground itself like the Pickett's Charge Devil's Den little round trout so the Gettysburg College campus I wasn't too familiar with so in that respect it was really enlightening I'm a little surprised at how how popular they are I'm pleased because it's finally bringing people down to the downtown area of Gettysburg many people come to Gettysburg and assume that it's just the battlefield and a motel now we have a downtown area too in Gettysburg and that's where the ghost tours take them is the Battle of Gettysburg still being fought in the spirit world no one knows for sure but there are hundreds of people who spotted ghosts in Gettysburg who will tell you yes October 1995 means more great storytelling when Graystone films premieres ghosts of Gettysburg – another fascinating journey into the world of the supernatural [Applause] is the civil war still being fought in the spirit world around Gettysburg there are many who say yes [Applause] in July of 1863 the greatest battle of the war was fought here for three heart-stopping days armies of the north and the south poured their very existence into an epic crash that ultimately changed the course of the war the price for the battle came high and it was paid for in blood by the conflicts end over fifty thousand men were listed as killed wounded or missing over a century has now passed since the guns of war was silenced yet persistent sightings around Gettysburg of phantom soldiers has become a routine occurrence the historic little Pennsylvania village may very well be the most haunted place in America writer and historian mark Nesbit has spent nearly two decades chronicling the phenomena of the ghosts of Gettysburg there seems to be a lot more ghostly activity or paranormal activity in Gettysburg for one reason or another certainly a concentration of death people were fighting here not only for their lives but for a great cause no one knows for sure but it seems the creation of a ghost is the end result of a complex and tragic set of events what exactly is a ghost I think a ghost is some sort of energy source that maybe we haven't been able to define yet these energy sources seem to come from places or seem to remain in places where some great trauma has occurred some incredibly large emotional energy has been expended and of course the battlefield of Gettysburg is a place where a great deal of emotional energy was expended some people call it a residue haunting a classic Gettysburg ghost story was born out of one of the most bizarre incidents of the entire Civil War on the first day's battle July 1st 1863 the area called seminary Ridge was first held by Union troops then Confederates swept over that area and held it of course robert e lee was the commanding general of the Confederate Army there were dead soldiers all over the area and his aides no doubt told the other soldiers to clean this area up since the commanding general was going to use this as his headquarters was hot it was July the first thing that they did is they gathered up all the bodies and rather than burying them right there in front of robert e lee what they did is they would put them in basically cold storage nearby an old barn was found that had a stone floor they brought the bodies in they just piled them up very quickly like cordwood in this cool area so they wouldn't decompose quite as quickly with the great battles raging just outside the walls of the barn the stacked bodies inside were forgotten for the moment the rebels were now concentrating their efforts and energy on tasks for the living rather than caring for the dead there was just one problem a mistake had been made the man had been wounded and was unconscious when picked up off the field but he was decidedly not dead he no doubt was paralyzed partially and of course with a hundreds and hundreds of pounds of human flesh lying on top of him he couldn't crawl out he couldn't remove himself in that hideous situation it was the beginning of a waking nightmare perhaps one of the worst nightmares any human being can imagine is being buried alive you can't move you can't remove yourself from the situation it's dark you're trapped and of course in his situation was even worse because he had human flesh that was decomposing right above him and of course you can just imagine the smells and the bodily fluids and just a sheer horror that this poor individual was experiencing as he lay underneath this pile of rotting human flesh the soldiers prize fell on deaf ears how could any man's voice be heard above the din of battle on the roar of cannon even at night no one heard his pleas for three days the battle outside continued the eyes of the world were focused on Gettysburg but the ears were directed elsewhere oblivious to the sound of the entombed man and then finally mercifully the fighting was over the defeated Confederate Army withdrew from the area as in all battles it was up to the victor to bury the dead triumphant federal troops began the grim task of sorting bodies and digging graves by this time the young rebel had been under the body pile for five hellish days when the Federals finally stumbled onto the pile in the barn the soldier had almost no life left in him he was finally discovered by Union soldiers and obviously raving perhaps insane from the frustration and the anger that he felt and also the the horror of the position he had been placed in was unable to move out of he died just a few days later in the aftermath of the baffle carpenters worked overtime building caskets but it was soon apparent that the number of dead bodies in Gettysburg far exceeded the union's ability to give all fallen soldiers a decent burial unmarked graves containing dozens of fallen men became the standard operating procedure of the day in truth only a few Confederate soldiers receive proper burial at all perhaps because of the terrifying ordeal he had gone through in the barn the young soldier who had been buried alive was now selected for such an honor he was laid to rest in a casket just yards away from the old barn where he had spent his last terrifying hours the ceremony apparently didn't appease his troubled tortured spirit even in death you can imagine that he must have been very very upset and very angry and perhaps even raging after death maybe he's caught in that nether land between life and death because of this anger this unresolved rage that he felt just days after he was buried the old barn mysteriously burnt down in its place on the old stone foundation a beautiful farmhouse was erected over the years through each passing generation every owner of the farmhouse reported that an angry restless spirit dwelt in the basement of the house it existed in a room located right where the young soldier had suffered and died the spirit's anger and rage was so intense that it had driven many owners from the pending even when it wasn't trying to scare people to death it would play mind games with them a couple moved into the house and right from the beginning they felt that there was something not quite right finally culminating in one night of absolute horror when the door to that back room to that little stone room was banging and moving the couple were sound asleep they heard what the woman described as an explosion down in the cellar she thought perhaps the furnace had exploded along with the explosion the spirit also cut the lights off being of strong Pennsylvania stock the couple refused to be held prisoner in their own home by the angry ghosts they decided to go downstairs and confront it the ghosts had used this light trick before to intimidate the owners the couple wanted an end to the nightmare but they knew they'd have to appeal to a higher authority if they were going to rid themselves with the angry tormented spirit they called in a priest and he confirmed that there was a spirit down there and that the spirit was tormented and and unhappy and angry that he had been left in that hideous pile drastic measures were called for it was decided that the priest would perform an exorcism not just to bring peace to the house but hopefully also to the tormented soldiers soul The Exorcism is a very elaborate ritual using the cross holy water the text a special text special garments and yet a desire to help the spirit along to move this spirit along of its it's horrible situation that had been in for for thirteen decades as soon as he got into the room he detected rage and anger the son of the Holy Spirit see this place to Christ it wasn't really sure whether he was going to be able to cleanse the house of this angry spirit or perhaps become a victim of it himself the cleansing took an incredible amount of energy out of the priest luckily God was with the priest his voice reached out over a century to the troubled soldier finally now after all these years the young man would mercifully be released from his burden and he could finally rest in peace as the priest left the room he made one last gesture he put the sign of an exorcism of a cleansing on the door there and it still is there today a circle with a cross inside of it located just inside the boundaries of the Gettysburg National Park is Spangler's Springs clearly this is not one of the main tour destinations for most visitors to the park other areas saw much more spectacular action during the battle their main claim to fame since the war is because of recurrent sightings here of a ghost that has come to be known as the woman in white legend has it that she is the sad spirit of a young woman who committed suicide at the springs many years ago after the man she was about to marry broke off the relationship most recently the despondent apparition was cited by two vacationing nurses they had heard there were ghosts in Gettysburg but as veterans of the nursing profession they approached everything with a high degree of skepticism nursing at least as far as what I do on one hand is extremely organized it's fairly scientific you have your methods that you go through and things usually go in steps 1 2 3 I'm usually someone who needs a lot of facts as darkness descended upon the park they decided to tempt fate and stay after sundown basically we were touring the park at night I like I like the wildlife I went out to look for wildlife we both were joking and talking about ghosts so we had been making references to you know let's pull over here and look and see if if we can find anything this looks like a good spot I'm gonna cut the weights we had been sitting there it had only seemed like maybe a few moments I know it was probably a little more than that was probably four or five minutes when I heard this popping sound and then an inexplicable chain of events began to unfold this hat Trina I noticed on the nor the last tree on the right had what appeared to be like a white mist that was was rising or coming around the tree I kind of blinked a few times and I looked around and I looked back this mist took shape it took shape in the form of a human female this person was all in white I think at that point it settled in with me that oh geez this is this is something that is really happening something did just appear out of thin air out of the darkness of night and things like that just don't happen so and at that point I did turn my head although Jennifer looked away Darla continued to watch enthralled by the apparition neither nurse had ever heard anything about the tragic woman in white at this time and yet the ghosts seemed to communicate to them without words a tale of unbearable suicidal grief that was when the sadness struck I remember telling Jennifer oh she's so beautiful she is just so beautiful and it's so sad and all of a sudden the tears started running down my face we need to go and we need to drive out by this time Jennifer had had enough although Darla was completely caught up in the haunting her friend wouldn't stay another second the reason I wanted to leave was simply because if something had just appeared out of nothing and that that is really a foreign to me after the incident many were startled to hear such a wild tale from the two nurses I know what I saw I don't feel challenged by their questions really doesn't bother me that they don't believe I always thought that I would be so compelled to somehow make them believe what I've seen and it's really not important to me I know what I saw it was very vivid and that's all I needed to know along with Martin Nesbitt another longtime observer of the ghosts of Gettysburg phenomena is dr. Charles Emmons of the anthropology and sociology departments at Gettysburg College the world of the ghosts this is a very interesting question I'm inclined to think that they go about a fairly active kind of life if you want to call it that and then just part of the time they intersect with us so that I think we're inclined to imagine that ghosts are only active in one little period of time when we see them but it seems more likely more logical to me that they're going through a lot of activity and then just once in a while our times or our space time intersect and that's when we observe them the sighting of a ghost is an extremely rare occurrence most witnesses of poltergeist activity describe the experience as almost an accident something that ghost never intended in the first place a lot of times they're not paying very much attention to you they seem kind of Spacey or so-called dumb ghosts as opposed to a smart ghost which is going to interact with you there are so many things we'd like to know about them do they do they have feelings do they enjoy themselves when we're not watching when we are not tapped into their world when we can't see them do they have enemies do they have friends do they love we know probably that they have a sense of humor at least the poltergeists or the mischievous ghosts that we have experienced or maybe they don't exist at all maybe they're just figments of our imaginations we know for sure one thing and that's that they're totally unpredictable in the summer of 1992 Hollywood came to town to film the major motion picture Gettysburg whenever possible the producers tried to stage scenes on the historic battleground in exactly the same places where the real action had taken place in 1863 they may have unintentionally disturbed the spirit world in the process it appears that whenever the physical status quo of an area of the historic area is upset there seems to be a lot more psychic activity that occurs in other words it seems as if the spirits of the ghosts don't like their routine upset after each day of filming local people provided a shuttle service back into town for the thousands of re-enactors who were participating in the battle scenes one woman was offering the services of her pickup truck to take some reenactors into the town of Gettysburg and she dropped off a truckload of reenactors at one of the local restaurants and turned around and she began driving back home it seems she had shuttled more of the battlefield than a bunch of movie reenactors she suddenly started to hear a tapping in the back of the truck she looked in the rearview mirror and she saw something that completely frightened her two soldiers two Civil War soldiers were sitting in the bed of the truck was someone playing a practical joke on her we had some of the reenactors not gotten out of the back of her truck when she had stopped certainly no one had gotten in she was traveling way too fast once she left the restaurant for anyone to have climbed or jumped into the back of the truck how could it be a ghost but that does happen that people have a haunting contaminate them so to speak and they end up with the ghost somewhere else just as some people have moved out of a house and found that the ghosts have followed them she pulled over suddenly left out of the cab went to the rear of the truck and no one was in the back of the truck and one can only speculate on who these weary weary soldiers were trying to catch a ride on a strange horseless conveyance whether playing with your mind or just being mischievous and silly nearly every human activity has been attributed to ghosts this trickster element in ghostly behavior may also be responsible for numerous unexplained equipment breakdowns on the Gettysburg battlefield countless people have had problems with cameras out in the triangular field area I myself and two others simultaneously our cameras broke down in that area other people have come up to me when I was out there giving tours and dimensioned that all of a sudden their cameras have gone on the blink and they won't function anymore they tell me when they get out of the triangular field area that the cameras are working fine again I think one of the most fascinating questions about ghosts is why there are so many equipment failures I've had it happen to me cameras fail and I can't remember anything like that happening except when I was doing something on the paranormal especially ghosts if there's some sort of psychic energy in a place that accounts for hauntings then possibly that energy arrangement has something to do with equipment failures – one incident actually happened during the filming of Mark Nesbit at the triangular field several years ago by veteran television producer John Jones mark warned the producer ahead of time that he was asking for trouble by trying to shoot the story in this haunted place it was no no no he said the can't your cameras won't function in his field well that was a cute story that's fine but you know we're producers we're in the real world and yeah my cameras will work there were good cameras it was new equipment we had been shooting for a couple weeks up to this time we asked mark to step beyond the fence and we set up her camera and I was talking to marked while the crew was setting the camera the camera men were setting up the camera and he yelled John we've got a problem and I looked he says I've got a warning light in my viewfinder I had looked over the fence towards mark and he's standing there with this sort of this all-knowing smile and shaking his head I told you though we hadn't experienced problems with it prior to this to this event and we were shooting all morning until we arrived at the triangular field but the moment we mounted that camera on the tripod and turned the switch on until we left and lifted the camera off the tripod we had all kinds of havoc the camera worked fine the rest of the day it's only at the triangular field that we have promised making any recordings not all cameras malfunction at the triangular field but the high number of out-of-focus shots and equipment failures produced there remains a mystery one Gettysburg residence that is a top candidate for ghostly activity is the Kaduri house during the battle it was in the middle of it all I think it's charged you want to think of a focal point of the American Civil War he may very well think that it could be the Kaduri house situated right in the center of where Pickett's men advanced it must be the funnel of some kind psychic energies how many men with hopes high past that area going towards the Union lines and just a few minutes later with their hopes shattered past wounded or suffering going back the other way over the years the old house has been used as a residence for various Park officials during one haunting it was the home of a park superintendent one night the superintendent's daughter was out there by herself her father and mother had gone into town on one of us many social occasions superintendents are invited to she was alone in the cellar which had been fixed up as sort of a rec room all of a sudden she heard footsteps across the floor above her head at first she thought maybe her parents had come home but she hadn't heard them drivin suddenly she realized it wasn't her parent so it must have been an intruder and of course the Kaduri house is out in the middle of nowhere and far from the local police or the ranger station so she was frightened she felt it was an intruder and she would have to get to the phone somehow which was on the first floor the footsteps continued over her head and then finally she heard the footsteps begin to go up to the second floor realize this was perhaps her chance to go up to the telephone she got up to the first floor picked up the phone called the Ranger office and as she's talking to them she hears the footsteps going across the floor upstairs walking all around looking seeking something finally the footsteps began coming down the stairs so she quickly wrapped up her conversation hung up the phone ran back down the stairs it seemed like an eternity while the footsteps above her had the intruder kept wandering back and forth into the kitchen into the dining room back out into the living room finally she heard the footsteps slowly crossing the floor approaching the door to the basement and was getting more and more frightened of course because it was only a matter of time before he reached the place where she was hiding in essence and the intruder would come down the stairs and she would have to confront him she was so intent on listening to the footsteps coming closer and closer and closer to the stairs to the basement where she was hiding that she apparently didn't hear the ranger vehicle drive up it was the chief Ranger on strengthe distress call of course he had placed his rangers outside the building which is standard procedure and they came in and explained to her that no one had come out through any of the windows thorough search of the house showed no one in the house anywhere and of course she was then very confused as to just exactly what it may have been that was walking around through that Kaduri house if there's an explanation for this it could be possibly that there are some some spirits left over from that great emotional trauma that we know as Pickett's Charge the young are not the only ones affected by ghosts and their sightings are not just a modern phenomena one ghost appearance happened just years after the war and occurred to the oldest soldier to fight in the battle gettysburg's legendary old warrior John Burns John burns with sort of a cantankerous elderly gentleman very active he was constable in the town at Gettysburg one point in his life and he also served as an officer of the court with the commencement of the battle on July 1st 1863 Burns was determined to enter the fray in retrospect the opportunity to go to war fit his personality perfectly for he wasn't one to back down from trouble and he was also a superb Patriot nearly everything about him was antiquated the rifle he carried was an out-of-date flintlock possibly left over from the war of 1812 his clothes were equally out of style although surprised by his age federal troops accepted him and he marched into battle as a younger man Burns had already had some military experience so he fell right in with the ranks although some of the men taunted him because of his age he gets taunted by the Union soldiers all you know in essence something like oh go home old man you're gonna get hurt out here what's in battle though he seemed to have gained the respect of the younger men by the afternoon's end he had received at least three and maybe more gunshot wounds from the Confederate enemy the last shot took him out of the battle he was carried back to his house nursed back to health he was written up by every reporter who could taste a good story and he did become an in a sense of national sensation I don't have any belief in any supernatural medium at all but several years after the war Burns then about 75 years old found himself one summer evening walking along the area of the McPherson farm he said it was in the wooded area he said as he walked through the woods he was stopped by a Confederate soldier s tin gray with a rifle now Burns was superstitious man he said as soon as he saw the soldier he turned and walked out of the woods rapidly and he said he never went back to that part of the field again I always found that to be an interesting thought the idea that someone who could face bullets artillery people trying to kill you but yet was afraid to walk out in the woods at night as soon as he saw something that or thought he saw something that wasn't of this world he said he walked away fast and wouldn't approach it some claim gettysburg's Eisenhower farm is another historic site visited by ghostly apparitions of course two presidents are associated with Gettysburg Abraham Lincoln and Dwight Eisenhower and of course Lincoln only stayed here one night but Eisenhower Dwight Eisenhower decided to make this his home when he finally purchased the farm here in Gettysburg they realized as they were renovating that beneath everything was at least a two hundred year old farmhouse that had been there Berry's people who have worked out at the Eisenhower farm from employees for the Park Service Secret Service people have related sounds the auditory experiences of that are that are unexplained there's also the smell an olfactory experience the smell of some of the perfume some of mamie's favorite perfume that wafts down the hallway and down the stairway and when they go to examine the perfume bottles of course no one's touched the perfume bottles no one's open one none of them have spilled an employee of the Eisenhower house described her experiences while working there alone there is a wooden barrier at the dining-room doorway that would prevent anyone from walking into that room directly yet it allows people visual access to that area I was standing at the top of the stairs by myself and I heard somebody walk from the living room across the foyer into the dining room and it attracted my attention to the point where I followed the sound with my eyes and the sound continued through the dining room just as if the barricade wasn't there the other thing that I experienced in the house was one evening I was in there by myself and I was on the Sun porch and all of a sudden I heard a bell ringing like a hand Bell that was coming from the butler's pantry there's a hand Bell that sits on top of a refrigerator in the butler's pantry and I picked that Bell up and I rang it the sound that I heard when I rang it even though that was the same sound it was different the sound that I had heard earlier was as if it was in there I say at another dimension it's like looking into a few masturbate I have in an attempt to learn even more about the ghosts of Gettysburg Martin Nesbitt brought noted psychic Carol Kirkpatrick to town to see if she could use her powers to look back into time at the battle and those who fought it she indeed has a special gift she has helped a number of law enforcement agencies all over the country to come up with leads clues to what they have written off as unsolvable mysteries one ghost mystery they wanted to get to the bottom of was that of an apparition sighted in the home of Joe and Colette hood we moved in our house in September 17 years ago when in October I was home basically during the day it's an old farmhouse and when I would walk from one room to the other I would spot this image at the top of the steps going across from room to room and I would look up and see her and I think oh well I didn't see that and I just go on about my business didn't say anything to anybody for I guess over a year but the ghosts continued to haunt her finally she told her husband she didn't say that she was afraid of it at any time because I'd answer that and I did not feel afraid in the house the house is a very warm feeling house very comfortable you know even if there was something in there I can't say that the house is a scary type of house the hood house is near Spangler Springs at one time they theorized that their ghost might be the famous woman in white we'd heard about the lady at Spangler Springs in white and thought perhaps that the lady at Spangler Springs was the lady that this was she that lived in our house because we have handwritten deeds and go back to 1833 that says these were owned by Spangler at one time Caroll Kirkpatrick was brought in to give her read on the situation she almost immediately picked up on part of the past history of the house the hoods already knew this part of the story and verified it it was a hospital during the Civil War I do know that the Confederates had their house the first day of the battle the second day the Union came in chased him across the road and held the house 17 days after the psychic soon zeroed in on what might be the mystery apparitions identity she told us the lady that is in our home is a nurse and she was a nun and we figured she came from Emmitsburg Maryland because there was a nun any priest there and heard their presence were felt extremely in the one front room upstairs and say I see her go from room to room so she would have been nursing the soldiers Carol also revealed that the ghost was not the woman in white from Spangler Springs in fact the apparitions seemed to resent the comparison Carol said that the apparition in our house didn't like being identified as the lady in white from Spangler Springs simply because she isn't known and she would be a pure lady where the lady at the Spangler Springs evidently is a fallen type of woman because she must have been meeting a married man over two Springs immediately after I found it was a nun in the house and I went back into my background the crosses went up on the wall that was it and I'm not taking any chances another tragic war story that may have given birth to a ghost involves General John Reynolds Reynolds was considered by many to be one of the best and brightest officers in the Union Army during the Battle of Gettysburg though the action he saw or was shot and deadly he rode into battle leading his troops about ten o'clock in the morning of July 1st by 10:20 was dead shot through the head by a Confederate sharpshooter Reynolds became the highest-ranking Union officer to die in the battle yet his presence has been felt in Gettysburg ever since the war perhaps his quick demise so early in the battle has been troubling him over the decades for his spirit seems to haunt the town one person he seems to have contacted is Carol Kirkpatrick the incident happened during a tour of the battlefield where she didn't know what to expect and had never heard of the general no one knew where we were going on the battlefield except for me I just led them out to these places and one of the places I wanted to take Carol was to where General John F Reynolds was shot killed at Reynolds woods we were driving along Confederate Avenue and all of a sudden she said ouch I have a terrible pain in my back it's like all the hair started standing on the back of my head and then as we went on it's like the pain started going down my side my back my lower back got the pain then into my leg I finally realized that she was talking about general Reynolds Reynolds was shot in the back of the neck and of course that would produce a terrible pain down your spine if that it happened soon they stopped in the very area where Reynolds had been shot mark was careful not to tell her anything about the general it was up to her to tell him I'd like to get into the person possibly what his last feelings activities were what was going on at the moment he was struck what was his last concept or factor of happening we were walking toward the spot where Reynolds was shot and it was it was almost like reading the account from Reynolds a staff member who was right on the spot I feel that he was a very strong outgoing individual had a strong mind on ideas factors very calculating she told me that Reynolds was feeling very very powerful at the time of course he had just been offered the command of the entire Union Army turned it down instead was commanding the famous Union Army 1st Corps was he setting up high when this happened she said he turned and she indicated the exact direction in which he turned and she said and then he was shot amazingly then Carol saw the death of the great general who had fallen over a century before something hit him and I felt how did he estate where he was it would have possibly hit him in another area but he was like riding around it appeared to me or what shown to me and as he rode and turned was when then he was drunk Carol you almost said it verbatim exactly what happened – I don't think Carol could have boned up on a battle I've been studying it for 35 years and I'm still learning things about it certainly she couldn't in one evening she couldn't have learned everything that she told me today so it's virtually impossible for her to have known anything that she wasn't told out on the battlefield sightings of the ghosts of general Reynolds in town have been even spookier after his death his body was taken to a private residence with the odd name of the George George House the George George House kind of an unusual name the man's first name was George his last name was George but that is the name of the individual who owned it at the time of the battle most of the houses that are historic here in Gettysburg bear the name of the individual who lived there or owned it at the time the generals body was later removed to his home in Lancaster Pennsylvania where he received a hero's funeral today the George George house is a museum and photography store late one evening after some tourists there was a an adult man and his adult daughter were weird window shopping at night they had just been to a restaurant and they were it was a fairly late and they were going through the town and looking in different windows they came to this building and we're looking in the windows and they noticed it would appear to be a wax museum display inside this building there was a man lying on a bed and a woman sitting beside the bed as if watching over him the room was very stark the man had a beard like John Reynolds and was dressed in the generals uniform this strange display was not the kind one easily forgets the tourists were a little confused about this particular display of a dead body and a woman in mourning they thought it was rather bad taste for a museum to display this type of thing and so they determined to come back the next day and find out what exactly this display was the following morning the man and his daughter rushed back to the George George house when they came back the next day it was a total different store the empty room which was in fairly empty except for this black speakers and a few small articles of furniture were completely gone and almost every square inch of the store was filled with merchandise and they were really taken aback by this they they talked to the store owners and they were trying to describe the scene that they had witnessed in the vision they'd seen the night before one of them remembered an open doorway behind the fallen general that was now covered up with pegboard they startled the sales women with this revelation of course you couldn't say a door but if the pegboard is removed there is definitely a door there and this was sort of to them was the key to the fact that something really strange had happened because there's no way for them to know about the door when it was all covered up had the tourists glimpsed a scene from a century past it seems that ghosts appear sometimes through an opening a rip in time if you will and this apparently is what these people saw as they looked through that window they actually saw back in time through that tear in time and saw Reynolds who was once there and this woman who was in mourning over his body the Lutheran seminary of Gettysburg is one of the town's landmarks established long before the war in 1826 it was well known to many of the soldiers who came to get his burg to fight general Reynolds is said to have visited the school grounds prior to going into battle still vital today the seminary attracts some of the top theological students in the country including Roscoe Barnes the third it also has legends of ghost sightings prior to his own poltergeist encounter in 1992 Roscoe most definitely did not believe in ghosts as a Christian I have certain views about the dead and what happens with the dead I thought some people are given to that and they see what they want to see the imagination is very powerful and I felt that because of stories circulating in the area well the students were seeing what I pretty much wanted to see that was my opinion so of course that changed during a night in February of 1992 Roscoe was going through his usual routine the study load at the seminary is demanding and he was up late as usual hitting the books finally he decided to go to bed in the middle of the night he was startled awake sometime between 2:00 and 3:00 I heard a friend down the hall scream at first I thought he was playing another one of his jokes and because he had been in the military I thought he was making one of his army calls and I thought just for a second that maybe there is a problem but again I thought military and I didn't think much of it about two hours later I was awakened by a very strange presence in the room I was sleeping on my right side facing the window and I just had the feeling that someone was standing in the room looking at me you know sometimes you can sense those things given my background as a Christian and Pentecostal I felt the presence was something evils I immediately thought there was a demonic satanic presence in the room I turned my head over slightly toward the left to look at this presence I had no idea of what it was or what it looked like but I looked over there and when I looked I saw what appeared to be a man who appeared to be tall I had the feeling that he was looking through me and I quickly turned to my right and for a second I asked myself am I dreaming my wake is it real and so I looked again a second time he was in the same position standing looking the same way so I turned back to the right and began to pray asking God to help me calling on the name of Christ pleading for his help because I was scared to death it was frightening I looked over the third time with more confidence more courage with more hope that something was going to happen he was he was standing there still on the third time and then I turned my head continued to pray Lord help me Lord help me these prayers were all without any lip movement they're all within my mind I was afraid to move or to show much emotion I didn't know what would happen but in my mind I pray that way and then when I turned the fourth time he was gone and Oh was I related shaken by the experience but fortified by his faith Roscoe decided to let the incident pass several days later however he happened to meet his friend the one who lived down the hallway and who he had heard scream on the same night he had seen the ghost their long conversation covered many topics somehow we ended up on the subject of dreams and demons and that's when the subject came up theory he said well man just the other night something happened to me and it just really it it just scared the heck out of me evidently at almost the same time the apparition Rosco had seen had also visited his friend unlike the officer standing in Roscoe's room though for this haunting the ghost chose only to show his head floating around the room at the time I thought we described it as a dream but then we thought this is too cool so then I mean it there's got to be more to it than just a dream is the Civil War still being fought in the spirit world around Gettysburg no one can say for sure but there are hundreds of eyewitnesses who will tell you yes experience two centuries of distinctive hospitality have gettysburg's premier address that Gettysburg hotel established 1797 for nearly 200 years the Gettysburg hotel has offered a proud tradition of gracious accommodations and fine dining in the heart of Gettysburg let the attentive staff of the Gettysburg hotel make your visit to historic Gettysburg a memorable one for information in reservations call seven one seven three three seven two thousand

King George III (Documentary)



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believe it or not there once was a time when the British public did not pay much attention to the private lives of their monarchs and then King George the 3rd came to power at first he led one of the dullest courts in history but as time went on George began to display alarming signs of mental illness and eventually he went mad and yet it was King George's madness that garnered him sympathy and made the royal family a topic of public interest this is his story it's pretty frightening when anyone goes mad but if a king goes mad then the whole state may be in trouble George the Third's reign was one of those tumultuously in English history it started off with a great constitutional crisis it involved the losing of the American colonies the Industrial Revolution the French Revolution to say nothing of the Kings own madness I don't think that any doubt that the influence of the crown did decline that one of the reasons of course is that the King ultimately went mad was insane everyone had their place that was the way he liked it he liked order and he liked good conduct in the Declaration of Independence the Americans announced that George the Third's a tyrant and that he was somebody he was unfit to be the ruler of three people [Applause] [Applause] Mad King George the third was King of England for 60 years and the story of his illness is probably the most famous in English history from the age of only 12 George started to feel the pressure of responsibility of birth in his private and public life he came to the throne in 1760 when he was 22 and fifty years later a Regency was declared his son took over the reins of power and George was left blind deaf and mad he lived on as king in name only for nine more years George a third is remembered especially amongst the Americans as being the person who lost the American colonies but he was much more complicated man than that I think that when we look back at him we will see him as the person who actually almost despites himself put the monarchy on the map before George the 3rd Kings were despised they were thrown out they were beheaded after George a third the British monarchy really rose in public esteem that was partly because he went mad and he won the affections and sympathies of his people for that very reason like his father and his grandfather George the 3rd was a Hanoverian the German House of Hanover was able to secure its role in English history almost by accident in 1714 Queen Anne died but none of her seventeen children survived and so it was to a distant German cousin that the crown passed George the first was crowned King of England in 1714 marking the start of the Georgian age the age of the four successive kings called George the gorgeous George's George the second succeeded his father to the throne in 1727 despite growing up in England he like his father spoke no English he loathed his eldest son Frederick calling him that nauseas little beast Frederick was George the Third's father the Georges were Hanoverians before George a third they'd basically been German and spoken German Georgia third was the first of the Hanoverians who really felt proud to be British all the Hanoverian Kings had roused with their heirs these rails were pretty spectacular and they also had major political concert because the airs then went and banked the opponents to the fathers ministries George was a premature baby born in lodgings in San James's square in London in 1738 following an argument with King George ii his parents prince frederick and princess augusta had been evicted from their apartment sister James's Palace then in 1751 when he was only twelve George's life suddenly changed gear his dissolute father Frederick died unexpectedly in the arms of his dancing master his elderly grandfather George ii would not live for much longer it became urgent that the young george be trained for his future role as king of england george's childhood was a rather arid affair with little affection he grew up with pressure and responsibility a boy who was destined to run the country his mother's cry of fear King George was one he constantly and increasingly heard as he grew up his father dies when he's 12 his mother has a large family she's a slightly cold woman I think I don't think there's an awful lot of affection and what affection there was went to his younger brother Edward who was the favorite of the family and so George is looking around desperately to someone who is fond of him and if I may use the cliche looking round for the father figure and he chose the wrong for the figure the father is Lord Butte our Lord Butte of course is his Tudor Butte was very happy to advise the Prince of Wales but a North Shore the advice was actually very good Butte was appointed by George's mother Augusta for her Butte was ideal Cavani birth physically attractive and able to provide the education and advice George needed to became it was beauty and indirectly had a bigger influence over the course of George's early life than any other person but there was one notable exception and that is the strange story of Hannah Lightfoot it said Hannah married George before he was King of England and before he married Queen Charlotte Hannah Lightfoot has been a missing person for the last 243 years what happened to her is still a mystery Hannah was born in 1730 when she was quite young her father died and she and her mother moved to the center of London the young Prince of Wales later George the third caught sight of Hannah when he was on his way to the theatre so impressed was he with her beauty that he arranged through an intermediary that he and the young girl should meet and they subsequently fell in love after the families of Hannah and George discovered the liaison they wanted it brought to a close for they're vastly different reasons and it was decided that Hannah should be married off to somebody more of her own clothes and a man called Isaac Oxford was offered a dowry to marry Hannah and the wedding took place on the 11th of December 1753 but doctor Keith's marriage chapel in Mayfair after the wedding Hannah was abducted and it is believed that she was taken into the care of George the 3rd Prince of Wales Isak Axford searched high and low for his wife but she simply disappeared three years later it would seem that hannah had her portrait painted by Joshua Reynolds one of England's finest portrait painters of the day the portrait shows a lady wearing fine satin son lace and it's been dated to 1756 because of the style of her dress the original documents described the painting as mrs. Hannah Oxford the fair Quaker putative and morganatic wife of George the third that is to say she was his natural wife the very existence of this painting of Hannah a Quaker from nowhere is perhaps the most intriguing piece of evidence of this tale the painting is without a doubt genuine so why did Joshua Reynolds an artist who usually only painted the aristocracy paint this young and ordinary woman and as importantly who commissioned him even today these key questions remain unanswered there are many people today who believe that they are descended from Hanna and the prince there are also people who feel that they have a family connection with her in a famous court case one hundred years later a marriage certificate and a will were produced both documents referred to a named George the third and Hanna Lightfoot and they also implied that they had produced children the marriage certificate was dated the 27th of May 1759 and said that the Reverend James Wilmot have married George wealth Prince of Wales and Hannah Lightfoot the production of these documents in court caused a furore II and despite the fact that they were authenticated by the leading handwriting expert of the day they were impounded for a hundred years on the grounds that they were forgeries this is a copy of Hannah's will it is signed in a very shaky hand by a lady calling herself Hannah Regina it is dated 1762 and in that document she leaves to the care of their royal father George the third the care of two sons and a daughter so we can assume that if that document is genuine that Hannah had two sons and daughter before 1762 if these documents are genuine they prove beyond any shadow of doubt but George Prince of Wales married Hannah Lightfoot before he married Queen Charlotte it would seem all traces of Hannah Lightfoot and her strange story have been eradicated from the history books what we have in 1759 is the 21 year old George Prince of Wales heir to the throne of England perhaps married to hannah Lightfoot and within 12 months yet again everything in his life was to be turned upside down one day in October 1760 king george ii went to the bathroom a few minutes later his valet heard a groan ran in and found the king on the floor with a large gash on his right temple he was laid on a bed and bloodied but not a drop phoned the ventricle in his heart had burst the king tried to speak but failed and died his dissolute son Frederick the Prince of Wales had unexpectedly died nine years earlier having caught a cold playing tennis and so it was to the Kings 22 year old grandson that the crown now passed George out riding when the news is brought to him that his grandfather georgia ii has had a stroke died and he is now king of england the minute george heard that his grandfather had died he knew that his time had come his destiny had arrived his reaction was one of sheer panic for all the years of Bute straining had now to be realized however george's first instinct was not to seize the reins of power it was the rush to Butte and ask him what he should do the first task was to find a suitable royal bride and quickly it became a matter of almost neurotic compulsive frenzy the king and decided that matrimony was necessary and the sooner the better so they got these lists seized almanacs of the courts of Europe and they went through all the princesses they had a shortlist of about eight or nine to begin with her thing and they made polite investigations and one by one they were crossed out it really is rather delightful one of them was was pleasant enough lady but very large and George thought he couldn't cope that another one was again very well spoken of but had a taste for philosophy and he decided he couldn't bear a philosopher Queen and then another one if I amber rightly there was a scandal in the family I think her mother had gone off with the garden or something in another one George says rather melodramatically that there was bad blood in the family says secret was the process of selection that not even the government were told that what was happening until all the formalities had been completed after much wrangling Butte and George finally settled upon princess charlotte of mecklenburg-strelitz of whom the young king knew little the consequence was that charlotte who was not even on the first sources got promoted and eventually she was the only one that against whom no objection could be raised at all and very suitable only when the marriage negotiations had been completed did Charlotte hear of her destiny she was summoned downstairs to dine with her mother and the British ambassador and told to her complete surprise you are going to be Queen of England she was given a week to recover from a shock and then sailed from Germany to be married the very evening she arrived in London but Charlotte comes over from a very small German Court she had no reason tall tube you expecting to marry anyone of any importance and this offer from the King of England really was an incredible scoop for her on the day they were married George and Charlotte met for the very first time George is said to have started and turned pale at the sight of his bride she was described by onlookers as undeniably plain even ugly this was not to dog young George for long he required a queen who would be responsible and who would bear him lots of children again you see George very serious man he says that he's not concerned with Beauty what he is concerned with is his duty and he hopes that their manage will be fruitful well it certainly was I had 15 I think it was in the end so that today text in Charlotte fulfilled the bill beautifully they were married in st. James's Chapel the ceremony was quiet and informal but the wedding ceremony reports were quite damning she was hideously dressed sat.1 account her wedding dress was sumptuous if eccentric said 11 her outfit was so heavy that it dragged itself and the rest of her clothes halfway down a waist a King's Minister Riley commented the spectators knew as much of her upper half as the king would himself before long 14 days later on the 22nd of September 1761 their Majesties King George the 3rd and Queen Charlotte were crowned in Westminster Abbey the coronation was near chaos not only the sword of state but the chairs for the king and queen to sit on had been forgotten the ceremony was delayed for hours a muddle was made of the procession and by the time the ceremony was over it was already grown dark west of all during the ceremony a large and valuable jewel fell from the king's crown for many this mishap was symbolic predicting the loss of the American colonies George the third doggedly fulfilled his marital duties and he and Charlotte had child after child the expense of such a large family may account for George and Charlotte's reputation for being frugal and mean indeed this home loving couple were often satirized famously forbidding the consumption of sugar in their children's tea they did little entertaining their court was described as the dullest in Europe and the aristocracy of England soon began to avoid the royal couple but they like to be at home with their children and they cut corners as a consequence they didn't particularly want to entertain and they were very careful to make sure that the children it up their crusts and things like that Charlotte gained a reputation for her abilities to save money encouraged by George who would only allow one slice of toast for breakfast she perfected the art of reusing leftover food I think George the third really tried to be as sober as he could when all around him people were living a very wild life the 18th century was known as the wickedest age irreligious and depraved for the rich it was a time of indulgence and debauchery eating to excess and drinking like Lords among the masses disease poverty and prostitution were commonplace the mob rioted against high taxes and laws that restricted the little freedoms they had of course it was an enormous contrast to have a very sober court where people didn't cough or sneeze and really it was rather boring Fanny Burney was Queen Charlotte's lady-in-waiting she was also a writer she colorfully described how one was expected to behave at court in the first place you must not coffee if you find a tickling in your throat you must arrest it for making any sound if by chance the hatpin runs into your head you must not take it out if the pain is very great you must be sure to bear it without wincing if it brings tears to your eyes you must not wipe them off George's reign was a period of tremendous growth and development of all fronts the Industrial Revolution was beginning to gather pace the middle classes were thriving craftsmen such as Josiah Wedgwood were making fine china in the arts Jane Austen was writing her first novels and Joshua Reynolds was painting some of the most noble of English society throughout England life was changing rapidly and beyond recognition new cities were founded and canals brought coal to hasten industrial growth the English Empire was expanding throughout the world England was enjoying victories unparalleled in history India Australia the West Indies and the Americas George was a great patron of the flourishing arts and sciences he had a great interest in agriculture and loved nothing better than walking across his land chatting to locals among the public particularly in Windsor this earns him the nickname farmer George he was of course a very cultured man he was also an artistic man he was interested in the fine arts and of course along with other members of the royal family both past and present he did study architecture and was an accomplished draftsman but he was also a farmer and very much a typical country squire of the 18th century and many people think that that was what he was in fact best suited for however during George's reign we also see the power of the crown diminishing and the power of Parliament and its ministers increasing there's very complex relationship between the crown and Parliament in the 18th century they were both crucial parts of the Constitution in essence the King had the right to choose the ministers himself but obviously it was important that he chose ministers that enjoyed the confidence of Parliament and could get governmental business through the two houses of parliament for the first 10 years of his reign George appointed minister after minister the King had the right to choose his ministers but this proved to be a far more difficult task than it would seem many of them simply couldn't cope the strain of this was another stress upon George's health upset him very much indeed it's very worrying and at times he actually does reveal this he writes and says he's not sure that he can put up with more of it now I dare say the Kings say that from time to time anyway but in George's case he is obviously highly strung he does find it difficult and it doesn't make life easier for him George the Third's poor health started quite quickly after he became King it has often been attributed to the responsibilities of his position and the size of his family at such a young age although historians disagree there's a view that the first noticeable indication of his ill health to come was in 1765 at first it's just a feeling that something is slightly wrong the king who talks a lot is now talking even faster with more intensity he was agitated in his movements he's even more agitated is it just a passing phase or is it something which is worrying in the spring of 1765 George Grenville the Prime Minister wrote various accounts of the Kings prolonged and alarming illness the King all this time continues ill and sees none of his ministers the Kings countenance and manner are a good deal estranged he sees nobody whatever not even his brothers clearly Grenville was somewhat mystified by the Kings malady and the Kings illness caused a general alarm in the court the doctors were privately very concerned about this attack these were probably the first symptoms of the terrible illness that was to affect him so seriously later in his life George a third had a history of illness and we have a well documented account going back to 1765 of him having sort of feverish conditions looking as though he was very angry his eyes began to bulge so I think we can say fairly confidently that although George was clearly regarded as being married in 1788 to nine in 1801 in 1811 this illness in 1765 may have been the first signs of things to come so far as I'm aware nobody actually utters the word mad in 1765 whereas in 1788 you find people in November writing down in the privacy of their Diaries in the Latin language Rex na stare in sonnet our King is married in 1788 the King did go mad the pressures of office had clearly taken a toll but the crisis that may have sent him over the edge was his inability to come to terms with the loss of the American colonies in 1783 but George it was the final straw I think if there's two things that people know about George the third its his madness and the loss of the American colonies he certainly felt it deeply and it was seen at the time as something which in which he was had to take his share of the blame although the British Empire was expanding on all fronts there was one major problem the threat of rebellion in America I mean it used to be argued that George was mad and that this is one of the reasons why in a fit of insanity presumably he provoked the Americans that one woman was he wasn't mad at that stage and even if George was married Lord North who his prime minister was certainly not mad and who can't argue that the whole of the House of Commons was mad and I don't think you can argue that the British nation was mad and in any case something like a third of the Americans were still supporting Britain and only they were mad as well so I think that when the the crisis was developing George the third did not in fact play a very important role in it and he makes it clear and says he's not I'm not defending the king not offended the crown I am defending the right of Parliament this is a British Parliament these are our colonies and we have the right to text them America was an increasingly prosperous and self-confident country when Britain defeated the French in Canada removing any threat from the North American radicals first began to consider the idea of Independence by 1763 England had been at war for over seven years this war had cost a fortune and created an enormous national debt which had to be cleared the government tried to introduce new financial demands on the colonies the now famous Stamp Act these demands caused immense fuss in America because the argument that the Americans produced was that they were being taxed by a body the Westminster Parliament in which they were not represented and they claimed all those who who were agitated about this claimed the need for a new constitutional relationship in essence that crisis the Stamp Act crisis of 1765 to 1766 is the kernel of the dispute minister after minister comes up with different ideas how to raise a revenue in America because he's forced to because Parliament insist upon it because the British nation insist upon it why should they go on paying taxes at this high level if the Americans are getting away scot-free so that although the Stamp Act is repealed it still leaves a problem how are we going to make Americans pay more well if not by a stand pep-pep spy port duties famous customs duties but the Americans will not pay them and not only will they not pay them but they're very unpleasant to the people who are trying to collect the duties of the famous tarring and feathering and so the situation escalates Lord North has the bright idea of course of introducing a revenue tax through tea and the American radicals then take the tea and throw it into Boston Harbor so what is really starts off as a financial question only to try to get rid of this enormous national debt finishes up as a very difficult constitutional political question and I think over and above that there is the feeling that these two countries are beginning to grow apart many Americans were not willing to repeal but they still regarded George the third as their king and not as the tyrant who opposed the brave Colonials however it was to be the radicals who wrote the script in the disputes between the British crown and the American colonies in the 1760s most people had never at any stage envisaged a declaration of independence certainly they had not wished to see a major war leading to independence but the political crisis in the mid 1770 seems first of all the outbreak of fighting in Massachusetts in 1775 and then a growing realization on the part of the radicals that they are going to have to go for independence if they wish to achieve their aims what tends to be forgotten is they're really two wars of American independence there's the war that started in 1775 which saw the Americans drive the British and the loyalists out of America or what drive the look loyalists into as it were political quiescence and there is the second war of American independence which begins in the summer of 1776 when howl lands his massive army at Staten Island the biggest force the British yet had ever sent abroad and that is a bitter war that goes on till 1783 while George did not play a major role in the crisis his attitude changed once the war had started his policy on the American colonies became incredibly simple the colonists must be reduced to absolute obedience if needs be by the ruthless use of force essentially George the third had a conservative conception of the nature of the British Empire now before one criticizes him for that one should note that so did most British commentators have a conservative conception and indeed had George the third sat down in 1770 and said let us give independence to the 13 colonies there would have been political outrage that he was breaking all sorts of constitutional conventions having said that it could be argued that George the Third's response to the American War of Independence and response to the buildup of tension in the relationship was less than imaginative the king obviously is very much concerned with a great chunk of his empire he's going to be able to declare itself independent so he is very keenly interested in the war and in any case is a tough character who wants to go on fighting as long as there is some reasonable chance that the Americans will have to give in the second reason why he takes such an important part in what once the war starts is that Lord North is so anxious to bail out and not conduct the war so it's George who is saying pull yourself together you'll be all right stand by me and we will soldier on to the end there's no doubt in fact that the war against America was a war of the British people with very popular support it they thought they had a right to it it has the complete support of Parliament if you're on the other side of the Atlantic you can't without much excitement or hatred of Parliament he's got to be personified you've got to have some person preferably a tyrant who can it possibly be well I suppose they could have whipped up a campaign against law of North but so Lord North is so amiable and so funny and so fat and so cheerful it is very difficult to have him as an ogre consequently a thing to do is to say we have a brutal King and that this king is not to be is not fit to be the king of a free people what was it Tom Paine calling the royal brute now whatever he was he wasn't a royal brute but it makes for very good propaganda so in absence I think they use George George the third began to lose political support for the war his Minister Lord North resigned in 1781 Parliament's view was that Britain should concentrate on fighting France and Spain and not send any more troops to America this was the decisive moment when George deterrent became known as the Mad King who lost America for George the loss of the American colonies was the one event more than any other that finally sent him over the edge into madness it's pretty frightening when anyone goes mad but if a king goes mad then the whole state may be in trouble if you accuse him of being mad and then it's wrong or he gets better late a you may be marked down to be thrown out but if you don't point out that he's mad and decisions get taken which are based on unsound mind then dreadful things can happen when George the third became unwell he was treated at first as if it were a physical disorder such as gout or fever but his behavior became so odd and irrational the doctors diagnosed flying gout the disease had left from his feet to his head gradually his condition intensified it started off with a propensity to talk with sleeplessness with hoarseness with irritation with anger with bulging eyes and it mounted into real delirium he talked in consequentially and crazily in a confused state for ten or fifteen or twenty hours at a stretch he couldn't sleep he was absolutely insufferable to be with he became fierce and angry in all those ways it was clear to his court that he was becoming peculiar and the question was was the king actually going mad or was it just a physical illness members of the court feared for Queen Charlotte's safety after the King appeared frightening Lee at her bedside one night the couple were kept apart the King was taken against his will to queue outside London Charlotte insisted she should go as well but was forbidden to see her husband the King was not returned to Windsor until the following year he did suffer occasionally from delusions he thought in his mad bouts that London was being deluged by enormous waves he thought that he was in love with Lady Elizabeth the Countess of Pembroke he certainly had delusions but nowadays when we say is somebody mad we often mean was he primarily mad was he psychotic and I think the answer there is that the madness of George the third came from a variety of physical and organic conditions that were so painful and disturbing that they drove him to do areum he wasn't primarily mad he was secondarily mad it's now widely accepted that George the third were suffering from porphyria which was unknown at the time this is an inherited disease affecting the nervous system and it's diagnosis also suggests an alarming possibility that George the Third's illness was not an isolated case and it may run in the family there is a certain amount of evidence that some of George the Third's predecessors for example James the first and above all Queen Anne suffered from various of the same symptoms which he experienced we know also that's a couple of his sons maybe George his successor as George and forth also suffered from similar symptoms colic bilious pains lethargy and things like that which suggests that he passed it on one of the consequences of having porphyria is that one's urine becomes purple now we know from Georgia Thirds doctors that he did had purple urine and purple colored stools as well eighteenth-century doctors did little more than try to keep the patient comfortable and try to maintain the balance of the body's elements or humors among the most common form of treatment was bleeding literally removing from the patient a large quantity of blood a job often done by the local barber the doctors to George the third would have bled him in the traditional way they would have taken a thumb Lancet onto his the main vein of the arm and removed anywhere from 12 to 20 ounces of blood they would have done this on maybe several days in a row some rest in between now the type of instrument that would have used the venues to bleed George the third would have been an instrument coming out of a Lancet case of this kind this is the George the third period Lancet cases made of silver these things contain a number of thumb lancets what they do when they bleed people was to put a ligature around the arm the upper part so that the veins become very prominent in the in the at the elbow and then the thumb Lancet would be made to cut the vein along the length of the thing there was another way of drawing blood which was also used to treat the saying the practice of leeching leeches would have been applied directly to the head probably to the temple region they would have brought them in taken them out of their special pots which have a special holes in them to keep them from coming out they would confine them to a region of the head with some kind of glass a vessel like a like a glass cutting device and once the leech started feeding they could remove the the the cup and the leeches would stay there for 20 to 30 minutes but they bled what can you continue to flow for four hours this was very widely used for treatment of insanity for four centuries George did not have a good relationship with his 15 children he could only bring himself with great difficulty to allow his daughters to marry and they for Longley addressed their letters to their brothers from the nunnery he regarded them all with a protective but passionate affection and called them all for Delia's his sons however proved less easy to govern most of them liked the high life and they had the knack of incurring public hatred for their sins of gambling debauchery and drunkenness in particular the public took against George Prince of Wales who successes were to say the least extreme he'd accumulated deaths of around a quarter of a million pounds by the time he was 23 and the same year he secretly married his Catholic mistress a winner mrs. Fitzherbert from the moment George's sons entered society their reckless extravagances and their course on brutal habits increased public sympathy for the aging king whose weak mind seemed to be further endangered by the wanton behavior of his dissolute sons in particular the King had viewed the development of his eldest son the Prince of Wales with great distaste he disapproved strongly of the princes demands for his own household something he could not refuse when the Prince reached 21 deep down he may have loved him as a son but he hated him as an heir the prince was 26 when the Kings madness really appeared and he was desperate to take over in October 1788 the King talked faster and faster and never slept the Prince of Wales was sent for and the king tried to throttle him George the Third's death was expected and the Prince set up two nights in a row waiting for the succession fully dressed and resplendent but the King didn't die instead they put him in a straightjacket under the strict instructions of the mad doctor a psychiatrists were then called the Reverend dr. Frances Willis Willis used a mixture of traditional physical treatments for madness that's to say blisters and cupping and above all emetics he was a great believer in tartar emetic which was a way of producing vomiting and he also believed in physical restraint so he was the first person who used what was called a restraining chair upon him Willis said that his way with treating the insane was to break them in like horses you had to tame the insane as though they were like wild beasts now of course a lot of people were absolutely horrified at this idea this was no way to treat a king you couldn't put a king in a straitjacket that was like treason the madness of George the third had political repercussions because waiting in the wings was his eldest son George both the prince and the politicians who were in opposition stood to benefit from the king being formally declared mad one would get the power and the other would get the throne so the supporters of the Prince of Wales included various doctors who if you like had a vested interest in playing down Georgian thirds health in playing down the prospect of a cure in calling for a Regency because they would then benefit from the new regime whereas William Pitt who was prime minister and was very loyal to draw 2/3 had an interest in finding doctors who would stress the likely and impending cure of the king despite young Georgia's hopes that he might become king or that the very least the Regency would be declared George the third began to recover from his madness Willis's methods were recognized as having worked and Queen Charlotte was once again allowed to return to the apartments in which they'd lived I think it's marvelous that when George the third recovered everyone celebrated they had medals they had parties that had firework displays and I think that's very good it was saying well this episode happened and now it's over and we've got our King back and everything's going to be alright I think a more modern perspective of course would be to see him as vulnerable and to wonder if it was going to happen again and obviously to think about replacing him as any modern Executive Committee would do if someone had any form of breakdown despite the celebrations George the third never really recovered and the year later in 1789 he became for the first time an object of public sympathy King George the Third's illnesses that first appeared in 1765 seemed over the years to become progressively worse as the stress of ruling the country increasing it of its toll one event more than any other is said to have tipped him over the edge the loss of the American colonies the jewel in his crown certainly he never got over what he saw as his major tragedy in 1788 his behavior and appearance became to worrying for secrecy for the first time the thought wrecks Noster in sonnet our king is mad was written down by 1789 the sad mad and injured king became for the first time in his life an object of sympathy and respect his virtues were suddenly appreciated his natural dignity and his frugality made a strong contrast to the behavior of his sons this newfound popularity was strengthened by the French Revolution the republicanism of the French gave the British sovereign even more support at long last the wheel of fortune seemed to turn in George's favour he became the first Hanoverian monarch to command respect some leaders gain in popularity after a mistake for example President Kennedy after the fiasco of the Bay of Pigs actually increased in popularity people like to think that even this very talented guy could make a mistake and they liked him for it George the third who'd never been a fantastically popular King became far more popular after people heard about him going through such a bad time with his illness and his madness he began to age and in the years that followed he cheated on the verge of a twilight world of similitudes dementia by 1801 he became a figurehead he stopped interfering in politics and in the public's mind he ceased to be associated with government policy from 1802 until 1811 when George became increasingly mad every care was taken to shield him from the storms of office and from the wild behavior of his children most particularly from his eldest son who was to inherit the throne George the fourth constitutionally the monarchy did not see its position dramatically deteriorates during the last decades of George the Third's reign but the political practices of the age was such that politics increasingly took place with the Kings role being less central not least because during the Napoleonic Wars the ministers had to plan for war and had to run an increasingly complex government system with a monarch who was ailing and then with his success of the Prince Regent subsequently George the fourth who was not noted for his dedication to the business of kingship George the Third's last part of madness from which he never recovered was in 1810 and a Regency was finally declared in 1811 the Prince of Wales finally took the reins of power for more than 10 years queen charlotte and the king had lived apart she died alone @q in 1818 two years later the king himself died at Windsor Castle his final years being little more than a fog of distant memories George Arthur's last bouts of madness began in 1810 and the Regency was finally declared in 1811 and he lived on a further nine years a sad but almost romantic figure he grew a long white beard he was completely blind he was delirious he was deaf and we have little portraits of him painted by dyrus at the time sitting banging away at a harpsichord that he probably couldn't hear and he's interesting of course that Beethoven was doing exactly the same thing in Germany here was a king who had turned into a completely self-enclosed ancient figure almost as though Shakespeare's King Lear had finally come alive George is an old man who's a tired man and he goes completely insane in 1810 so the last 10 years of his life really is tragic he's blind is old he's quite in serving he's living in the past and he spends his time you remember he spends his time playing the harpsichord he plays some handle his favorite composer he tells people who come to listen to him but this was a favorite piece of the late King when he was alive and his beard grows down to his waist he walks around all day in a purple dressing-gown Winsor talking to the ghosts of the past I suppose talking to north still and talking to beauty and thinking about Sherlock it's a very sad very long very slow to come the idea of a nation's ruler going insane is a frightening concept certainly George the Third's illness must have had an impact on our founding fathers as they created the Constitution and choosing an electoral system over a monarchy and creating safeguards against the misuse of power [Applause] [Applause] [Applause]

This Chicken Lived for Two Years Without a Head | History



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In the 1940s, a chicken lived for two years without his head.

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The Rockies: Taming The Mountains (Documentary)



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the Rocky Mountains there are millions of years old but still young in geological time and they're still growing the Rockies have always been a major barrier to crossing the country for almost a century after the founding of the United States it was faster and easier to sail all the way around the tip of South America then to transport goods or people across the towering summits of the Rocky Mountains today the same crags that made overland journeys a near impossibility test outdoor thrill-seekers to their physical limits but it wasn't so long ago that men scaled these Peaks not for fun or fitness but to tame taming the mountains on this episode of the Rockies hello I'm Peter Fonda welcome to the Rockies these magnificent mountains have always been a source of inspiration for anyone who has walked in their shadows but the natural beauty of this area has also inspired controversy to some the Rockies are works of perfection that should be left untouched but when others look at these Peaks they see the ultimate challenge our program tells the story of those who came here some to preserve the Rockies others to conquer them some of the dreamers built railroads and highways in the sky others turned a barren patch of land first into an army camp and then into a luxurious ski resort for better or for worse they transformed the Rocky Mountains into a vacationers paradise it all began more than a century ago in a town named after its most precious commodity Silverton sits in the southwestern corner of Colorado surrounded by the San Juans some of the highest and steepest mountains in the Rockies a dozen or more peaks in the San Juans top 14,000 feet the towering mountains are big business in Silverton their lofty summits and tree covered slopes draw outdoorsy tourists to the out-of-the-way town but it wasn't so many years ago that the only way into or out of Silverton was on a treacherous foot path barely wide enough for a donkey there was good reason to make the trip though a fortune in silver ore lay buried deep in the San Juans the trick was getting it out first thing that the miners found out when it came in here was that this is isolated and high canyons were steep they were rugged and it was costly to use mule train it was costly they couldn't get wagons here but Silverton needed was a railroad but skeptics said that the 50-mile routes uh Burton was impassable it wasn't the distance it was worth the tracks had to be laid through the rugged gorge and treacherous slopes that guarded entry to the high mountain town but there was one man who planned to prove the skeptics wrong his name was William Jackson Palmer palmer's railroad career began back east in the mountains of Pennsylvania later he helped build the Transcontinental railway across the Great Plains then in 1870 Palmer went to Colorado to begin building his own rail empire the Denver and Rio Grande railroad throughout the 1870s Palmer's crews laid tracks from Denver to the south and west by the summer of 1881 Palmer's Denver and Rio Grande railroad had made its way up the Rio Grande Valley to Durango from there Palmer was determined to scale the mountains and make it into Silverton miners in Silverton were counting big on the railroad to haul their riches south so were Palmers financial backers wealthy Eastern investors with reasons of their own for wanting a railway to Silverton some of Palmer's investors own claims up there and own mines so they want the railroad there now the Easter's hope to make a profit and all they saw was gold and silver out there and after all few old gold owned the gold and silver mines like owning a bank because you just take out your gold and silver and it's bottomless to reach Silverton Palmer's tracks had to follow the Animas River Valley a narrow and winding Gorge blind in one section with sheer cliffs Palmer knew that once he was going in the mountains it's going to be a much different type of railroading so he looked around and that latest bad thing was a narrow gauge railroad three feet Queeny rails he said in the four foot eight and a half standard gauge now the narrow gauge allowed Palmer Garron sharper curves up steeper grades and make and was less costly to fill in the mountains Palmer's track crews began the 50 mile climb up the river valley in October of 1881 just as Palmer hoped the narrow gauge rails proved easier to lay than the wider tracks but it was still hard dangerous work and keeping workers focused on the job at hand rather than the riches that surrounded them was a constant challenge they didn't want to work for his pay they wanted to go up into San Juan Mountains find a claims therican and then be rich miners so Palmer had a steady problem of keeping workers progress was slow and expensive by December the tracks had advanced just 13 miles upriver to rock wood and that was nothing compared to what lay ahead that was the easy part really because not only had he gone to Silverton and he got as far as Rock would that fall and beyond rock wood is the place where what they call the High Line is it's 400 feet straight down into the Animas River in the sheer canyon above rock wood there wasn't an inch of room for tracks no matter how narrow the gauge only Dizzy Dean clips and churning rabbits the right-of-way would have to be blasted into the face of the 400 foot cliffs they had to blast out a bench miners actually were lowered over the cliffs in what we would call a cave of Bowie Mostyn seat and they would drill in a round of powder dynamite they would put in a stick dynamite sticks they would put on fuses all time to go off at a certain period of time then they would lighten the main fuse and they would hope the friends would pull him up before the thing went off blasting solid rock was a perilous undertaking even in the best of circumstances but these were the worst of circumstances due to labor problems and cost overruns Palmer was making more progress towards bankruptcy and toward Silverton Palmer's investors were hungry they had put a lot of money into the railroad and wanted to see silver start coming out of the mountains to keep them happy Palmer's men worked six days a week from before daylight until after dark and was cold it was snowy it was dark most of the year a day and they had a terrible time but Palmer kept from going in just three short months the worst was over the gorge finally widened into a gentle valley by late spring with the whistle of Palmer's trains wafting up the valley to Silverton the skeptics gradually fell silent nine months after the work began in July of 1882 the first of Palmer's locomotives rolled into Silverton soon the narrow gauge trains were snaking up the mounds packed with miners and coming back down packed with silk palmer's railroad brought boom times to both Silverton and Durango it brought in the smelter in the town which was needed this became a regional smelter it opened the coal mines here because need coal for fuel need coal ship it brought in settlers it it brought in tourists and investors and health seekers to go up to the hot springs up the valley the Denver and Rio Grande meant everything at your angle for the remainder of the 19th century Palmer's narrow gauge railroad was the engine of prosperity for Durango and Silverton but in the 20th century that engine would begin to lose steam 100 years after it first made its way through the San Juans and into Silverton it looked like Palmer's incredible achievement would be lost forever and with it an important chapter in the history of the Rockies when we continue Palmer's majestic railroad faces extinction in the 1880s the Denver and Rio Grande William Jackson Palmer was narrow-gauge railway in the San Juan Mountains brought prosperity to Durango and Silverton but what was cutting-edge transportation technology in the 19th century would soon become outdated in the 20th by the late 1930s Palmer's railroad was in trouble silver prices were low and the mines were closing and coal-fired locomotives were being replaced by more advanced technology after that the DS electrics took over and a lot of these short lines like the Durango Silverton narrow gauge they were obsolete the Denver Rio Grande actually tried to shut it down neglected and looked down on even by its owners Palmer's pioneering railroad went downhill for decades in 1947 the Train carried just 3,500 passengers an average of only ten day the only thing keeping the railroad alive was an occasional movie cameo and Nikora diehard steam train fans who came to Durango just to ride the smoky narrow gauge train one of those diehard fans was a Florida businessman named Charles Bradshaw in 1981 Bradshaw came to Silverton and rode the old steam train instead of obsolescence Bradshaw saw history in the rusty locomotives rickety cars and rundown wooden roundhouse in March of that year Bradshaw bought the Train lock stock and barrel and pumped millions into it in less than a decade he restored the railroad to its former glory as word of the remarkable train spread riders began pouring in from all over the country William Jackson Palmer Darrin escapade was once again paying off well this time not in silver but in tourist dollars today the Durango Silverton narrow gauge railroad is his steam-powered time machine everything is just like it was in William Jackson Palmer 'he's dead from the coal-fired locomotive to the hand on its throttle sometimes I daydream about the guy that was doing just that job a hundred years ago and what was he worrying about was he worrying about getting home and getting the rent paid just the same as I am you know the canyon itself hasn't changed much for a hundred years so so I do kind of daydream about what those guys were thinking and do and they were doing the same thing I am Glacier National Park sits at the top of the United States Fair the sharp-edged spires of the Rockies are snow-capped year-round their gleaming summits at beacon to those seeking true wilderness the view from Logan Pass is one of the most inspiring in the country on a clear day visibility can be over 200 miles not so long ago however this was a view that not many got a chance to experience by the 1920s even the railroads which marked the beginning of modern transportation in the Rockies still cross only a few of the mountain slopes thousands of miles of beautiful mountain rage remained inaccessible except of the hardiest adventurer it was 1924 and for the National Park Service there was good news and bad news the good news was that Congress had earmarked seven and a half million dollars to build roads in America's 49 national parks and monuments the bad news was one of those roads had to be built across the Continental Divide in Montana's Glacier National Park with its spectacular crags carved by ancient sheets of ice glacier was a sightseers dream but it was a road builders nightmare the mountains of Glacier were so imposing that the only way to get by car from one side to another a journey of only 35 miles as the crow flies was to go around the park a 600 mile trek in the early days you would come up to st. Mary on the east side of Glacier and then to get over to the west side of the park the McDonald Valley and so forth you had to go all the way down around through butte and bozeman that way come come over the divide there and then come up through the Flathead Valley to to visit the west side of the park by cutting directly across glacier a new highway would eliminate the 600 mile detour but the road would have to be built over Logan Pass a climb of more than half a mile from the valley below I claim up steep crumbling slopes it was a daunting challenge the man in charge of seeing the project through was Stephen Mather Mather was the director of the National Park Service and was charged with making the lands under his control available to the public by Road he had the money to build a road through Glacier but no plan to build the road Mather was counting on the skills of George Goodwin a civil engineer who had already put roads up some of the most demanding terrain in the National Park System George Goodwin was an engineer very respected probably the preeminent mountain highway engineer in the West at the time he was in his 50s at the sort of height of his professional accomplishment Mather trusted Goodwin's engineering but he didn't want just any road for Glacier National Park he wanted a showpiece to help bring an artistic guide of the project Mathur also recruited a young landscape architect from San Francisco named Thomas Vint in the summer of 1924 Mather met Goodwin and Vint at Glacier the three men mounted horses and rode the long trail up to Logan Pass they're pointing down to the valley below Goodwin outlined how his road would scale the Rockies he believed that a series of switchbacks directly up the Logan Creek Valley would be the easiest most efficient and therefore the best way for this road to approach Logan Pass from the West that would have called for of the construction of about 15 switch backs up the Logan Creek Valley Goodwin's plan may not have been elegant but it was workable the Thomas fent the young landscape architect thought the master road builders plan would be an abomination Vint announced to mr. matter that he felt that if the switchbacks were built as planned it would look like he had let loose mining engineers in the Logan Creek Valley that he would look like strip miners had been at work you know classic engineer Landscape Architect right-brain left-brain type of discussion and they're up here looking at the various routes and arguing amongst themselves but Thomas vent did more than just argue against the Goodwin's highway plan he proposed a plan of his own a hanging road he called it blasted into the great cliff known as the garden wall this was a rather stunning idea certainly it would have been more expensive to build it was a much longer road to build and yet the one great benefit was obvious the valley below them would be completely untouched the argument raged top of logan pass until Mather finely stormed off leaving goodwin and vent wondering which idea had so incenses the director of the park service it didn't take long to find out back in Washington Mather made it clear that it was Vince idea he supported the information enraged George Goodwin Goodwin blustered if you will that he was the foremost Road in Mountain Road engineer in the world and that he didn't know if he could continue to work for the Park Service if he was not if his design wasn't selected and Mather sent him a telegram said your resignation is accepted so that ended that Vince plan won out the hanging Road was just the sort of visual spectacle Mather wanted the only question was was it built in the fall of 1924 work was about to begin on a highway across Glacier National Park the road was designed to scale the Continental Divide without spoiling pleasures a scenic beauty a daring and dangerous endeavor the way it played out the design that was chosen was probably the most hazardous to build it was essentially perching the road on the side of a series of cliffs rather than taking the safe route down the bottom of the valley they just had to climb apparently over 3,000 feet each day just to survey out the road yeah 300 percent turnover and the work crews trying to survey the road in three months and so that was the first difficulties getting up into these high mountains to serve it in the spring of 1926 construction finally began in earnest the park echoed with the sound of dynamite as workers began blasting into the fifth called the garden wall it quickly became apparent why no one had put her oh dear before these rocks are not very solid that's they crumbled their Shaylee they fall apart they make slopes there's landslides and a build a road across this was an amazing engineering feat in the late 20s and early 1930s the new road was meant to bring Glacier National Park into the automobile age but building it often looked like a Stone Age endeavor a lot of the supplies and materials could be hauled partway into the interior by horseback and by wagon then they had to get on and get on trails pack it all on horses get up on these steep mountain sides in order to get the materials and the supplies that they needed up there a lot of manpower was used in building the road a lot of handwork in setting the stones they hired crews from Italy Eastern Europe places like that there were recent immigrants coming to the United States that had the kind of skills that it took to do this kind of Rock work the way the old documents refer to the stones is a one-man stone or a 2-man stone the workers blasted and graded blasted and graded their progress of the garden wall was painfully slow often only a few feet a day but gradually foot by foot Thomas Vince hanging Road began to emerge from the cliff the success was not without its price though one worker was killed when a rock tumbled down upon him another died in a fall remarkably there were the only two casualties working in this pretty hazardous environment with you know climate that changes from from day to day from hour an hour it seems like and the mountainous terrain we were very fortunate to have so few people killed by it finally after four years of back-breaking work the road reached Logan Pass and the Continental Divide from there it was all downhill to the parks boundary at West glacier all tolled the 50 mile road cost two and a half million dollars more than four times the original estimate but it was worth it the road was everything Vint and Mather had hoped that would be a spectacular climb into the sky at a formal dedication ceremony in 1933 the road was given a name one that conjured up visions of local Indian legends and lore coin to the son today going-to-the-sun road is still one of America's most memorable drives through some of the most spectacular scenery in the Rockies you look out and you see as if somebody took a paintbrush and painted the mountain see reds and greens and violets and blacks and tans you go out there and not only do you see the beautiful colors of the ancient belt see but you see the work of glaciers during the Ice Age sculpting away the mountains with hanging valleys and waterfalls flowing out of those valleys and glacial larette's narrow sharp ridges carved out by glaciers and passes and just a beautiful array of geologic and glacial features nowhere else in the Rockies has the attempt to tame the mountain paid off so spectacularly as it does on going to the Sun Road the outcome of a long-ago argument between three men on horseback high atop Logan Pass Jackson Hole Wyoming this small town in the shadow of the Grand Tetons has become one of the country's premier hideaways movie stars and millionaires have made the former frontier town into a chic community of giant second homes gourmet restaurants and expensive shops these days the town welcomes the big money of tourists who want to play cowboy but it hasn't always been so trusting of the wealthy and powerful the year was 1924 and John Turner a recent transplant to Jackson Hole from Salt Lake City was keeping an anxious eye on his potato field Turner's farm the 350 acres spread lay at the foot of the Grand Tetons wonderful country the terrible farmland he decided he wasn't coming to Wyoming and show the people in Jackson Hole how to raise potatoes I guess he didn't realize your is naive enough to realize or not to realize that we just don't have the growing season here but anyway he planted I don't know how many acres of potatoes watered them all summer and so forth and we went to dig him up in the fall they were about the size of your thumb Turner's second crop fizzled just like the first fortunately when honey season opened opportunity came knocking at his door in those days hunting all the way around the ranch here was extremely good there was a lot of elk and that was the primary species which they hunted and people were always stopping by to see if if they could hire the services of somebody here at the ranch to guide them or to pack animal to pack their dead animals back out of the mountains or something then Turner had a brainstorm he knocked together some rustic cabins and hung out his side his potato farm became the triangle ax dude ranch dude was someone with money for sure someone who wanted to experience the West mostly it was folks who wanted to breathe the clean air and reel in a wild trout or bagged a trophy elk and these people were willing to shell out good money which got the Rancher through the winter better then the somewhat risky efforts of ranching the triangle X dude ranch did pay better than the potato farm but just barely then one day an old acquaintance of Turner's showed up at the Triangle X with an offer of help he was a Salt Lake City lawyer named Harold Fabian Fabian was in Jackson Hole on business per client the Snake River Land Company which Fabian said needed land for a hunting club fabien offered to buy the triangle x4 Turner didn't want to sell Fabian was persistent though finally he came to him and said dad Turner and that's what he went by was his dad he said you know he said you're one of the last people in the area to sell and he said if you don't sell to us you know we're probably just gonna before this whole thing is over galbi up and and pushed you out Fabian sweetened the offer snake river would pay thirty three thousand dollars for turn his place and he could keep on living there they'd even pay him a monthly stipend of one hundred and seventy five dollars it sounded too good to be true well back in the early nineteen twenties $175 if you could get that much in a month I mean you were living high on the hog granddad asked if he could have that in writing and mr. Fabian said oh no if we gave that to you in writing then we'd have to do it for everybody else and in those days a handshake was more important and you know anything in writing anyway so they shook on it at first Turner congratulated himself on his good fortune but soon he found out he'd been snakebit he wasn't the last to sell to the Snake River Land Company he was the first and worse yet the land company used the fact that Turner had sold out to convince his neighbors to do the same it was a classic double-cross but that wasn't the worst of it the worst thing was what Turner learned next the man hiding behind Harold Fabian and the Snake River Land Company was none other than john d rockefeller jr. when word got out that it was broker feller money some rich guy from back east taking yours and my land away from us that was terrible it wasn't a friend John Turner was furious but the deal was done there was very little he could do but continue to live there and collect the $175 a month stipend and he and grandmother got their stipends for I believe it was two months and then of course the stipend stopped and then granddad came back one day and all of a sudden here was a truck in here loading up boys hey machine went down asking what they were doing and and they said that they were moving it up to the elk ranch and he said well I need that to farm with and they said well we're sorry it's ours now and we're taking it by 1930 Eastern tycoon john d rockefeller jr. had secretly gobbled up more than 33,000 acres of prime rockies real estate in their Jackson Hole Valley once farms and ranches the land was now controlled by one of the wealthiest men in the world when the locals learned they'd sold out to Rockefeller they were mad as Hornets but Rockefeller had one more surprise in store for the valley the reason he bought it the Snake River Land Company had claimed to be buying property for a hunting club but that was just a cover story Rockefellers real purpose was to give his 33,000 acres of Jackson Hole to the government as the national park land plan would keep the valley from further development and allow it to remain as wilderness burrow I think there was a lot of the bitterness from my grandmother's generation towards the park and Rockefellers was how the deal was actually done I think they felt that they were a little bit taken whatever the reason was Wyoming's congressional delegation enraged by Rockefeller sneakiness spurned his offer and they persuaded the rest of Congress to reject it – for more than a decade the fate of the 33,000 acres hung in limbo finally in 1942 Rockefellers patience ran out he sent word to the White House that he was ready to sell the land to the highest bidder President Franklin D Roosevelt another wealthy New Yorker and a champion of the national parks wanted the country to accept Rockefellers gift but the president didn't have jurisdiction over the national parks Congress did there was a stalemate because many forces were at work opposing each other until FDR did something bold and sneaky he invoked the 1906 antiquities Act and he said that he could create a National Monument out of this land here which was set aside by the Snake River Land Company and that didn't sit very well because folks said what is the history no one was here 100 years ago and so what he said was it was because it was a crossroad of American fur trade it took 23 years but on September 14 1950 Saxon hull finally officially became a part of Grand Teton National Park today the National Park Service of the triangle X which has been in operation as a dude ranch for three-quarters of a century and the descendants of John Turner still manage it and they plan to keep running it for a long time to come even my grandmother at the time of her death concedes that the National Park was the best thing that could happen to the area if the end ever justifies the means this is probably one place where you could make a very strong argument that this that this was good but all the same on the triangle exit they still watch for snakes a bit more carefully than they used to in summertime from the front seat of a car or the back of a dude ranch horse it's easy to believe the Rockies have been tamed but in winter time the Rockies can still be forbidding unless you know where to go on the powdery Colorado slopes of Vail and Aspen the rich and the beautiful frolic in the state's leading attraction snow it is snow that raises million-dollar condo complexes into the sky over the flanks of the mountains and it is snow that attracts thousands of visitors every year to come to the world's most famous ski areas what few of those who enjoy the slopes hotels and restaurants of these expensive resorts realize is that their origins lie not in fun and in sport but in war here was 1942 America was at war and a peaceful Colorado Valley was about to enter the fight far across the Atlantic fierce battles in the Alps demonstrated the need to train American troops in mountain warfare so the US Army created an elite new unit the 10th Mountain Division its soldiers were not your average GI Jones it was a unique mixture we had European ski champions we had intellectual skiers and mountain climbers from Harvard and Yale Princeton we had forest rangers and timber cruisers pack outfit guides from the Rockies the army chose the Pando valley of the Colorado Rockies as the place to train the 10th Mountain Division they wanted to be central Rockies in the mountains with snow in the winter and available hiking climbing rock climbing in the summer time and this seemed to fit the bill army engineers bulldozers and carpenters descended on the empty valley floor practically overnight an immense army base cap Heil took shape in the middle of nowhere it was just all barracks covered 14 15 thousand men hospital all the support facilities the artillery and so on they were all housed here in barracks in a way it's nowhere but in the layest just right it was a perfect location for the kind of training we had all around it are these wonderful high mountain ridges and rocky cliffs and so forth we did maneuver after maneuver by climbing skiing being at altitude carrying heavy packs every day week after week month after month we were in the best physical condition probably of any army unit that ever existed in the winter of 1944-1945 the 10th was sent to northern Italy they were about to go head-to-head with the German army in the Italian Alps the only place in Europe where the Germans were still holding their ground their German artillery fire pummeled any army that dared to approach the mountains the shelling was directed with deadly accuracy by spotters and I had top Riva Ridge for the commander of the 10th Mountain Division General George Hayes River Ridge was the ultimate obstacle the Germans sat up on that Ridge and looked behind all of the American lines in that sector and so any time an American truck or a person or gun moved they knew it and they could direct artillery directly onto it interestingly enough the rest of the US Army and the British Army as well considered Riva Ridge unassailable they said it can't be taken so why are we worrying about it but Hayes was determined to take Riva Ridge he sent out his best climbers to scout the ridge for places where it could be climbed by night climbers ran ropes up the cliffs meanwhile hey sneaked an attack force into position they'd gone in at night and they were staying in little old Italian farm houses and barns they even were hidden in haystacks and they had to remain for three days hidden well the roots were being prepared on the night of February 18 1945 general Hays ordered the attack they came out of hiding formed up on the different routes and climbed during the night and remember they were climbing with 60 pounds of mostly ammunition on their backs and it was a total surprise the Germans must have took off some were wounded some what in the ensuing firefight from that initial surprised attack the 10th went on to break Hitler's hold on the mountains but for thousands of the men of the 10th the war's end was only the beginning of their time in the mountains in 1945 the grueling Rocky Mountain training at Camp Hill Colorado paid off for the US Army's 10th Mountain Division the 10th shattered Adolf Hitler's army in the Italian Alps a major contribution towards bringing the war to an end after the war most of the men of the 10th returned to civilian life many returned to the Rockies one of the unique things about the men of the 10th is that they didn't stop being mountain men when the war was over a great many of us went to work immediately as ski instructors heads of ski schools I was editor of skiing magazine others involved themselves in ski patrol work many of us in the summertime were mountain guides in the Cascades in the Rockies each of our returning guys I think decided one way or another they wanted to continue their lives in the mountains but another 10th vet by the name of Pete Seibert had a bigger idea one dating all the way back to his childhood in New Hampshire I decided when I was about 12 years 12 years of age that I wanted to build a ski area and everything I ever did was oriented in that direction I went in the ski troops I served my time there I got out I came back out to Aspen and went to work in Aspen Seibert had been managing a small ski area near Denver for three years but he dreamed of building a place of his own designed from the ground up a resort modeled after Europe's finest he just needed to find the right spot one day a co-worker came to him with a tip about a mountain just a stone throw from Camp Hale follow the working forest by the name of Earl Eaton cert Pete he said I think I've seen something that looks like it has a good potential so we came over in 1957 in March and climbed to the top of what is now Vail Mountain and once I'd seen that there was no question in my mind that was the best I've seen snow was great we've studied snow records at Vail Pass which is very close and found that probably the most consistent snow in the state not the most most consistent was on Vail Pass on the west side and there's a real lack of wind everything seemed ideal except for one small problem unlike Aspen there was no town of Vail to start with there was nothing in Vail at all except mountains and snow Seibert forged ahead on borrowed money and his dream in late 1962 Vail resort finally opened Seibert eagerly awaited the throngs of skiers from Denver but they didn't come we opened in mid mid December of 1962 and we had a gondola chairlift to the top of the mountain and one down the backside so basically we opened up the whole mountain but we didn't have any people gradually the word spread about vales powdery snow and European ambience eventually Vail became one of the world's biggest and best-known ski resorts a model for others throughout the West today skiing is a multi-billion dollar business in the Rockies mining head frames once the emblem of enterprise in the Rockies have been replaced by chair lifts and gondolas and one of the powerful forces driving that change were the men of the 10th Mountain Division once headquartered at Camp Ale just over the ridge in geography and in spirit from the deep powder and deep pockets of Rocky Mountain ski slopes Vail is the most popular ski resort in North America a far cry from the day when just a dozen people bought lift tickets it's easy for me to understand why so many people come here to visit then stay here to live my wife and I did if anyone has ever been able to put the allure of the mountains into words perhaps it was naturalist Ennis Mills they climb up the Rockies he wrote in 1924 we'll put one in touch with the infinite if you've ever been here you know what he meant you

Today in History for July 24th



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Highlights of this day in history: A key ruling during the Watergate scandal; Nixon and Khrushchev hold a ‘kitchen debate’ during the Cold War; Brigham Young and Mormon followers arrive in present-day Utah; Apollo 11’s crew returns home. (July 24)

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History vs. Andrew Jackson – James Fester



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Andrew Jackson was both beloved and loathed during his presidency. In this imaginary courtroom, you get to be the jury, considering and weighing Jackson’s part in the spoils system, economic depression, and the Indian Removal Act, as well as his patriotism and the pressures of the presidency. James Fester explores how time shapes our relationship to controversial historical figures.

Lesson by James Fester, animation by Brett Underhill.

المترجم: Shehab El-Hariry
المدقّق: Anwar Dafa-Alla هل هو بطل قومي ؟
أم عدو الدولة الأول ؟ الرموز التاريخية كثيراً ما تكون مثيرة للجدل . و لكن قليل منهم فقط كان محبوباً أو مكروهاً . أثناء حياتهم. بنفس قدر الرئيس السابع للولايات المتحدة الأمريكية هذا هو "التاريخ ضد أندرو جاكسون " "أرجو التزام النظام ، مم….. ماذا كنا .. نعم سيد جاكسون !" أنت متهم بإهانة منصب الرئاسة . بالتسبب في إنهيار اقتصادي . و القسوة المفرطة ضد الهنود الأمريكيين . كيف تريد ان تدافع عن نفسك ؟" "أيها الرئيس ،أنا لست محامٍ من المدن الكبرى و لكني أعلم بعض الأشياء. ما أعرفه أن الرئيس "جاكسون" كان رجل عصامي . جنرال عظيم . رجل مسانداً للناس دائماً." "سيادة القاضي هذا الرجل كان مقامراً " سكيراً و عنيفاً لقد عُرف عنه إنه كان يقاتل لأي سبب مهما كان تافهاً. انني أسألك هل كان يستحق رجل مثل هذا، المنصب الأكثر تميزاً في الأمة ؟ هل نستطيع ان ننسي كارثة تنصيبه ؟ هل تصدق أنه دعى مجموعة من السكارى الى البيت الأبيض ؟ لقد أخذ الأمر طويلاً ، حتي أمكن تنظيف الاثار "هؤلاء السكارى يا سيدي هم الشعب الأمريكي . و هم يستحقون أن يحتفلوا بنصرهم ." "ألتزموا النظام ! هل كان يوجد فطائر بهذه الاحتفالية ؟" "حسناً يا سيد جاكسون ، هل هو صحيح انه عند إستلام مهام الرئاسة بدأت بتنفيذ "نظام الغنائم "، بإستبدال مئات من الموظفين الجيديين بمجموعة من غير الأكفاء من الموالين للحزب ؟" "لم يفعل الرئيس أي شيء كهذا يا سيادة القاضي لقد كان يحاول إضفاء التغيير علي محل العمل لتجنب أي تربح أو أي شيء من هذا القبيل لقد كان بقية الحزب هم من أصروا علي إعطاء هذه المناصب لمعارفهم." " لكن سيد جاكسون قد وافق أليس كذلك ؟" "الان…. انك لا تر..ى. " " لننتقل لموضوع اخر ألم تساعد يا سيد جاكسون علي التسبب في الذعر المالي عام 1837 والكساد الاقتصادي الذي أعقبه عن طريق حربك المهووسة علي بنك الولايات المتحدة ؟ ألم يكن الإعتراض علي تغيير سياساته كما فعلت علم 1832 كان تصرف غير مسئول و كان ليس له أي فائدة اقتصادية ؟ أو منطق ؟" " أيها القاضي ، هذا الرجل لديه خيال خصب جداً. لقد كان هذا البنك وسيلة للأغنياء ليصبحوا أكثر ثراءً وسبب كل هذا الذعر المالي هو رفع البنوك الانجليزية لنسب الفوائد و الحد من الإقراض إلقاء اللوم على الرئيس في ذلك هو مناف للعقل في رأيي." "و لكن اذا لم يقم السيد جاكسون بتدمير البنك القومي، لكان باستطاعة البنك اقراض الفلاحين و رجال الأعمل الذين جفت أرصدتهم الأخرى ، أليس كذلك ؟" "مم.. كل هذا مجرد توقع لشيء لم يكن سيحدث بالضرورة. هل ننتقل الي موضوع اخر ؟" "بالتأكيد، يا سيادة القاضي و الان نصل لأكثر اتهامات اليسد جاكسون فظاعة ً : طرد قبائل بأكملها من أرضهم الأصلية عن طريق قانون "ازالة الهنود ". "انني أبغض هذا الاتهام، يا سيدي لقد اشترت الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية الأرض من الهنود بعدل و شفافية." " هل تسمي الإكراه والتهديد لأمة من خلال جيش أكثر منها قوة عدلاً و شفافية ؟ او التوقيع علي اتفاقية لإزالة " قبيلة الشيروكي" مع مجموعة صغيرة منهم ، لم تشمل القادة الحقيقيين للقبيلة ؟ لم يكن لديهم الوقت الكافي لكي يستعدوا بشكل جيد قبل أن يأتي الجيش و يقوم باجبارهم علي سلك "طريق الدموع "." " الان ، انتظر لحظة لقد كان "فان بورن " من فعل ذلك بعد ان ترك الرئيس جاكسون مكتب الرئاسة." " لكن السيد جاكسون هو من وضع حجر الأساس لهذا و حرص ان يتم تصديق علي هذه الإتفاقية . كل ما فعله "فان بورن " بعد ذلك هو تطبيقها." " يا سيادة القاضي حكوماتنا كانت تشتري الأراضي الهندية منذ البداية، لقد كان موكلي يتفاوض لإتمام هذه الصفقات قبل حتي ان يصبح رئيساً. لقد كان يعتقد الرئيس جاكسون أن الأفضل للهنود كان ان يتم تعويضهم مادياً في مقابل أرضهم و الإنتقال الي الغرب، حيث المكان الواسع الذي يمكن ان يستخدموه للحياة بالأسلوب الذي كانوا يعتادوه، أفضل من البقاء هنا و التنازع المستمر مع المواطنين البيض. بعض من هؤلاء ، لتذكير المحكمة، كانوا يريدون القضاء عليهم في الحال. لقد كان وقت مختلف." "و مع ذلك ، حتى في هذا الوقت المختلف، بعض النواب في الكونجرس و حتى في المحكمة العليا رأوا كيف كان قانون الازالة خاطئاً وإعترضوا عليه جهراً، ألم يفعلوا ذلك ؟" " لقد كان موكلي تحت ضغط كبير جداً. هل تعتقد انه من السهولة إدارة بلد مثل هذا البلد العظيم و المحافظة علي الإتحاد قائماً، عندما كانت بعض الولايات تعمل لابطال قوانين فدرالية ؟ لقد استطاع الرئيس جاكسون بصعوبة إقناع "جنوب كارولينا " بالرجوع عن تلك التعريفات الجمركية و عندئذ بدأ اكتشاف الذهب في "جورجيا " و بدأ الإستيلاء علي أراضي الشيروكي. لقد كان أما ان ينتقل الهنود من الأرض أو يدخُل الرئيس في صراع جديد مع حكومة الولاية." " اذاً ، انت تعترف أن السيد جاكسون ضحى ببعض المباديء الأخلاقية للوصول إلى بعض المكاسب السياسية؟" " اذكر لي قائد اً واحداً لم يفعل ذلك." مع تغير المجتمعات و تطور الأخلاق، بطل الأمس قد يصبح شرير الغد و العكس بالعكس التاريخ يمر ، و لكن فهمنا له يتغير باستمرار

The psychology of self-motivation | Scott Geller | TEDxVirginiaTech



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Scott Geller is Alumni Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech and Director of the Center for Applied Behavior Systems in the Department of Psychology. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and the World Academy of Productivity and Quality. He has written numerous articles and books, including When No One’s Watching: Living and Leading Self-motivation. Scott will examine how we can become self-motivated in “The Psychology of Self-Motivation.”

In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

المترجم: Mostafa ٍSeif
المدقّق: Hussain Laghabi شكرا ، شكرا لكم إلى ما وراء الحدود. يا لها من فكرة ، صحيح ؟ وعندما أفكر فى الحدود ، أفكر فى القواعد والقوانين والقيود وأفكر فى الآباء والمعلمين والمشرفين ، الذين يحاسبوننا
وفقا لتلك الحدود. وهذا ليس بأمر سيئ ، فإن كنتم مثلى فأنا أحتاج مشرفين ، أحتاج إلى أحد يحاسبنى لأقوم بالأمر الصحيح. لكن ما وراء الحدود هو شئ مختلف. أفكر فى هؤلاء القادة وأولئك المعلمين
وأولئك المشرفين وأولئك الآباء ، الذين يلهموننا للمضي وراء نداء الواجب لعمل أكثر مما هو لازم علينا ، لعمل الأمور ليس لأنهم يأمروننا
ــ بل لأننا نريد ذلك. أود أن أشارككم ما يوضحه البحث عن كيفية حدوث ذلك ، وليس فقط للناس بل لنفسك أيضا. ها هى الفكرة : كيف يمكننا إلهام الناس
وأنفسنا لنكون متحمسين ذاتيا ؟ وبتعبير آخر يسمى الأمر : "التمكين". سمعت هذه الكلمة
من قبل ، صحيح ؟ حسنا ، التعبير الإدارى للتمكين هو : " قم بالعمل ، فقط قم به. باستخدام مصادر قليلة وفى وقت أقل ،
أمكّنك أن تنتهي من الأمر " أنا أتحدث عن إحساس أنك متمكن ، هذا أمر مختلف. إحساس التمكن يحدث عندما
تكون متحمس ذاتيا. والآن ، إذا أردت أن تعرف
إن كنت تشعر بالتمكن ، أو طفلك أو تلميذك أو موظفك يشعر بذلك ، اسألهم ثلاثة أسئلة. وإذا أجابوا بنعم لهذه الثلاثة
الأسئلة فسيشعروا بالتمكن. وبالمناسبة ، هذا ليس مبنيا على المنطق السليم
ــ بل مبني على الأبحاث. ولكنكم قد خضتم مثل هذه التجارب ؛
لذلك ستشعرون أنها مبنية على المنطق. السؤال الأول : هل تستطيع فعلها ؟
( ألبرت باندورا) يسميها الكفاءة الذاتية. هل تؤمن أنك قادر على فعلها ؟ هل تمتلك الوقت الكافى
والمعرفة والتدريب ، لفعل ما نطلب منك فعله ؟ إذا أجبت بنعم فذلك جيد. السؤال الثانى : هل سيجدي هذا نفعًا؟ هل تؤمن بأن ما نطلب منك
فعله – أى العملية – ستجدي ؟ (ألبرت باندورا) يسمى ذلك استجابة فعالية. وهى الإيمان بأن السلوك
سيؤدى إلى أقصى حصيلة. بالمناسبة ، ذلك يتطلب تعليما. علينا أن نريهم البيانات ،
وقد نريهم بعضا من النظرية نحن نريهم ونعلمهم لم هذا قد يعمل. لقد استخدمت للتو كلمة " تعليم " ،
ومنذ قليل استخدمت كلمة " تدريب" هل يوجد اختلاف بين الاثنين ؟ فى المدرسة الابتدائية نسميها تعليما ، فى الاعدادية أيضا تعليم ،
وفى الثانوية تعليم وفى الجامعة نسميها تعليم عاليا؟(ضحك) ثم عندما تذهب للعمل
بعد ذلك ماذا تسميها ؟ تدريب. لديك قسم للتدريب
ــ لابد من وجود فرق. حسنا أنتم تعلمون الفرق ، تريدون أولادكم أن يتلقوا
جنسيا أم تدريبا ؟ (ضحك) وقد يجيب أولادكم عن السؤال بإجابة مختلفة. (ضحك) لأنكم تعلمون أن التدريب يعنى
أنك تفعل العمل وتحصل على نتائج. هذا أمر قوى ، بالفعل قوي. هل سمعتم عن هذه الكلمة
من قبل " تدريب على الإنترنت " ؟ إنه تناقض ، صحيح ؟ التدريب يعنى أنك تحضر العمل. لكن تدريب الإنترنت يعتبر
مثل أدوات الطعام البلاستيكية مع جمبرى كبير ومستند قضائى
والموسيقى الشعبية ! (ضحك) أقصد ، لا يمكن لهذا أن يعمل. حسنا ، إن كانت إجابتك على السؤال
نعم ، فإن الأمر سيعمل. السؤال الثالث : هل الأمر يستحق ؟ إذن نحن تناولنا سؤالا تدريبىا
وسؤالا تعليميا ، والآن هذا هوالسؤال الحماسى : هل تؤمن بالنتائج ،
فهذا الأمر متعلق بالنتائج. (ب. ف. سكنر) علمنا هذا :
" الاختيار بناءا على النتائج" اقتبس (ديل كارنيجى )
من (ب ف سكنر) وقال : "إنك منذ اليوم الذى ولدت فيه ، كل شئ فعلته فعلته لأنك
أردت نتيجة لذلك الفعل" النتائج ؛ هل الأمر يستحق ؟ إذن عليك أن تقنع الناس أن الأمر يستحق. والآن بالمناسبة ، إن كانت إجابتك
لتلك الثلاثة الأسئلة هى نعم ، فأنت تشعر بأنك كفء ، أليس كذلك ؟ تشعر بأنك كفء للقيام بعمل هام. لقد خضتم جميعا ذلك الشعور. وعندما تشعر أنك كفء عند قيامك بعمل هام ، تصبح فرصة تحمسك ذاتيا أعلى. لقد جربتم ذلك .
لا توجد حاجة أن يشرف عليك أحد. ها هو التحدي لكم
أيها القادة والمعلمون : كيف يمكنكم أن تلهموا الناس
ليشعروا أنهم أكفاء؟ عن طريق إعطائهم نصائح وتعليقات
و تقديرًا. فتظهرون لهم أنهم أكفاء. حسنا ، لدى كلمة أخرى تبدأ
بحرف الـ C : الاختيار منطقك السليم سيخبرك. عندما تؤمن بأن لديك إحساس من الاستقلال ، إحساس بالقدرة على اختيار ما تفعل
فتشعر أنك متحمس ذاتيا أكثر. علمنا (ب ف سكنر) ذلك أيضا فى كتابه :
" ما وراء الحرية والكرامة " و بالعودة لعام 1971. فإن قراءة ذلك الكتاب غيرت حياتى ؛ لأننى أدركت أننى مقيد بالعواقب. لكن أحيانا لا أشعر أننى مقيد بشئ. فعندما أعمل من أجل نتيجة سارة ، أشعر شعورا جيدا ، أشعر
وكأننى أعمل للحصول على شئ. ولكن عندما أعمل
لأتجنب عاقبة سيئة ، أشعر أننى مقيد. يسمى ذلك التعزيز السلبى. إذن ها هو التحدى لكم أيها القادة : كيف يمكننا أن نحث الناس
على أن يكونوا سعاة للنجاح بدلا من أن يكونوا متجنبين للفشل ؟ فى أول يوم بالكورس التمهيدى لعلم النفس ، – فأنا أدرس لفصلين بهما ستمائة طالب ربما البعض منكم يكون
قد حضر ذلك الدرس ويتذكر – أقول فى أول يوم :
"كم منكم يجلس هنا ليتجنب الفشل ؟" فيرفع ثمانون بالمائة من الموجودين أيديهم. ثم أقول لهم :"حسنا شكرا لمجيئكم ،
فأنا أعلم أنكم متحمسون ، لكنكم لستم هنا عن اقتناع. فغالبا أخبرتم أصدقائكم : " علىي الذهاب للمحاضرة فأنا ملزم بذلك " وليس : "لدى القدرة على الذهاب
للمحاضرة، إنها فرصة ! " فغالبا استيقظتم على منبه إنذار
وليس منبه فرصة. (ضحك) فالامر كله متعلق برؤيتك
حقا ، رؤيتك للأمر. إنه نموذجك. إنه طريقة تواصلك مع الآخرين ،
وتواصلك مع نفسك. قالت (إلين لانجر) فى كتابها "اليقظة" : – ويعلم علماء النفس ذلك – " عندما تعى قيمة الاختيار
تلمس التحمس " تكون متحمسا. إذن فالفكرة تتلخص فى هدوءك ،
وتفكيرك مليا من أجل مصلحتك. فكن يقظا للاختيارات المتاحة لديك. وتحدث عن كونك ساعيا للنجاح
ــ بدلا من أن تكون متجنبا للفشل. فالأمر كله يتعلق بطريقة كلامك
وتواصلك مع نفسك وغيرك. لدى كلمة رابعة تبدأ
بحرف الـ C : مجتمع. كلمة قوية. يعلم علماء النفس أن الدعم الاجتماعى حاسم. فالناس الذين يدركون معنى الترابط ومعنى الارتباط بأناس آخرين ،
يشعرون بالحماس ويكونون أسعد. أريد أن ألقى قصيدة ، تسمى "سارق الكعكة"
لــ(فالارى كوكس). وأثناء إلقائى هذه القصيدة ، يوجد بها شخصيتان فقط :
رجل و امرأة. ضعوا أنفسكم فى موقفهما. كونوا يقظين وفكروا فى الموقف ،
وفى ماذا كنتم لتفعلوا. اتفقنا ؟ هيا بنا : فى ليلة ما ، كانت سيدة تنتظر بمطار رحلتها لعدة ساعات طوال. فحصلت على كتاب من محل في المطار. واشترت كيسا ممتلئا بالكعك ،
ثم وجدت مكانا للجلوس. كانت مندمجة فى كتابها ،
إلا أنها رأت رجلا بجانبها ،
وبكل جرأة يمتلكها أخذ كعكة أو اثنتين من الكيس بينهما. فحاولت تجاهله لتتجنب غضبها. فاستكملت القراءة ومضغت الكعك وراقبت الساعة بينما سارق الكعكة
يقلل مخزونها من الكعك. كانت تزداد غضبا كلما مرت الدقائق. مفكرةً : "لو لم أكن مهذبة
للكمت عينه " ومع كل كعكة أخذتها ،
أخذ واحدة أيضا. وعندما تبقت واحدة فقط ،
تساءلت عما سيفعل. وبابتسامة على وجهه ،
وضحكة متوترة أخذ الكعكة الأخيرة ،
وبالنصف قسمها (ضحك) وأعطاها أحد النصفين أثناء أكل النصف الآخر. فانتزعته منه وفكرت :
" عجبا ! ، هذا الرجل جرئ ،
ووقح أيضا ، فلم يظهر حتى أى عرفان بالجميل " لم تشعر بمثل ذلك الغضب من قبل. وشعرت بالراحة حينما رأت نداء طائرتها. فجمعت حاجتها وتوجهت للبوابة. رافضةً النظر للخلف :
إلى السارق ناكر الجميل. صعدت الطائرة وجلست بمقعدها. ثم بحثت فى الحقيبة عن كتابها
الذى قاربت إنهاءه وأثناء بحثها فى حاجتها ،
ذهلت من المفاجأة ، فقد رأت أمام عينيها كيس كعكاتها. (ضحك) " إن كان كيسى أنا هنا.."
قالت متألمةً ، "إذن الكعكات الأخرى كانت
ملكه وكان يشاركنى " "لا يمكننى الاعتذار الآن "
لقد أدركت بحزن ، أنها هى التى كانت وقحة
والناكرة للجميل والسارقة. أذن ، أين كنتم من كلامى ؟ أين كنتم ؟ أى جانب اخترتم ؟ هل كنتم تفكرون باستقلالية ؟
أم بترابط ؟ أنا لا ألومكم إن كنتم تفكرون باستقلالية ؛ فلقد تربينا على ذلك. على أن المتعاونين متأخرين ،وأن الاهتمام
ينصب على الأنانيين ذوي المشاكل وعلى أن نذيع إنجازاتنا الشخصية وحسب ، على الاستقلال. نولد فى الحياة لنجد أنفسنا
معتمدين على غيرنا ، ثم نتشوق جدا لأن نصبح مراهقين. وعندها نصبح أكبر من أن نلعب مثل الأطفال ،
وأصغر من أن نفعل ما يفعله الكبار. ؛ لذا سنفعل ما لا يفعله أحد آخر
حتى نؤكد استقلاليتنا. والبعض منا يعلق فى ذلك التفكير ،
فنعلق بعمق فيه. سأنجز أنا أمورى ، لا أحتاجك. ذلك ليس جيدا. فنحن نحتاج بعضنا البعض ،
يجب أن نساند بعضنا. نحتاج لمعنى المجتمع. ثقافة الاستقلالية تلك التى لدينا
علينا أن نتجاوزها إلى الترابط. حسنا إذن ، أربع كلمات تبدأ بحرف الـ C
تستطيع إشعال الحماس الذاتى وأظن أنها قادرة على تفعيل
الاهتمام بين الناس أيضا. دعونى أخبركم بقصة ،
لألخص الأمر كله معا. لقد حدثت منذ أكثر من ستين سنة ،
أنا أتذكر الأمر وكأنه البارحة. سألنى والداى : " يا سكوت ، ..ما رأيك لو أخذت دروسا فى لعب الطبول ؟
هل تحب أن تلعب الطبول ؟ " يا للعجب ! حقا ؟ أخذت أفكر فى (بادي ريتش)
و (جين كروبا) معظمكم لا يعرف تلك الأسماء ،
لكنهم كانوا لاعبي الطبول. فى تلك الأيام ، كانت الطبول
توضع فى مقدمة الفرقة. كان لديهم طبول ماركة وايت بيرل ،
ورأيت نفسى فى ذلك ، فكانت تلك رؤيتى. فكان لى رؤية تخيلت فيها النتائج ،
وكانت هذه رؤيتى. ثم قلت : "نعم أريد أخذ
دروس فى لعب الطبول" فكان المدرس يحضر
معدات طبوله بجانب طبولى ، ولم يكن لدى طبلا جيدا مثل هذا. فقد اشترى لى والداى
طبلا متواضعا من مزاد علنى. وقالا لى : " إن تحسن مستواك ،
إن أخبرنا مدرسك أنك تتحسن ، – فهم بذلك يحاسبوننى – إن أخبرنا المدرس أن مستواك يتحسن ،
فسنشترى لك طبول أفضل من نوع آخر. ثم طبول من نوع آخر ثم آخر
لتكمل المجموعة " وكانت هذه رؤيتى ،
وكانت دافعا لى لأعمل : النتائج. وكان المدرس يدخل ويرينى. هكذا تلعب ، باليد اليسرى. هكذا كان يلعب (بادى ريتش)
بيده اليسرى ويده اليمنى. ثم كان يرينى حركات ، مثل حركة
تسمى Flam (طبل) هل يمكنك سماع ذلك بالخلف ؟
جيد ؟ وهذه تسمى Rimshot (طبل) كان يرينى حركات ، كنت فقط
فى العاشرة من عمرى ، تذكرون ؟ وعندما أرانى حركات ،
شعرت بالانذهال. أرانى تلك التطبيلة البسيطة فيقول:
"شاهدنى يا سكوت شاهد هذا" (طبل) وتدربت عليها وفعلتها ،
كنت أشعر أننى كفء. أرانى حركة paradiddle فقال :
" اسمع .. paradiddle .. paradiddle " ويقول: "اذهب إلى المنزل وتدرب. وفى
الأسبوع المقبل أريد أن أراك تفعلها" فقلت : " شاهد هذا " (طبل) ثم قلت : " شاهد هذا " (طبل) فقال : " تلك حركة double paradiddle ،
نحن لم نتدرب عليها بعد ! " كنت حقا متقدما ؛
لأننى كنت متحمسا ذاتيا. فأنا أشعر أننى كفء. كنت أسير فى مدرسة نيو بيرج الثانوية
بألين تاون – بنسيلفينيا فأرى مدرس الموسيقى وهو يقول : " سمعت أنك تتعلم لعب الطبول " فقلت :" نعم ! فإن مستواى يرتفع " فقال : " يمكنك الانضمام للفرقة ،
يمكنك أن تكون واحدا من الطبالين " يا للعجب ! كان شعورا جيدا ،
فهى رؤية أخرى. ثم يأتى المدرس ، – وكانت دروسا خصوصية بالمناسبة ،
بدولارين ، كان ذلك منذ زمن طويل – ويقول : " يا سكوت ، جاهز
لتأدية حركة Drum Roll ؟ " فأقول : " بالطبع أنا جاهز لذلك " ثم يقول : " شاهد هذا يا سكوت !
هيا بنا ، شاهد هذا " (طبل) فأفكر قليلا ، وأقول " هل يمكنك
أن ترينى ذلك مرة أخرى ؟ " -" يا سكوت ، إن الأمر سهل ، شاهدنى " (طبل) " والآن أريدك أن تتدرب وفى الأسبوع
القادم أريد أن أراك تفعل ذلك" فيعود الأسبوع القادم ويقول
"ما أخبار حركة الـ Drum Roll؟" فأتردد وأقول:" أستطيع فعل حركة paradiddle" فيقول : " هذا انحسار فى مستواك.
فأنا أريد رؤية حركة Drum Roll " مر أسبوع وراء أسبوع ،
الآن نحن نتحدث عن القلق. نحن الآن نتحدث عن اللامبالاة. نحن الآن نتحدث
عن العجز المكتسب. هكذا يسميها علماء النفس. أتذكر مشيي في
المدرسة الابتدائية ، ورؤيتى مدرس الموسيقى الذى قال : " إذن يا سكوت ، كيف حالك ؟
وكيف حال التطبيل ؟ " – " ليس جيدا ، فـأنا لا أجيد
حركة Drum Roll " فقال مثلما يفعل الكبار :
" لا تقل أنك لا تستطيع ، .. فأنت تستطيع أن تكون
أى شئ تريده يا سكوت " – "لا ، فأنا لا أستطيع
عمل Drum Roll. قد حاولت وحاولت ،
وقد استسلمت نوعا ما " فيقول : "يا سكوت ، عندما تشعر
أن الحركة مربكة ، قطّعها. قطعها ، هل تفعل حركة paradiddle ؟ " – " نعم ! " (طبل) -"حسنا ما هو الإيقاع الثانى ؟"
-"قرعتان" (طبل) – " نعم ، تلك هى الـ Drum Roll
يا سكوت جيلر ، فهى مكونة من قرعتين. (طبل) ..فلتذهب إلى المنزل وتتدرب
وتقول : " بابا وماما " – تذكروا كنت فى العاشرة – " فلتقل بابا وماما .. بابا وماما… (طبل) إنها حركة الـ Drum Roll ! عاد مدرسى الأسبوع المقبل ليقول : " حسنا يا سكوت ، أعتقد أنك
لا تستطيع فعل Drum Roll " فقلت : " شاهد هذا " (طبل) فقال : " عجبا ! كيف تعلمت فعل ذلك ؟ " فأريت مدرسى. (طبل) لقد علمت مدرسى
فى سن العاشرة. قال : " لقد نسيت ،
لقد اعتدت على أن أفعل ذلك فقط " (طبل) " لقد نسيت أنها قرعتان " " لقد علمتنى كيف أدرس
الـ Drum Roll يا سكوت " يوجد درس هنا ، نحن نستطيع دائما
أن نتعلم من بعضنا البعض. نحتاج أن يكون لدينا
التواضع لنتقبل ردود الأفعال ، والشجاعة لنتكلم بصراحة. ونحتاج إلى مساعدة بعضنا
على الوصول للتحمس الذاتى. كيف ؟ أعطهم إدراك الكفاءة ،
علمهم أن 'النتائج تقودنا'. دعهم يدركون قيمة الاختيار ،
واتركهم يعرفوا مجتمعهم. فنحن فى تلك التجربة معا ،
ونحتاج إلى بعضنا البعض. شكرا لكم. (تصفيق)

Historical welcome of Imran Khan in America. Pakistani Politics.



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A very much historical welcome of imran Khan in Washington USA.
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Niagara: A History of The Falls (Documentary)



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one of nature's great wonders spectacular Lawson mysterious see it now as the first Explorer saw it meet the Mystics and Mavericks who people its history share the grand deeds and strange visions that helped shape the New World surrender to the beauty charm a captivating carnival Niagara a history of the Falls it's not just a spectacle it's the feelings that arouses the Falls plunging a hundred and seventy feet evoke a freefall of emotions from rapture to recklessness it's sounded fury spilled into a mile where the imagination runs wild the rivers raw passion is a grand cast of characters schemers and dreamers adventurous hoods and Daredevils none more improbable than Annie Edson Taylor a dance teacher widowed in the Civil War she drifts from city to city into old age in 1901 she arrives in Niagara broke and desperate [Applause] one looked at the Falls and Annie has the answer she'll be the very first person to attempt to go over in a barrel she hires a manager telling him she's 42 in truth she's 63 but anxious to be taken seriously anxious to make a bit of money better still a barrelful she designed the barrel herself had it made by a carpenter friend leak-proof she had a little cushion inside she had a hundred pound animal on the bottom so it wouldn't roll as she plans the improbable other celebrity seekers have the spotlight Carlisle Graham rides a cigar-shaped barrel through the Whirlpool Rapids barely surviving he lends his barrel to a lady friend a vaudeville entertainer and too much acclaim she too rides the rapids on hearing this the matronly annie retorts I do not wish to be classified with women who are seeking notoriety I am NOT of the common daredevil sword on Annie's launch day at a spot a mile and a half above the falls she poses elegantly dressed telling the waiting crowd I have no fear then she ordered them to turn their backs while she strips down to her undergarments it's a tight fit in the hundred and sixty pound wooden barrel and when Annie complains that the barrel is already leaking her oarsmen tells her the water will help keep you awake we are going to cast off now goodbye I will not say goodbye au revoir climbs into the barrel he's hammered the thing down she knocks a couple of times and off she goes I suppose it would be at least half a mile through the rapids knocking against the rocks bumping up and down and over she had no idea we know she didn't know what she was gonna reach the edge of the falls finding the barrel reached the lip of the falls how most over drops a hundred and sixty feet and goes right below the surface of the water right to the bottom and it comes right back up shoots up like a rocket buffering for Annie just an inch and a half of oak and two cushions lay between Annie and eternity she feels the angry river as a living thing fighting for its prey luckily her barrel alights on some rocks and ashore people shout to each other she's alive barely conscious gash bleeding Annie says I'm cold I want to go home but she has no home for years she becomes a familiar sidewalk vendor offering to tell fortunes her manager leaves her stealing her barrel she Sue's him and gets it back she lives like this another 20 years until aged 83 dying penniless but not forgotten a woman who did what no man had dared after a knee many others try going over the falls few succeed so few that William Red Hill makes a steady living pulling people from the river dead or alive a local legend he's known as red the river man he studies the rivers every move he was always throwing things deliver to watch the currents which way they went and so he had a wonderful a wonderful concept of the river and how it worked and how the currents work to know where these things were sucked under and that's why he was able to save so many lives during combat in World War one his lungs are damaged in a gas attack yet back in Niagara he keeps risking his life to save others from the river winning four medals despite the rivers toll having personally fished out a hundred and seventy seven bodies in 1928 Red Hill is gripped with daredevil fever himself he regards going over the falls as suicidal but in a steel barrel he figures he can ride the rapids all the way and not be crushed in the borough pool it all works except that the cost of filming his deed is more than he makes wiser if no richer read declares he'll never again fight the river he takes his barrel and like the luckless Annie tries the tourist business but the river has taken its toll on the river man he dies at 54 leaving his sons and their sons to carry on the bizarre family business my dad took 177 bodies out of the river up to the time does death 1942 many a times he'd get up in the middle of the night my mother's say read where he goes is something happening going down along the river and he's sure enough there might be a bunch of ducks come over the Falls it might be a dog swimming down there from over the Falls went over the cliff might be a body there sometimes a break Lucy good I don't find the wreckage of a boat so I fear from 1942 to bolt now I've taken close to 400 bodies out or helped take 400 body air so it came up from my grandfather to my dad to my three brothers to myself and now my son's do a lot of it although we don't do too much now because we've trained the negative parts police and the fire department have a fully trained squad now an unconquered believer but sometimes forgiving in 1960 Roger Woodward is seven his sister Deanne 17 on the day a family friend brings them from Niagara New York for a boat ride on the river I remember looking at these people that were anchored and they were looking at us as we were going by and we were in a festive spirit and we're waving at them and we're having a good time and they're just staring at us as we're going by and I can only imagine today what they must have been thinking as they saw these people going by and their little boat headed downriver towards towards Niagara Falls suddenly called in a fast current their small motor boat hits a large way and I was trying to get to the boat and then Jim had a hold of me for a moment and we were being pulled through the rapids and then very quickly we were separated I saw Jim just we were torn apart the one adult Jim Honeycutt would drown the two children are swept apart by the force of the river each not knowing if the other survives every time I would come up I would look for Roger I give out of Yale and it was like as if I was just out there all by myself there was nobody around I can't what now wait a minute where is everybody going through the rapids was probably the most horrifying frightening part of this this whole accident you're underwater the next minute you're being thrown high into the air and then you're coming down into a crevasse that is just nothing but granite rock I started motivating myself I stopped going down and stopped you know playing around in the waters what it would look like I stopped fighting the water and I started making my mark that I was going straight I could see people running up and down the shoreline and I'm screaming for help and I'm wanting people to come out literally come out into the water and rescue me like I didn't yell help me I was just I just kept looking at them because I was going by just as fast as they were looking at me and it was then that I that I really understood that they couldn't help me and that this was so terrifying the only way that it was going to end was in my death literally your life does pass before you even as a seven-year-old child I remembered vividly thinking about our dog Fritz and thinking about my toys and what mom would do with all of my toys and how sad mom was going to be and how sad dad was going to be that I was going to die but all of a sudden there was a gentleman that yelled come to me kick girl kick you've got to kick come to me those words were said so strong and so demanding like you have got to do this and that's what I needed I needed someone to tell me what to do The Voice DN hears is a tourist who climbs over the safety rail and reaches out to her but when I got a hold of his hand I was never ever going to like that was it I was going to stay with him and because I knew I had finally touched land and I was I was going to be safe and I'm looking out over this vast void area and I can I can tell that it's way off in the distance and I'm coming up to something here but I don't know what it is I kept saying somebody has got to realize I have a brother you've got to get Roger you got to get my brother and then finally I remember hearing someone saying to me you need to say a prayer for him I was very disoriented I have no idea where up or down was I know for certain that was never unconscious because I can remember it just like we're sitting here but I couldn't see anything at this moment without knowing it seven-year-old Roger plunges over the falls the maid of the mist Barry is returning from the Horseshoe Falls when a passenger notices a small figure struggling in the water after several attempts roger is saved and rushed to the hospital on the Canadian side at age seven the day trippers longest day ends with instant celebrity status over the falls without a barrel bruised but game he and his sister Deann swept by the river toward the American side are reunited three days later it is four days after the accident before the body of their companion is found and now my family has been thrust into this limelight that goes along with the whole aura of Niagara Falls in the history behind the daredevil thing boy conquers Niagara Falls we didn't conquer anything we were victims of a tragic accident a man lost his life and my sister and I are are thankful that we live to be able to be here today to share this with his son Jonathan blending into the crowd at Table Rock Roger Woodward sees a moral in his extraordinary story and beyond all the clamor and all the change the Falls are a place of spiritual replenishment when I think of this accident and when I think of this story and its place in history to me and my children and the grandchildren that come after me I hope they will always remember me and my family that we stood for keeping the story in the proper context that it really was a miracle that day and it's priceless an extraordinary cast of characters people's niagra's history a history that helps shape North America and so the Falls themselves their mystery their spell seemed as timeless now as when the first explorers came three centuries ago Niagara a history of the Falls returns on the History Channel we now return to Niagara a history of the Falls the year is 1678 the moment historic known only to native Indians the Falls are a mythological place to the outside world the sound the distant Thunder of the Falls guides Franciscan monk and Explorer father Louis Hennepin he and his escort accept the dangers of the Uncharted forest driven by the excitement of this unfolding new world seeking to extend the borders of New France Hana paths expedition travels from the capital at Quebec along the st. Lawrence to 14 from tonight across Lake Ontario to Niagara River and into the unknown although a devout monk father hennepin is ambitious intent on glory whatever lies ahead he intends to get there first he was there to conquer the wilderness to convert the savages and he would have been very very conscious of the dangers of the place the wilderness was full of wild animals that were quite threatening wolves bears rattlesnakes the journey had been very hard traveling the Niagara River as far as it is navigable hana pass party proceeded on foot camping along the Niagara Gorge in an early bitter winter December 6 1678 father Hannah Pam makes his customary notes his eyewitness account is the first recorded sighting of the falls when one stands near the falls one is seized with all this advice we could not be old without a shadow Panna PHA is terrifying yet enthralled the legend the rumor of this mysterious place had reached even Europe he has proven the existence of the Falls perhaps to ensure attention hannah paz written account greatly exaggerated two great sheets are for and then it is that a boat fall although an equally into this fearful abyss with all the impetuosity that can be imagined in a fall six hundred feet high so he prays thankful for his discovery Hanan Pez Illustrated account is to bring him Fame and is believed despite the fact that it bears little resemblance to the reality hennepin had never thought of a waterfall like Niagara the Falls he knew about were in Switzerland and elsewhere and their shimmering ahthe lacy thin things that bounced off rocks he couldn't conceive of Falls not coming out of a set of mountains the most famous first engraving in the Falls shows mountains in the background there weren't any there were just great lakes that's all one of the most striking things about his account is how exaggerated it is it's full of adjectives which seem appropriate but when he goes to try to describe the fall which he seems to do in detail he says it's 500 feet tall and the later account says it's 600 feet tall when in fact it's about a hundred and seventy eight feet tall so a huge exaggeration what's striking about the reaction to that description is that it's picked up everywhere it's repeated and it really dominates the image of the Falls in the Western world for nearly a century two centuries are to pass before the origin of the Falls the great Ice Age is understood for two million years the ice advances retreats again and again finally in its wake creating the meltwater that becomes the Great Lakes the Niagara River is recent a mere 12,000 years old but the Niagara Escarpment is as old as the ice age layer upon layer of dollar stone and shale compacted under the shifting glaciers when the ice finally retreats this gorge becomes nature's channel for the four Great Lakes above it from these one-fifth of all the fresh water on the planet makes its way into the Niagara River and all this water rushes to a point where some 15,000 years after the last ice age erosion left the abrupt 20-story drop we call Niagara Falls yet it's not the height but the width of the falls from bank to bank 20 times as wide as they are high that amazes from the fury of the Falls comes the treacherous Rapids and permanent whirlpool a river whose turbulence expresses the new world imperceptibly the river keeps changing some 500 years ago near the brink of the Falls the silt and clay of an emerging lake bed created Goat Island forcing the river to divide one side of the island lies the tiny bridal veil falls as well as the broad sweep of the American Falls on the other side is the Canadian Horseshoe Falls three times as wide and a hundred and seventy feet high in the three centuries since father Hannah Pat first saw it the great waterfall has receded 1/3 of a mile upriver and a pair on seeing these dreadful bellowing waters voices the early European fear of raw nature a fear he assumes the native Indians must share the Indians believe that the mighty roar was symbolic of what was behind the falls that's where the Thunder beings lived and we both are associated power with that but I have a feeling that we had a closer association with this kind of power and then maybe the French or the English had so they were afraid of nature we understood the power of nature and were respectful of it in the century after Hennepin the Niagara region is the focus of numerous skirmishes and Wars by the late 18th century England has ceded its American colonies while seizing most of Upper Canada by that time the soldiers are de facto explorers trained to map and draw the landscape they produce many of the earliest and more accurate images of the Falls but perceived from afar the Falls remain the dark heart of a wild continent a place full of demons and fierce animals and even fiercer humans why was capturing the falls on canvas so important and we believe it was because of the the Christian white man's point of view of dominant South and land when the Bible says that man shall have dominion over the plants and animals one wage they expressed that was to capture it to redefine it to organize it so you can say oh yes I know what that is now I can understand that when I first worked at a Historical Museum it came across these old images there's always the Indian guide there and it's so funny because the way people stand in terror you know in fact I almost look like screaming afraid of this and then you just kind of stand and says well there's what you wanted to see here it is you know the Indians were so used to seeing it the old world colonialists could not conceive of a far older native history rich in knowledge of nature well they say about 10,000 years ago Indians moved into this part of the country we don't know for sure who those Indians were what kind of society to head the earliest ones had been identified or what they call the neutral Indians and they lived right along the escarpment right where nigra Falls would have been created in the beginning and they occupied the land till the 1600s and then when the Senecas took over 18th century Niagara draws Europe's gentlemen explorers in 1785 after travels through America to amateur adventurers trusting in ropes and inbred arrogance tackle the cliffside descent on the Canadian side one of them is a French diplomat Michel Guillaume san jaun de Creve Coeur with his companion named hunter the two men perilously descend 150 feet do crab car this was the height of our ambitious pursuit my friend Hunter was entirely spent I repented his coming for fear of some accident having crawled and clamored over broken rocks for almost two miles there to make a unique discovery though did Creve Coeur account of it would not be published until a hundred years later I have remarked that the waters run off or the Shelf of rocks that pend over in many places their base the great force with which they are precipitated gives them a horizontal direction so that at the bottom where we stood it left an opening between the water and the rocks braving the unceasing torrent that hammers like hail deprived herb becomes the first person on record to walk behind the Horseshoe Falls but has difficulty describing it other than to say he feels the presence of some Supreme Being as you read the eighteenth-century descriptions with all of their accurate cataloguing of the details of the scene often there's even a break in the prose and it reaches a point where suddenly they seem frustrated they can't describe it and it's the experience that they can't describe Thomas More Irish poet and composer 1804 it is impossible by pen or pencil to convey even a faint idea of the magnificence painting is lifeless and the most burning words of poetry have all been lavished on inferior and ordinary subjects we must have new combinations of language to describe the fault indeed a new concept enters the language to capture the contrasting gothic gloom and godly grandeur of Niagara the idea of the sublime this was an idea that was related to beauty but very distinct from it beauty was something that was accessible something that was nice the sublime was something that was Wilder it was bigger it was grander it always had something a little mysterious about it something a little terrifying and it's something that expanded the mind it wasn't comfortable but you were also a little bit afraid gazing into the falls is to have the same fascination aroused the same emotions for countless millions who will follow the falls are about to foster the age of tourism Niagara the history of the Falls continues on the History Channel we now return to Niagara a history of the Falls for the earliest explorers or the newest visitors it is the same here the awe and expectation in any language seeing Niagara Falls for the first time is Niagara summers bring 12 million tourists who bring a rapture unabating over three centuries said Wordsworth of the Falls and their throng here is the music of humanity though in the 1820s Niagara and tourism start out as a novelty for the favored few billed as the fashionable tour of the north the elite from the hot crowded southern cities could strut their status here and feel in every way cool with organized tourism and its trappings comes another novelty the guidebook its tone a Bible of behavior procure a copy of the pictorial guide to Niagara Falls and proceed at once to Terrapin point from which you have the best view of the Horseshoe Falls on the American side feast your eyes on the splendid scenery of riverbanks rapids and cascades the rapids of change just a few years earlier Niagara Falls is called Manchester a mill town not a spa a wilderness outpost which coming from the state capital of Albany took six days and much determination getting across the state was an obstacle course and you were going on these incredibly bad roads through Indian Territory it was an ordeal though the Falls straddled the new international border it's still Frontierland there for the taking the countryside is so wild that New York State readily sells off even the land adjacent to the falls but a few savvy settlers like American Augustus Porter foresee the potential well Augustus Porter first arrived in the site of the Falls as a surveyor Porter bought a lot of property it was cheap the main thing he did was buy gold Island well he was a strange mixture he was businessman and conservation rolled into one but he would not have called himself a conservationist that word didn't exist all he thought was nice-looking piece of land let's save it a brilliant buy a centerpiece Oasis that he keeps for decades charged with admission of course Niagara story is to become one of endless irony never what it appears as tip abide by William Forsythe William Forsythe was probably the first tourism promoter on the Niagara Frontier he had been a militiamen in the war of 1812 he was a convicted criminal he was a fairly disreputable person in 1822 he opens the Pavilion Hotel build says the disreputable Forsythe for noblemen and gentlemen of the highest rank it becomes the place to stay Forsythe was determined to keep tourists within his grip a sentiment others share soon a few rival promoters monopolize indeed own the view in 1825 with the building of the Erie Canal the tourist tide swells once the Erie Canal was built people came much more comfortably they were arrested and they expected a certain level of civilization the Falls can now be reached more easily and much more safely by horse-drawn barge but like the land the tourists are there for the taking they are delighted to find bridges ferries until finding there's a tariff on their every movement the romance of the Falls now attracts women travelers sophisticates like author Frances Trollope she happily pays to get soaked why is it so exquisite a pleasure to stand for hours drenched in spray stunned by the ceaseless roar trembling from the concussion that shakes the very rock you cling to and breathing painfully in the moist atmosphere and I almost think the greatest I ever enjoyed the grandeur by now masks a torrent of hucksters and swindlers and every kind of eyesore the 1833 Terrapin tower thrusting 45 feet above the Horseshoe Falls expresses Niagara never aesthetic but ever spectacular the poet Caroline Gilman rages against this gross edifice until she experiences its view descend in the tower I crossed to the extreme edge of terrapin bridge there lying down with my head over the fall I ceased to pray or even think I gave myself up to the overpowered greatness of the scene and my soul still now that the journey here had been tamed so were the deeper fears instead of horror the romanticists see harmony in these swirling mists imagination takes them to the brink tempting them to plunge in to embrace death the future author of Uncle Tom's Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe 1834 oh it is lovelier than it is great so veiled in beauty that we gaze without terror I felt as if I could have gone over with the waters it would have been so beautiful at death there would have been no fear in it people may be terrified about death but they're also very curious about it and it Niagara Falls many people stood at the brink of Niagara Falls and try to imagine what death would be like guidebooks of the time actually warn visitors how readily such dangerous impulses can arise it has frequently been remarked both by ladies and gentlemen while standing upon some kitty points they on the very brink of the Falls the great mind to jump do you think it would hurt me as a near-death experience enters the literature of the age there's all sorts of poems which talk about the brink of the falls as sort of the moment of death and then you plunge down and you're plunging out of this world into some other world and then you're plunging down into this abyss and this is an abyss which presumably kills you but then there's this rising mist and the mist is kind of like a resurrection and then there's this rainbow and the rainbow certainly and the traditional Christian is a sign of hope a sign of connection between heaven and earth even the master of realism Victorian novelist Charles Dickens spends ten days at Table Rock transfixed how to let go but now mid-century you didn't have to the invention of photography could preserve it all not least for posterity at favored spots point view on the American side or a choice of the American Falls or the Horseshoe Falls on the Canadian side the photo stalls gave value memory with artistry frame to declare I've been here it was almost as if visitors needed does have some certification that they had done Niagara Falls a couple of the attractions like the trip under the falls behind the Falls determination rot started issuing certificates that people had actually been there and her name was printed there and they were signed and they took them home and framed them and put them on their wall in a twist of fate the visitors become the saviors of local native Indians who are facing deportation by the US federal government in the 1830s the federal government wanted to remove all of the Indians out west they want to get rid of the tusks or as the Senecas and send us all out to Oklahoma so it was a very interesting time we had to try to prove that we could sustain ourselves Augustus Porter whose life the Tuscarora saved in the 1812 war against the British now in turn helped save them he allows them on his goat Island property saying I'm going to allow the Tusk roars and the Senecas who helped us to come down to my place which he owned all the property around macca Falls and you could sell your craft work there as a way to express my thanks so from that time from about 1830 on women were going down and selling crafts and it became very lucrative in another Niagara irony on land once there's the Tuscarora become a photo memento for the tourists the perfect souvenir embodying an aura of the wild suddenly Niagara seems all too civilized to cushy too busy the perfect place if only everyone else would stay away only goat island seems unspoiled it's 70 botanical acres forever nurtured by the midst of the Falls overnight it seems the visitors have a different concern instead of fear over personal safety fear that the place itself its purity its primitiveness is at risk and the Stampede here has hardly begun Niagara a history of the Falls continues on the History Channel we now return to Niagara a history of the Falls by mid 19th century the lure of Niagara brings the railroad it's deceptive for much of the countryside to the west and north remains rugged unsettled frontier land but the trains affordable transform the outpost of Niagara by 1845 as niagra's tourist trade doubles what's needed is a bridge across the gorge to make niagra's borders a shared Wonderland of all the engineering projects in America the most dynamic was the opportunity to build a bridge at Niagara Falls not just the upper classes everyone would want to ride godlike above the torrent not least it would herald the new world's ingenuity but could it be done by the late 1840s companies were formed on each side of the border and proposals were taken to span this gorge 800 feet wide the experts agree on a suspension bridge but could it take the weight of a train too eminent engineers compete with ideas the flamboyant Charles elet European trained winds out with a design that's lightweight and like cost a hundred and ninety thousand dollars he proposes a bridge inside of the rapids two and a half miles from the Falls he gets American Canadian backing but then his financiers fall out and the bridge is adapted for carriage use only John Augustus Roebling a somber cautious German immigrant now gets the assignment his revolutionary design a bridge held perfectly rigid by use of densely coiled wire cable but he seems to face huge odds it was a difficult time for suspension bridges they're beautiful but they were falling down they lost sexism in Europe the big Chain bridge was destroyed in a wind it swung in the wind like that because people didn't understand the principle roebling's feeling was that a bridge should be absolutely rigid you built on two levels top level for the railways and for the wheel traffic the bottom for pedestrians and in between a veritable nest of cables and wiring aerials Roebling who later designs the Brooklyn Bridge calculates that at 20 miles per hour the suspended weight of a train is double normal so for safety he quadruples the weight tolerance of his bridge he oversees every detail Roebling used an Egyptian revival architectural motif with large towers this conveyed permanence intelligence substantiality that was really needed to convince people that this bridge was going to be safe five years in the making roebling's mighty bridge costs a mere four hundred thousand dollars or as he puts it one tenth of what it would cost to build in Europe to fuel excitement the first train across extends the entire length of the bridge its passage so smooth the bro bling jubilantly notes no vibrations at all March 1855 the first railway suspension bridge in the world opens and ironically it instantly becomes a tourist attraction rivaling the Falls it was enormous it was fairly close to the Falls and it began to usurp the Falls the pictures of the bridge tended to show it huge looming across the photograph or the painting filling to space and there underneath it and behind it in this much smaller space was the waterfall itself it's quickly overwhelming 20 trains a day also Americans and Canadians can now walk into each other's country along the rail bridge as well there's the thrill of the new incline railway plunging into the gorge where the Maid of the Mist ferry awaits or you could arrive by steamer like Isabella Lucy bird she's unusual believing that a woman should be able to travel on her own given proper conditions English and snobbish she's a travel writer on her second visit in a year to the sublime Niagara of her memory she avoids the touristy Table Rock House Hotel with its spiral stairway and pell-mell crowds preferring the sedate white Clifton house but where is everyone she expects the packed Terrace the champagne parties of her previous day here she pronounces Niagara much changed cheaper but cheapened perhaps not to be recommended to Europeans some uncouth cabbies who fist fight for her trade tighten Lucy's doubts as she sets out for the sights mental blinkers in place instead of being allowed to sit quietly on Table Rock gazing upon the cataract the visitor is dragged a weary round he must see the Falls from the front from above and from below he must go behind them and be drenched by them he must descend spiral staircases at the risk of his limbs a whole collection of Mills disfigures the American and present falls even on the British side where one would have hoped for a better state of things there is a great fungus growth of museums Curiosity shops taverns and pagodas with shiny Tinku pillars instead of the old wilderness she finds a weird world of stuffed wildlife the incongruous collection from Egyptian mummies to stuffed Buffalo of Thomas Barnett he starts what's billed as America's first Museum Barnett obsessively ads and ads until he has 10,000 specimens maintaining them finally bankrupts him and the museum appalls Lucy refusing to be victimized by burning Springs museums prisoned Eagles and mangy buffaloes I walked down to the ferry and scrambling out to the rock farthest in the water and nearest to the cataract i sat down completely undisturbed in view of the mighty fall i sat there watching that see green curve the gates the sky till sunset and then the crimson rays just L upon the column spray above the Canadian turning it a most beautiful rose color as I start watching a complete oblivion of everything but the Falls themselves stolen finally lucy is content beyond the commercialism niagra's magic is there to be found as others are to prove one of these was Frederic Church a great landscape painter he had been to South America he'd been out west he he was trying to capture sublime American nature and Niagara Falls was the most challenging landscape site in the country so it was only natural perhaps that he wanted to paint it 18:56 church is only 30 a sixth-generation Connecticut Yankee very exact he closely follows the new science of geology and the new art of photography as the basis for his first sketches church faced the same challenges that all painters had faced at the Falls how to capture the magnificence and the scope of the scene and yet at the same time get close enough to it to really feel its power he actually places the viewer as if we're standing in the water itself and of course if we were there we'd be swept over the brink of the Falls but he brings us close enough to the foreground and we can see the water when we can feel the power it's almost as if we can feel the water itself Church in comparably captures the vast sweep of the Falls a canvas much wider than the convention of his time its first showing in New York City in 1857 attracts a hundred thousand people a century and a half later the great fall Niagara continues to be exhibited worldwide and throughout the United States its permanent home the Corcoran Gallery in Washington on its first showing the New York Times calls it a marvel of the Western world soon after shown in Europe The Critic spare no superlatives says the London art journal an achievement of the highest order after all I a guru the sublime would always exist in the genius of Frederick Church though once more Niagara is to veer from the sublime to the ridiculous Niagra the history of the Falls continues on the History Channel only the neon is new niagra's circus world the strip of cheap thrills and razzle dazzle on the Canadian side is tawdry but true to history here the heroes our old carnival caves like Blunden whose many death-defying tightrope stunts unfailingly rope in the crowds London is the circus name of Frenchman jaw Francois gravely in 1859 when he announces he'll string a rope over the gorge and walk across it it seems a hoax even so property owners charging admission cooperating and the Rope goes across a mile from the Falls between the Clifton House Hotel on the Canadian side and whites pleasure grounds on the American side it's a sellout the prospect of London's fall a spectacle greater than the Falls the Toronto Globe although the Sun was shining in his eyes he tripped forward and almost before the people were aware he had cleared the American land and nothing intervened between him and destruction but a two-inch rope London marched on at a lively pace his toes hardly appearing to touch the wire a web of 44 guy ropes support blonde ins 2,000 foot tightrope 160 feet above the boiling chasm the globe after walking out about a hundred and fifty feet he suddenly sank down on the rope an involuntary shudder passed through the crowd as he fearlessly threw himself face down on the cable several ladies give a petite scream well when he did it it was high carnival you know tens of thousands came to see this man kill himself most people were convinced that he was gonna fall off the bloody tightrope n' that'll be it crunch a reporter in the crowd records that when one onlooker asks another for the loan of his opera glasses he is told I've come from Detroit to see the man fall into the river do you think I will lose the chance of seeing it now by lending you my glasses even for an instant but Blunden never even stumbles he cavorts somersaults handstands each series of stunts mesmerizes the crowd he walked across without they truly tripped across he ran across he went across dressed as a Siberian slave in Chains he went across the breast in the gorilla suit there was nothing apparently he could not do an orphan at age nine he becomes a child prodigy on the high wire and now becomes the darling of America says the New York Times London's act is the greatest feat of the 19th century but now comes a challenger when Blondin returns the next year his first performance attracts a young Canadian william hunt who even sports blond ins familiar goatee he was at the Falls watching blonde and perform and he was listening to the audience cooing and lying and exclaiming how this man was just so extraordinary and nobody in the world could do this and shout it out loud I can do that and the reaction in the crowd of the people around him was disdain on their part and so he decided at that moment that he would give up everything and go to the Falls and take monmouth raised on a local farm the boy is a puzzle even to his parents they want him to be a doctor but he's smitten by the carnival of Niagara especially the wire walkers he begins practicing the tightrope after two years and many a tumble he's ready but nervous about disgracing the family's name one of the problems that William Hunt had when he first walked the wire in Port Hope was that he didn't want his parents to know that he was walking the wire he didn't want other people in the area to know because it was considered to be such a disreputable thing but also he wanted to present himself in a very different way so he looked in the newspaper and he found a story about someone by the name of Senor Farini it was a dashing figure in the Italian Wars at that time who was involved with Garibaldi so he changes his name William hunt becomes Senor Farini and he audaciously announces he'll match Blondin feet for feet and that was can that was really an effective piece of entrepreneurial showmanship because the idea of a contest between the two was what caught the public's imagination of course Blondin ignored hunt as he should he was the king so at 4 o'clock August 15th a band playing man stop playing and silence descended over the falls all you could hear was the sound of the Falls in the background and that's always the way that it is at a high wire walk people become extremely nervous because they actually feel that it's almost themself who's stepping out on the wire and they had a reason to be fearful when Ferrini was doing this because he actually hadn't been able to practice how do you practice walking on holography Eenie I caught pero because I love it he only got about 15 or 20 feet up when his balance ball became entangled in his guidelines so there he was his first performance Falls everybody very anxious in the balance pole is stuck in the guylines so he had to stop try to gather himself and very slowly stiffen the lower part of his body and move the balance pole over one Guilin and then all the other and then slowly he was able to make his way along the cable and this started to relax people a little bit and when he got about a hundred feet up he laid down on the cable and then got up again and went a little bit further and then he started doing various other tricks Farini is slower less graceful than Blondin and seems more at risk but for this the crowd loves him he collects $15,000 for an hour's work he jokes Farini embarked on the role that he was going to play that summer and it was the role of the iconoclast again he was going to make fun of the things that bond and did it gets crazier when Blondin announces he'll cook an omelet on the high wire Farini tops it by appearing as a comic washer woman Carrie and using a washing machine but they proceeded throughout the summer to have these various walks and you could you could go to the Falls in 1860 and you could catch farini and then you could go downstream and you could catch Blondin and occasionally they would they would walk at the same time over the summer Farini draws the larger crowds and draws the wrath of his father who calls the highwire hero a common circus performer and then it all reached a culmination in mid-september when for the first time in history the heir to the British throne in fact anybody from British royalty came to Canada and United States it was the Prince of Wales who was at the time 19 years old very dashing young individual very interested in the ladies very intrigued by things that would go on at a place like IRA Falls and things like high water walkers and the person he had been hearing most about was blond ensuring headlines Blondin makes an outrageous proposal he offers to carry on his back the Prince of Wales and when the Prince unhesitatingly declines Blondin instead carries his manager says the prince at the end thank god that's over so who won the winner was in the long term was blood and legacies the one we talked about there's no substitute for being first he did it when nobody knew anybody could do it blonde in later travels Europe bestowed with honors he lives to age 73 walking a tightrope to the end Farini two wins wide fame as an explorer and writer and lives till age 91 after Farini and Blondin many others follow in their daredevil footsteps none as famous but all the emphasis on human spectacle man above nature comes to trivialize and impoverished Niagara increasingly showbiz brings just the day trippers hotels begin emptying the hustling becomes more hectic the framework of the Falls one of squalor on the Canadian side little but cheap carnival on the American side a shantytown of factories a paper mill on Bath Island right next to go Tyler Moore mills and tanneries all along the gorge for almost two decades the Falls are a receding vision lost to the torrent of exploiters then in 1869 one man determines enough it's the fate of Goat Island rumored for development that brings frederick law olmsted America's foremost environmentalists of the time Co architect of New York Central Park then Commissioner of Yosemite Olmsted is to devote 15 years to a new cause to make the immediate area of the Falls public parkland a stern moralist Olmsted blames the frenzy of the Falls for arousing people's passions for homestead the waterfall itself simply aroused and passions beyond control and it was a dangerous influence and something he wanted to really sublimate in Agra more serene surroundings might cure such bad behavior Olmstead fights his Niagara crusade on both sides of the border Laura Dufferin Governor General of Canada becomes an early supporter and listed by the now celebrated artist Frederick church but finally it's the tycoons like Canada's Casimir zosky who surprised everyone his Task Force recommends government ownership as the only worthy policy so in that sense snagger Falls was protected by people are really far seeing and in a time when the idea of setting aside public land for non-commercial purposes was absolutely unknown July 15th 1885 the New York State reservation of Niagara opens alongside the gorge and record crowds enjoy every vantage point free many even many who've lived nearby all their lives are seeing the Falls for the first time almost three years later Canada's Riverside Queen Victoria Park opens at the local press proclaims that the age of exploitation is over prematurely as it turns out history of the Falls will return here on the History Channel we now return to Niagara a history of the Falls at Niagara Falls the equivalent of a million bathtubs of water empty every second to the power-hungry 19th century a chronic waste here enough power for every need evaporating one industrialists voices the frustration here's a power almost illimitable constantly wasted yet never diminished never exhausted but government protection of Niagara's Riverlands actually hastens power development within a year after the creation of the reservation the state was granting water diversion rights to power ventures so that they could now harness the entire drop of the waters and in the mid 1890s power plants were formed contracts were signed and Niagara became the electrical mecca of the world it's the technology not the vision that has been lacking as early as 1825 augustus porter issues an invitation to eastern capitalists to join in harnessing the rivers power but he's too far ahead of his time 20 years later Porter begins an ambitious hydraulic canal to start 3/4 of a mile above the falls the idea to divert water in a number of miniature Falls over parts of the gorge and use the drop to power mill wheels others take over and go bankrupt at the subsequent auction Buffalo mill owner Jacob choke off buys the incomplete canal telling his wife mama I bought C ditch Oh Jakob what will you do with all this water but he knows he completes the canal creating a thriving industrial center now in 1886 engineer Thomas Evershed proposes a project that seems as colossal as the river instead of a surface canal he designs a 2-mile water tunnel to run beneath the village of Niagara to a discharge point below the Falls with enough power for 200 factories and ever shed makes what seems an outrageous claim it would be entirely practicable now to light the City of Buffalo 20 miles away with power furnished by Niagara Falls Edward Dean Adams a leading New York financier is intrigued could electric power be widely distributed he cables the great inventor Thomas Edison who's visiting Europe Edison excitedly replies no difficulty transferring unlimited power will assist sailing today T Edison letter Dean Adams and his group they went ahead with their plans for harnessing the power of Niagara Falls without knowing how they're going to do it Edison's direct current incandescent lighting by now brightens some communities but it's still a bulky costly system no means exists for transporting power cheaply and safely over long distances yet in 1890 construction of the main tunnel goes ahead thirteen hundred workers blasting through solid limestone driven by a still shapeless dream the first thing that there was build the last thing you usually build which is the discharged tunnel which would take away the waste water and they ran this damn tunnel for eight miles by several hundred feet deep under the present town of Niagara Falls New York seeking a method the financiers appoint a think tank of eminent physicists to decide which companies can best develop a system for distributing Niagara's power but already one man Nikola Tesla is certain he has the answer an immigrant from Croatia son of a priest Tesla at 32 is perhaps the most extraordinary scientist of his time Tesla knows the Falls only from engravings he is seen but just this inspires him under the system of direct current which is Edison's system you couldn't move at more than 20 miles they wanted to be able to move it farther Tesla is walking through a park in Budapest reciting duty when suddenly like a literal lightbulb goes above his head he has figured out the principle of alternating current in his head because he never drew a plan never made a blueprint never made a model he remembered everything goes he had absolutely photographic memory it is absolutely immaterial to me whether I run my turbine in my mind or tested in my shop I'd even note when it is out of balance earlier in 1888 Tesla patents what he calls alternating current transmitting power through thin copper wires potentially over any distance rejected by Edison Tesla finds a backer in George Westinghouse Edison's rival at this time Tesla is struggling to make a living digging sewers for $2 a day now Westinghouse pays Tesla a princely $60,000 for his electrical patents so begins a fierce Edison Westinghouse rivalry known as the Battle of the currents think about electricity at this time is it's a great mystery nobody understands it the general public is is both mystified by it and frightened by it and you have someone like Edison who's actually sending out people to warn them about the dangers of alternating current Edinson scare tactics are extreme he publicly electrocutes cats and dogs by misusing alternating current 1893 at the Chicago World's Fair in a battle of showmanship Tesla debunks Edison he passes electricity through his own body and he thrills the public with his prophesy of brilliant times ahead Niagara Falls has enough power to light every lamp drive every railroad heat every store and produced every particle manufactured by machine in the United States convincingly at the Chicago exposition Tesla and Westinghouse set up a miniature power house complete with working turbines it clinches the Niagara contract for Westinghouse only a year later Tesla's so-called dynamos three huge turbines are in place Edison's company becomes General Electric which shares in the new power business using Tesla's system and now on both sides of the river the power house has become niagra's newest wonder the power plant itself becomes a great public building and it becomes a symbol of this modern electrical age so they use native stone they build great arched windows power plants look like palaces with their marble entrances and all the new magical technology the powerhouse has become tourist attractions in themselves as electricity lights up the new century the fascination over its origins its promise fires an age of invention the Dynamo comes a synonym for strength everything here a mighty machinery the sleep control room is a promise of the superpower to come but would it last Niagra the history of the false returns on the History Channel we now return to Niagara the history of the Falls starting out twentieth-century America looks brighter because of the promise of Niagara the first Pan American exposition in Buffalo 1901 it showcases the optimism think big build big at the exposition the centerpiece is a 74 foot sculpture of Niagara Falls the literal fount of the nation's New Energy power transmitted from the Falls is now a reality with marbles like the electric Tower which at night becomes a constellation of two hundred thousand lights it is dazzling a seeming reprieve from the grim face of urban industry briefly utopia arrives in a number of fantasy visions the human drift is the manifesto of a traveling salesman called King camp Gillette written before he invents his safety razor in 1895 in his vision a sea of competition is swapping progress his solution a city nation he calls metropolis to be run by a single corporation situated at and sustained by Niagara Falls he was going to build the only city in North America the population of North America was 60 million and that was going to be the population of Gillette's City everyone is going to come in from the countryside to live here all your institutions of government and education and industrial output are going to be centered here and irony of irony the rest of the country becomes farmland and vacation sites on a platform covering the Falls so you never see the Falls he didn't his he was only interested in the power he wasn't interested in the look of the Vols in Gillette's metropolis housed in twenty four thousand apartment blocks everyone would have equal possessions and everything food clothing would be free America just laughs but another new century utopian Henry perky succeeds on a smaller scale Henry perky was this rather eccentric figure who led a very sickly life until he discovered the benefits of natural wholewheat and he credited the whole wheat diet with restoring him to health reinvigorating him and he wound up inventing the shredded wheat biscuit which became a very popular cereal in 1901 perky moves his denver bakery to Niagara Falls marketing a picture of the fall on every box of shredded wheat America laps it up perky was smart enough to know that he couldn't take shredded wheat to the people he would bring the people to shredded wheat and where did the people go they went to Negra Falls so there he built what was quite clearly the most modern Factory in the United States our camp bordering the cleansing River the health troubled perky builds a factory that's revolutionary as bright as a conservatory figured thirty thousand panes of glass first factory in the country that had watched him was for everybody first factory that had cheap meals for everybody to the evangelizing perky bad nutrition explains all society's ills so he teaches his employees good hygiene provides fitness facilities and lunchtime health lectures even after-hours dance lessons worker-friendly innovations like coffee breaks and daily fresh uniforms spread the fame of perky's temple to nutrition and making it a top tourist attraction and a hundred thousand people came to visit this Factory you could take a tour and eat shredded wheat and listen to a lecture this was a factory that was designed to show the industrial harmony that nature and electricity could bring it's a shared vision of Eden at the turn of the century at Niagara on the US side along the upper Rapids the power companies give free land to attract new industries it Spurs invention cheap mass-produced aluminum is made possible by niagra's power so to silicon carbide a revolutionary cutting agent by 1909 a dozen major industries for most electro chemical plants relocate at Niagara there are few controls nor cares adjoining the new industry new worker subdivisions are the first in America to know the luxury of light and heat it seems heaven but there's a hidden hell thus our utopian dream of william teal of a local real estate developer in the 1890s he starts to build what he calls model city it's to house half a million workers in a Garden of Eden setting mixing industry and housing along a seven mile power providing canal but running out of money he builds only a mile of the canal later as heavy industry arrives the name Love Canal remains never to be forgotten [Applause] we have many old photos of what was then called the Love Canal named after William T love of children and families picnicking on the side of the canal and and throwing fishing poles in and it was just you know a wonderful place to be loved promises the most perfect city on earth and to Lois Gibbs and her husband a chemical plant worker the communities built near loves abandoned Canal do seem perfect in 1974 my husband and I only married two years with my one-year-old son Michael moved into the LaSalle section of the city of Niagara Falls this area was not called Love Canal then we bought a single-family home it had a white picket fence we had a station wagon we had HBO we had the American dream we knew at the ripe old age of 20 some that we had achieved it but as the years go by Lois Gibbs watches helplessly as first her son then her daughter developed severe health problems unexplained until she learns from a newspaper article of the nearby danger of a chemical dump at Love Canal it listed the chemicals and it talked about the diseases that were related to exposure mostly from workers in the in the clients and I checked off every single one of Michael's diseases and melyssa's and I said this is the answer the self-styled blue-collar housewife rallies the community in 1978 her activism along with others leaves the federal government to declare Love Canal a disaster area it's another two years and 85 years after the demise of loves model city before the full terrifying reality is known the official report shocks the world 20,000 tons of chemical waste dumped near homes and schools one-third of the families tested have chromosomal damage increasing their risk of stillbirths birth defects cancer and future genetic damage what begins as utopia ends as a nightmare revisiting her lost Eden a generation later Lois Gibbs can take comfort in her place in niagra's dynamic history a history of epic successes and failed to shake up Niagara from the 20th century Niagra the history of the Falls returns on the History Channel we now return to Niagara the history of the Falls harmony passion endurance the symbolism of the Falls makes for the picture-perfect marriage in marketing Cupid's call Niagara once more reinvents itself the rainbow city work to promote an early 20th century phenomenon the honeymoon ordinary couples could now emulate the fashionable wedding trip of the moneyed classes you have reservations commitment Ileana 3:19 to live in the sewers there that way back I'm sure you're going to like to do them throw it open look at all thanks but I don't when suddenly the Niagara honeymoon becomes so popular it's called Pawnee lunacy but by mid-century Niagara helps institutionalize the honeymoon a Niagara honeymoon like a Niagara vacation in general but especially the honeymoon I think became like the automobile like the TV set a really desired and affordable accessible commodity after the war with its romantic setting and easy accessibility just a day's drive for half the population of North America Niagara at mid-century can claim to be and indeed is the honeymoon capital of the world this is to certify mr. and mrs. Adam putana visited Niagara Falls Ontario congratulations helped by the romance of Niagara the honeymoon takes on a new sexier image honeymoon was never addressed in popular culture in newspapers and magazines and films without a kind of a knowing glance or a giggle or a wink or a sort of elbow the honeymoon really was about sexual innuendo in 1954 Marilyn Monroe arrives to star in the movie Niagara playing a newlywed with a roving eye get out the firehose in Niagara both on screen and off she conducts to love affairs did you mind playing this yeah sure thing lis it gives me to the raw power of Maryland and Niagara the film's director devises a scene at Table Rock and with this she walks into superstardom well not walks she Wiggles her way for a full minute the camera holds on her 116 slinky steps ever since Maryland imitators have been torching the landscape of Table Rock never quite emulating the Monroe magic in the year after Maryland's movie is released 13 million tourists visit Niagara Falls more than ever before why Niagara partly it's nature's majesty partly the capricious history of this place where there seems never a dull moment humans have harnessed the falls or so they imagined but every so often the river reasserts itself and the unimaginable occurs 20th century calamities begin with a series of ice jams the worst in January 1938 when ice forms around the bridge nearest to the Falls known as the honeymoon bridge the great metal arch is the highest in the world rising a hundred and fifty feet above the river but now the ice builds halfway up the arch and slowly crushing the massive structure so slowly that 300 thousand spectators drawn by the headlines witnessed the monstrous collapse June 8 1956 again unpredictable disaster suddenly at 5 p.m. the top of the American cliff side above the shore power plant begins to shake rocks like a meteor shower fill the air then a 400-foot segment of the clifftop detaches reducing the power plant to rubble its debris vanishing in the river November 9th 1965 the impossible happens a failsafe device on the Canadian side fails triggering North America's widest ever blackout just as dusk descends within minutes 30 million people in Ontario and the US Northeast are plunged into darkness for up to 14 hours but on the bright side the following year brings a baby boom strangest of all a rockslide that extends over 15 years it starts in 1954 when a huge chunk of Prospect Point tumbles into the gorge altering the look of the American Falls in 1969 concern over tourist appeal and safety is so great the authorities decide on drastic action they dry up the American Falls I was there when they turned off the water to the Falls my brother and I went down there then we waited and waited and finally you know the Falls dried up and I just thought I wonder what the old-time Indians would have thought to stand here at this day right they'd say lookit look at what they did the changing nature the American Falls stay dry for five months until engineers realized that the rock slide is actually propping up the remaining precipice helping prevent further collapse today as a protective measure the flow of the Falls is precisely controlled a unique by national treaty regulates the torrent just enough daytime force to please the tourists just enough nighttime power for extra hydro needs and the falls are diminished in other ways centuries of human intrusion decades of pollution from the Great Lakes but if the Falls have lost some of their Sparkle they are still a gem to behold what you see is what you get but it's I think it's a humbling experience but to stand on the edge of the railing overlooking the Falls as we do and just watch them fall and to get on the on the deck of the might of the mists and look up at the falls because that's the other way you look at them this is nature you can't control it it controls you in the end visitors no longer risk life and limb to see the Falls but they still pay to get soaked and thrilled it is still a vast scene the prodigious nosov the amount of water going over the falls is huge and it is impressive the best way to try to get at it though is to get very close to the water so that you can actually see it and get almost hypnotized by it and and very aware of its power up close there's still part of it where you can go down there and if you can kind of block out all of the other stuff it gets a little bit that water you can still think what those Indians must have thought about this great powerful place or even what had it been must have knowledge they speak thundering wall up for almost four centuries all who have come here have struggled forwards and all who commune here are much the same each seeking to make this place in their very own in spite of everything and spreaded human tragedy in spite of the conman spider the carnival in spite of all were rich and varied and terrifying history of the Falls one word still sums it up in the seal one sublime

How you can be good at math, and other surprising facts about learning | Jo Boaler | TEDxStanford



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You have probably heard people say they are just bad at math, or perhaps you yourself feel like you are not “a math person.” Not so, says Stanford mathematics …

Computer science education: why does it suck so much and what if it didn’t? | Ashley Gavin | TEDxNYU



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Ashley’s talk shines a light on the major problem that is American Computer Science education. In 2020, 1.4 million new jobs will be available for those with …

Become a Citizen Data Scientist | Allison Sagraves | TEDxBuffalo



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Using big data to solve problems isn’t a job for researchers and academics, it’s for anyone who wants to help. Allison Sagraves shows how you can help catalog …

How to Achieve Your Most Ambitious Goals | Stephen Duneier | TEDxTucson



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How you define Stephen Duneier depends on how you came to know him. Some define him as an expert institutional investor, while others know him as a large scale installation artist, avid outdoorsman, professor, decision strategist, coach, business leader, mindfulness extremist, author, speaker, daredevil or Guinness world record holder. In his talk, Stephen explains that what truly defines him aren’t titles, but an approach to decision making that transformed him from someone who struggled with simple tasks to a guy who is continuously achieving even his most ambitious dreams.

For thirty years, he has applied cognitive science to investing, business and life. The result has been the turnaround of numerous institutional businesses, career best returns for managers who have adopted his methods, the development of a $1.25 billion dollar hedge fund and a rapidly shrinking bucket list.
Mr. Duneier teaches graduate courses on Decision Analysis in UCSB’s College of Engineering. His book, AlphaBrain is due for release in early 2017 from Wiley & Sons.
Through Bija Advisors, he helps business leaders improve performance by applying proven, proprietary decision-making methods to their own processes.
His artwork has been featured around the world and is represented by the Sullivan Goss Gallery. As Commissioner of the League of Professional Educators, Duneier is using cognitive science to alter the landscape of American education. He is the former Head of Currency Option Trading at Bank of America and Emerging Markets at AIG International.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

翻译人员: Phoon Bucgene
校对人员: Jenny Yang 赞同的请举手。 有谁相信自己能够只靠
一支笔和一张纸 重现布拉德 · 皮特的这张照片? 接下来我会告诉大家如何做到。 与此同时, 我会提供给大家
成为一位世界级的艺术家 所必须具备的技能。 只需要不到15秒就能学会。 不过在此之前, 有谁相信自己能够重现这个 纯灰色的格子? (笑声) 我们每位都可以。 如果你可以画一个灰格子, 你就可以画两个,三个,九个 … 事实上, 如果你可以画出一个灰格子, 你就很难否认 你是有能力画出全部的灰格子 来重现这张照片的。 就这么简单。 我已经教授了各位成为一位
世界级艺术家最重要的技巧。 (笑声) 我知道你在想些什么。 “这不是真正的艺术, 也肯定不能让我
成为世界级的艺术家。” 那么让我介绍一下
艺术家查克 · 克洛斯。 数十年来,他都名列
世界最赚钱艺术家之一, 而他恰恰就是用这个技巧
来进行艺术创作的。 如此可见,我们与 我们所能实现的最宏大的
理想之间的差异, 不是我们拥有多少
神奇的技巧和才华, 而是我们如何理解问题 和做出解决问题的决定。 而正是因为我们日常面对的 这种持续和复杂的 亿万个小小的决定, 就算我们在这过程中
进行轻微的改进, 最终的结果也可能大相径庭。 举个例子, 让我们来看看
诺瓦克 · 德约科维奇的事业。 在2004年的时候, 当他刚成为一名职业网球运动员, 他在世界排名第680位。 直到大约四年后, 他才成功跳上世界第三的宝座。 他的年薪从25万提升到500万, 这还只是比赛奖金, 当然他的成就源于
赢得更多的比赛。 到2011年,他已经是排名
世界第一的男子网球运动员, 开始平均每年赚取
1400万的比赛奖金, 并赢得90%所参加的赛事。 这些漂亮的数据 最精彩的地方在于: 诺瓦克是没有办法控制它们的。 他能控制的只有在处理
那些小小决定的时候, 做出最正确的选择, 以便间接影响成功概率, 让他获得这些成就。 而我们可以以赢取分数的
百分比作为参考标准 来量化和监测他的进展。 因为在网球的规则内, 赢取一分需要
做出一到三个小决定, 我想把这称为他的 抉择成功率。 当他在比赛中赢取49%的胜利时, 他也赢取了49%的分数。 要成为世界第三, 要用一把球拍 赚取500万年薪, 他只需要把抉择成功率 提升至52%。 如果他不止要成为世界第一, 还要成为史上
最厉害的网球运动员, 那么他只需要把抉择成功率 提升至55%。 我一直用“只需要”这个词。 我不是要暗示
这是个容易达成的目标, 很明显它不是。 不过我所说的那种轻微的改进 是我们在座每一位
都能够轻易做到的。 让我来揭露其中的玄机: 从幼儿园直到高中毕业—— 是的,那就是
我高中毕业的容貌—— (笑声) 我的每一张成绩单
都说着同样的一件事: “史蒂芬是位很聪慧的年轻人, 如果他能够静下心专注就好了。” 他们没有意识到, 我其实比他们更急切的想要专注, 可我就是做不到。 如此一来,我从幼儿园到大二, 我都是C,C- 的学生。 不过当我踏入大三那一年, 我受够了。 我想要做出改变。 我要做出轻微的调整, 我选择不再成为抉择的观众, 而变是成为一位积极的参与者。 于是在那年, 我不再臆想 我会突然开窍,能够静下心 专注超过5或10分钟时间, 我决定假设自己做不到。 所以如果我要实现我的愿望 —— 在学业上有出色的表现 —— 我就一定要改变我的做法。 所以我做了一个轻微的改进。 如果我需要完成一份作业,
例如,读上课本的五个章节, 我不会把它想像成五个章节, 甚至不会把它想象成一个章节。 我会把这份作业分解成我自己
能够完成的任务, 而每个任务都只
要求我专注5到10分钟。 大概就是3到4个段落。 就这样。 当我完成了那
5到10分钟的任务后, 我会起身。 我会去打篮球,画画, 或者玩几分钟电子游戏, 然后我就会回来。 不一定回到同样的作业, 甚至是不同的科目, 可还是另一样只需
专注5到10分钟的作业。 从那时开始, 一直到我毕业为止, 我都是全A的学生,
每个学期都会登上 院长嘉许名单,校长荣誉榜。 我报读了世界顶尖的 金融与经济研究生课程。 同样的方法,同样的效果。 然后,我就毕业了。 我就职后开始想, 这方法的确对我非常有效。 就是说,把这些宏大的理念, 这些复杂的想法,这些庞大的任务, 分解成更加细小,
更加可控的任务, 与此同时, 对流程做出轻微的调整 来增加你成功的机率。 我想把这方法运用在我的事业上。 于是我这么做了。 起初,我是瑞士信贷的
奇异金融衍生品交易员。 随后我成为了美国银行 货币期权交易的全球主管, 美国国际集团的
全球新兴市场战略主管。 该方法还让我作为
全球宏观对冲基金经理, 在十二年内帮我达成了
最顶级的投资回报, 并且成为了两个获奖对冲基金的
创办人和首席信息官。 到了2001年, 我不禁思考,这个方法 让我在学校表现很好, 让我在事业上得到更佳的发展, 为什么我不把这个方法
运用在个人生活中, 正如我以此方式
达到事业上的目标呢? 有一天,我步行去上班, 那段时间我的通勤方式就是 步行从伦敦海德公园的
一端到另一端。 单程就花了我45分钟时间, 相当于一天1个半小时,
一个星期7个半小时, 一个月30个小时,一年360个小时, 基本上,我都是在清醒中
浪费这些时间, 在我的iPod上听音乐。 所以,在某一天回家时,
我到了一家店。 我购买了《Pimsleur 系列
德语教程》的前33张CD, 把它们翻录进我的iPod里头。 而我并没止步于此。 因为,事实是我本来
就不是一个自律的人。 我知道过了一段时间后, 我就会选择放弃学习
而继续听音乐。 所以,我为了不受诱惑,
把全部音乐都卸载了。 留给我的,只有一个选择: 听语言课程。 十个月后,我听完了
所有99张CD的 德国语言教程, 每一张听了三遍。 然后我到柏林去参加了一个
为期16天的德语强化课程。 课程结束后,我邀请
太太和孩子们到柏林见我。 我们到城区逛了逛。 我用德语和当地人交谈,
他们也用德语回应我。 我的孩子们惊呆了。 (笑声) 他们惊得连嘴巴都合不上。 不过你和我都知道, 我刚才做的一切,
没有一丁点了不起。 我在我的日常作息中,
做了个轻微的调整。 进而在整个的流程中
做出了细微的改进。 (德文)Und jetzt, ich spreche
ein bisschen Deutsch. 现在我能说德文了。 在那个时刻,我想到: 这应该不是那么容易的吧——
尤其是对我这样的老人家来说—— 那么快就学会了一门新语言。 这应该是儿童才能办到的。 而我现在办到了。 靠的正是这种轻微的调整。 那么,有没有其他我为自己 退休后立下的, 但有可能现在就达成的宏伟目标呢? 我对日常作息做出
轻微调整的话或许也能实现。 于是我就开始行动了。 我获得了赛车驾驶证、 我学会了如何驾驶直升机、 去学了攀岩、跳伞。 我学会了花样飞行。 如果你像我那样,在2007年时, 你可能和我有相同的目标。 我刚从伦敦回来。 那时我大概超重25磅,身材完全走样, 我想改变这一切。 我可以运用普通的方法, 比如,给一间我不可能去的健身房
写一张支票。 或者我可以对天发誓 我不会再吃那些我爱吃, 但对身体有害的食物。 我很清楚,要实现这种
普通方法的可能性是很低的。 所以我决定成为一位主动参与者。 我对生活中形成的
各种习惯进行分析。 我想,如果我能对它们
做出轻微的调整, 它们能够反过来,变得有利于我吗? 于是我开始行动了。 我有个习惯, 七年以来,我每天都会
花上1个半小时走路, 我对户外有种强烈的热忱。 在那一年, 我并没有立下
”减肥25磅“的新年愿望, 而是立下了一个走完33个 圣巴巴拉山区徒步路径的爬山目标。 我那会儿还从来没有爬过山。 (笑声) 不过事实是,关注点
不在那33条登山路径。 你要把这个庞大的目标 分解成自身能接受的决定—— 在过程之中我们要做对的决定 来增加我们成功的机率。 关注点不是在每一条途径, 而是每一个细小的决定。 当我们坐在书桌前, 在一天结束之前
努力的挤出一点时间。 或者我们在沙发上躺着, 按着遥控器看不同频道, 或者是在脸书上看信息, 就在那一刻,要做出决定,
把它们放到一边。 穿上自己的登山服, 走出大门,把一切丢到脑后, 走进车子,启动,
然后驾驶到登山小路的起点。 走下车子, 踏出第一步,踏出第二步、第三步, 刚刚我所说的每一步, 都需要做出细小的、正确的抉择 才能达到最终极的结果。 每次,当我说我要爬完33条路径, 人们想到的都是
我要在山顶上所做出的决定。 而其意义并不在于此。 因为如果你在沙发躺着时 没有做出正确的决定, 那么,在山顶上就
没有做决定的机会。 就这样,到了那年的年末, 我爬完了33条路径, 甚至每条路径爬了好几次。 我甚至爬了几条深山野岭的路径。 我瘦了25磅。那年结束时, 我完成了世界上
最困难的半程马拉松—— Pier to Peak。 2009年时,我把目标放得非常远大, 对于一名到如今都不能安静下来、 无法集中心神超过
10分钟的人来说非常远大, 那就是阅读50本书。 但是同样的,关注点
仍然不是读50本书, 也不是读一本书, 甚至不是读一章、
一节,或者一个句子。 而是当我们一天结束前 坐在书桌前做出的那个决定。 或者是躺在沙发上、 在脸书上浏览信息时, 我们把手机放下。 拿起一本水,读上一个字。 如果我们能读上一个字,
我们就会读两个字,三个字; 就会继续读上一句,一节,
一页,一章,一本书; 我们就会阅读10本,30本,50本书。 2012年我把目标定得更大。 我设定了24个新年愿望。 其中12个是我自己
所谓的" 慷慨愿望”, 需要我完成12项不涉钱财的义举。 不过当中有的失败了。 我尝试捐血, 不过被拒绝了,因为我住在英国。 我尝试捐精,也被
当局拒绝了,因为我太老。 我尝试捐出我的头发, 才发现原来没有人要灰发的。 (笑声) 这期间,我尝试做好事,
让自己感觉良好, 可是只有反效果。 除此外,我还立下12个学习目标, 学习12种技能。 当我学会了骑独轮车、
跑酷、走软绳、 踩高跷和打鼓, 我太太建议我学习针织。 (笑声) 老实说,我对针织
完全没有兴趣。 不过有一天,当我坐在
一棵12米高的桉树下, ——那是在圣巴巴拉
冷溪徒步路径上方2.6英里的地段, 我想,这棵树如果
被棉纱包起来一定非常炫酷! (笑声) 然后我回家搜索了一下, 竟然有人做过这样的事,
它被称之为——棉纱炸弹: 用棉纱把公共建筑包裹起来。 巧的是,第二届世界棉纱炸弹日 就在82天以后。 (笑声) 就这样,在那82天内,
不管我身在何处—— (笑声) 在会议室里、在交易所、 在飞机上、或者在医院里, 我都在练习针织。 一针一针的反复练习。 82天后, 我完成了人生中第一个棉纱炸弹。 (掌声) 而之后的反响,真的把我给镇住了。 所以我决定再接再厉—— (笑声) 运用了更多工程技巧, 来完成更庞大、更宏伟的工程。 在2014年,我定下目标, 把洛斯帕德雷斯国家森林
山上的六块巨石包起来。 不过,如果真的要完成目标,
我需要他人帮助。 那时候,我在社交媒体上
已经有了数千名粉丝, 《棉纱炸弹者》的粉丝。 (笑声) 我开始收到包裹,很多的包裹—— 388位捐赠者,来自36个
不同国家,包括全美国50州。 后来,我包了不止一块巨石, 一共包了18块。 (掌声) 所以我又再接再厉, 进行了更庞大,更宏伟的工程。 也需要我运用更多新的材料, 如玻璃纤维、木头、金属等。 最后集成了在图森医院
这里的一个工程, 我包裹了图森幼儿医院。 (掌声) 之后,我就停止针织了。 我其实没有真正喜欢过它。 (笑声) 不过… 我喜欢钩针。 (笑声) 所以,我就做了些
7寸的老祖母方块织—— 因为这就是标准的方块织尺寸—— 这个过程中。我不禁在想,
为什么我要止步于7寸呢? 我要大件的。 所以,我开始做更大的
老祖母方块织。 有一天,我出差回家后, 我拿了这个很大的方块织, 游览到吉尼斯世界纪录的网页。 我很好奇,世界上最大的
老祖母方块织有多大。 结果发现,吉尼斯
是没有这个类别的。 (笑声) 于是我就去申请了, 然后他们拒绝了我。 我申诉, 他们又拒绝了我。 我再申诉,他们说,好吧。 如果你能把它做成10米见方尺寸,
我们就开一个新的类别, 而你就可以成为新的
吉尼斯世界纪录持有人。 就这样,接下来的2年, 7个月,17天的时间, 一次一针, 我终于缝织了超过五十万针, 用了超过30英里长的棉纱。 而现在,我就是世界最大的钩针 老祖母方块织的
官方吉尼斯世界记录保持者。 (掌声)(欢呼) 一路以来,我这种自娱自乐的行为
吸引了无数人的眼球。 我被Newsweek杂志刊登过、 还有Eric News, 一本艺术家的特刊。 不过,当你听到这些成就时,
我希望你了解的是: 我还是那位C-的学生。 我还是那位不能静下心来, 专注超过5或10分钟的孩子, 还是那位没有特殊天赋或技能的人。 我只是把很庞大,宏伟的计划、 别人觉得不可思议的计划, 分解成最细小的项目, 并在过程中进行轻微的改进 来增加成功的机率。 而我发表这个演讲的原因, 就是希望能够启发你们 用行动实现自己的
那些宏大的梦想, 不再是纸上谈兵, 在日常行为中做出轻微的改进,
开始实践自己的梦想。 谢谢! (掌声)

Wildlife bridge helps animals avoid car collisions



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(12 Dec 2018) Washington state is finishing construction on its largest wildlife bridge. The structure will form two arches above busy Interstate 90 east of Seattle to allow elk, bear, wolverines, deer and other migrating animals to safely cross the highway. (Dec. 12)

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Citizen Science: Everybody Counts | Caren Cooper | TEDxGreensboro



Views:10097|Rating:4.79|View Time:18:33Minutes|Likes:90|Dislikes:4
Science is not just for scientists. There are ways that everyone can be involved and contribute.

Caren Cooper Author of “Citizen Science: How Ordinary People Are Changing the Face of Discovery.” She is Associate Professor in Forestry & Environmental Resources at NC State; in the Chancellor’s Faculty Excellence Program in Leadership in Public Science; and runs “Sparrow Swap” citizen science through her lab at the NC Museum of Natural Sciences

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

you growing up my brothers and I used to play basketball in the driveway and no one expected that we develop a career in athletics we simply played right not thinking about a career sports were simply fun they were healthy social sports were the kind of hobby that could enrich the rest of our lives and the same is true for arts yet when I played it science down by the creek everyone expected that I'd become a scientist I guess no one thought it was fun or healthy not social science wasn't seen as the kind of hobby that could enrich the rest of my life science was confined to the category of career kids that like science should grow up to be scientists and that was a good thing because without professional scientists there'd be no discoveries and I wanted to make discoveries and so I became a professional scientist but eventually I learned that everyone was a little right but mostly wrong about those expectations science of course is a profession but science is also a hobby science is also a hobby and how that profession and the hobby interact is the topic of the conversation today because there's some long-standing stereotypes about science that it's lofty that it's separate from the rest of us and that separateness exists because unlike athletics and art which take place in public view science typically takes place out of sight behind closed doors with science you have to choose which side of the door to be on and you're either all in or you're out and if you're all in then you get the privilege and the responsibility to advance knowledge you get to be special but what if we end the stereotype of scientist as special by changing in a fundamental way by eliminating the door by making it a collaboration between professional scientists and people who choose other careers like you and you even you what if science were visible and accessible what would the world be like if science happened out in the open every day everywhere if you saw a spider today stand up so I can see you if you saw a spider stand okay so stay standing I want you to be joined by if you saw an ant today stand and stay standing if you saw if you smelled exhaust from traffic fumes used an app to record your sleep cycle or your heartrate we're concerned about the quality of your tap water if you used your phone to take a photo this week than stand okay so look around all of you are curious concerned observant of your surroundings each of you have the makings of a citizen scientist yet be seated to have a just and sustainable world we need to adopt a new cultural norm in which being a responsible person on this planet means that we observe our surroundings with intention like you do and we share what we see hear smell find right then we report when we see hummingbirds return to our feeder we monitor the streams that run through our local parks we track the air quality in our school yards that we and our devices become part of a network taking the pulse of the planet and with it a new type of scientist emerges not one that's separate from us but one that ends the hierarchy ones who helps build and tend these networks ones that help us make sense of all that information so that the tiny everyday activities of ordinary people can be brought together to be forces of discovery this type of science isn't about individual heroes gaining credit it's about all of us gaining insight this type of science is similar to democracy right in democracy we use the term citizen to refer to those who have rights and responsibilities to participate in a larger collective governance we might petition and rally and engage deeply in a number of ways but the core thing the simplest action is that we cast a vote in our individual vote it may feel insignificant but cumulatively it makes leadership change and so with citizen scientists that term is used to refer to people anywhere on this planet of any nationality living anywhere who assert their rights and responsibilities to participate in collective inquiry collective discoveries and we might pose hypotheses or analyze results or engage deeply in a number of ways but the core and the simplest thing we can do is to share data and our individual data may feel insignificant but collectively it has the power to make discoveries that change the world we know what democracy looks like this is what citizen science looks like it's it is citizen science is a movement that is challenging us to rethink how knowledge is made who makes it where that happens and who it serves citizen science is about the power of crowds in which everyone does their small part instead of having to rely on the heroics of an individual and Einstein and even Einstein acknowledged science is a wonderful thing especially when one doesn't have to earn one's living at it and we aren't far from citizen science as a new cultural norm it turns out the whole time I was becoming a professional scientist citizen science was near me but it didn't have a name and began it was hard to notice because it didn't fit the stereotype of scientist as special citizen science was nameless with monarch butterflies when I was in the fifth grade scientist had recently discovered that monarch butterflies migrate from the Midwest all the way to Mexico in the fall and return in the spring and I daydreamed about what it would be like to be that special scientist to solve such a mystery but it turns out that discovery was possible because of thousands of people who had been capturing and tagging monarchs for decades and that first tagged monarch spotted in Mexico had been tagged by a school teacher in Minnesota with two of his teenage students and people went on to continue to capture and tag monarchs and make more and more discoveries including our knowledge today that this migratory population of monarchs is declining rapidly citizen science was nameless with bears my first college job was a zoology internship studying bears in the mountains of North Carolina and we would capture bears and tranquilize them like the one in this picture so that we could put radio collars on them and track their movements and it was labor-intensive work and it was helped out by hundreds of volunteers over the years who rotated in by the Dozen for three weeks at a time coordinated by a organization called Earth watch and for me as a budding scientist this was a confusing time right because on the one hand it was affirming this idea this stereotype that scientists were special because here were people who were paying to spend their vacations doing the hard work of science but on the other hand here are these people that I could see had the same dedication and commitment as the professional scientists citizen science was nameless with Falcons my second college internship was releasing peregrine falcons back into the wild after they had been bred in captivity and we were doing this reintroduction because peregrine falcon populations had crashed from the use of the pesticide DDT which thinned their eggshells well scientists were able to figure out that DDT thinned their eggshells by comparing eggs with those that were collected a long time ago before the manufacturing of DDT and those eggshells were thick well non-professionals had collected those eggs and donated them to museums right it used to be a hobby to collect beautiful wild bird eggs and citizen science was nameless with songbirds when I was in graduate school British scientists discovered that songbirds were already laying their eggs earlier because of climate change and in making the case for the Kyoto Protocol the British government relied on that study to argue that that climate change wasn't some future problem but that it was a now problem an urgent problem because it was already affecting life on Earth and it made me proud to become a scientist but I learned years later when I interviewed the lead researcher for that study for my book citizen science how ordinary people are changing the face of discovery that that entire dataset of tens of thousands of nesting records was collected by bird watchers across England over decades I learned of discovery after discovery that was possible because of citizen science volunteers and yet it went unrecognized and not only were we failing to recognize the valuable contributions of citizen scientists we were failing to recognize the limits of scientists and we can no longer ignore the fact that there are things that scientists will never ever be able to discover alone citizen science has a name now and its growth is inevitable because science has advanced in so many areas that to keep pushing some of those frontiers scientists need to learn to collaborate not just with each other but with everyone and that's how big discoveries have been made the entire field of oceanography was born from citizen science right there was no way that a single scientist no matter how special could study something so vast so in the 1800s the field of Oceanography was born from the coordinated efforts led by Matthew Fontaine Mallory who was in the Navy at the time and sailors from 13 countries and Maori crowd-sourced their standardized observations that they collected while they sailed and assembled it together to make an increasingly comprehensive series of wind and current charts like this one and these charts they made sailing safer and faster for everyone as one sailor wrote to Maori until I took up your work I had been traversing the ocean blindfolded citizen science can look like it's about volunteers in service to science but it's really about making sure that science is serving people helping humanity remove these blindfolds because we have we have lots of blindfolds still and citizen science can help us with those so even with our own Health and Environment we wear blindfolds we learned from peregrine falcons that their eggs can tell a story about the ubiquity of DDT so now I collaborate with citizen scientists in Sparrow Swap who are reviving the hobby of egg collecting so and every egg is unique and every egg tells a story because we spend we spend millions now searching for cures of cancer but relatively little to prevent cancer and there are known cancer-causing contaminants in the environment wouldn't it be nice to know where they are so we crowdsource for maps the way Maori did we crowdsource four OpenStreetMap and ways to help us navigate from point A to point B so now we're trying a crowd source for mapping contaminants in the environment and we hope that the patterning and the color of these eggs might help us do that and what's neat is when we bring together all these observations we see huge diversity and maybe eggs aren't your thing but how about warm and fuzzy things right because there's people all over the world who are setting out motion-sensitive cameras right and they're discovering mammals secretively living among them in their backyards in their school yards in their neighborhoods and it's super exciting for the people who are who are getting these observations but what's really powerful is that they're willing to share and so when those observations are brought together then we can see patterns that would otherwise remain invisible there's thousands of people who use low-cost rain gauges and they share their catch the amount of precipitation with a community collaborative rain hail and snow network daily and here's this is showing the maximum precipitation each day across the country and it's data like these that are more reliable for local forecasts than radar and there's people who are sharing observations of ladybirds in their gardens that's English for ladybugs in their backyards right and they're sharing these with the UK Lady Bird survey so here's a pattern of invasions of an exotic lady bird species into the UK in recent years this is citizen scientists sharing what they see this is citizen science taking the pulse of the planet and so how do we move forward how do we make citizen science the new norm make it a household phrase well to my scientist friends I say scientist friends let's start teaching our students our future scientists to be public scientists and that's what we've started doing at North Carolina State University we're teaching our graduate students to design and organize citizen science to manage big data to collaborate with the public and if you are pursuing other careers well you can play at the soccer field you can do art in the studio but citizen science you can do anywhere anytime as part of normal life right you can put a birdhouse in your backyard next to a rain gauge next to a sunflower that you watch for bees you can record your dog's behavior you can sample microbes in your showerhead and to make it easier for you to enter this world of citizen science I helped build size starter dot-com and darlene cavalier is the founder and director of size starter and she's a citizen scientist she's a former NBA cheerleader who enjoys science and we've made SCI starter an aggregator of projects most with over a thousand projects and they're mostly hosted by universities NGOs federal agencies and really no matter what your interest whether it's oceans frogs butterflies squirrels coal ash whatever it is we can help you find a project that's right for you and so if you join via my landing page then I can welcome you and then I can also watch and help you as you launch into this amazingly varied world of citizen science opportunities because as we sail forward into the future we're leaving a lot of problems in our wake and so the good news is that science is fun science is healthy and it's social it's a hobby that can enrich the rest of your life and science as a hobby is more accessible and more in need of you now than ever before so you can join this citizen science movement and help make it the new cultural norm you can be special along with millions of others thank you [Applause]

My son was a Columbine shooter. This is my story | Sue Klebold



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Sue Klebold is the mother of Dylan Klebold, one of the two shooters who committed the Columbine High School massacre, murdering 12 students and a teacher.

The Science of Touching and Feeling | David Linden | TEDxUNC



Views:60603|Rating:4.86|View Time:14:16Minutes|Likes:949|Dislikes:28
In this talk, David Linden explores the science and complexities of touch on human health.

David J. Linden, Ph.D., is a Professor of Neuroscience at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. His laboratory has worked for many years on the cellular substrates of memory storage, and recovery of function after brain injury, among other topcs. He has a longstanding interest in scientific communication, and served for many years as the Chief Editor of the Journal of Neurophysiology. He is the author of three best-selling books on the biology of behavior for a general audience, The Accidental Mind (2007) and The Compass of Pleasure (2011) which, to date, have been translated into 19 languages. His most recent book, Touch: The Science of Hand, Heart and Mind (2015) was recently published by Viking Press (USA/Canada).

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

my god there are a lot of you here so thank you for having me thank you for letting me close out your conference sound because I'm the last speaker I think I should talk for a moment about what I think that being human is I've been listening to all these wonderful presentations and I think if there's a summary it's that to be human is to be emotional to feel things and for all of us the sense of touch is intrinsically emotional and we don't need scientific investigations to know that we can just look at our common expressions that we use every day I'm touched by your concern I didn't mean to hurt your feelings I can't stand that slippery politician you can guess which one I mean could be any of them really when we encounter someone who's emotionally clumsy we call her tactless literally she lacks touch so how does this connection between emotion and the sense of touch form and it begins to form very early in life and we know that if you're born blind without sight that you can develop a great mind and a great body and have a great life and likewise if you're born deaf you can develop a great mind and a great body and have a great life but if you're born with the biological components for a sense of touch but you do not receive touch during your infancy and when you're a toddler than a disaster unfolds and we know this mostly from what happened in orphanages in Romania during the Ceausescu regime in the 1970s and what followed in the 1980s and these were situations where there were grossly understaffed orphanages there was no one to hug or hold or caress or be loving in a tactile way towards these children and they develop horrible compulsive self soothing rocking motions later they had attachment disorders cognitive delays and it wasn't just neuropsychiatric problems their growth was stunted and they had problems with the development of their gastrointestinal systems and their immune systems and we know that this is because of touch deprivation because in some cases volunteers came in and gave just 30 minutes a day of loving touch a little hugging a little limb manipulation and that was enough to completely reverse all of these deleterious effects but only if it occurred in the first two years of life it happen if the intervention came after age two all those problems would persist for the rest of life now the critical role of touch in childhood development wasn't always understood as a matter of fact in the 1920s John B Watson the founder of the psychological movement called behaviorism advised parents never touch your children never hug them if you must when they have done an extraordinarily good job at a difficult task Pat them on the head give them a handshake at the end of the day now of course today most parents don't raise their children this way but it's a very different situation outside of the home where we have promulgated no touch policies for supervisory adults like teachers and coaches that while well-meaning have had a disastrous effect when a kindergartner reaches to get a reassuring hug from the teacher and the teacher isn't allowed to have to stand their stock still that is not a social good an opportunity to create bonds of trust and cooperation and empathy is lost and you might say well okay understand babies are really sensitive kids are sensitive but what's your once you're an adult does all this touchy-feely stuff really matter and the answer is yes it does touch is social glue it's what binds sexual partners into lasting couples it's what ion's parents and their children and siblings it binds together people in the community in the workplace in two effective teams we know that doctors who appropriately touch their patients during an exam are rated as more caring and more importantly their patients have better better medical outcomes and lower stress hormone levels in terms of actual teams we know that in the National Basketball Association there was a wonderful study was done by dr. kelmer's group at UC Berkeley and what he did is he got video tapes of all the NBA games of all the teams in the first half of the season and then he had people look at them and score all of the celebratory touch all the Pat's on the rear end on the chest bumps on the high fives and everything that people do to celebrate a basket and he came up with an index of celebratory touch for each team and he asked does that index for the first half of the basketball season predict anything about what's going to happen in the second half of the season and the answer is the teams that engage in more celebratory touch both win more games in the second half of the season and more importantly they play in a more cooperative fashion for example the star would be more likely to pass off the ball to another player who had a better shot so what I'm drawing what am I trying to tell you here it's not that touch is good or even that touch is important rather it's that the specifics of our touch experience from skin to nerves to brain are weird and strange and counterintuitive and these strange and counterintuitive facets of touch profoundly affect our human experience and our human society and let's explore that point number one we think of touch as being a unified sensation we experience it as a unified sensation but actually it's created by many different specialized sensors working in parallel so what do I mean if we looked in your skin we would see many different kinds of nerve endings each one a micro machine specialized to transfer a certain kind of information we'd find one nerve ending for heat and another for cold one for pain and one for each one for sexual sensation vibration pressure texture fine tactile form there are nerve endings specialized for all these things and the density of these nerve endings in different parts of your skin gives rise to the way you experience touch on different parts of your body for example if you want to read Braille dots which require appreciating fine tactile form you're likely to use your fingertip because your fingertip is very well-endowed it has a high density of the nerve ending called a Merkel ending which is the best ending for detecting fine tactile form and for some reason you can't use your hand you can read Braille dots with your lips because they also have lots of merkel endings or your tongue which also has lots of merkel endings and I can I can see your expressions out there in the audience some of you are thinking I got some other parts of my body that are kind of sensitive could I use those and the answer is no you cannot use the cornea of your eye to read Braille dots ah so you know when you get a piece of grip in your eye it hurts like crazy but it's very hard to tell precisely where in your eye it is and this is because while your eye is sensitive it's not discriminative but that is to say you can't read tactile form with your cornea because it lacks Merkle endings and of course I knew what you really think about your think about your genitals right can you read Braille with your genitals no you can and it's the same reason you don't have Merkel endings in your genitals so you can't read Braille there it won't work now I know that all of you want to do citizen science and this is a cool thing right you don't want to take my word for it so you're going to be out on Franklin Street later tonight you're going to wait till no one's around at the ATM and you're going to test it yourself all I ask is that bring a disinfecting wipes for when you're done point number two there is no sensation without emotion the two go hand-in-hand so all these streams of information that I told you about are coming to your spinal cord and they're coming to your brain and they distribute into two different systems one of them in a region called the somatosensory cortex is all about the facts it's the discriminative system it tells you where my body am I being touched and in what fashion and how intensely then there's a completely separate system in a brain region called the posterior insula and that's your emotional touch system that's what gives different kinds of touches their particular emotional tone so for example if I were to sneak up on you and whack you on the thumb with a hammer you would go out oh that hurts that's awful my thumb is throbbing um however if you had damage to your posterior insula you would have a condition called pain Easton boliya and then if I whacked you on the thumb with a hammer you would say in a very flat emotionless voice yep that hurts all right it's on my thumb it's throbbing now the pain would have no emotional resonance for you whatsoever because you need the posterior insula to field out now what about the converse what if you had damage throughout your somatosensory cortex it's a pretty rare thing but it can occasionally happen then if I whack you on the thumb with a hammer you would say oh that's terrible that hurts so badly and I'd say oh I'm so sorry where does it hurt and you'd say I have no idea so the point here is that we're used to thinking of certain sensations of having an intrinsic emotional tone but this is a trick our brain plays on us right we have the sensation of it's the thumb that hurts and the negative emotional tone that goes with that pain only because these two different brain systems are active at the same time point number three point number three is that we are hard-wired to pay attention to sensations including touch sensations that originate in the outside world but discount ones that originate from our own motion and so what do I mean imagine that you're walking down the street and as you walk down the street you're moving your limbs and your torso and your clothes are moving against your body and you're not thinking about it at all it doesn't enter your consciousness one bit those sensations are strongly suppressed whereas if you imagine you're stopped on the street corner and now those same sensations come on your body oh you'd be very very attentive to them they would have great salience uh why is that it's because we're hardwired to suppress the sensations that result from our own motion and this makes evolutionary sense right because the outside world that's where the things are that we might want to eat that we might want to mate with that we might want to run away from so we want to pay more attention to the outside world then to the consequences of our own motions and and the crucial medical issue that is tied up with this is why it is that it's so very hard to tickle yourself right so when you go to tickle yourself electrical signals are flowing from the motor cortex in your brain down to the muscles of your arm and your hand to produce that tickling motion but those a copy of those signals is going to a part of the brain called the cerebellum and the cerebellum transforms those into inhibitory signals and feeds them in to the somatosensory cortex the fact-based touch Center and suppresses suppresses those sensations and that's why you can't tickle yourself very easily there was a few people I'm sure in this audience there's probably a dozen people who will say yeah I can tickle myself but it's pretty rare we know however that people who sustained damage to the cerebellum and interrupt this hardwired circuits can indeed tickle themselves now I'd like to conclude so we like to think that we're driving the bus and by that I mean we like to believe that we can take in reliable information through our senses about the ex outside world and if necessary make entirely rational non emotional decisions about that it's not true our senses are not designed to give us the most accurate representation of the outside world rather they mess with the data they emphasize some things and they diminish others and by the time you're first aware of it that sensory information has always been already been blended with your emotional state and it's been blended with expectations and I'm both talking about your own personal expectations that you have accrued through your individual life experience as well as the genetic expectations that you have accrued through your DNA through hominin evolution and your brain serves it all up to you as real thank you very much your attention

Size Of US military Through History



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The amount the US Military has grown over the years is astounding. Could it be related to wars happening, or preparing for a future war? In today’s video we …

Historical Preservation- A Radical Conservative Liberal Concept: Wayne Wood at TEDxRiversideAvondale



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Widely regarded as one of the foremost chroniclers of Duval County’s history and architecture, Wayne is called “the undisputed godfather of preservation in …

Confessions of a Wildlife Filmmaker | Chris Palmer | TEDxAmericanUniversity



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Television networks like Discovery, Animal Planet, National Geographic, and the History Channel are failing to put conservation, education, and animal welfare ahead of ratings and profits when producing and airing films on wildlife. I believe it’s time for wildlife filmmaking to move in a more ethical direction. Wildlife films should not deceive audiences, harass animals, or avoid conservation.

Video Supervisor: Ford Fischer
Filmed by Arun Raman, Delana Listman, and Elaina Kimes
Edited by Elaina Kimes and Ford Fischer

Recorded in The Harold and Sylvia Greenberg Theatre at American University, Washington, DC

Chris Palmer has spearheaded the production of more than 300 hours of original programming for prime-time television and the giant screen IMAX industry, including the Disney Channel, TBS, Animal Planet, Travel Channel, and PBS. Palmer and his colleagues have won numerous awards, including two Emmys, and an Oscar nomination. He founded the Center for Environmental Filmmaking at American University in 2005, a year after joining AU’s full-time faculty as Distinguished Film Producer in Residence. His book Shooting in the Wild has been made into a film for public television, and his new memoir, Confessions of a Wildlife Filmmaker, has just been published.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

Translator: CJ Maxwell
Reviewer: Denise RQ When I first got into wildlife film-making in the early 1980s, I brought home a film on bears
my colleagues and I had just completed to show my wife, Gale. Gale loved it. There was a particular scene
in the film that she liked. It showed a grizzly bear
on a mountainside, stepping through a stream. You could see the sunlight
dappling on its back, and you could hear the water
dripping off its paws. Gale said to me,
"How did you get that shot?" I said to her, "Well, we were
actually across a valley. We had a very powerful telescopic lens,
and that's how we got the shot." She said to me,
"Well, how do you get the sound?" I said that I had
a very talented sound guy, and he filled a bowl full of water, ruffled his hand and elbow in it, recorded the sounds, and then matched the sounds
with the footage. Gale said to me, "You mean, you cheated." (Laughter) She couldn't believe I had done that. I brought home
a science-based documentary, and she was expecting
authenticity and truth; authenticity and truth. Many viewers like Gale would be surprised if they knew how much fakery
there is in wildlife films. Fakery that goes
beyond simple sound effects. Film producers routinely
make-up fake stories, rent captive animals,
and pretend they're wild, and use computer-generated imagery to spice up the footage. Sadly, I have been guilty of all these audience deceptions. I am embarrassed
at how long it took me to realize that they were wrong. In an IMAX film on whales, we followed
a mother humpback and her calf. We called them Misty and Echo as they went
on their 3,000-mile migration from Hawaii to their feeding
grounds in Alaska. The tension in the film mounts as the audience wonders,
"Will they get there?" They have to run a gauntlet of threats, entanglements with fishing nets, collisions with ships,
attacks from killer whales. Will they get there? Well, they do get there. The camera lingers on Misty and Echo
as they arrive in Alaskan waters. It's an emotional high point of the film
and the music swells. The only thing is
it wasn't Misty and Echo. It was another humpback whale and calf. We meant well,
of course we meant well; the film championed whale conservation. We adhered carefully to the science and facts
of whale migration. But the need for a dramatic story
trumped the need for truth. That wasn't the only trick we pulled. We showed an orca skull
on the floor of the ocean. We showed close-ups of its teeth to indicate the threat
to migrating humpbacks especially calves, from predatory orcas. What we didn't mention is that we placed that orca skull there ourselves
on the ocean floor. I've made many other mistakes. In an IMAX film on wolves, we showed close-ups of a wolf pack interacting in complex and subtle ways. The film was designed to combat the misinformation campaigns
of the raunching and hunting lobbies which depict wolves
as vicious and blood-thirsty and fit only for destruction. We wanted to show
the relationships within a wolf pack and particularly wanted to show
the important task, the communal task of raising a litter of pups. We wanted to put the rich, social lives
of wolves up on the screen. But… filming the intimate lives of wolves is virtually impossible. They do not tolerate
the presence of people. So, we rented wolves. We rented wolves. The film came out.
It went all over the country. I gave many talks about it,
and at one of these talks, somebody in the audience
put their hand up and said, "How did you get that amazing shot
of the mother wolf in the den?" My heart sank. Answering that question truthfully meant betraying trade secrets. I was reluctant to admit that the den where the mother wolf had suckled
its newborn pups was artificial. We had built it. I didn't want to admit the wolves we were using in this film
were rented from a game farm. I was facing a moment of truth. I decided to come clean
and tell the truth. I told him the den was artificial,
that we made it. I told them the wolves were rented. Oh boy. I could just feel
the disappointment in the audience. The excited mood in the theater suddenly deflated. They had watched the film assuming the wolves were wild
and totally free roaming. Why wouldn't they make that assumption? We had deliberately and intentionally, deliberately and intentionally, given that impression throughout the film. Audience deception is an important ethical issue
in wildlife film making. But it's not the only one. There's another one
which is far more serious. One that I'm not guilty of,
and it's animal harassment; animal harassment. Animal harassment has been pervasive in wildlife film making for decades. It ranges from the relatively mild, getting too close and disturbing animals to the much more severe and dangerous, deliberately goading and harming them for the sake of entertainment. Today, with the race for ratings, this problem is only getting worse. Let me give you two examples. Yukon Men on the Discovery channel is a popular reality series focused on the citizens of a town in central Alaska. The series depicts wolves
as blood-thirsty dangerous predators besieging this town and threatening
the safety of everyone in it. Early on, we see
one of the main characters brutally killing a wolf
with a semi-automatic assault rifle. Yukon Men does not show
wolves as intelligent, as highly social, as caring parents. It shows them as menacing man-eaters; menacing man-eaters. In so doing, delivers a significant blow to wolf conservation efforts. Rattlesnake Republic on Animal Planet follows four teams
of rattlesnake hunters in Texas. In the promotional literature
for this series, Animal Planet describes the rattlesnake as the "most dangerous predator," "the most dangerous animal
on the continent;" end quote. Even though bites from rattlesnakes are very rare and only happen when the creature is extremely stressed, extremely provoked. The producers of this series
deliberately antagonize and goad these snakes in order to build dramatic storylines and pump up the ratings. This series represents animal cruelty, slaughter, and stigmatization as entertainment. There are many other programs like these. These programs teach people animals are vicious and violent, and that humans are justified in taking any means
they want to subdue them. Sadly, it's their very
viciousness and violence that draws viewers and pumps up the network's ratings. We cannot, we should not allow
the broadcasters to benefit, to profit
from animal harassment. In this critical time
with the climate heating up and with biodiversity in steep decline, we need wildlife programs
that advance conservation not encourage violence against animals. This television world
is driven by ratings so making a change here will not be easy. It will take the combined efforts of viewers, filmmakers,
and most importantly, broadcasters to bring about a change in the ethics of how these wildlife films are made. First, viewers; viewers must speak up. Reach out to the networks. Demand higher standards. We can change the ratings game simply by boycotting shows
that use unethical practices. When I see a particularly egregious show, I tweet about it and use the hashtag # crueltyforratings; cruelty for ratings. Second, filmmakers – filmmakers must capture
footage responsibly, reject cutting corners,
and behave ethically. Filmmakers can also establish
a relationship with scientists to make sure the content of these films is accurate and valid. And finally, broadcasters. Broadcasters who commission,
and fund, and air these programs must show greater moral leadership;
greater moral leadership. At a minimum, broadcasters should do no harm. A task they are failing at
spectacularly at the moment. But their real calling
should be more than that. It should be to live according to the inspiring
and noble standards of their founders. That should be their real calling. Broadcasters should mandate
ethics training for their executives. They should place more emphasis
on ethically produced programs. They should exercise more
oversight of the contents to make sure the science
and facts are accurate. Films are one of the greatest tools that we have for swaying public opinion. Films can take viewers to see places they would otherwise never see. Films can inspire viewers to treat other inhabitants of our planet with more respect and dignity. Films can even give us the opportunity to reverse the course
of environmental destruction and improve the future
for all life, all life, on this planet. But we the viewers,
the filmmakers, the broadcasters are failing to seize this opportunity. We must stop the audience deception. We must stop the animal harassment. We must live up to our responsibilities as stewards of this amazing planet. Thank you. (Applause)

Simple preschool games boost math scores | Charles Bleiker | TEDxFIU



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This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. Dr. Bleiker’s research shows that the “MathWaysPreK” program …

TEDxConejo – Dr. Glenn Begley – The Complex Biology of Cancer (or Why Haven't We Cured It Yet?)



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Dr. Glenn Begley is Vice President and Global Head of Hematology and Oncology Research at Amgen The author of more than 200 scholarly papers and the …

Kickstart HOLLOW: An Interactive Documentary



Hollow is an interactive documentary and community participatory project that focuses on the lives of residents in McDowell County, West Virginia. Hollow combines personal portraits, interactive data, maps and user-generated content on an HTML5 website designed to address the issues stemming from stereotyping and population loss in rural America. Community members will take part in the filmmaking process by creating their own documentary portraits. Hollow strives to bring attention to issues in rural America, encourage trust among the community and become a place where users can have a voice and share ideas for the future.

my name is Elaine McMillian and I am the project director of hollow hollow is an interactive documentary that focuses on the people history and culture of mcdowell county west virginia our hope is that we can give the community a voice and share ideas for future improvement but why should you care about the people of southern West Virginia because the things happening here are happening all across America when industry abandons the people who made it great it leaves behind a lot more questions than answers and from the boarded-up factories in Michigan to the struggling farms of Iowa there are universal issues of foot but the best way to understand their depth and impact is to see these issues on a personal scale the story of mcdowell county west virginia is the story of an america that exists in every corner of the country paula was an invitation to explore that America in a unique and lightning and ultimately uplifting way from may to august six west virginia natives will be living in McDowell County we will be interviewing residents holding storytelling workshops and participatory mapping workshops but we need your help in order to start production we need to raise enough money to pay for travel and living expenses workshop fees and to buy five cameras to give to their community to create their own content all donations will be tax-deductible through our nonprofit fiscal sponsor documentary educational resources after production the cameras will be donated back into the community so that the storytelling can continue in May of 2013 interactive website will launch at that point users will be able to explore the mini Maps data visualizations and upwards of 50 documentary portraits produced by us in the community if you're thinking my ten dollars won't help you're wrong whether you just want to give a few dollars or a few thousand dollars you're helping this project come to life helping unheard voices be heard I encourage you to contact me with any questions regarding the project project team or our goals and want to thank you for taking the time to check out hollow you

We're All Data Scientists | Rebecca Nugent | TEDxCMU



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In her talk, Rebecca Nugent concentrates on the rise of Data Science and what it means for education at the bachelor’s and perhaps master’s level.

Street math | Laura Overdeck | TEDxJerseyCity



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Math isn’t just for the engineers and scientists out there. We all need number sense to make decisions in regular daily life. We’re bombarded with information, but we fail to put those numbers together usefully – and that leads us to make both small mistakes and big ones. See how simple street math shines light on the worst problems that we allow to continue in our society and in our own personal lives – and how being a little math savvy can turn them around.

Laura Bilodeau Overdeck is the founder of Bedtime Math, a nonprofit that helps kids love math. Over 50,000 kids and parents enjoy Overdeck’s wacky nightly math problems online and in her two books, with the third launching soon. Having garnered press in TIME Magazine, The New York Times and others, Bedtime Math has now launched Crazy 8s Club, a hands-on after-school math club for elementary-school-aged kids. Today there are more than 1,600 clubs serving over 25,000 kids, making it already the biggest after-school math club nationwide for grades K through 5.

In addition to being a social entrepreneur, Overdeck is Chair of the Overdeck Family Foundation, which supports math/science education reform. She is also Vice Chair of the Board of Liberty Science Center, and serves on the boards of Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth and Governor’s School of New Jersey. She holds a BA in astrophysics from Princeton University and an MBA from the Wharton School of Business.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

Translator: Yifat Adler
Reviewer: Denise RQ Hi, everyone. I'm Laura Overdeck and today,
we are going to talk about how our fear of numbers
in society trips us up in the most ordinary ways every day. Before we start,
just a couple of quick questions. How long do you think the stripes are?
The dashes in a road stripe on a road? They have a standard size. Most people guess
they are two or three feet. They're actually ten feet long. And the gaps between them are 30 feet,
about double the length of your car. How about highway signs? How big do you think
that little interstate shield is? It's always the same.
It's about 3 feet tall. It's probably about
half as tall as you are. These things are
much bigger than we think because thanks to speed and distance, they don't look the way they should, and you're going to find out
what size they are, only if you go and look up the numbers. And what's interesting is, even if we do know the numbers,
sometimes we totally blow it. Look at what we do to Alaska. You know, it's always
shoved in the corner. If you map Alaska to the same scale
as the US, this is what it looks like. It's huge. Now, the fact that Alaska
is a couple of thousand miles wide, doesn't really affect us day to day,
unless you happen to live in Alaska. But the road stripes do,
because we clearly don't really know how far we are from the car in front of us
when it slams on the brakes. And it turns out that that lack
of awareness of numbers pervades all kinds of actions we take
and decisions we make every day. The problem is that math in our society
is not really a popular subject, right? It is seen as a dry, tedious subject
that you study in school, and when you leave
the classroom you think: "Oh, I'm never going to
have to use that again." But the fact is, we see in the news
that technology jobs are going begging looking for people with the right skills,
and we depend on that. These are the innovators
who are going to develop cheap, clean fuel or new medicines, or all the other things
that we take for granted in our lives. So that's bad enough. But I would argue
we have a bigger problem, which is that everybody on the street
needs to know how to do math. Just to live daily life, to be able
to know what's happening to you, and how you make a good decision,
how your decisions will have an impact. And we're not talking about
complicated math, this is street math. This is just understanding numbers
and powers of ten and proportion. The problem is just like
not having street smarts, if you don't do the street math, you can really go down
some bad blind alleys. And as a society, collectively,
if we bumble long not doing the numbers, we can really go off the rails
on a couple of things as we're going to see. Now, thankfully the math is easy, so hopefully these are things
we can turn around. So let's start by looking at
how things pile up. Turns out there's something you do
every day for a certain number of minutes. If you multiply that by six, that tells you how many hours
a year you do it. So if you play video games
40 minutes a day, that doesn't sound so bad, right? But that's 240 hours a year. That's a week and a half of your life,
basically achieving nothing every year. And tasks we do add up that way too. So, if you wash your face
morning and night, and you take a towel and rub
to dry your eyes a couple of times, that's 1,800 times a year
that you are pulling on your eyes, and your crow's feet,
and the bags under your eyes. You don't want to do that, right? When you do the math,
you start to see how things pile up. And what is the math here?
It's just multiplying, which is the same as adding
the same number over and over. Things add up, and as they add up,
they start racking up zeros. Making one bad choice
as a one off is not so bad. But if you make that choice daily, in three months you've done it
almost a hundred times. In a year, that's a third of a thousand.
It really starts to rack up. What makes the numbers get really big, is when you multiplied that out not just
for you, but for everybody around you. So, when you are sitting in a traffic jam – because the road construction
next to you isn't done, and they're not really
hurrying up finishing it – it's not just your time that's racking up, it's all the people pumping through
that highway every day. Day after day, week after week.
We see this all the time. Jury selection. There're over 3,000 county court houses
around the country, all of them with people sitting for hours,
mostly waiting not to be picked. Or the DMV, right? The DMV makes you come, check in,
and then sometimes sit for an hour, before you can finish
your five minutes transaction. This is nothing short of sadism, right?
This is 50 shades of the DMV. (Laughter) And, you know, there's
no pleasure in it. This is painful. You know, there's no ticker in the sky, adding up everybody's hours
to see what really is the impact of making us all wait
not producing anything. The reason that we instinctively
know this is bad is because time is money,
everyone's time is worth something. If you have a job,
the market has put a value on that. If you're a family member
caring for child or an aging parent, you're producing something,
there's a value. Volunteers have value.
Everybody's time is worth something. So, every time you use
your time, that's a cost. So, if you drive a couple of miles
out of your way to get cheaper gas. Let's say it's 20 cents cheaper a gallon. So, if you fill a whole tank, that's going to come to
a few dollars, and that's good. The question is,
is that a good decision? People might say: "Well, you use
a little gas getting there." That fraction of a gallon
is not the swing vote here. The swing vote is the value of your time. Because if you take 10 minutes
out of your way to do this, at federal minimum wage that's a $1.20. Now, if you're not working,
and you have no opportunity cost, this might be a good decision because there isn't
much cost with your time. But if you're working,
you worth at least that, and if you make more,
your time is worth more. If you make 60,000 dollars a year,
those 10 minutes shake out to be 5 bucks. It might not be worth it. And the more you make, the more
out of balance it's going to be, and the better the deal
has to be to make it worth it. So, the point is every time
you make decisions where you use time, there's always a cost
aligned with the benefit. So, when you pick up something
instead of paying to have it delivered, or you hunt through the Internet or through your junk mail
and look for coupons, or on a bigger scale, if you take on a home improvement project
instead of hiring professionals to do it, in every one of those cases,
your time is costing something. And what's the math
that we are talking about here? Again, this is just multiplying, right? It's multiplying your time
by the dollars per hour. When you stop and do the math, you find that some of your decisions
don't shake out the balance the way you thought they were going to. Now, the reason you have to value
your time and look out for yourself, is because no one else
out there is going to do that. The Martha Stewart Living website
has organizing tips that are going to make your life better. This one says that you should
in your pantry keep a clipboard for every time you take
a scoop of Cheerios or a teaspoon and a half of salt, you should write that down, so you know
when everything is going to run out. Because you know, picking up the box
and shaking it doesn't work. I don't know that any responsible person
has ever sat with a stopwatch to see what kind of time that chews up, if you did that day after day
and week after week. Another tip on there said you should print out
little calendar shaped labels and put them all
on the food in the freezer so you know what date they went in. You know, a marker works just fine,
and takes like five seconds. Again, no one is valuing your time,
so it's not easy to see what the cost is. Again, as with jury selection, the DMV, when you multiply this out
over lots of people you get bigger and bigger effects. And sometimes with the best of intentions.
Look at the volunteering world. Charities are happy to ask for our time
to help them fund raise, right? To bake for the big sale, to round up the auction items
or sell ruffle tickets. I've never seen a non-profit
after the fact add up everybody's hours to see how much was put in, and how does that line up
with the money that was raised. Obviously there's a value
to volunteering. It feels good, people bond,
they're working towards a cause. But if this is a charity that's really
depending on that funding, the top priority really is to raise money. And if we are not doing
the math to value the time, we might not know whether
we're getting the most out of it. Now, we see a common theme here, which is that when we don't
see the numbers, it's harder to think about them. When your chocolate wrapper tells you
that calories exist only if you count them it's not actually true, they are there. And there are all kinds of numbers
that whistle by us all the time, that we are not thinking about it. So quick, how many of you know how much income tax you've paid
this year since January? Kind of have to stop
and think about it, right? Which is scary, because it is
one of the biggest chunks of change we hand over to somebody else every day. But why don't we think about it?
Because we don't see it. We never possess
some of that money to begin with, so we don't have to hand it back. And when we do catch
of a glimpse of it on a pay stub, it's usually weekly or biweekly,
it's little slices of numbers. We don't sense how the numbers pile up.
We are not doing the street math. Now, that leads to a third way
in which we kind of resist doing the math. And that is because we don't see how small numbers
pile up into the big ones, we don't see how small numbers
are a piece of the whole, and which pieces of the pie
are the important ones. So, a few years ago, I couldn't understand why our electric bill
kept going up at my house. Not just the dollars,
but the actual usage. So I crawled into the bushes
and learnt how to read our electric meter, and then I went and turned off
everything in the house, and I turned on one thing at a time to see what happened to the electric meter
and how much everything was using. And I was stunned by what I found. After the air conditioner, the biggest user of electricity
was the clothes drier. We kept having more kids
and more kids is more laundry. More loads per week,
more loads per month. The kids keep getting bigger and dirtier.
We just keep doing more laundry. And that really started to add up.
And that's what was driving it. And once we zeroed in and realized
what fraction of the whole mattered, we knew the solution. Stop having children.
(Laughter) Immediately.
Because that's where it counts. So, what's the math we talk about here?
Here we are talking about fractions. Just understanding parts of the whole. Americans hate fractions. It is the cliff that every kid, a lot of kids fall off
when they take standardized tests. This is the reason that restaurants
have to calculate the tip for us. Because taking one fifth makes us nervous.
It's not a comfortable topic. But, if there is one form
of street math we need to do, it's understanding parts of a whole, and how we can find
the highest priority thing to tackle. So, look at road rage.
If you're driving 60 miles an hour, yes, you can go a little faster
by weaving in and out of traffic, beeping at the idiot in front of you. You might be able to add on
three miles an hour. As you see, that's
really a tiny piece of the total. You have to drive an hour and 40 minutes
just to gain five minutes, if that's the gain you're getting, because it is
a small fraction of the total. Or, when you're looking at a budget. You know, chopping 20 percent
out of the yellow wedge fills good. But chopping 20 percent off
that other piece is a lot better. When we know how the pieces line up,
we make better decisions. We can see many cases in society
where we don't find the lever that's really going to move the needle. A perfect example is the SAT. This is the test that high schoolers take
that will make a break in many cases, their choice of college
they are going to get into. And if you line up kid's scores
against their family income, you see that the wealthiest kids
score the highest, the poorest kids score it lowest, and everybody else falls neatly
on a straight line between the two. And there's a really big gap. And people argue that test prep
is what's making that happen. It turns out if you look
at the mock numbers, test prep gets you an average
about a 30 point gain. It doesn't explain the 400 point gap
over the 3 sections added up for the wealthiest kids
versus the poorest kids. And that's because 50 hours of test prep
is not what we're looking at. What we're looking at is 16 or 17 years
of living a completely different life. Compared to the kids who are in trouble, kids who live comfortably
eat 6,000 more meals, because they've got
breakfast every morning. They're going to school
well-fed and ready to learn. They're being read to,
sometimes 10,000 more hours, because their parents know to do
that and can afford to take the time. They live in a house
with 50 books per child, rather than on our poorest neighborhoods, where it can be one book
for every 300 kids. So, by the time they've gotten here,
they've lived a 140,000 hours of a life that is completely different. 50 hours of test prep
is not going to turn it around. The math here is easy, right? 30 points? Or the remaining 370
that we should be thinking about. And by the way, schools
are only part of the solution. Before we beat on schools and teachers for not getting
our lowest performing kids to perform, you have to remember
that of the 8,800 hours that a kid lives in a year,
they spend about 1,100 in school. It's only part of the equation. For kids who are already in high school, we can't rewind and redo
what has happened. Test prep is all that's left. That's why it's so admirable
that Sal Khan at Khan Academy, and David Coleman at the College Board, are working to have free access
for everybody to test prep. It's a good thing it's free,
because these kids need a lot of it. Not even just to do well on this test,
but actually to learn the skills. To have the reading and the math skills
that we are talking about to be able to live everyday life. And for the kids who haven't got
in high school yet, it's a time to think about
doing a different calculus on how our communities provide
a fabric and a network for these kids. How we can provide more awareness,
and support, and resources for parents, so that we can nurture
the potential on every single kid. So as we see, numbers shine
bright light into dark corners that we might not want to look into. But we have to look into them, right?
Because this's how we turn around society. So, how do we turn this around? I think there are
three distinct parts to this. One is that from the get-go,
kids should learn to love math as something that is not only fun,
and cool, and beautiful, but totally woven into their normal life. You know, at night we read to kids, and so they learn to love books,
and as adults we read for pleasure. I never hear people talk about
"math for pleasure," right? And that should change. Kids should see that it is really part
of their playtime and their normal life. Secondly, in our schools, regardless
of what curriculum we are arguing about, it has to tie-in with real life
and decision making. Kids should taste the excitement
of the victory of a good decision. That's what our math should look like. Because that's what they're going to do
every day as grown-ups. And, finally, for those of us
who already are grown-ups, we have to retrain our thinking,
we have to do the street math. We have to see how there are numbers
behind everything around us, and in every decision we make, and that there's a number in every object,
and chunk of time, and chunk of money. If we are aware of that,
we can make the better decisions. And in most cases the numbers
are all out there waiting for us. We just have to do the math. Thank you. (Applause)

Synthetic Biology In Space | Lisa Nip | TEDxBeaconStreet



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Molecular and synthetic biology have made better tools for the understanding of our bodies, the treatment of human diseases, the production of our food sources …

America, A Look Back: The Real West (Documentary)



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I'm Tom Brokaw it was a robust lusty breed of American who set out a century and a half ago to conquer the Old West for 40 years other covered wagons followed crossing a continent moving slowly through an unknown and frightening land leaving behind a trail of legend and legerdemain ever since historians have been trying to sort it out the fork in the trail between fact and fiction one of the first documentaries to deflate the myth makers is the one that you're about to see the real West another in the award-winning NBC News project 20 series the narrator is a legend himself actor Gary Cooper whose cowboy roles and movies symbolized the Western pioneer courageous laconic so time now to move out to put history straight as we head toward the real West this could be Elkhorn Montana just a few miles from where I was born and raised it could be rhyolite Nevada or Bodie California or Terrell linguae Texas or Kendall area or Tuscarora for treasurer city any one of a slew of them well the names don't matter they're they're just epitaph for places that died ghost towns and they're all part of the Old West that's been dead itself for going on 60 years the real West and that was where was a big piece of country it stretched some said from Beelzebub to breakfast but if you're if you drop a line down the hundredth Meridian like this everything on this side of it with an annual rainfall of less than 20 inches that was the West the worst some called it said all it liked to be paradise was plenty of water and society which of course is all they lack in health the real West lasted only about 40 years it took place between between to go and get its and two hoops in a holler and what went on in between was the whole westward movement they call it the greatest mass migration since the Crusades but the real West wasn't where or when it was it was who it was people real people were pioneers and builders and and destroyers and all of them restless and dissatisfied listen to contented ones stayed in the East and those who West it Bret Hart said were those who who needed a fresh deal all around they gathered at the river and the river was the Missouri the gathering places were st. Joe and Westport landing Leavenworth and Omaha Portsmouth and independents and the river towns men who would stay behind watch the immigrants says they rendezvous and waited for the grass to spring on the Oregon Trail to the valley of the Willamette on the Santa Fe and California trails to the golden slopes of the Sierras here was the last outpost of civilization it'll come hard wrote one pioneer to have to say goodbye to so much elegance and refinement west of here cash money would have no value so it was swapped off for things that would coffee and chips biscuit hog tallow and dried apples wagon tires and quinine revolving pistols and gold separating machinery and patented plows and maybe a small sack of peppermint striped candy trains of wagons were formed up and organized into emigrant companies many of them pool their resources and sold shares of stock had their own bylaws and officers articles were drawn up and signed by members who had to swear that they were industrious not addicted to card strong drink or profane language and of sweet and peaceable disposition many men signed with their real names it seemed the one observer that this was the grandest transmigration of greenhorns since the children of Israel set out to reach kenan sinners and saints the wise and the innocent one of them said we are a mixed lot but so were the first pilgrims most of the new pilgrims would take nothing with them but hope and whatever could be stowed in the wagon and a few took nothing with them but memories of places they would never see again like three Ohio teenagers running away from home to find gold and fight Indians New Jersey newlyweds off to build a nest in the New Eden a Hartford Widow hoping to find a new husband and father for her children in Charleston piano fort maker deserting his wife and his creditors they foreclosed York state farmer looking for a greener and on mortgaged pastures a Mississippi Monti dealer seeking fatter fish and less troubled waters a seminary graduate looking for an uncultivated vineyard in which to labor and to lead them all into the wilderness they would engage a professional wagon master with the authority of a sea captain and the honorary title of major these them were the ones who went west they and thousands like and unlike them they went in wagons and carts and buggies and some walked all the way more than 2,500 miles they had three basic motives for going to get something to get away from something and just to get there and the book said that the Lord said I will bring you out of affliction into a land flowing with milk and honey the Overland Trail the longest road in history was a river of white top wagons we haven't seen neither end of our train in 18 days wrote one immigrant the teams of those ahead of them had eaten most of the trail grass so they had to feed their oxen and horses and mules on precious grain they'd saved for the desert for a thousand miles they followed the Platte River the Nebraska seacoast they call it and it took so many bends at one party crossed the river 20 times the early ones found shallow water the late starters would meet the spring floods they camped in the heat of the day they called it mooning it gave them a chance to visit and catch up on their housekeeping this gypsy life is anything but agreeable one woman wrote it is impossible to keep anything clean cookie and washed water were scarce and often harsh with alkali Davy tells must be put on while still damp a mother complained or small infants over land it could be one long diaper rash which lower their resistance to disease and no family could travel too fast for cholera immigrants guidebooks were reassuring prairie navigation is simple merely follow the wheel ruts of the wagons which have preceded you if you travel at the normal rate for oxen of three miles a day there are enough natural beacon so that you will never need a compass the atmosphere is so clear that landmarks like chimney rock will be observable for weeks before they are reached it might have added that the immigrants to would be under observation the first sight of Indians kindled fears of feathered and fiery death for the women of a fate worse than death the immigrants were indignant to discover that even the friendliest tribes considered them not pioneers but Crispus urge they'd parley only to extort outrageous tribute for grass and firewood and a loss of some gain frightened by our wagons they are friendly only so long as it serves their purpose and only if you are well armed and look resolute how long will government tolerate these savage impediments to progress and Industry it is three months since we left independence hardship and disease have cruelly reduced our party the agent and very young die first the women persevere best and set a brave example but our journey is only half made who of us will complete it where the Snake River joined the Humboldt the trail split here they had to choose between the desert and the mountains the high road was the shortest as the crow flies but it was mostly Eagles which tried it and the clumsy top-heavy wagons which struggled to reach the passage before they were winter din they had to hurry to beat the first snow and to avoid the fate of the Donner Party 45 of whom survived only by eating the bodies of the 36 who didn't over the wind rivers the bitterroots the Wasatch the pan immense the High Sierras beyond every mountain that seemed there was another mountain but if there was danger in the mountains there was no safety at sea level one traveler wrote of the desert trails It was as though the hand of death had been laid upon the country where it was a patchy country death had a few extra hands we have just learned that the party ahead of us has nearly perished of thirst and there is one behind us carrying the smallpox it is more than 100 degrees of heat truly we are traversing hell with the fires banked it is milestone with what once were precious belongings but such sentiments are too burdensome for exhausted horses our map promised that at this place we could find good grass and water but it lied the grass was poisonous and the spring was dry another company had traveled 80 miles without water then almost drowned in the cloudburst their stock stampeded and their wagons the wood desiccated in the heat fell apart our cattle sickened on the water and foundered and had to be left behind but ours was not the only loss dead animals averaged 102 the mile and an immigrant's diary said there are about 80 graves to the hundred miles that is new ones each of these marked the high-water point of somebody's hopes all of them strung together mark the trail for others just as hopeful to follow in the great getting there there were no failures they all put down their roots in the new land even these if the way west was a river of wagons then the strongest current was the gold rush not just the one in 49 there were actually seven gold rushes more than that if you count the runs for silver gold and silver copper in fact anything shiny that would assay out to that dream of getting rich without working it was that dream that sent them out seeing their Susanna's that they were off to Sacramento with their wash bowls on their knees off to see the elephant California or blessed Washoe or bust Pikes Peak or bust the Black Hills are us most of them got there and and some of them busted but the real noise was boom wherever there was a rumor and a hole in the ground they they Jerry built the camp around it and they christened Imran D Ghosh and piety Hill Hills Delight and gouge I never sweat and swell head and petticoats slide Romeo's burg and Juliet's Ville each one claimed it was built Spang on top of the mother lode and its main street would be cobbled with golden nuggets for the camps were really founded on the bedrock belief that the West was as advertised so rich in mineral wealth that King Solomon's Mines are simply out of the running the discovery of rubies emeralds and fossilized pearls are expected momentarily in the meanwhile of course the town could always mine the miners back in the States young men were getting letters saying there are mighty few ladies here and they don't come close to handsome but that's not held against them anyway Sabbath breaking is the principal preoccupation along with wholesale consumption of grain spirits the local liquors contain a thousand songs and a hundred fights to the barrel sell your mule bill burn your farm and rent your church pew and come out here where things are doing everyone should be a millionaire they say if you wash your face in the Yellowstone River you can pan four ounces of dust out of your whiskers if you stump your toe on a rock in Montana don't cuss it cash it have you heard there's a solid silver mountain and the pana mints and in Dakota window-curtains assay out a dollar to the ton after a dust storm rumors and everyone sent thousands of would be millionaires of nameless creeks to wash away nameless mountains a pound at a time and to flush them over the riffles of a sluice box the placer mining picking it up off the ground began to play out glory holes had to be deepened lengthened into tunnels and galleries they never worked so hard in their life to get rich without working some did strike it rich enough to keep the others grubbing away at what an Eastern paper called the world's deepest underground lunatic asylum for every lucky customer and every Comstock miles of tunnels were veined with nothing but disappointment I couldn't make money on my claim if I fell down the shaft of seven dollars a foot far from home and Marianne the miners generally were unmarried unchurched and unwashed they had to send their clothes all the way to China to be laundered and spent their spare time frustrating the efforts of Eastern missionary societies law they said is five cartridges in the cylinder justice is the one in the chamber anyone found guilty of high grading claim-jumping or general nuisance quickly got a suspended sentence high-grade ore became harder to extract with just a tin pan on a sharp stick it began to cost money to make money mining companies capitalized in the East moved into the Dames they imported complicated machinery stamped mills and refining equipment and a new breed of hardrock miner he was usually cousin Jack an immigrant Cornishmen a professional he dug for wages and he worked in shifts for the first time men were being paid to come West when they started mining with the fire hose hydraulic hang out the low-grade ore and sending the pile back east to be spent by stockholders it was time for the jackass miner to move out besides the true Bonanza was really over the next mountain where the grass was a little bit greener the Mules tail was the prospectors compass and all they had to do was follow and it would lead them to the golden boulders of the Madre de Oro then there was always a solid silver mountain slide down and on a sharp Runner sled and gather up the shavings and the ghost – the Lost Dutchman the mislaid pegleg The Phantom Peralta if somebody had to search for them beyond the next rise into the next Valley was always El Dorado the mule would find it the man would know it and through it would be flowing a river of pure gold if the prospector was always looking for greener grass and so was the cattle man he grazed his herds wherever the grass grew and the water was good and the range was open he could over graze and over stalk and generally go broke about any time he wanted to so til he got the reputation of being absolutely independent and it was sometimes true the Stockman was pretty hard to Cork it wasn't healthy to call him a cattle farmer which he was or his paid health hired hands on horseback which they were they considered themselves individualist and if you threw one of them in the river he'd just naturally float upstream well they didn't have much use either for big business or big government these were these were Eastern thing and they regarded the East for the same scorn that the Easterner regarded Europe he put a man like that on horseback and he's in the position to look down on everyone else a man of what they said is there's no man at all and they had downright contempt for any labor which couldn't be performed from the Huracan deck of a cow pony you could tell we're in the West they came from by the shape of their hats and the Flair of their shops only the eastern Tenderfoot call them Cowboys they call themselves Leggero Waddy Wrangler cow Han they said all you needed to become one was guts and a horse and with enough guts you could steal the horse a ranch was just a cattle farm it could be so big you add the grease the wagon twice to get from the front door to the front gate or just a cap and ball outfit held together with Wang strain on a mortgage either way it was a magnet for the kind of kid who used to run away to see the Texas newspaper complained there is hardly a boy learning a trade or reading for a profession west of the Colorado as soon as they can climb on a corny they're off to the Prairie to drive start up the Chisholm Trail the Sedalia Trail the good night loving the Western and the Shawnee this was the long drive from Texas to the railhead towns of Kansas and Missouri a thousand mile walk to the market to deliver a word a dimly domesticated beef the Longhorns were as treacherous as the backlash of a bullwhip later the breed was white faced and nipple need the spookier than a wing busted bird in a cat country the swing riders rode double the distance by rounding up strays and the point rider never knew when it had it blow off and stampede the whole herd up his shirttail before he could spittin hotter Audi if you rode drag you ain't dust all the way for these labors they were paid one recalled damn few money and a hell of a lot of beans our chief recreation was cussing a man whose boots the cook brewed the coffee in on the trail the chuck wagon was parlour bedroom bath and gents ordinary for the cowhand and finally on the day before they reached town it was the barbershop two in the morning they would get their low-necked clothes out of the wagon cut out their sugar eating sundae horse and hightail it for the nearest hitch in rack for months they had slept on prairie feathers with only a backbone for a mattress for the next week they figured on not getting to bed at all quietly patiently the cowtowns at the end of the drive waited for the trail hands to get paid off a newspaper described one as the rendezvous of all the unemployed scallywag ISM in seven states her coat of morals is the honor of thieves her principal business is polygamy and decency she knows not her only visible means of support is Rowdy ISM and 17 saloons furnished the inspiration for it the Texans call the townsmen paper collared Comanches who waited in ambush to buy their beef and see that the weight of the money didn't burden their journey home who rang a town was a semi competitive indoor sport it generally meant a visit to the ladies of the line and a wholehearted dedication to downing popsicle whiskey quicker than it could each the glass a lot of cow hands carried pistols hugely rusty but a few of them could grab fast enough to hit anything but their own toes trouble usually came when unreconstructed Texas rebels played cards with Yankees who thought the North had won the Civil War a reexamination of first Manassas through Appomattox plus the slimmest suspicion of a bottom deal or a cold deck was quite apt to bring down the hammer on 40 grains of black powder it was said that pulling up a town to look at its roots didn't help its growth none besides had rattled a dealer and was bad for business which wasn't appreciated if the principal dealers were also the police force dodge city's peace commission boasted three notorious professional gamblers except with cards none of them was a quick-draw artist take your time and don't miss that's what Bat Masterson said The Undertaker's friend is what they called Luke short because he always shot his victims where it didn't show a colleague of his named Wyatt Earp never rose higher than assistant marshal partly because of his friendship with Doc Holliday a psychopathic dentist and Doc's lady love big nose Kate wild bill hickok the long-haired marshal of Abilene and Hays made his headquarters in back of a bordello and gloried in his legend which he invented himself he didn't survive to enjoy it but the myth of the two gun Galahad did the dime novel invented a whole cavalry of glorified ambush artists and the dime novel was invented by Ned Buntline a hack writer who got rich by putting the Yahoo on horseback and making him seem larger than life the Sam Colt had made all men the same size the real West knew what had really thought of its own outcasts one of our banking institutions was visited yesterday by the firm of Dalton brothers with the purpose of closing out several large accounts when the transaction was completed they had been paid in full with interest compounded the price on the head of Jesse James did not indicate his true value to society there was a considerable discount on that it took some doing to fit the James boys into the Robin Hood legend if they robbed only the rich it was because there was no profit in robbing the poor and Jesse killed often out of sheer meanness it was allowed that Jesse and Frank honored their father and mother so did their cousins the youngers the otherwise self righteously obeyed certain other carefully selected Commandments but reading further into the book out of 28 members of the james-younger gang who lived by the sword 19 died the same way the hole-in-the-wall gang there was another over publicized pack of pariahs and their ending made a liar out of Ned Buntline too they followed an older text with what measure ye mete it shall be measured to you again William Bonney jr. was a homicidal moron from the slums of New York before he was killed he had murdered a man for each of his 21 years and left nothing behind but a myth they called it Billy the Kid the myth makers didn't forget the ladies the fairest flowers of the Prairie they called them but tickle the Westerners why's that they were usually referring to such charming specimens of Eve's flesh as big mini blonde Marie crazy horse lil and Madame mustache and there was Martha Jane canary an excessively soiled dove known at a safe downwind distance from history as calamity jane the dime novelists who called her virtuous also called Belle Starr beautiful law was late reaching the West but order and sometimes even justice was enforced by vigilante officers of the midnight court judge Lynch presiding the man trackers of a posse didn't read dime novels a whole lot so they didn't know how tough the law Dodgers were puffed up to be they were a pretty hard case locked themselves the kind of reading they favored most were the coroner's verdicts they helped to write when the fugitive was found he was so full of holes that the coarsest food was of no use cause of death stoppage of the breath occurring while guests of honor at a meeting of the uplift society died of a foe when the platform on which he was standing suddenly gave way it was finally becoming unfashionably to die with your boots on what the Easterners were already calling the Wild West that hardly and hardly really got woolly before it began to feel the currycomb of civilization for one thing too many men had burned too many beans the winter seemed longer and the lonesome seemed thicker so they so they wrote home for Marianne and when she arrived by the thousands respectable and strong-willed she said we've got to make this a fit country to raise kids in and then the West knew it was gonna have to start shaving on Sunday and stop wearing its Galison looked across its butt Goldust had gotten gritty to the taste and was was mighty thin nourishment and a can of peaches looked real good to a man who had been on a steady diet of his own or his neighbor's beat trade was that was a real civilizer so in the east they put wheels on cash and credit and rolled them across the wide Missouri it was the greatest race in history the Civil War was on the Union Pacific of the Central Pacific were track laying from both ends to the middle to bowl America together east and west before it blew apart north and south West was in a hurry for its railroad troops had to be sent to fight the Indians rifle shipped to the Indians to fight the troops and the settlers sent to be protected by the troops against the Indians and car loads of celluloid collars for the settlers cable twist tobacco non-typical spittoons all that is needful as one pioneer said to transform the wilderness into Arcadia the Indian called the railroad plenty wagon no horse he watched it cutting his land in two and only hoped it would hurry with those rifles as a bonus there was a federal land grant for each mile of track laid after five years they met a promontory point Utah for the driving of a final Golden Spike it was engraved may God continue the unity of our country as this railroad unites the two great oceans of the world the Central Pacific president missed the spike and hit the rail the Union Pacific president in his own shin somebody in a sweaty undershirt got the two oceans properly joined said one Sullivant all I remember is that there was a great abundance of champagne now the West was really open for business to populate its right-of-way with customers land which the railroads had gotten for nothing was so cheap some of the best farmers in the world fugitives from Russian and Prussian tyranny and Irish Famine flocked over to take through trains without a change of cars to that land of milk and honey there was free land to the Homestead Act opened millions of acres of prairie to anyone who could prove up on it Uncle Sam bet them a hundred and sixty acres of land that they couldn't live on it for eight months but most of them stayed they built their homes of sod Nebraska marble they called it and they fueled their fires with Buffalo chips life wasn't easy for these sodbusters for a Pioneer Woman this could be a long day rose about 5:00 cut my housework done baked 6 more loaves of bread made a kettle of mush put my clothes away and set my house in order nine o'clock p.m. was delivered of another son they were called Saudis and nesters and plow jockeys they raise hardy crops and sturdy children they put the roots down deep because they were the ones who came not to rape the land nor robit but to make it rich and harvest the fruit of it and to make it rich again they had unraveled the devil's hatband to make barbed wire and they fenced off the West with it finally there was no more free land left except for a corner of Oklahoma Territory it had been given to the Indians for their proposed state of Sequoyah but that didn't matter much it was opened up for settlement by anyone who could get there except Indians the last unassigned lands and the West were thrown up for grabs 50,000 land seekers showed up the legal ones were boomers Sooners were the ones who sneaked in the night before many were speculators who staked out claims not to settle on but to sell claims are protected here in two ways they said by lever-action and by legal action but winchester litigation was nearly out of style law was the thing in Oklahoma and if possession was nine points of it that other one point kept plenty of lawyers doing a land office business [Applause] the great outdoors was gridiron dinted town lots the people of the wide-open spaces had used up the land and started to huddled together city life would make it easier to acquire material wealth communicable diseases and culture [Applause] education had never been unvalued west of the Missouri but now it is no longer rude and occasional and communities boasted of their schools with all the brag they used to reserve for their saloons and they were in God's country that they knew and most of them admitted it and were grateful so they built him a house the best in town they did what they set out to do they made it a fit country to raise kids in and when they did that the westward movement was over at one time one out of every hundred Americans was involved in the opening of the West there was glory in what they did just in getting there there was glory but there was tragedy too because someone was there first he and the people of the Prairie in the plains the Sioux decreed Arapaho the Kiowa crow Cheyenne Shoshoni Pawnee and the people of the mountains and the foothills of the mountains the Blackfoot Nate parish saved Assiniboine and MODOK and the people of the desert and the dry places the ute the Navajo the Hickory Apache Mescalero shirokawa and they looked across the land and they saw that it grew sweet grass and at war the buffalo for a robe then the destroyers came and turned it into a slaughterhouse skinners took the hides by the thousand ton and left the meat to rot the meat hunters came to Philly the tongue in a hump and left the rest to run then the sportsmen they killed and left it all to rock and when there was nothing left the Indian wondered whose bones next would be gathered by the scavengers and the soldiers came and wondered the same thing they drew down $13 a month and sang we're marching off for Sitting Bull and this is the way we go forty miles a day on beans and hay in the Regular Army oh the Indians called him dog face wagon gun soldier and heat walk man and he wondered what was he doing so far from home and like soldiers everywhere he passed the time drilling and housekeeping and waiting for something to happen and the officers one of them said because she married a pair of pumpkin rind shoulder straps with no influence in the War Department my wife must share my exile in the middle of a Sahara at the bottom of the promotion list the officers and men of the frontier departments heroically enforced the treaties of a civilian Indian Bureau they despised for its stupidity and corruption of one Peace Commission Sitting Bull's said I would have more faith in the grandfather in Washington if he did not have so many bald-headed thieves working for him but the Indians crime was greater he was in the way I was born on the Prairie where the winds blew free and there was nothing to break the light at the Sun although you say go to another country I am here and here is where I'm going to be why do you shut us up on a reservation we want peace but let us go wherever we please as the Americans do the white man has the country which we love and we only wish to wander on the Prairie until we die I want no blood upon my land to stain the grass all we ask is to be let alone if the grandfather can control his young men we shall have peace what treaty have the whites ever made with us that they have ever kept not one tell the grandfather at Washington not to let the white man come into our country that is what they promised in their treaty and then the white man spoke the more I see of these Indians the more convinced I am that they all have to be killed or maintained as a species of paupers the only good Indian is a dead Indian kill off scalpel little and big nits make lice when the Indian spoke again he said the whites want war and we will give it to them the longest war was over the 28 year war it was a civil war fought between two American armies on their own American soil where they had fought the grass grew richer new owned Sand Creek the Ouachita the rosebud Salt River Canyon the Little Bighorn slim buttes big hole Wounded Knee but the war was over long before the last battle when a gallant Indian warrior said I am tired of fighting our Chiefs are all cold the old men are all dead the little children are freezing to death my people have run away to the hills and have no food no one knows where they are I want to have time to look for my children maybe I shall find them among the dead hear me my Chiefs I am tired my heart is sad and sick from where the Sun now stands I will fight no more forever the real West it lasted only 40 years and then it was finished if it's a good land and it grows good people it's because it's been irrigated by a lot of sweat and spit and blood tears have fallen on it too and a little snakehead whiskey an old-timer said it best it's big and pretty now all right and I helped build it but by damn wouldn't it be fun to tear it down and start all over again such was the face of the real West historians say there were nearly 600 Desperados terrorizing the state of New Mexico alone that the army fought more than 800 battles with hostile Indians over a 27 year period legend and legerdemain don't die easily somewhere up the trail around a campfire the stories never change and perhaps that's the way we like them to be told I'm Tom Brokaw and this has been another in this series America Macbeth

The United States of America – summary of the country's history



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This video is a summary of the history of the United States of America, since the arrival of the first colonists in North America until today.

Patreon:

English translation & voiceover: Rahul Venkit
French version (original):

Music: Lint Roller – Cxdy (Youtube library)
Software used: Adobe After Effects

نبدأ في عام 1750 في أمريكا الشمالية. مر 150عاما على وصول المستوطنين من أوربة الغربية إلى القارة الأمريكية،و قد هرب عامتهم من الفقر، المجاعة، الاضطهاد الديني،الاضطهاد السياسي, استيطانهم تم على حساب الملايين من الأمريكيين الأصلين أو الهنود الحمر الذين عاشوا هناك منذ آلاف السنين في قبائل متعددة, على الساحل الشرقي ، أنشأت بريطانيا العظمى
مستعمرات سكنها 1.5 مليون شخص. اعتمد اقتصاد المناطق الشمالية أساسا على الصيد
والتجارة ، بينما في الجنوب ازدهرت المنتجات الاستهلاكية لكون المناخ مثاليا لها مثل التبغ، الأرز، القطن, أصحاب الأراضي الأثرياء كما يسميهم الفلاحون، استولوا
على مساحات شاسعة من الأراضي، و تم تسخير الرقيق الإفريقي لاستغلالها عن طريق خط التجارة المثلثي, غربا،تتشكل جبال الآبالاش
الحدود الطبيعية. علاوة على ذلك ، توجد مستعمرة فرنسية شاسعة ، توجد بشكل رئيسي خارج أراضي تجارة الفراء. تصاعد التوتر بين المستعمرتين الفرنسية و الإنكليزية انحدت قبائل الهنود الحمر مطالبة برحيل البريطانيين, لتهدئة الوضع سارعت الحكومة البريطانية إلى رسم منطقة محايدة للهنود بين الآبالاش ، المسيسيبي
النهر والبحيرات الكبرى. هذا لم يرض المستعمرين الذين أرادوا اغتنام الفرصة لتوسيع أراضيهم غربا. بالإضافة إلى ذلك ، ثبت أيضا أن الحرب مكلفة لحكومة بريطانيا. انتظرت الدولة من مستعمراتها سداد جزء من ديونها اعتمادا على واردات ضرائب جديدة مما أغضب المستوطنين. مثلا، خلال احتجاج ضد الضرائب على الشاي، تنكر المستوطنون بزي السكان الأصليين و اعتلوا متن سفن شركة الهند الشرقية البريطانية و رموا صناديق الشاي في المحيط. لما ازداد التوتر، اجتمع ممثلو اثنتي عشرة مستعمرة في فيلاديلفيا لتنظيم المؤتمر القاري الأول. فقرروا مقاطعة البضائع البريطانية. عام بعد ذلك، اندلعت "حرب الاستقلال" بين المتمردين أو "الوطنيين" ضد الحكومة البريطانية و مواليها. في 4 يوليو 1776 ، أعلن المؤتمر القاري الثاني استقلال الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية رأت فرنسا فرصة للانتقام من هزيمتها
في حرب السنوات السبع. و لما استثمرت بكثافة في أسطولها العسكري ، اكتسبت القدرة على منافسة مع البحرية الملكية البريطانية. فتحالفت فرنسا مع الوطنيين. شاركت إسبانيا والمقاطعات المتحدة الهولندية في الحرب ضد بريطانيا العظمى. في عام 1783 ، انتصر الوطنيون ، مما اضطر بريطانيا
للاعتراف باستقلال البلاد. كسبت الولايات المتحدة الأراضي حتى نهر
ميسيسيبي ، بينما كانت فلوريدا من نصيب إسبانيا. و هي أول مستعمرة أروبية تحقق الاستقلال تبنت الولايات المتحدة الدستور القائم
على الفصل الصارم بين السلطات. فالسلطة التشريعية أو الكونغرس الذي يمكنه تمرير
القوانين والميزانيات أما القضاء ممثلا بالمحكمة العليا يشكل تعزيزا للدستور وأخيرا هناك السلطة التنفيذية متضمنة الرئيس الأمريكي ، رئيس الحكومة. من ناحية أخرى ، تحتفظ الولايات الـ 13 بسيادتها على أرضها و لها دستورها الخاص و حاكمها تقرر بناء العاصمة الجديدة ، واشنطن ،
على طول نهر بوتوماك. بالنسبة للمناطق الغربية سمح لـ 60،000 مواطن حر على الأقل بتشكيل دولة جديدة تساوي الآخرين. انطلق الرواد للانتقال إلى هناك ، مما دفع القبائل الأمريكية الهندية إلى الخلف غرب نهر المسيسيبي. في عام 1800 ، حصلت فرنسا على لويزيانا من إسبانيا
في مقابل مملكة إتروريا. ولكن ثبت أن من الصعب حماية هذا الشاسع ،
الأراضي البعيدة & نسبيا أقل شهرة. خوفًا من فقدان لويزيانا للولايات المتحدة
المملكة في الحرب ، فرنسا تقرر بيع المنطقة إلى الولايات المتحدة. ثم يقوم الكونغرس بتمويل الحملات لاستكشافها
والوصول إلى المحيط الهادئ. في أوروبا وفرنسا والمملكة المتحدة اشتباك مرة أخرى. تحاول الولايات المتحدة أولاً أن تظل محايدة ،
ولكن بعد التوترات مع بريطانيا ، تدخل الحرب. فشل في محاولة لغزو مستعمرة
كندا ، كغارة بحرية بريطانية يصل واشنطن ويحرق المدينة. في نهاية الحرب ، تتخلى الولايات المتحدة
طموحاتها في الشمال ويركز على الجنوب حيث الإمبراطورية الإسبانية في تراجع. توغل عسكري في فلوريدا يسمح – بعد
المفاوضات – ضم الإقليم. في الغرب ، يتم تقاسم ولاية أوريغون مع الولايات المتحدة
مملكة. شرق المسيسيبي ، خمس قبائل أمريكية هندية
تتكيف مع المستوطنين المستقرة ونمط الحياة الزراعية ، ولكن الكونغرس مع ذلك
يقرر الاستيلاء على الأرض ويدفع السكان الأصليين إلى محمية غرب المسيسيبي. يموت الآلاف من الإرهاق في الطريق. في المكسيك ، تعلن تكساس ، التي يسكنها بشكل أساسي مستوطنون من الولايات المتحدة ، عن استقلالها. بعد الحرب ، يتم إنشاء جمهورية تكساس
وفي عام 1845 تم ضمها إلى الولايات المتحدة. ولكن كما يتم تعريف الحدود سيئة ، على حد سواء
البلدان في حالة حرب. تسود الولايات المتحدة وتستغل الفرصة
لضم نيو مكسيكو وكاليفورنيا حيث اكتشاف الذهب يسبب الاندفاع الذي يجذب
مئات الآلاف من الرواد من جميع الأصول. مع كون الطريق البري خطيرًا ، يتم استثمار الأموال الخاصة في بناء خط سكة حديد في بنما. يتم قبول ولاية كاليفورنيا ، والتي
لا يوجد عبودية. الولايات الجنوبية زراعية إلى حد كبير ولديها عبودية ؛ في حين أن الولايات الشمالية صناعية وعقابية. يرغب الجانبان في توسيع نموذجهما ليشمل الدول الغربية الجديدة ، مما تسبب في اتساع الفجوة بينهما. في عام 1860 ، ابراهام لنكولن ، الذي هو معادي ل
العبودية ، ينتخب رئيسا للبلاد. ردا على ذلك، انفصلت الولايات الجنوبية عن
الولايات المتحدة واحدا تلو الآخر والفرقة معا لإعلان الولايات الكونفدرالية الأمريكية. ثم تبدأ الحرب الأهلية التي تحفر الوحدويين
الشمال ضد اتحادات الجنوب. الشمال يضع حصارا بحريا على
ساحل المحيط الأطلسي ، قطع أي إمكانات الدعم من أوروبا ومنع صادرات القطن. في عام 1865 ، يسود الشمال ويأخذ
فرصة لفرض سياساتها. تم القضاء على العبودية ، و 3.5 مليون من العبيد
يتم تحريرها. لكن الأمريكيين من أصل أفريقي الآن هم ضحايا التمييز
والعنصرية ، وخاصة من خلال ظهور كو كلوكس كلان ، وهي منظمة بيضاء متفوقة. يهاجر الكثيرون إلى الشمال ، بينما ينتقل آخرون
إلى المدن. الإمبراطورية الروسية تخشى خسارة ألاسكا
بريطانيا ، لذلك يختار بيع الأراضي الى الولايات المتحدة. لتسريع غزوها للغرب ، تمول الحكومة البناء خطوط السكك الحديدية العابرة للقارات. في وسط البلاد ، والاختراع
من الآلات الجديدة يسمح الزراعة المكثفة. مزارع واسعة من القمح والذرة والكبيرة
يتم تعيين المراعي على حساب آخر 250،000 من الهنود الحمر الذين يتم الاحتفاظ بهم في الاحتياطيات. من ناحية أخرى ، فإن التربة الغنية تسمح بسرعة
تطوير الصناعة. القارة القديمة ، أوروبا ، الآن تطل على الولايات المتحدة
الدول باعتبارها الدورادو. هرباً من الفقر والاضطهاد الديني ،
العديد من جنوب وشرق أوروبا يهاجرون إلى الولايات المتحدة حيث يعملون رخيصة
العمل. لكن الطفرة الاقتصادية لا تفيد سوى أقلية. مجموعة النخبة من الصناعيين تزداد ثراءً
بسرعة عن طريق إنشاء الاحتكارات في القطاعات مثل الصلب والسكك الحديدية والنفط والبنوك في
حساب العمال والفلاحين بما في ذلك النساء والأطفال الذين يعملون في ظروف قاسية. تندلع الإضرابات والاحتجاجات بشكل أفضل
الظروف ، ولكن هذه غالبا ما تقابل بالعنف من قبل الميليشيات الخاصة أو الحرس الوطني. بينما القوى الأوروبية تستعمر جزءًا كبيرًا
من العالم ، والولايات المتحدة تبدو أيضا لتوقع سلطتها على الدولي
مشهد. بينما ضم هاواي في منتصف عام
المحيط الهادئ ، يتحول البلد إلى كوبا حيث يوجد تمرد ضد الأسبان. الولايات المتحدة تدعم المستقلين الكوبيين. بعد الانفجار الغامض للبحرية الأمريكية
السفينة في ميناء هافانا اندلعت الحرب بين إسبانيا والولايات المتحدة. الولايات المتحدة تفوز وتحصل على استقلال كوبا وتسيطر على بورتوريكو وغوام والفلبين. وبذلك تصبح البلاد قوة استعمارية. في كولومبيا ، تبدأ شركة فرنسية في البناء
من القناة التي من شأنها أن تربط بين المحيطين تقصير كبير في الرحلة بين
شرق الولايات المتحدة والساحل الغربي. الولايات المتحدة تشتري المشروع ثم
تتدخل لدعم استقلال بنما. في المقابل ، تقدم حكومة بنما الجديدة
الولايات المتحدة قطاع من الأرض مما يساعد على استكمال بناء القناة ، افتتح في عام 1914. في أوروبا ، تبدأ الحرب العالمية الأولى. مع العمال والفلاحين على الخطوط الأمامية ،
صناعة في القارة يبطئ. صناعة الولايات المتحدة تستفيد من هذا و
– على الرغم من حياد البلاد في الحرب – يبيع على ذخيرة الائتمان ، والغذاء ، والملابس
والسيارات إلى البلدان Entente. ردا على ذلك ، تحاول ألمانيا فرض البحرية
الحصار عن طريق غرق السفن التجارية في المياه البريطانية. في عام 1917 ، برقية ألمانية متجهة إلى المكسيك
يتم اعتراضها ، مما يقترح تحالفًا عسكريًا ضد الولايات المتحدة. هذا يدفع الولايات المتحدة لخوض الحرب
على جانب الوفاق ويتم إرسال مليوني جندي إلى الجبهات الأوروبية. 116000 جندي يفقدون حياتهم. بعد انتصار الوفاق ، تجد أوروبا
نفسها مدينون للولايات المتحدة. اقتصاد المنقبين في الولايات المتحدة. في المصانع ، والتحسينات في التجمع
خط يسبب الإنتاج إلى صعود الأسعار وانخفاض الأسعار. ارتفاع القوة الشرائية ونتائج الائتمان
في طفرة لبيع السيارات جميع أنواع الأجهزة ، وأسهم البنك. هوليوود تصبح صناعة كبرى ذات عالمية
تأثير. بفضل بيع أجهزة الراديو ، وأنواع الموسيقى
مثل موسيقى الجاز أصبحت شعبية. في نيويورك أساسا ، النوادي الليلية مفتوحة ، محفزة
بيع الكحول. الحكومة الأكثر محافظة تحاول
وقف هذه الظاهرة عن طريق التصويت للحظر تحريم الإنتاج أو النقل أو البيع
من الكحول. ردا على ذلك ، الآلاف من حفلات الربيع الربيع
يصل في جميع أنحاء البلاد. تستغل شبكات المافيا السوق وتثري
بسرعة. في الوقت نفسه ، يفتقد الجنوب هذه الموجة
الرخاء. انخفاض أسعار المنتجات الزراعية يغرق
المنطقة في الفقر. كو كلوكس كلان يعود إلى الصدارة هذه المرة أيضا تستهدف الكاثوليك واليهود والمهاجرين بالإضافة إلى الأميركيين الأفارقة. تصل المنظمة إلى 5 ملايين عضو ،
ثم يتم حظره بعد عدة حلقات الإعدام. في عام 1929 ، تحطم وول ستريت سوق الأسهم
يحدث. الاقتصاد الأمريكي ينهار. في بضع سنوات قصيرة ، سلسلة من حالات الإفلاس
الشركات والبنوك يدفع ربع السكان النشطين إلى البطالة. رفع الحظر ، واتخاذ خطوات لمحاولة إنعاش الاقتصاد وتحسين ظروف العمل. في أوروبا ، اندلعت الحرب العالمية الثانية. الولايات المتحدة ، على الرغم من الحياد الرسمي ،
تستعد للحرب من خلال إعادة الخدمة العسكرية. بالإضافة إلى ذلك ، تبيع البلاد الأسلحة بشكل رئيسي
إلى المملكة المتحدة والاتحاد السوفيتي. في المحيط الهادئ ، من أجل كبح
توسع اليابان الإمبريالية المتحالفة مع ألمانيا النازية الولايات المتحدة تفرض على
فرض حظر على الصلب والنفط. رداً على ذلك ، شنت اليابان هجومًا مفاجئًا على بيرل هاربور ، مما تسبب في دخول الولايات المتحدة الحرب. البلد يشرع سرا في البحث
برنامج لإنشاء القنبلة الذرية. في عام 1945 ، تغلب الحلفاء على ألمانيا. الاتحاد السوفياتي والولايات المتحدة ثم توحيد
ضد اليابان. غزو ​​بري من قبل السوفييت والاثنين
القنابل الذرية التي أسقطتها الولايات المتحدة في مدينتي هيروشيما وناجازاكي
اليابان للاستسلام. في نهاية الحرب ، تدعم الولايات المتحدة
إنشاء الأمم المتحدة التي الابتدائية الدور هو الحفاظ على السلام والأمن في
العالم. أوروبا تجد نفسها في حالة خراب واستنفدت
عن طريق الحرب. الولايات المتحدة والاتحاد السوفياتي تظهر
قوتين عالميتين عظيمتين. بعد الحرب العالمية الثانية ، الاتحاد السوفياتي والولايات المتحدة
تحاول الدول ممارسة نفوذها في أوروبا. تنفذ الولايات المتحدة المارشال
الخطة ، في حين أن الاتحاد السوفياتي يدعم الموالية للشيوعية الحكومات في الدول الشرقية. تم العثور على القارة القديمة مقسوما على
الستارة الحديدية. إن الاتحاد السوفيتي والولايات المتحدة يخوضان حرباً باردة – وهذا سباق تسلح دون مواجهة مباشرة. الولايات المتحدة ، تدخر إلى حد كبير ويلات الحرب
على أراضيها ، لديها الصناعية والاقتصادية والميزة العسكرية. داخل البلاد ، والمسؤولين الفدراليين متعاطفين
للأفكار الشيوعية ورفضت. هوليوود تستخدم أيضا لإحداث معاداة للشيوعية
الدعاية. على الساحة العالمية ، وتوظف البلاد
سياسة التدخل ، تهدف إلى وقف بأي ثمن انتشار الشيوعية. تتدخل الولايات المتحدة في اليونان والصين وتشارك
جيشها في كوريا وفيتنام. الاتحاد السوفياتي ، من جانبه ، يستثمر بكثافة
للحاق بالولايات المتحدة. بعد تطوير الأسلحة الذرية من تلقاء نفسها ،
تصبح أول دولة ترسل قمرًا صناعيًا في المدار ، ويتفوق نفسه من قبل
إرسال الرجل الأول إلى الفضاء. ثم تطلق الولايات المتحدة أبولو
برنامج والتي تهدف إلى إرسال أول رائد فضاء إلى القمر. في كوبا ، محاولة للإطاحة بالشيوعية الجديدة
فشل الحكومة. يستفيد الاتحاد السوفيتي من التحالف
البلاد ، وتثبيت الصواريخ النووية على أراضيها ، وأشار في الولايات المتحدة. التوترات تتصاعد إلى حد ما يبدو
كانت الحرب العالمية الثالثة وشيكة. ومع ذلك ، تم التوصل إلى اتفاق بين القوتين العالميتين ، مما أدى إلى انسحاب الاتحاد السوفياتي من كوبا. داخل البلاد ، المزيد والمزيد من الحقوق المدنية
الحركات تكتسب زخما ، مما اضطر الحكومة لمراجعة سياساتها الاجتماعية. يبدأ الأميركيون الأفارقة أعمالا غير عنيفة
لمكافحة الفصل. المزيد والمزيد من النساء يدخلن سوق العمل و
طلب المساواة في الأجور. الأمريكيون الأصليون يقاتلون من أجل ظروف أفضل. علاوة على ذلك ، مع الولايات المتحدة في حالة حرب في فيتنام ، والطلاب
وحركات السلام الهايبية تدعو للسلام. في عام 1969 ، أرسلت البلاد أول رجل إلى
القمر. في جميع أنحاء العالم ، يشاهد ملايين المشاهدين الحدث
العيش على شاشات التلفزيون الخاصة بهم. على الساحة العالمية ، تحاول الولايات المتحدة
لتخفيف التوترات. يبدأ التقارب الدبلوماسي مع الصين ،
ويوقع اتفاقات مع الاتحاد السوفياتي للحد من سباق التسلح العالمي. في الشرق الأوسط ، تدعم الولايات المتحدة إسرائيل
في حرب يوم الغفران الذي يخضع بعد ذلك لحظر نفطي تفرضه دول أوبك. في فيتنام ، بعد المفاوضات ، والولايات المتحدة
الدول تسحب جيشها. بعد ذلك بعامين ، يسود الشيوعيون فيها
البلاد ، تشويه صورة الولايات المتحدة. الاتحاد السوفياتي يغتنم هذه الفرصة لتكثيف
سياستها الدولية. الولايات المتحدة تقدم الدعم العسكري للمجاهدين. في أمريكا الوسطى ، تتدخل الولايات المتحدة أيضًا في نيكاراغوا وغواتيمالا لمواجهة الثورات الشيوعية. إيران ، بعد الثورة ، تصبح إسلامية
جمهورية تتعارض مع سياسة الولايات المتحدة. هذا الأخير يعزز وجوده العسكري
في الشرق الأوسط لضمان أمن إمدادات النفط. على الجانب السوفيتي ، الاتحاد السوفياتي يكافح من أجل
تحتوي على الثورات في أوروبا الشرقية. مع اقتصادها في حالة يرثى لها ، على الرغم من المحاولات
في الإصلاح ، في عام 1991 ، ينهار الاتحاد السوفياتي بمناسبة نهاية الحرب الباردة. الولايات المتحدة تبرز باعتبارها الرئيسية الوحيدة
قوة العالم. محلياً ، يطالب السكان بالمزيد
الاستثمار في مكافحة الفقر الجريمة والعصابات والمخدرات. ومع ذلك ، تواصل الولايات المتحدة التركيز بشكل أساسي
على سياستها الخارجية إظهار استعداد واضح ليصبح شرطي العالم من نوع ما. عندما يغزو العراق الكويت ، التي عقدت بعد ذلك
9 ٪ من احتياطيات النفط المعروفة في العالم الولايات المتحدة تشكل تحالفاً وتحيد
الجيش العراقي. ثم تضع الولايات المتحدة قائمة بالبلدان التي تعتبر مارقة وتهدد السلام والاستقرار العالميين. هذه الدول تتعرض للحصار و
الحظر. وفي الوقت نفسه ، فإن الوجود العسكري لحليف
إسرائيل في الشرق الأوسط يزعج الإسلاميين المتطرفين ، بما في ذلك جماعة إرهابية آل
القاعدة برئاسة أسامة بن لادن وهو حليف سابق من الحرب الأفغانية. المرافق والأصول الأمريكية في جميع أنحاء العالم
مستهدفة بهجمات إرهابية. في 11 سبتمبر 2001 ، أصبحت الولايات المتحدة
ضحية هجوم إرهابي واسع النطاق على أراضيها. الإرهاب يصبح بذلك العدو الجديد لل
بلد. لكنه يثبت صعوبة أكبر في محاربة هذا
الحرب كما المنظمات الإرهابية تعمل تكتم في شبكات المحمول دون حدود. بعد شن حرب ضد طالبان
في أفغانستان الولايات المتحدة تصلب موقفها ضد كوريا الشمالية وإيران والعراق التي تعتبرها جزءًا من "محور الشر". حرب جديدة تشن ضد العراق ، لكن الولايات المتحدة
القوات – بعد الإطاحة بسرعة الحكومة – يجدون أنفسهم يقاتلون ضد عدة
الجماعات الإرهابية في المنطقة. في عام 2007 ، تليها صدمة الرهن العقاري
بسبب الأزمة المالية يغرق الاقتصاد العالمي في الاضطرابات. تحاول البلاد إحياء اقتصادها ، من بين
تدابير أخرى ، من خلال تعزيز الاستخراج من النفط الصخري على أراضيها. اليوم سياسة التدخل في البلاد
يتم التصدي له بشكل متزايد من قبل القوى الصاعدة مثل روسيا والصين. الولايات المتحدة ، ومع ذلك ، لا تزال هي الأكثر
اقتصاد قوي وعسكري في العالم.

US Historical County Boundaries



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3-minute animation of the changes in U.S. historical county boundaries, 1629 – 2000. The source for the background layer is the U.S. National Park Service.

This animation was created using data from the Atlas of Historical County Boundaries, a project of the William M. Scholl Center for American History and Culture at the Newberry Library in Chicago. The Newberry Library is one of the nation’s premier research libraries. Principal funding for the Atlas came from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The Atlas presents in maps and text complete data about the creation and all subsequent changes (dated to the day) in the size, shape, and location of every county in the fifty United States and the District of Columbia. The principal sources for these data are the most authoritative available: the session laws of the colonies, territories, and states that created and changed the counties.

For more information, go to the Atlas of Historical County Boundaries Web site at This Web site provides interactive maps for all states. The Atlas data is also available on the Web site for download in shapefile format (for use with GIS software) and KMZ format (for use with Google Earth). Historical county maps are also available in PDF format.

A Passion for Math: Elly Schofield at TEDxClaremontColleges



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Elly is a student studying math. And she’s mad. She’s mad about how math was taught to her growing up and why nobody told her that being good at math has nothing to do with finishing problems quickly or flawlessly. She puts forth her idea of what more effective math curriculum might look like in the future.

About TED:
In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.

Credits:
Editors–Ian St. Lawrence
Camera crew–Jacqueline Legazcue, Sam Jones, and Ted Neckar

thank you very much I love math like I really really love math it's been a part of my life for pretty much as long as I can remember I'm planning on pursuing it as a career I study it right now and frankly I care about math a lot both its beauty and its utility and I want other people to care about it as much as I do and that's really why I'm here today because I'm really angry about the math education system that we have here in this country because it doesn't serve that purpose at all why would I be angry I mean right now even here today we've heard people talk about the amazing technology and movements that are going on in education and I personally have gotten to see some of the many many very talented math teachers that are out there who don't get nearly the recognition they deserve but for me that wasn't enough I feel personally betrayed by the math education system in this country because for me I was never told until I got to college what it meant to be good at math now when I guess I mean even since I was in preschool so like three years ago um I was told that I was good at math and I was told that because I exhibited a particular set of traits speed and accuracy i memorize things quickly i computed things quickly i applied things quickly and i turned in my problem sets and quizzes and tests quickly and i got it right i got the highest scores right and that's that's what's important right now in our math education system that's what my peers admired me for or hated me for i don't know um and so what my teachers admired me for it's what everyone around me and every number around me was telling me was good and i fell in love with mathematics somewhere along the lines there and I decided this is great I'm good at math and I like math I'm gonna pursue math as a career and so I came to Harvey Mudd College and I discovered that math is a lot harder than it ever was before because there's a secret that mathematics isn't about computation it's about problem solving and I didn't really have as much experience as I would have liked doing problem solving and I got really confused and flustered because I started doing problem sets and quizzes and tests where I didn't know what formula I was supposed to apply anymore I was sure I had somehow just missed that part of the lecture where I was supposed to know exactly how to do this particular problem I started struggling I started not succeeding all the time in fact occasionally failing very beautifully and dramatically and I quickly became convinced that that must mean that I am not good at math cuz I'm not fast anymore I'm not accurate anymore maybe this isn't for me and that's why I'm angry I'm angry because that convinced me almost to completely abandon mathematics something that I love so dearly and I'm sure that it convinces millions of people around this country every year not to pursue mathematics so when we talk about math in the system of education that we have right now when we talk about this fast computation that's in my view exactly the opposite of what real problem-solving is about real problem-solving is about patient failure when you think about it and what do I mean by that well when I see myself solving problems now because I never seem to remember the right formula from class if I'm faced with the problem I tend to try and figure out okay what can I do to solve this and I try something and chances are it fails beautifully big display of failure just right there on my page and I take a look at what went wrong and I see okay this part could have gone a little bit better maybe if I had done this small thing instead and then I try again that's productive failure and productive failure is a thing that we use every day it's a thing that is used in problem-solving in mathematics in innovation in general productive failure it's how we solve the greatest problems of our time and it's how we approach day to day life but strangely there's nowhere in math education or as far as I can see really in the education system in general where people are told that that's anything but a bad thing productive failure it's weird too because we've known for centuries of productive failure is key history remembers people who have had enormous achievements enormous problem solved over the course of years or centuries stacked up work of tons of people that's I mean in mathematics we talk about that all the time people don't remember the problems that got solved quickly the small problems I have this bizarre dream of what it might have been like when I was a kid a kid if I had actually had a classroom environment that wasn't just about rewarding success say my classmates and I were put in a room with just no front of the classroom just tables with maybe a teacher there maybe some tutors and we were given a problem just outside our scope of knowledge I'm told go and the expectation at the end of the class wasn't that we're gonna hang back a sheet of paper with the solution or even with showing our work showing the correct method by which that solution can be obtained the goal was to actually show your work you were rewarded based on the fact that we provided you know a description of what exactly we tried first what went wrong who we talked to what we asked what we tried next because that's really where problem-solving is happening I'm not talking about an overhaul of the system here I'm not talking about changing all of mathematics education as we know what I'm talking about just an hour a week maybe to reverse the sense that only quick accurate success is actual success all right here I am right now 20 years old standing in front of a room full of people I don't know trying to tell you that I know how to fix some part of math education let's be honest I don't know if what I say here today is gonna effect on what you do in the next week or what you think about in the next hour but I'm ready to be up here anyway because I think this is a problem that we shouldn't wait until someone else knows how to solve I think the time has come and gone to wait for solutions and it's time to productively fail so I want to leave you with the question is there some issue that you care about something that you care about as much as I care about math education in this country that you'd like to see fixed and if so would you be willing to stand up here today and talk about it – thank you

America's Historical Struggle With Debt and Taxes



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Between paying now or paying later, Americans have just about always preferred debt to taxes. Paul Solman talks to Simon Johnson of the MIT Sloan School of Management about his new book “White House Burning,” which chronicles the history — including the whys and whererfores, virtues and vices — of U.S. debt.

bjbjVwVw @|d2 JEFFREY BROWN: And we return
to the great debate over budgets, deficits, taxes and spending with yet another viewpoint,
this one with some historical perspective. NewsHour economics correspondent Paul Solman
is on the case, part of his ongoing reporting Making Sense of financial news. PAUL SOLMAN: Our allegedly tragic trillion-dollar
annual budget deficits, swelling our supposedly unsustainable $16 trillion national debt. More borrowing, it's said, means the proverbial
road to ruin. Some think then that the fiscal cliff, slashed
spending and hiked taxes, is not the horror of horrors, some sort of economic suicide,
but the very opposite, the last resort for avoiding a fatal whirlpool of debt. So what about more debt? Will it destroy us or won't it? How bad would it be to barrel over the cliff? Enter former IMF economist Simon Johnson of
MIT. He's written a book, "White House Burning,"
on the history of U.S. debt, all 225 years of it, its whys and wherefores and — get
this — its considerable virtues. We asked if he could provide a TV version. The answer was a mobile history lesson, starting
at the museum where every 15 minutes they reenact the dumping that helped make a town
famous and a group of contentious colonies united. So, to begin, you're in Boston. What's your fundamental thesis? SIMON JOHNSON, MIT: The American republic
is born partially in a tax revolt. This is the tea party site where they threw
the tea over because they didn't like the tax system. So this has been a fundamental debate and
argument from the beginning of the American republic. And we come back today to exactly the same
sorts of issues. PAUL SOLMAN: Well, not exactly the same. The tea parties of yore included tea smugglers
protesting England having lowered the tax on tea, threatening their contraband business. But, hey, as between legend and fact, legend
usually wins. And the fact is, as between paying now or
paying later, Americans have just about always preferred debt to taxes, debt to pay the very
first army, for example. This is the spot on the Cambridge Common where,
legend has it, General Washington first amassed his troops under a now dead elm and faced
the basic question of government economics. SIMON JOHNSON: How is going to pay them? How is he going to feed them? How is he going to clothe them? Where are they going to get their shoes? That's the question we're still trying to
answer. How do we tax ourselves and what's a reasonable
amount of federal government spending and on what? PAUL SOLMAN: What did America in the making
do? We didn't much tax ourselves. Instead, we began to borrow, as a new united
country. SIMON JOHNSON: It was the idea primarily of
Alexander Hamilton, who was the first secretary of the treasury under George Washington. Hamilton realized you needed to have strong
federal fiscal authority, ability to tax, and the ability to issue debt and manage debt
and bring debt down. PAUL SOLMAN: We also stiffed creditors back
then, too. SIMON JOHNSON: Absolutely. The United States was born in default. We defaulted on many obligations to foreign
creditors and to our own soldiers. PAUL SOLMAN: OK. So America was born and swaddled in debt. Then, about four score and seven years later,
when the country threatened to break in two, it was borrowing that distinguished the winners
from the losers. SIMON JOHNSON: In the Civil War, the North
financed itself by issuing bonds and by developing a tax system. Nobody was very happy about that. But it worked. The South financed itself by printing money
and got a hyperinflation, destabilizing — further destabilizing its economy. So, those are two different ways to finance
a big ramp-up in government activity. And the North won in part because they had
a better approach, the Hamilton approach, to public finance. PAUL SOLMAN: And that approach was to print
IOUs, bonds, and come up with a way to market them, mainly in Europe, to people who had
the money and thought, hey, I'm going to get it back with a good rate of interest. SIMON JOHNSON: They also sold them to what
we now call retail investors. They made the bonds relatively small denominations
and had a big marketing push, the first time anybody in this country or almost anywhere
else had tried to sell bonds to ordinary, regular people. Big success. PAUL SOLMAN: And so it was, says Johnson,
whenever America found itself at war, peaks of debt as a percent of national at the peak
of every conflagration from the Revolution through the War of 1812 and the Civil War
to World War I. The next big bump in debt added a new reason
to borrow. It came during peacetime, new debt to combat
the Great Depression of the 1930s that hit America and other market economies. SIMON JOHNSON: Massive slump in GDP and output,
and conventional economics and standard economic practice just didn't work for turning these
economies around. PAUL SOLMAN: Now, had you been born, you would
have been in England at the time. And that was when John Maynard Keynes became
most famous for his prescription, spend, spend, spend. That's how you get the system up and moving
again, by pouring money into it. SIMON JOHNSON: Yes, when you're in a depression. So, in that situation, Keynes said that more
government spending could help push the economy, restart the private sector by having the government
lead the way. PAUL SOLMAN: And when J.M. Keynes talked,
people listened, among them, Johnson's academic predecessors. SIMON JOHNSON: People working here at MIT
Department of Economics and in other leading universities became convinced that the government
could play a different role and a more helpful role in the economy and supporting the macroeconomy,
compared to what the previous orthodoxy had been before the 1930s. PAUL SOLMAN: But that meant going into more
and more debt. And that's a good thing, then, you say? SIMON JOHNSON: It meant being careful with
the debt still. It meant that deficit spending was something
that could be very useful to you in terms — when the economy needs some help. PAUL SOLMAN: Very useful and, of course, borrowing
proved very necessary when World War II broke out. Total U.S. debt soared to 120 percent of GDP. But, after the war, the U.S. economy soared
too. And by the late 1960s, economic growth had
whittled the percentage down near 40 percent of GDP, despite new wars on poverty and Vietnam. Again, debt had delivered us from evil and,
it seemed, into prosperity. Then came the 1980s and the tax cuts of Ronald
Reagan combined with greater defense spending leading to hugely higher annual deficits covered
by borrowing, and thus again a swelling national debt, but with no wars at all. Then, under Presidents George H.W. Bush and
Bill Clinton, we took action. For a while, both parties agreed, says Simon
Johnson. SIMON JOHNSON: And there was a bipartisan
agreement to raise revenue and put something of a damper on spending. So, that's an important moment. In the bigger picture, of course, that was
just a small hesitation on the path to a much larger national debt. PAUL SOLMAN: Because, in the bigger picture,
a president just can't accomplish very much if he's cutting spending and won't raise taxes,
and so, yet again, more borrowing under Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama, higher deficits
and debt that, because of the graying baby boom, are fated to get even worse. SIMON JOHNSON: The population was always going
to age. The baby boomers were going to retire. They were paying a lot of Social Security
contributions in the 1990s. They're drawing pensions today. We were always going to shift into structural
deficit for that reason. PAUL SOLMAN: And that's why, even though we
have been in deeper hot before as a percentage of the economy, this time really may be different. With the baby boom hanging it up, increasing
our debt load now presents a clear and future danger, and thus this era's key questions. SIMON JOHNSON: Do you want to keep Social
Security? Do you want to keep Medicare? And if yes, how are you going to pay for it? And I don't suggest the answer be, well, sell
more debt to the Chinese. You have got to pay the taxes to support the
social insurance programs, if that's what you want to keep. PAUL SOLMAN: But Americans do not want to
pay higher taxes. SIMON JOHNSON: No one wants to pay higher
taxes. Actually, everybody is happy to have someone
else pay higher taxes. They don't want to pay higher taxes themselves. And this is where we come to in the conversation. What do you want government to do? And we have got ourselves into this mind-set
of, well, the government can give me stuff, but someone else can pay for it. That is incredibly dangerous. That is what has broken many governments and
many countries. It's never been the American problem, but
it is the American problem today. PAUL SOLMAN: Last stop, back to Cambridge
Common. Last point, some people think going over the
cliff won't be all that catastrophic. But economist Simon Johnson thinks it would
be a disaster. You don't just change course overnight. SIMON JOHNSON: If you go over the cliff in
a disorganized way, with mass amount of political confrontation, that could be very bad for
us and absolutely — and much worse for the world. We need to make some fiscal adjustments. Some of those things include higher revenue
and bringing spending under control. So, I'm in favor of that, but charging off
a cliff as we struggle at each other's throats, very bad. PAUL SOLMAN: Very bad, perhaps, but not, as
things now stand, impossible to imagine. urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags
country-region urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags City urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags
place JEFFREY BROWN: And we return to the great debate over budgets, deficits, taxes
and spending with yet another viewpoint, this one with some historical perspective Normal
Microsoft Office Word JEFFREY BROWN: And we return to the great debate over budgets, deficits,
taxes and spending with yet another viewpoint, this one with some historical perspective
Title Microsoft Office Word Document MSWordDoc Word.Document.8

Non-Traditional Careers for Science Majors | Dr. Dwight Randle | TEDxMountainViewCollege



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A science major may select from an array of career paths. Many of these paths are non traditional and less known but intriguing. Dr. Dwight Randle is professor …

Intersex People and the Physics of Judgment | Cecelia McDonald | TEDxBoulder



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What is intersex, is it the same as being transgender, and how are intersex people treated around the world? 1-2% of the population is intersex, but few can …

US Historical State/Territorial Boundaries



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3-minute animation of the changes in U.S. historical state and territorial boundaries, 1783 – 2000. The source for the background layer is the U.S. National Park Service.

This animation was created using data from the Atlas of Historical County Boundaries, a project of the William M. Scholl Center for American History and Culture at the Newberry Library in Chicago. The Newberry Library is one of the nation’s premier research libraries. Principal funding for the Atlas came from the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The Atlas presents in maps and text complete data about the creation and all subsequent changes (dated to the day) in the size, shape, and location of every county in the fifty United States and the District of Columbia. The principal sources for these data are the most authoritative available: the session laws of the colonies, territories, and states that created and changed the counties.

The historical state and territorial boundaries displayed in this animation were generated from the historical county boundary data.

For more information, go to the Atlas of Historical County Boundaries Web site at This Web site provides interactive maps for all states. The Atlas data is also available on the Web site for download in shapefile format (for use with GIS software) and KMZ format (for use with Google Earth). Historical county maps are also available in PDF format.

Cold Comfort and How the Environment Shapes Human Biology | Scott Carney | TEDxCU



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Have the comforts of the modern age made us weaker? Human biology evolved in constantly changing environments and developed biological mechanisms to let them adapt quickly. But effortless comfort means that biology isn’t active anymore, and the lack of stimulus makes us less resilient.

Investigative journalist Scott Carney spent years debunking spurious spiritual claims, then he met Wim Hof, a daredevil dutch fitness guru who transformed the way he thought about the relationship between the human body and its environment. Carney writes for Wired, Playboy, Mother Jones, and Fast Company. He is the author of three books, including the New York Times bestseller “What Doesn’t Kill Us: How Freezing Water, Extreme Altitude and Environmental Conditioning will Renew our Lost Evolutionary Strength”.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

let's go back to the winter of 1621 to a small spit of land just north of Cape Cod called Plymouth Rock it's here that some religious settlers from Europe decided to set up a colony that would one day become the new world it was a brutally cold winter and for three months they didn't see anybody until this dude named Samoset walked up to their camp and said to them in English welcome welcome Englishman but have you ever thought about what Samoset was wearing in this iconic American myth just a loincloth that was it it was the sort of outfit that would make any one of us want to curl up into a little ball and just try to like keep all the heat in but how was it that Samoset was so comfortable in such a cold condition how was it that he was immune to the elements was it this resistant something locked in his genetic code that was just there or is it something that lies in all of us I began to understand the answer to this question about six years ago when I met this guy that's wim HOF Dutch daredevil fitness guru he holds a fistful of World Records for dunking himself in the ice water for longer than anyone else swimming under polar ice caps and getting up 3/4 of the way Mount Everest in just a pair of shorts and no shirt so wim HOF can do some pretty great and sort of crazy things but when I heard about him he claimed something even greater than that that he could teach other people to do these same feats and not only that not only could he you he teach you to control your body temperature at will but also your immune system and when I heard these claims I figured that he was a liar that he was charging money to make you sort of superhuman and even worse than that I figured that he could get people killed right well he's not the first false guru that I had unmask in print recently I just written a book about another guy teaching that through Tibetan Buddhist meditation he could make you an angel and one of his followers who is following this technique ended up meditating until he died in a cave in Arizona I'd built my career debunking figures like this wim HOF guy I still had to give wim HOF a chance right I mean you can't just go and lay into someone in print so I flew to Poland where he had a training center to try his method myself and it only took a few days to figure out that wim HOF was on to something within a week I was climbing snowy mountains in a winter that stopped Napoleon's army on his march to Moscow okay it was the same winter that stopped the Nazi blitzkrieg and here I was sweating not freezing and the method is fairly straightforward you start by some gradual cold exposure go out and stand in the snow and then work your way up to maybe sitting in some ice water and then you can do things like meditate on a riverbank until the snow melts around you and the key is to suppress your shiver response and redirect that clenching feeling that we all have in the cold which is a signature of the fight-or-flight responses and when you do that you're trying to heat your body with muscle movement now by redirecting it and not shivering you actually force your metabolism to take over those heating duties we also learned a breathing method which is hyperventilating than holding our breath and then hyperventilate and hold a breath and I kept on doing that until I could hold my breath for three minutes at a time with empty lungs so these relatively simple techniques to learn you can learn them in about 15 minutes did not give me superpowers what they gave me were human powers and as recently as 400 years ago when the pilgrims met Samoset it was something that they found so alien but the thing is that this comes down to human evolution our species I'm talking about homo sapien sapien has walked the earth for about 200,000 years in that time we endured crippling cold and scorching heat we trekked out of the Middle East over the Alps over the Himalayas we even populated the new world without a whisper of what any one of us would consider modern technology yes we had leather shoes and maybe some bows and arrows we even had boats to get to the new world but our most valuable asset in all of this has been our body doesn't matter whether it's a snowstorm or a scorching Sun our bodies had to be our bodies had to adapt quickly if we wanted to survive and pass on our genes which means that you are the descendant of an evolutionary winner so why does it seem so crazy these feats of our past what was it about our ancestors that was so much stronger or in other words why are we so much weaker now well the difference between your Paleolithic grandfather and grandmother and us is that we have the ability to manipulate the world around us with technology and driving a lot of that technology is this feeling of comfort that we all want to embrace blizzard outside scorching weather it doesn't matter we can live in a perpetual climate of about 72 degrees which is eternal summer it's this narrow band of comfort which is so attractive to this inner nervous system our inner jellyfish that just want to be comfortable all the time and the technologies that have allowed this to happen central heating air conditioning that cool polar fleece that you wear it's only arrived here in the blink of an evolutionary eye and that means that that hidden biology that we have to adapt to the changing environment around us lies dormant and this is a problem take for example the basic mammalian response of vaso constriction your body has about 60,000 miles of tubing in it there are arteries that take blood away from your heart and veins that bring it back and along the arteries are something called smooth muscle which will contract to bring the blood into your core if you're cold now if you were to plunge into ice water right now that would squinch with so much force that that your hands would just be incredibly cold but you actually have to get cold and actually feel that sensation in order to activate that muscular response there has never been any evolutionary pressure to put it under conscious control and that means that the vast majority of us who live under climate control conditions never experience vasoconstriction we don't see temperature and the environment in the same way as we do say exercise which means someone with that perfect gym body six-pack abs and big bulging muscles like my friend Channing Tatum over here could be hiding very weak circulatory muscles and vasoconstriction is just the tip of the iceberg there's an entire hidden biology honed to deal with various environmental conditions extreme heat will let your pores encourage evaporation if you go into the cold you will ramp up your metabolism if you go to altitude you get more red blood cells in order to compensate for the decreased oxygen and this brings me back to Samoset the Algonquian nurtured their underlying biology by not building barriers between themselves in the environment in childhood they would take their infants and put their infants in the snow for 15 minutes at a time before bringing them back inside it's the same technique that Scandinavians use to today and Russians and indigenous people all over the world and what this does is build a resistance to the elements that will last your whole life and you could also build this in adulthood as well the conditioning activates metabolic processes in your body that will suck white fat from your system and transform it directly into heat energy now think about this that spare tire that many of us carry around our waist is not there because you're waiting to get into a place where you have no food that you're starving it's actually kindling for your metabolism to heat you up in a cold environment that's right this is a message for Oprah's Book Club the cold will let you lose weight for several hundred years human health has rested on twin pillars of diet and exercise it's always been about the food you bring into your body and how you use it with your muscles but there is a third pillar of the environment which is as equally important it's not just vasoconstriction this hidden biology also includes the immune system insulin regulation endurance and respiration and all of that is below your conscious mind and there's no better time than right now to try to undo some of that comfortable conditioning you can start with a cold shower and I know this is the hardest thing that a human can do here you sit there under that warm water and you turn to that knob and turn it to cold I know it's hard but I believe in you the key is the one that water is on you to sit there and relax into it and instead of clenching up and heating yourself up with your muscles let your metabolism do that job and it will just do it automatically another thing you can do is turn down your thermostat in the winter bring it down to about 62 degrees or in the summer turn off your air conditioning this will put your body in touch with the seasonal variations that you're not getting if you live in summer all year round you'll also save on heating so that's cool and these simple things really start to trigger some rather extraordinary changes in the body and I ran an experiment when I was starting this research where I measured my own metabolism at the Cu Center for sports medicine over here on on the boulder campus and they put me through a vo2 max test which is a sort of me running on a treadmill as they slowly increase the the pitch of the running and as they did that they hooked me up to this oxygen monitor that saw what sorts of things and energy I was burning and it was no surprise to me that I would burn mostly granola bars it was all carbohydrates that I was burning which is not really what you want if you endurance athlete it's very quick sugar but after six months of training I went back and I did the same test and not only did I run better I became primarily a fat burner and I know this graph doesn't make a lot of sense when you initially look at it but to translate this the the doctor there said that it was the equivalent of me adding seven hours of cardio exercise every week to my routine but all I was doing was this breathing method and cold showers that's the only change I made to my to my diet and exercise routine which is hugely efficient but that wasn't the only thing that changed I also managed to sue I also managed to do some rather incredible things that's me on the top of Kilimanjaro the highest mountain in Africa with wim HOF and you'll notice I'm not wearing much but I was warm as I went up this mountain and I could never have imagined doing anything like this six years ago when I first met wim HOF but with these small steps cold showers ice baths occasionally rolling in the snow when I can exposing myself to environmental variations I was able to get in touch with that evolutionary power it's because our bodies know what to do with environmental stimulus we just have to let them you [Applause]

Why are physician-scientists crucial to our future? | Dianna Milewicz | TEDxHouston



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In order to better leverage the latest research and new treatments, physicians who are also scientists work to combine the care and empathy of personal care …

Computer science is for everyone | Hadi Partovi | TEDxRainier



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This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. This persuasive talk shows how essential and easy it is to gain a …

Five Principles of Extraordinary Math Teaching | Dan Finkel | TEDxRainier



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In this perspective-expanding and enjoyable talk, Dan Finkel invites us to approach learning and teaching math with courage, curiosity, and a sense of play.

Dan Finkel wants everyone to have fun with math. After completing his Ph.D. in algebraic geometry at the University of Washington, he decided that teaching math was the most important contribution he could make to the world. He has devoted much of his life to understanding and teaching the motivation, history, aesthetics, and deep structure of mathematics.

Dan is the Founder and Director of Operations of Math for Love, a Seattle-based organization devoted to transforming how math is taught and learned. A teacher of teachers and students, Dan works with schools, develops curriculum, leads teacher workshops, and gives talks on mathematics and education throughout the Pacific Northwest and beyond.

Dan is one of the creators of Prime Climb, the beautiful, colorful, mathematical board game. He contributes regularly to the New York Times Numberplay blog and hosts Seattle’s Julia Robinson Math Festival annually. In his spare time he performs improv comedy in Seattle.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

المترجم: Areej Al-Qaisi
المدقّق: Riyad Almubarak أخبرتني صديقة لي مؤخرا
أن ابنها البالغ من العمر ست سنوات عاد من المدرسة
وقال إنه يكره الرياضيات. ويصعب علي سماع ذلك
لأنني في الواقع أحب الرياضيات. جمال وقوة التفكير
الرياضي غيرا حياتي. لكني أعلم أن كثيراَ من الناس
قد عاشوا قصة مختلفة جدا. الرياضيات يمكن أن تكون أفضل الأوقات
أو أسوأ الأوقات، رحلة مبهجة من الاكتشاف أو انحداراً إلى الضجر
والإحباط واليأس. الاختلاط الرياضي
شائع جدًا بحيث لا يمكننا رؤيته. نتوقع عملياً صف الرياضيات أن يكون التكرار وحفظ
الحقائق الفنية المفككة. ونحن لا نفاجأ
عندما لا يكون الطلاب متحمسين، عندما يغادرون المدرسة كارهين للرياضيات، حتى يتعهدون بتجنبه لبقية حياتهم. بدون معرفة رياضية، تتقلص فرصهم المهنية. ويصبحون فريسة سهلة لشركات بطاقات الإئتمان، مقرضين يوم دفع الرواتب، اليانصيب، (ضحك) وأي شخص، حقا، من يريد
أن يبهرهم بإحصاء. هل تعلم أنه إذا قمت بإدراج
إحصائية واحدة لدافع، الناس أكثر عرضة بنسبة 92٪
لقبولها دون سؤال؟ (ضحك) نعم ، لقد صنعت هذا تماماً. (ضحك) و 92 في المئة هي – لديها نفوذ
على الرغم من أنها مزيفة تمامًا. وهذه هي الطريقة التي تعمل بها. عندما لا نشعر بالراحة مع الرياضيات، نحن لا نشكك في سلطة الأرقام. لكن ما يحدث مع الاغتراب الرياضي ليست سوى نصف القصة. في الوقت الحالي، نحن نبدد
فرصتنا للمس الحياة بعد الحياة مع جمال وقوة التفكير الرياضي. أديت ورشة عمل حول هذا الموضوع مؤخرًا،
وفي النهاية، رفعت امرأة يدها وقالت إن التجربة
جعلتها تشعر – وهذا هو الاقتباس – "كالإلـه". (ضحك) ربما هذا هو أفضل وصف سمعته لما يمكن أن يُشعر به التفكير الرياضي، لذا يجب أن نتدارس كيف يبدو. مكان جيد للبدء مع كلمات الفيلسوف
وعالم الرياضيات رينيه ديكارت، من نشر على نحو مشهور،
"أنا أفكر، إذاً أنا موجود." لكن ديكارت نظر أعمق
في طبيعة التفكير. بمجرد أن أثبت نفسه كشيء يفكر، وتابع: "ما هو التفكير؟" إنه الشيء الذي يشك، ويفهم، ويتصور، يؤكد ويمنع ويرغب ويرفض، ويتخيل أيضاً، ويدرك. هذا هو نوع التفكير الذي نحتاجه
في كل فصل رياضيات كل يوم. لذا، إذا كنت معلمًا أو والد
أو أي شخص لديه ارتباط في التعليم، أقدم هذه المبادئ الخمسة لتشجيع التفكير في الرياضيات
التي نقوم بها في المنزل والمدرسة. المبدأ الأول: ابدأ بسؤال. تبدأ دروس الرياضيات العادية بالإجابات ولا تصل أبدا إلى سؤال حقيقي. "هذه هي الخطوات للمضاعفة. أنت تكرر. فيما يلي خطوات لتقسيم. أنت تكرر لقد غطينا المادة.
نحن نتحرك ". ما يهم في الدرس
هو حفظ الخطوات. ليس هناك مجال للشك
أو التخيل أو الرفض، لذلك لا يوجد تفكير حقيقي هنا. كيف سيبدو إذا بدأنا بسؤال؟ على سبيل المثال، إليك الأرقام من 1 إلى 20. الآن، هناك سؤال كامن في هذه الصورة، مخفي عن أعين الجميع. ما الذي يحدث مع الألوان؟ الآن ، يبدو بديهيا وكأنه هناك بعض الصلة بين الأرقام والألوان. أعني، ربما حتى من الممكن تمديد
التلوين إلى أرقام أكثر. في نفس الوقت، معنى الألوان غير واضح. إنه لغز حقيقي. وهكذا، فإن السؤال يبدو أصيلًا ومقنعًا. ومثل الكثير من الأسئلة الرياضية الأصيلة، هذا واحد لديه إجابة جميلة ومرضية للغاية. وبالطبع، لن أخبركم ما هي. (ضحك) لا أفكر في نفسي كشخص لئيم​​، لكنني على استعداد لحرمانكم مما تريدون. (ضحك) لأنني أعرف ما إذا كنت أسرع في الإجابة، سأسلبكم الفرصة في التعلم. لا يحدث التفكير إلا
عندما يكون لدينا وقت للكفاح. وهذا هو المبدأ الثاني. ليس من غير المألوف بالنسبة للطلاب
التخرج من المدرسة الثانوية الاعتقاد بأن كل مشكلة الرياضيات
يمكن حلها في 30 ثانية أو أقل، واذا لم يعرفوا الجواب
أنهم فقط ليسوا شخصاً هاوياً للرياضيات. هذا هو فشل التعليم. نحن بحاجة لتعليم الأطفال
أن يكونوا عنيدين وشجعان، على المثابرة في مواجهة الصعوبة. الطريقة الوحيدة لتعليم المثابرة هو إعطاء الطلاب الوقت
للتفكير والتصدي لمشكلات حقيقية. أحضرت هذه الصورة
لفصل دراسي مؤخرًا، وأخذنا الوقت للكفاح. وكلما قضينا وقتًا أطول، كلما
ازداد الفصل حياةً بالتفكير. قدم الطلاب الملاحظات. كان لديهم أسئلة. مثل، "لماذا تحتوي الأرقام في هذا العمود
الأخير دائماَ على لون برتقالي وأزرق؟" و "هل يعني شيء أن البقع الخضراء
تسير دائمًا بشكل قطري؟" وماذا يحدث مع تلك الأرقام البيضاء الصغيرة في الأجزاء الحمراء؟ هل من المهم أن تكون هذه
الأرقام فردية دائمًا؟ " الكفاح مع أسئلة عبقرية، يعمق الطلاب فضولهم وطاقاتهم في المراقبة. إنها تطور أيضاً قدرتهم على المخاطرة. لاحظ بعض الطلاب أن كل
رقم زوجي يحتوي على اللون البرتقالي فيه، وكانوا على استعداد للمطالبة بشكوى. "البرتقالي يجب أن يعني زوجي." ثم سألوا، "هل هذا صحيح؟" (ضحك) هذا يمكن أن يكون مكانًا مخيفًا لمعلم. يأتي إليك الطالب بفكر أصلي. ماذا لو كنت لا تعرف الإجابة؟ حسنًا ، هذا هو المبدأ الثالث:
أنت لست مفتاح الإجابة. قد يطرح عليك المدرسون والطلاب أسئلة
لا تعرف كيفية الإجابة عليها. وهذا يمكن أن يُشعر وكأنه تهديد. لكنك لست مفتاح الإجابة. الطلاب الفضوليين أمر رائع في فصلك الدراسي. وإذا كان بإمكانك الرد بقول، "أنا لا أعرف. دعونا نبحث" تصبح الرياضيات مغامرة. وأولياء الأمور، هذا ينطبق عليكم أيضًا. عندما تجلس لحل الرياضيات مع أطفالك، ليس عليك أن تعرف كل الإجابات. يمكنك أن تسأل طفلك
لشرح الرياضيات لك علمهم أن عدم المعرفة ليست فشلاً. علمهم أن عدم المعرفة هي الفشل. إنها الخطوة الأولى للفهم. لذا، عندما قامت هذه المجموعة من الطلاب
بسؤالي إذا كان البرتقالي يعني زوجي، ليس علي أن أخبرهم بالإجابة. لا أريد حتى معرفة الإجابة. يمكنني أن أطلب من أحدهم أن يشرح لي
لماذا يعتقد أن هذا صحيح. أو يمكننا طرح الفكرة على الفصل. لأنهم يعرفون أن الإجابات لن تأتي مني، يحتاجون إلى إقناع أنفسهم
والجدال مع بعضهم البعض لتحديد ما هو صحيح. وهكذا، يقول طالب واحد،
"انظر، 2، 4، 6، 8، 10، 12. راجعت جميع الأرقام الزوجية. لديهم جميعاً برتقالي فيهم. ماذا تريد اكثر؟" ويقول طالب آخر، "حسنا، انتظر لحظة، أرى ما تقوله، لكن بعض هذه الأرقام
لديها قطعة برتقالية واحدة، البعض لديها اثنين أو ثلاثة. مثل، انظر إلى 48. حصلت على أربع قطع برتقالية. هل تخبرني أن الرقم 48
هو زوجي أكثر من 46 بأربعة أضعاف؟ يجب أن يكون هناك المزيد للقصة". برفضك أن تكون مفتاح الإجابة، أنت تخلق مساحة لهذا النوع
من المحادثة الرياضية والنقاش. وهذا يشد انتباه الجميع
لأننا نحب أن نرى الناس يتجادلون. بعد كل هذا، أين يمكنك أن ترى
تفكيراً حقيقياً بصوت عال في مكان آخر؟ الطلاب يشكون، يؤكدون، ينكرون، يفهمون. وكل ما عليك القيام به
كمعلم هو أن لا تكون مفتاح الإجابة وقل "نعم" لأفكارهم. وهذا هو المبدأ الرابع. الآن، هذا واحد صعب. ماذا لو جاءك طالب
وقال 2 زائد 2 يساوي 12؟ يجب عليك تصحيحها، أليس كذلك؟ وهذا صحيح، نريد من الطلاب
أن يفهموا حقائق أساسية معينة وكيفية استخدامها. لكن قول "نعم" ليس هو الشيء نفسه
كقول "أنت على حق". يمكنك قبول الأفكار،
حتى الأفكار الخاطئة، في النقاش وقل "نعم" لحق طلابك بالمشاركة في فعل التفكير رياضيا. جعل فكرتك غير قابلة
للنقاش هو تقليل للقدرات. إن قبولها ودراستها وعدم ثبوتها
هي علامة احترام. كما أنه أكثر إقناعاً بكثير أن تظهر
أنك مخطئ من قِبل زملائك أكثر من أخبارك أنك مخطىء من قبل المعلم. لكن اسمحوا لي أن آخذ هذه الخطوة أبعد. كيف تعرف فعلا
أن 2 زائد 2 لا تساوي 12؟ ماذا سيحدث لو قلنا "نعم" لهذه الفكرة؟ أنا لا أعلم. دعونا نكتشف. لذا، إذا كانت 2 زائد 2 تساوي 12، ثم، 2 زائد 1 سيكون أقل بواحد،
إذاً يكون 11. وهذا قد يعني أن 2 زائد 0،
الذي هو 2 فقط، سيكون 10. ولكن إذا كان الرقم 2 هو 10،
فسيكون الرقم 1 هو 9، و 0 سيكون 8. ويجب أن أعترف أن هذا يبدو سيئًا. يبدو أننا كسرنا الرياضيات. لكنني أفهم في الواقع
لماذا هذا لا يمكن أن يكون صحيحًا الآن. فقط من التفكير في ذلك، لو كنا على خط الأعداد، وإذا كنت في 0،
8 هي ثماني خطوات بهذا الاتجاه، وليس هناك طريقة
لأتمكن من اتخاذ ثماني خطوات والرجوع للوراء حيث بدأت. ما لم … (ضحك) حسنا، ماذا لو لم يكن خط أعداد؟ ثم يمكنني اتخاذ ثماني خطوات
والرجوع إلى الوراء حيث بدأت. 8 سيكون 0. في الواقع، كل الأرقام اللانهائية
على الخط الحقيقي ستكون مكدسة في تلك البقع الثمانية. ونحن في عالم جديد. ونحن نلعب هنا فقط، أليس كذلك؟ لكن هذه هي الطريقة التي يتم بها ابتكار
الرياضيات الحديثة. لقد درس علماء الرياضيات في الواقع
دوائر الأرقام منذ فترة طويلة. لديهم اسم مميز وكل شيء: حسابيات نمطية. وليس فقط الرياضيات تعمل، اتضح أنه مفيد للغاية في مجالات مثل التشفير وعلوم الكمبيوتر. ليس من المبالغة القول أن رقم بطاقتك الائتمانية آمن عبر الإنترنت لأن أحدهم كان على استعداد أن يسأل، "ماذا لو كانت دائرة أعداد
بدلاً من خط أعداد؟" لذا، نعم، نحن بحاجة إلى تعليم الطلاب
أن 2 زائد 2 يساوي 4. لكننا أيضًا نحتاج إلى قول "نعم"
لأفكارهم وأسئلتهم ونقدم لهم الشجاعة
التي نريدهم أن يمتلكوها. يتطلب الأمر الشجاعة ليقول،
"ماذا لو 2 زائد 2 يساوي 12؟" وفي الواقع استكشاف العواقب. يتطلب الشجاعة أن تقول، "ماذا لو أن مجموع الزوايا الموجودة
في مثلث ما لا يساوي 180 درجة؟" أو "ماذا لو كان هناك
جذر تربيعي لـ سالب 1"؟ أو "ماذا لو كانت هناك
أحجام مختلفة من اللانهاية؟" لكن تلك الشجاعة وتلك الأسئلة أدى إلى بعض من أعظم الاختراقات في التاريخ. كل ما يتطلبه الأمر هو الاستعداد للعب. وهذا هو المبدأ الخامس. الرياضيات ليست عن اتباع القواعد. إنها عن اللعب والاستكشاف والقتال والبحث عن أدلة وأحيانا كسر الأشياء. دعا أينشتاين اللعب
أنه أعلى شكل من أشكال البحث. ومعلمو الرياضيات الذين يسمحون
لطلابهم باللعب مع الرياضيات يعطونهم هبة الملكية. اللعب مع الرياضيات يمكن أن يشعر مثل الجري عبر الغابة عندما كنت طفلا. وحتى لو كنت على الطريق،
تشعر أن كل شيء ينتمي إليك. الآباء، إذا كنتم تريدون أن تعرفوا كيفية تغذية الغرائز الرياضية لأطفالك، اللعب هو الحل. ما تعنيه الكتب للقراءة،
يعنيه اللعب في الرياضيات. ومنزل مليء بالحصى
والألغاز والألعاب واللعب هو منزل يمكن
أن يزدهر فيه التفكير الرياضي. أعتقد أن لدينا القدرة على مساعدة
التفكير الرياضي على الإزدهار في كل مكان. لا يمكننا تحمل إساءة استخدام الرياضيات
لإنشاء متابعين سلبيين للقاعدة. الرياضيات لديها القدرة
على أن تكون أروع شيء ثمين لدينا في تعليم الجيل القادم لمواجهة المستقبل بشجاعة وفضول وإبداع. واذا حصل جميع الطلاب على فرصة لتجربة جمال وقوة التفكير الرياضي الأصيل، ربما لن يبدو غريبا جدا عندما يقولون، "الرياضيات؟ في الحقيقة أنا أحب الرياضيات". شكراً (تصفيق)

The secret to self control | Jonathan Bricker | TEDxRainier



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Jonathan Bricker’s work has uncoved a scientifically sound approach to behavior change that is twice as effective as most currently practiced methods. His new …

The Science Of Yogic Breathing | Sundar Balasubramanian | TEDxCharleston



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Rather than examining what takes your breath away, Sundar Balasubramanian, a radiation oncology researcher studies what breath gives you. A deep breath …

The End of Social Science as We Know it | Brian Epstein | TEDxStanford



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Philosopher Brian Epstein warns that without significant changes, social sciences as we know it will become irrelevant and obsolete. His research on the …

Freedom Fries: And Other Stupidity We'll Have to Explain to Our Grandchildren



A whimsical look at patriotism and consumerism in America. It explores the absurdity of many of the symbolic gestures that have recently pervaded our culture, such as the wasting of perfectly good French Wine and the waving of Chinese-made America flags. With the help of a leading scholar and an outspoken social activist, this film draws a concrete relationship between American consumerism and patriotism.

The Rockies: Great Explorers (Documentary)



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This upload is 100% Non Profit.

the Rocky Mountains stand across the heart of America like a wall they are a massive jagged spine of earthen snow-capped rock that rises in some places over 14,000 feet the mountains Stern tree covered slopes divide the continent water that falls in the eastern slope of these mountains eventually ends up in the Atlantic Ocean water that falls in the western slope is bound for the Pacific the rivers that drain these peaks and ridges create some exhilarating whitewater rafting and the mountains behind them attract climbers from all over the world but there was a time when crossing those mountains and charting those rivers was a task that pushed early explorers to the limits it was a task as perilous and adventurous as any unearth the great explorers in this episode of the Rockies hello I'm Peter Fonda welcome to the Rockies this has been my home for more than 25 years a part of the Rocky Mountains called Paradise Valley but more than a century ago the Rockies were hellish obstacles that intimidated even the bravest adventurers our program tells the story of some of the great explorers who challenged the Rockies there was a one-armed geologist who braved the uncharted canyons and raging rapids of the Green River at Peter and a photographer who together introduced skeptical Americans to the mysteries of Yellowstone's nature and the team of Lewis and Clark whose remarkable journey very nearly came to a tragic end just about a hundred miles from here Hamilton Montana sits at the foot of the Bitterroot Mountains lately this tiny hamlet has started to attract writers and artists seeking relief from big cities and sprawling suburbs but at its heart Hamilton is still a piece of rural America where real Cowboys herd cattle over dusky Hills where life revolves around the unforgiving land and harsh seasons it was the same environment that at 1805 challenged two new countries first great explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark that year on the banks of a river in western Montana the adventurous spirit of early America was about to run headlong into the continents greatest obstacle the Rockies Lewis and Clark were sent to explore the western half of the continent by a man who'd never been more than fifty miles west of Charlottesville Virginia President Thomas Jefferson Jefferson had been interested in exploring the West beyond the Mississippi and beyond the Missouri River virtually all of his life he became president at the turn into the new century and now suddenly he was in a position to do something about it the Corps of Discovery as they were named to by Jefferson numbered dozens of rough-and-ready men and one Indian woman Sacagawea the wife of a trapper she went along to serve as an interpreter one of the course primary missions was to determine if there was a water passage to the Pacific in part the trip was geopolitical to establish American supremacy an American claim to ownership in what later would become the Oregon country in part it was a scientific expedition Lewis and Clark were charged with recording the flora the fauna of the ethnography meeting the Native Americans along the along the way mainly I think geographical to discover the shortest and fastest way across the continent hopefully by means of water rivers were the highways of early America the easiest means of travel which didn't mean the travelling was easy for fifteen months the Corps of Discovery met and overcame the toughest obstacles their uncharted country had to throw at them the Corps proved themselves to be hearty men and great explorers and Lewis and Clark proved to be a remarkable pair of leaders they complemented each other and reinforced each other they were very professional they knew weapons they knew shoes a new clothing they knew how to cook food they knew a lot about medicines they knew how to use a sextant to figure out how far north of the equator they were they knew how to look up at the stars and figure out where they were their knowledge reinforced each other Clark was better with the men than Lewis was Lewis was better with plants and animals and Clark was Clark was better with maps than Lewis was Lewis was better in diplomacy with the Indians and Clark would have been so at every point along the way whatever the requirement was one of the two of them had it and they were going to need it every bit of their strength and intelligence to get the Corps of Discovery – the vast blue waters of the Pacific in the summer of 1805 as they neared the headwaters of the Missouri River the Explorers hoped that soon they could travel with the current instead of against it but those hopes would be dashed against the Rocky Mountains they assumed that if they ascended the Missouri River to its source they would have an easy one days crossing of a single chain of mountains and they'd be on the headwaters of the Columbia River they could put the canoe on their backs hike over a divide and put it down on the other side and start going down the Columbia out to the Pacific that's what they thought was going to happen but neither man was prepared for the Rockies both were used to the mountains of the east the Appalachians in the Blue Ridge but those were nothing but foothills compared to the mighty Rockies unbeknownst to Thomas Jefferson Meriwether Lewis and every other American in 1804 the Rocky Mountains are not a single chain of mountains there are chain after chain after chain of mountains fifty three separate chains in Montana alone and the Rocky Mountains in this area are 250 to 300 miles wide the further they got into the mouths is they came up that River the bigger those mountains got and the more snow covered they were and they hadn't reckoned on any of that so it led to a lot of thought on their part and they had to come to some very different determinations on what the hell are we gonna do to get over those mountains that already get out to the Pacific to cross the Rockies the explorers were going to have to abandon their canoes and move their gear onto horses the problem was they didn't have any horses their only hope was to find indigo with the region's Shoshone Indian tribe a Shoshone Indians are the pivotal tribe that they expected to find they were the last Indian tribe living east of the Rocky Mountains they needed the Shoshones to provide information on how to cross the mountains provide a little help in transporting their baggage and equipment across the mountains and that's the reason they brought the Indian girl Sacagawea along on the trip she's only about 16 years old she's a new mother but she was a Shoshone Indian girl she knew the language and she was the expedition's entree to the tribe whenever they would encounter it the expedition soon reached a place where three rivers converged to form the mighty Missouri not long after that they entered a region looked familiar to Sacagawea they're near a well-known Indian landmark called beaver head rock they finally encountered the Shoshone at a favorite tribal campsite so from the Shoshone is down in the southwestern most part of Montana Lewis was able to go mounted to leave the canoes which couldn't get any further up the river anyway and to begin his assault on the mountains the assault on the mountains started out well enough on August 12th 1805 Lewis was scouting ahead of the main party at mid-morning he drank from a small mountain spring the very source of the mighty Missouri River from there he climbed a ridge and soon found himself straddling the Continental Divide then to the west he sought the Bitterroot Mountains jutting up like a saw blade cutting off the path to the Pacific God knows that he could ever get across him and if he could how long is it gonna take and how he was gonna manage to keep from getting lost and what he was gonna eat while he was in these mounds to have any hope of reaching the Pacific Lewis and his men had to cross the bitter roots and they had to do it fast winter was already setting in on September 13th the Lewis and Clark expedition headed up Lola Creek and into the bitterroots as they ascended they soon found themselves in deep snow and deep trouble there's already two feet of snow on the ground and they couldn't find the trail so their guide old Toby immediately got lost and they were scrambling through the mountains there's no food in the mountains there's no game in the mountains in those days the deer the elk were all plains animals in the early 19th century they did have some portable soup Lewis had brought some portable soup all the way from Washington DC but apparently it was so rancid and bitter that people couldn't even keep it down which is probably fortunate because they transported that portable soup in lead containers I think the remedy would have been worse than the illness at that point they were eating candles that were made out of fat they were trying to get by on some berries but the berries were been frozen out because they had an early snow that year and then very bad weather this was tough this was passed tough this was Sol testing laden with gear guns and other supplies the group could only cover a few miles a day and their supplies of food even the candles were nearly gone upon September 18th Clark took several men and set out ahead in a desperate search for food or help Clark was very lucky on this trip he found a horse that had escaped from the Indians and he was able to kill that horse and he and his men ate half of it and left the other half hanging up for Lois to make a soup out of it to feed his man to keep them from starving but even a horse didn't go far when it was divided among so many hungry explorers they pressed on dragging themselves and their gear through the treacherous bitterroots finally after a week of cold and hunger the starving man stumbled out of the Rockies and into a band of Nez Perce Indians for more than a week Lewis and Clark and their men struggled cold and starving climbing thousands of feet up and over the Bitterroot Mountains the last great barrier of the Rockies between the Missouri River and the Pacific Ocean finally Clark's County party made it out of the mountains and into a Nez Perce village two days later they were joined by the main group led by Lewis men were tired and hungry weakened by their struggle to cross the mountains luckily the Nez Perce appeared cooperative the Native Americans had never seen so many white people at once and had never seen so many well-armed white people the Lewis and Clark expedition was every man was armed to the teeth with rifles and muskets and pistols and knives and it was a formidable military force or at least it had been formally the Nez Perce offered the starving men food more food than they'd seen in weeks and the men ate ravenously Clark warned them don't eat too much you're gonna get sick to your stomach of eating too much better cars they all ate too much and the result was the entire car discovery was flat on its back it's like they were in a hospital they were just barfing everything there coming out of all the offices in the body and just terribly sick more than 30 strong and armed to the teeth they were suddenly helpless and surrounded by nez perce the Nez Perce were presented with an opportunity that no other Indian tribe has ever had there were 32 men stretched out in front of all the animals to take out their knives and slice 32 throats the claw discovery couldn't have resisted and have they had after those parrots had done that they would have come into possession and the biggest Arsenal west of the Mississippi River 32 rifles powder enough to last in a lifetime and there were some hotheads among the Nez Perce let's do it then a solitary dissenting voice spoke up but a woman came forward who had been captured as a young girl and had been traded and traded and traded and finally it ended up with at a brief trading post where she told the tribe these guys are white men and the white men were the only men who treated me decently when I was a captive she had then escaped and gotten back to the Nez Perce she said don't harm them and so instead of hiring the men of the Corps of Discovery they helped him and they brought him back to their health grateful to be alive Lewis and Clark gave the Indians tokens of appreciation beads knives and other goods with their health restored the Corps of Discovery was ready to continue its mission and finally after more than 18 months some 2,500 miles of our juice travel and near-starvation crossing the Rockies they were able to finally take that easy ride downstream on October 7th Lewis and Clark they're men and Sacagawea set off in canoes bound for the Pacific they would accomplish what they had set out to do forged their way to the western coast of America Lewis and Clark crossed over only a small part of the Rocky Mountains there was much left to explore in southwestern Wyoming in northwestern Colorado the Green River Royals out of the spectacular rock formations of Flaming Gorge and into the canyons of Dinosaur National Monument the Green River is one of the main tributaries of the Colorado River and one of the most spectacular whitewater rides in the country but it wasn't so long ago when no one even knew where the green started or how to get down it but one man was determined to find out it was May 1869 the Transcontinental railway linking the East Coast with the West had been open for two weeks America's great age of exploration was giving way to the great age of expansion but there remained one vast blank spot on the nation's maps an unexplored region sprawling across thousands of square miles until it was charted it could not be settled much of the West was settled California was settled the the frontier was vanishing on its way to vanishing but the canyons of the green of the Colorado River were what people called the last great geographic problem in the u.s. where did they go they knew where the mouth of the Colorado was they knew where the mouth of the Grand Canyon was the railroad had crossed farther up but what was in the river canyons that was a big problem a big question that nobody knew his scientist named John Wesley Powell resolved to answer that question but Powell was no ordinary scientist he was also a civil war hero whose right arm was shot away at the Battle of Shiloh Powell may have been a brave soldier but it was the river that ran in his blood in 1856 at age 22 he rode from Minneapolis to the Louisiana Delta a child of some 1,500 miles the next year he rode the length of the Ohio he thought his experience would help him get down the green Powell's run at the river began in May 1869 in the cool spring air Powell and nine other men climbed into four heavily laden oak boats and shoved off from the railroad trestle at Green River Wyoming the first hundred miles of river passed swiftly and smoothly Powell recorded their progress in his journal June 1st today we had an exciting ride the river rolls down the canyon at a wonderful rate and with no rocks in the way we make a most railroad speed here and there the water rushes into a narrow gorge the rocks on the side roll it in to the center in great waves and the boats go leaping and bounding over these like things of life pals men quickly acquired a taste for white water running Rapids said one was like sparking a black eyed girl just dangerous enough to be excited but one week later they came into a canyon deeper and darker than anything that ever encountered reminded of a moody Scottish poem they named it the canyon of world over to be at the top of a pool for miles into law Dora Canyon pal stopped to scout the water head he waved the others in behind him and the next two boats pulled to shore but as pal watched in horror and helplessness the fourth boat got caught by the current they were too far out in the river they saw the signal too late and as they came around the corner there wasn't time for them to get over to shore safely and they started into the rapid into the big waves and each time they crashed through a wave these heavy oak round-bottom boats would hit a rock and knock a hole in it hit another Rock knock another hole and as a approached another rock hit it crashed broken nap and the men are flung out into the river and are only able to barely save themselves by scrambling on to a small rocky island in the middle of the rabbit the men were shaken but they were alive the boat though was lost along with its cargo there was a third of their supplies were gone 2,000 pounds of bacon flour beans all the gear from the men who were in the boat they'd lost their guns they'd lost their bed rolls howland or Mulholland was the map maker for the expedition he lost all the maps he'd made up to that point this really was a disaster and so powell named the rapid right there disaster falls and that's a name it has to this day they'd been on the river for barely a week and had two months to go before they'd be back in civilization but even worse he soon realized worse than losing the food the clothes even the guns was the loss of his barometers without them pal couldn't complete his mission of mapping the River Canyon his hopes for the expedition were shattered as darkness fell Powell's spirits sank we return to the boats and make camp for the night no sleep comes to me in all those dark hours the rations instruments and clothing have been divided among the boats anticipating such an accident as this but in the distribution there was one exception to this precaution the barometers were all placed in one boat and they are lost in June 1869 Major John Wesley Powell's voyage down the green river suddenly appeared to be doomed in the blink of an eye at disaster Falls Powell had lost one of his four boats 2,000 pounds of his food and the barometers crucial to his expeditions mapmaking two of his men Jack Sumner and George Bradley had narrowly escaped drowning any other man might have called it quits let someone else map this dark region but Powell was no quitter after a sleepless night Powell and his men returned to the wreckage of the boat in the dawn they were able to see that there was one end of the boat still lodged in the rocks and so hoping against hope that that could be the end that had the barometers in it the vital barometers Powell Astra volunteers same two men Bradley and Sumner again said they would go out and check out and see what was in that hatch taking Powell small boat they rode right into the raging Rapids scrambled onto the rocks and checked the wreckage the other men are watching from shore Sumner and Bradley open up the hatch pull out the case there's the barometers and they're intact huzzah they all said hooray we're saved the barometers are saved Powell was overjoyed then the men reached further into the wrecked boat and pulled out a small keg a three-gallon called a blue keg of whiskey and the rest of the men said huzzah now we have something to drink now Powell was a teetotaler and he didn't like they had told him not to bring any spirits but he figured in this case they deserved it with high spirits and functioning barometers John Wesley Powell was able to continue his mission and after more than two months on the river powell headed back east with the first maps of the Green River Canyon another rocky mountain barrier had been conquered every hour and 20 minutes a crowd gathers on the boardwalk around a steaming hole in the ground a minute later like clockwork the geyser of steam erupts from the narrow hole jetting boiling water high into the blue skies of Yellowstone National Park the gasps of the crowd are just as dependable as the Geiser aptly-named bolt faithful the geyser and other natural features of Yellowstone attracted millions of people from around the world each year it's a place to see bears moose elk and lots of traffic not to mention the boiling evidence of the park subterranean activity but in 1870 just one year after John Wesley Powell ran the rapids of the Green River the wonders of Yellowstone were still being dismissed by Eastern scientists as fanciful rumors by the late 1800s America's eastern cities cities like New York Philadelphia and Boston were among the biggest and most sophisticated in the world more than 30 million people lived east of the Mississippi land was mapped farmed and inhabited tamed but west of the Mississippi was a different story vast tracts of the West remained uninhabited and mysterious those regions especially the Rocky Mountains were the setting for many a tall tale one of the tallest told of an incredible hot spring that shot boiling water 200 feet into the air Eastern intellectuals refused to accept descriptions of a fabulous land or the ground boiled and Eve and steam blasted into the air from holes in the earth the stories were laughed at and the people who told them were called Rocky Mountain Liars early visitors were mostly fur trappers men who could not usually write were not literate and so the tales they took back east of places where hot water came splashing out of the ground or mud boiled up were not believed people still didn't believe the descriptions because they were so fantastic who could believe these images actually existed in material fact there was one Easterner though who suspected there was more than a grain of truth in the yards about Yellowstone Ferdinand Hayden head of the US government surveys at the West in 1871 Hayden decided it was time to map the Yellowstone region time to see once and for all if the stories were fact or fiction Ferdinand V Hayden managed to convince Congress to give him forty thousand dollars to come out and confirm the wonders this is the stories that he had heard to confirm a rumor like Old Faithful would take more than a map and a report though the public would have to see it with their own eyes fortunately for Hayden the technology of visual proof had recently become available the camera it was big it was heavy and it was cumbersome to use but it was Hayden's only shot at persuading a dubious public Hayden's photographer choice was a curious young man named William Henry Jackson Jackson had always in a curiosity about things around him his photography then became an extension of his curiosity and the camera became a usable device that he was just interested in himself at first until he found that the specialty of making photographs extremely could be extremely lucrative because not that many people knew how to mix chemicals and how to run these complicated machines called LAN cameras but Jackson wasn't the only person seeking images of Yellowstone at the last minute Hayden's expedition was joined by a self invited member of the old school of image making the New York City Peter named Thomas Moran Moran an Eastern aristocrat was Jackson's opposite in almost every way Jackson was very much the rugged pioneer frontiersman Moran with his stringy yellow beard and short stature struck almost everyone as being a kind of city slicker type city slicker or no when Hayden's team gathered in May 1871 in Ogden Utah Moran was there and he was ready for the 200 mile trek to Yellowstone in July 1871 the pristine Yellowstone Valley echoed with a rumble of wagon wheels and the brain of mules geologist Ferdinand Haydon head of the US government's Western surveys had arrived with an expedition designed to learn once and for all the truth about Yellowstone's fabled geysers and if they did exist to bring back irrefutable proof Hayden was relying on photographer William Henry Jackson to do the job Jackson packed a staggering load of gear Boxey cameras glass plate negatives chemicals even a portable darkroom photography in the late 19th century was a complicated and cumbersome process coating the plate with its chemicals sensitizing the plate putting the plate in the camera making sure that it was kept from being exposed accidentally to the light taking the exposure itself then taking the plate back out of the camera removing it to a tent and are content where the developing of the plate would also be require more chemicals encoding it and finally the storing of the plate in the hope that the plate would not be broken or damaged to help prepare and process the plates Jackson brought along an assistant named George Dixon to carry the load he had a mule named hypo the New York painter Thomas Moran traveled far lighter than Jackson all he required was a sketch pad some pencils and charcoal brushes and paint with this refined manner and his easel many of the expedition's grizzled frontiersman expected the aristocratic Moran to fall by the wayside at any moment lo and behold Moran surprised everyone he adapted beautifully to the rugged the rugged lifestyle of the Pioneer the one difference I suppose was that he had to put a pillow on his saddle because unlike most of them he was not willing to endure that much torture to be a member of that Haydon team the expedition's members also expected Pat blood to develop between the old-fashioned painter and the newfangled photographer but again they were wrong instead of rivals the to image makers soon became fast friends Jackson wrote in his journal Moran became greatly interested in photography and it was my good fortune to have him at my side during all that season to help me solve many problems of composition while learning a little bit from me he was constantly putting in far more than he took out a week into their exploration Jackson and Moran gazed awestruck upon the traumatic Gorge of the Yellowstone River from there they moved upriver to Yellowstone Lake a mixture of cold and scalding waters for mountain man Jim Bridger once claimed to have caught a fish that cooked as he reeled it in finally in early August 1871 the Explorers entered the upper basin of the Firehole River Valley and it was their last that they saw what they came for geysers there were dozens of them steaming holes in the earth their rims a brittle collage of minerals but none of them was more impressive than the one that came to call Old Faithful as old faithful obliged the explorers with its spectacular displays Hayden took temperature readings and chipped off mineral samples Lauren took out pencil and paper and began to sketch and Jackson set up his camera there at last he took the first photograph the all-important proof of Yellowstone's fabled geyser it wasn't mythical it was geological Yellowstone is geologically very unusual in that many places on earth if you if you dig down it's it's 40 miles to to really hot stuff but here on the Greater Yellowstone Plateau the magma layer and the very hot rocks that are above it are much shallower it's that magma proximity that gives the power to Yellowstone's hot springs geysers mud pots and steam vents and it's been estimated that there are at least 10,000 of those individual features on the surface here at Yellowstone more geysers and hot springs and all the rest of the world combined so it's a remarkable place after five weeks of exploring sketching and photographing the expedition rumbled back out of the Yellowstone Valley by then Jackson had exposed 400 of his fragile glass plate negatives or an took the train back to New York City Jackson and Hayden headed for Washington DC Hayden had a congressional report to write and Jackson had four hundred photographs to develop the photos Hayden was counting on to dazzle the politicians having seen it firsthand Hayden knew that Yellowstone could quickly become a gold mine for greedy commercial developers which had already happened with other natural wonders like Niagara Falls to keep a similar fate from befall in Yellowstone Hayden urged Congress to set aside the Yellowstone region all 2.2 million acres of it and turned it into a great public park they went back to Washington with the idea of at least partially by that point the idea of convincing Congress to somehow preserve the place a skeptical Congress I might it might add that Yellowstone was indeed worthy of preservation in some form Hayden's 500-page report was packed with scientific logic and it was backed up by Jax's meticulous documentary photographs but while Jackson's black-and-white photographs accurately and indisputably depicted the lands features they weren't inspiring that role it turned out could only be played by Thomas Moran and his biddies the photograph was perfectly reliable and showed in detail all of the things that the geologists would want but the paintings of Moran they gave a grandeur and a spectacular gloss to the whole scene of the West that a single photographic image only partly fulfill on March 1st 1872 president ulysses s grant signed the bill making Yellowstone America's first national park now of course America has 54 national parks from Alaska to the Everglades but the seeds were sown by a single member of that 1871 expedition to Yellowstone a man the National Park Service has hailed as the father of the national parks it is not Ferdinand Haydn the dedicated scientist nor William Henry Jackson the pioneering photographer it was Thomas Moran the old-fashioned Peter today the Rocky Mountain region is dotted with dozens of national parks national monuments and national forests now ordinary people can explore the Rockies for themselves you can see the wonders of Yellowstone firsthand camp for Lewis and Clark camp and navigate the same Rapids John Wesley Powell but you can also get into trouble just like the early explorers did for all their beauty the Rockies remained a harsh and unforgiving environment nobody knows that better than Larry Howell and the southern Colorado high angle rescue team in the rugged San Juan Range of the Rockies the team springs into action when climbers hunters and other weekend explorers get into trouble Howl's group is on call 24 hours a day 365 days a year they know that a beautiful mountainside can quickly turn into a deathtrap we have a lot of clouds that form rapidly and turn into bad bad storms real quickly we have had in the past storms literally blow people off of the peaks and even if the weather doesn't actually blow any went off the peaks a surprise term could strain people high up in them which is exactly what happened in October 1994 when an early blizzard dumped three feet of snow on the San Juan range two hundred hundreds were stranded two miles high in the mountains one of those stranded was George Keller a retired Air Force officer from Texas as Howell and others began organizing a rescue effort Keller snowbound above 12,000 feet documented his ordeal on video tape I got food for about a day and a half left running low on matches and running low on fuel for my stove I only use the stove to cook on crank up the cook on and shut her down come on helicopter bad weather kept search and rescue aircraft grounded for days God take care of me as day after sub-zero day past rescue workers feared that Keller's time was running out he had been up there at five days at this point and he food was gone as water was gone mr. Keller was kind of wondering if he was going to get out of there he did everything he could think of to make himself findable there's an SOS I tramped out this morning if they're passing airplane or helicopter comes over maybe they'll see it finally after five days the weather clear an Air Force c-130 Chris crossed the mountains searching for signs of Keller a Chinook helicopter followed close behind by mid-morning the c-130 circled his campsite we love you George Keller was safe for the southern Colorado high angle rescue team it was all in a day's work looking out for the lives of the ordinary people who are today's explorers of the Rocky Mountains mountains that continued to beckon and continue to challenge Thomas Moran's paintings of the Rockies established him as one of America's best-known artists and one of the wealthiest thought long after Congress declared Yellowstone our first National Park there was another vote in Washington legislators agreed to buy one of Moran's paintings for the astounded sum of $10,000 it was the first landscape to hang in the capitol for the rest of his life Moran signed his works with the initials tym for Thomas Yellowstone Moran