Scientist Turned Comedian: Tim Lee at TEDxUCSD

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Tim wasn’t supposed to be a comedian. A biologist by training, he graduated magna cum laude from UC San Diego with honors in biology. He went on to …

Consciousness is a mathematical pattern: Max Tegmark at TEDxCambridge 2014

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As a physicist, Max Tegmark sees people as “food, rearranged.” That makes his answer to complicated questions like “What is consciousness?” simple: It’s just …

The Next Frontier in Mathematics: Richard Charles at TEDxCherryCreekED

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The recent focus on STEM in K-12 Education poses an interesting dilemma. Students need to develop 21st century skills that require them to apply their …

A Feldenkrais Lesson for the Beginner Scientist: Professor Dorit Aharonov at TEDxJaffa

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Professor Dorit Aharonov will talk about how principles she had learned in her practice of body-mind methods, and the Feldenkrais method in particular, can be …

The science of analyzing conversations, second by second | Elizabeth Stokoe | TEDxBermuda

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Prof. Elizabeth Stokoe takes a run on what she terms the “conversational racetrack”—the daily race to understand each other when we speak—and explains …

Breaking barriers with quantum physics | Dr. Shohini Ghose | TEDxNickelCity

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This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. Dr. Shohini Ghose talks about how the laws of quantum mechanics …

The Geometry of Particle Physics: Garrett Lisi at TEDxMaui 2013

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About the Presenter:
After getting his Ph.D. in physics from UC San Diego, Garrett moved to Maui, seeking an optimum balance between surfing and his theoretical research. While pursuing an unanswered question at the heart of Quantum Field Theory, he began to develop what he called “An Exceptionally Simple Theory of Everything,” which proposed a unified field theory combining particle physics and Albert Einstein’s theory of gravitation. His story and work have been featured at TED, in Outside Magazine, The New Yorker, Surfer, and recently in Scientific American.


About TEDx
In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

fifty years ago these physicists came an idea for how our universe popped into existence out of nothing through a process called symmetry breaking this theory is very good at describing how all elementary particles get their mass and it predicts the existence of an entirely new kind of elementary particle called the Higgs boson but we were never able to see this Higgs particle it turns out they're very hard to make to make a Higgs particle you have to collide protons near the speed of light and create a tiny explosion that's able to pop a Higgs particle into existence and we built larger and larger accelerators over decades and were never able to make one until now thousands of physicists came together from all over the world and we made the largest machine ever made by man the Large Hadron Collider it stretches for 17 miles beneath the French Swiss countryside beneath Geneva it's incredibly impressive machine and very recently we were able to collide protons and pop a Higgs particle into existence just as predicted 50 years ago it's an amazing success for science and this was announced just this past July 4th and it's near certain that several people in this photograph are gonna be getting Nobel Prizes wait but the the Novo the prizes aren't why we do this research we do this research to figure out what our universe is at the very fundamental level so what is it we found out using this enormous machine I want you to imagine the fabric of space-time without space or time just as an empty four-dimensional fabric with absolutely nothing in it at all now imagine the flow of time appearing in this fabric when you do this you have to choose some arbitrary direction to be the flow of time it works a lot like this if I take this arrow and I balance it on the stage on its tail as perfectly as possible and let it fall it's unstable and it falls in some arbitrary direction this is the process of symmetry breaking this arrow chooses one specific direction and now this sets a direction over the entire stage now I can say walk to arrow links from here and turn and Here I am it sets the direction and a sense of scale and this is exactly the way symmetry breaking words in our universe to produce the direction for the flow of time and now in our universe after symmetry breaking I can say proceed fourteen billion years from the Big Bang then turned perpendicularly from time into space and travel to a pale blue insignificant planet in the Milky Way galaxy and here we all are but time doesn't travel smoothly in all directions throughout space-time we know it's bent by matter right now the earth is bending the flow of time towards its center and we feel this is gravity right now as all of us are traveling forward together in time our temporal flow is being bent towards the center of the planet and the only reason we're not all accelerating downwards right now is we're pushing against our chairs so not only can the flow of time bend but it can also ripple this is called a gravitational wave and we think it's created by the motion of very dense very large chunks of matter but what is this matter stuff the way the universe works we think is that every point of space-time there is another internal space with many dimensions that are perpendicular to our three dimensions of space right so this is not an internal space that's in our space but rather attached to it and moving over it now for each different direction in this inner space there is a corresponding different kind of elementary particle that can exist at a spacetime point now we don't know what the complete shape of this inner space is but we do know what parts of it are and one very important part of it are the four dimensions corresponding to the Higgs field I can describe what that looks like with this ball so if you imagine this beach ball the surface of it to be a perfectly symmetric four dimensional shape all right that what happens is via symmetry breaking one direction you have to choose is special all right and then this is called the Higgs direction and this is very similar to how the flow of time becomes special in space-time but here we're dealing with the internal space of particle physics now once you have this direction picked out this happens at every point over space-time so now this uniform field over space-time with the Higgs direction picked out is what we call the Higgs background and just like time can ripple this Higgs field can also ripple a ripple in the direction of the Higgs field over our space-time is what we see as a Higgs boson this is the particle that gets popped into existence that corresponds to this wave in the Higgs direction over space-time and this is precisely what we were able to create for a brief and glorious moment at the Large Hadron Collider we pop these particles into existence they immediately decayed into other particles which we tracked and catalog the properties were able to determine that yes we had a Higgs boson there created for a brief moment is a spectacular achievement of science now to actually understand now how this validated theory describes how particles get mass you have to understand how this Higgs shape twists around the inner space of elementary particles so what do i mean by that well as well as that four dimensional shape we have another shape in there corresponding to the electroweak force describe it with this two-dimensional pool floating one direction around here corresponds to what's called wheat charge and the other direction corresponds to what's called hyper charge and the Higgs direction is not uniform over this electroweak torus in this internal space it twists around it all right now this corresponds to the charges of that Higgs direction so although this geometry is very complicated all you have to do is count the number of twists there are three twists around the hyper-charged direction one twist around the weak charged direction you go and you make a very simple plot but this is precisely how the symmetry gets broken of the electroweak force perpendicular to this Higgs direction is how is what we call electric charge which makes an angle called the weak mixing angle and this electric charge is made of Pi type part hyper charge and part weak charge now all the other elementary particles we know of that can exist also twist around the select weak torus and we can plot them according to their twist here on this plot and see their charges here are the three components of the Higgs field and how they twist around here the W bosons and the the photon and the Z knot don't twist they're parallel around this torus so they sit in the center of this diagram the electron has four different parts it's left and right part and the particle/anti-particle and same for the up and down courts and probably the neutrinos so this diagram of twists is the fundamental pattern of elementary particles in our universe it's a complete diagram of these charges there are other particles you may have heard of such as the bottom and top quarks but they have the same number of twists as the up and down quarks so there a lot of overlaps here now you can you can rotate this diagram by the weak mixing angle and now see how the Higgs particle interacts with all of these particles to give them their mass so the Higgs direction when you add the Higgs to the left-handed part of the electron it turns into the right-handed part of the electron so what's going on at every point in our space-time when there is an electron is it's they're bouncing back and forth between its left and right-handed parts interacting with this Higgs background and that's how it gets a mass and this happens for every other kind of massive particle and this is how we end up with the elementary particles we see now as well as the electroweak torus inside this inner space there's also another torus corresponding to the strong force and there's also a hyperbolic torus corresponding to gravity but I wasn't able to find that one as a pool toy turns out they take forever to inflate but if this is if this is the strong force then the quarks also twist around this torus and they make a wonderful pattern of twists creates a triangular pattern of a charge that becomes it because it came in a triangle we called it a color charge and label the quarks according to their charges red green and blue and the gluons also twist around this strong torus and these are what carry the strong force and when they interacted with the quarks they changed of their color and this is what binds all the quarks together inside the atomic nuclei and this is how all that matter we know of in the universe comes to exist two up quarks and a down quark make a proton of total electric charge plus one a down quark into and up quark and two down z' make a neutron with zero electric charge these clump together bound by the strong force orbited by electrons bound by photons and we see everything around us in the universe all of this described as a beautiful complex twisting of geometry it's really a fantastic picture now as I said we're not sure what the complete space is yet of internal particles but internal particle physics but I do have my own guess for what this is this is the most beautiful possible internal space known to mathematics it's called the e8 Li group and it just so happens that all the charges of all the known particles and physics match charges in this geometric structure it's a fantastic thing this is what I work on it also happens to look really good on a t-shirt so right now the LHC is is being shut down to beef up the connections between the magnets so that in about a year or two from now it's going to come back online with a much higher energy and I'm greatly looking forward to see what new particles come out of this Collider right now this is I believe the greatest adventure going on in science and I'm extremely excited to be a part of it and I hope you all are too thank you very much [Applause]

Six Reasons Why Research is Cool: Quique Bassat at TEDxBarcelonaChange

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Quique Bassat — Assistant Research Professor, Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal-UB) -Barcelona Contact him: …

The mathematics of love | Hannah Fry

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Finding the right mate is no cakewalk — but is it even mathematically likely? In a charming talk, mathematician Hannah Fry shows patterns in how we look for …

The psychology of self-motivation | Scott Geller | TEDxVirginiaTech

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Scott Geller is Alumni Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech and Director of the Center for Applied Behavior Systems in the Department of Psychology. He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the Association for Psychological Science, and the World Academy of Productivity and Quality. He has written numerous articles and books, including When No One’s Watching: Living and Leading Self-motivation. Scott will examine how we can become self-motivated in “The Psychology of Self-Motivation.”

In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

المترجم: Mostafa ٍSeif
المدقّق: Hussain Laghabi شكرا ، شكرا لكم إلى ما وراء الحدود. يا لها من فكرة ، صحيح ؟ وعندما أفكر فى الحدود ، أفكر فى القواعد والقوانين والقيود وأفكر فى الآباء والمعلمين والمشرفين ، الذين يحاسبوننا
وفقا لتلك الحدود. وهذا ليس بأمر سيئ ، فإن كنتم مثلى فأنا أحتاج مشرفين ، أحتاج إلى أحد يحاسبنى لأقوم بالأمر الصحيح. لكن ما وراء الحدود هو شئ مختلف. أفكر فى هؤلاء القادة وأولئك المعلمين
وأولئك المشرفين وأولئك الآباء ، الذين يلهموننا للمضي وراء نداء الواجب لعمل أكثر مما هو لازم علينا ، لعمل الأمور ليس لأنهم يأمروننا
ــ بل لأننا نريد ذلك. أود أن أشارككم ما يوضحه البحث عن كيفية حدوث ذلك ، وليس فقط للناس بل لنفسك أيضا. ها هى الفكرة : كيف يمكننا إلهام الناس
وأنفسنا لنكون متحمسين ذاتيا ؟ وبتعبير آخر يسمى الأمر : "التمكين". سمعت هذه الكلمة
من قبل ، صحيح ؟ حسنا ، التعبير الإدارى للتمكين هو : " قم بالعمل ، فقط قم به. باستخدام مصادر قليلة وفى وقت أقل ،
أمكّنك أن تنتهي من الأمر " أنا أتحدث عن إحساس أنك متمكن ، هذا أمر مختلف. إحساس التمكن يحدث عندما
تكون متحمس ذاتيا. والآن ، إذا أردت أن تعرف
إن كنت تشعر بالتمكن ، أو طفلك أو تلميذك أو موظفك يشعر بذلك ، اسألهم ثلاثة أسئلة. وإذا أجابوا بنعم لهذه الثلاثة
الأسئلة فسيشعروا بالتمكن. وبالمناسبة ، هذا ليس مبنيا على المنطق السليم
ــ بل مبني على الأبحاث. ولكنكم قد خضتم مثل هذه التجارب ؛
لذلك ستشعرون أنها مبنية على المنطق. السؤال الأول : هل تستطيع فعلها ؟
( ألبرت باندورا) يسميها الكفاءة الذاتية. هل تؤمن أنك قادر على فعلها ؟ هل تمتلك الوقت الكافى
والمعرفة والتدريب ، لفعل ما نطلب منك فعله ؟ إذا أجبت بنعم فذلك جيد. السؤال الثانى : هل سيجدي هذا نفعًا؟ هل تؤمن بأن ما نطلب منك
فعله – أى العملية – ستجدي ؟ (ألبرت باندورا) يسمى ذلك استجابة فعالية. وهى الإيمان بأن السلوك
سيؤدى إلى أقصى حصيلة. بالمناسبة ، ذلك يتطلب تعليما. علينا أن نريهم البيانات ،
وقد نريهم بعضا من النظرية نحن نريهم ونعلمهم لم هذا قد يعمل. لقد استخدمت للتو كلمة " تعليم " ،
ومنذ قليل استخدمت كلمة " تدريب" هل يوجد اختلاف بين الاثنين ؟ فى المدرسة الابتدائية نسميها تعليما ، فى الاعدادية أيضا تعليم ،
وفى الثانوية تعليم وفى الجامعة نسميها تعليم عاليا؟(ضحك) ثم عندما تذهب للعمل
بعد ذلك ماذا تسميها ؟ تدريب. لديك قسم للتدريب
ــ لابد من وجود فرق. حسنا أنتم تعلمون الفرق ، تريدون أولادكم أن يتلقوا
جنسيا أم تدريبا ؟ (ضحك) وقد يجيب أولادكم عن السؤال بإجابة مختلفة. (ضحك) لأنكم تعلمون أن التدريب يعنى
أنك تفعل العمل وتحصل على نتائج. هذا أمر قوى ، بالفعل قوي. هل سمعتم عن هذه الكلمة
من قبل " تدريب على الإنترنت " ؟ إنه تناقض ، صحيح ؟ التدريب يعنى أنك تحضر العمل. لكن تدريب الإنترنت يعتبر
مثل أدوات الطعام البلاستيكية مع جمبرى كبير ومستند قضائى
والموسيقى الشعبية ! (ضحك) أقصد ، لا يمكن لهذا أن يعمل. حسنا ، إن كانت إجابتك على السؤال
نعم ، فإن الأمر سيعمل. السؤال الثالث : هل الأمر يستحق ؟ إذن نحن تناولنا سؤالا تدريبىا
وسؤالا تعليميا ، والآن هذا هوالسؤال الحماسى : هل تؤمن بالنتائج ،
فهذا الأمر متعلق بالنتائج. (ب. ف. سكنر) علمنا هذا :
" الاختيار بناءا على النتائج" اقتبس (ديل كارنيجى )
من (ب ف سكنر) وقال : "إنك منذ اليوم الذى ولدت فيه ، كل شئ فعلته فعلته لأنك
أردت نتيجة لذلك الفعل" النتائج ؛ هل الأمر يستحق ؟ إذن عليك أن تقنع الناس أن الأمر يستحق. والآن بالمناسبة ، إن كانت إجابتك
لتلك الثلاثة الأسئلة هى نعم ، فأنت تشعر بأنك كفء ، أليس كذلك ؟ تشعر بأنك كفء للقيام بعمل هام. لقد خضتم جميعا ذلك الشعور. وعندما تشعر أنك كفء عند قيامك بعمل هام ، تصبح فرصة تحمسك ذاتيا أعلى. لقد جربتم ذلك .
لا توجد حاجة أن يشرف عليك أحد. ها هو التحدي لكم
أيها القادة والمعلمون : كيف يمكنكم أن تلهموا الناس
ليشعروا أنهم أكفاء؟ عن طريق إعطائهم نصائح وتعليقات
و تقديرًا. فتظهرون لهم أنهم أكفاء. حسنا ، لدى كلمة أخرى تبدأ
بحرف الـ C : الاختيار منطقك السليم سيخبرك. عندما تؤمن بأن لديك إحساس من الاستقلال ، إحساس بالقدرة على اختيار ما تفعل
فتشعر أنك متحمس ذاتيا أكثر. علمنا (ب ف سكنر) ذلك أيضا فى كتابه :
" ما وراء الحرية والكرامة " و بالعودة لعام 1971. فإن قراءة ذلك الكتاب غيرت حياتى ؛ لأننى أدركت أننى مقيد بالعواقب. لكن أحيانا لا أشعر أننى مقيد بشئ. فعندما أعمل من أجل نتيجة سارة ، أشعر شعورا جيدا ، أشعر
وكأننى أعمل للحصول على شئ. ولكن عندما أعمل
لأتجنب عاقبة سيئة ، أشعر أننى مقيد. يسمى ذلك التعزيز السلبى. إذن ها هو التحدى لكم أيها القادة : كيف يمكننا أن نحث الناس
على أن يكونوا سعاة للنجاح بدلا من أن يكونوا متجنبين للفشل ؟ فى أول يوم بالكورس التمهيدى لعلم النفس ، – فأنا أدرس لفصلين بهما ستمائة طالب ربما البعض منكم يكون
قد حضر ذلك الدرس ويتذكر – أقول فى أول يوم :
"كم منكم يجلس هنا ليتجنب الفشل ؟" فيرفع ثمانون بالمائة من الموجودين أيديهم. ثم أقول لهم :"حسنا شكرا لمجيئكم ،
فأنا أعلم أنكم متحمسون ، لكنكم لستم هنا عن اقتناع. فغالبا أخبرتم أصدقائكم : " علىي الذهاب للمحاضرة فأنا ملزم بذلك " وليس : "لدى القدرة على الذهاب
للمحاضرة، إنها فرصة ! " فغالبا استيقظتم على منبه إنذار
وليس منبه فرصة. (ضحك) فالامر كله متعلق برؤيتك
حقا ، رؤيتك للأمر. إنه نموذجك. إنه طريقة تواصلك مع الآخرين ،
وتواصلك مع نفسك. قالت (إلين لانجر) فى كتابها "اليقظة" : – ويعلم علماء النفس ذلك – " عندما تعى قيمة الاختيار
تلمس التحمس " تكون متحمسا. إذن فالفكرة تتلخص فى هدوءك ،
وتفكيرك مليا من أجل مصلحتك. فكن يقظا للاختيارات المتاحة لديك. وتحدث عن كونك ساعيا للنجاح
ــ بدلا من أن تكون متجنبا للفشل. فالأمر كله يتعلق بطريقة كلامك
وتواصلك مع نفسك وغيرك. لدى كلمة رابعة تبدأ
بحرف الـ C : مجتمع. كلمة قوية. يعلم علماء النفس أن الدعم الاجتماعى حاسم. فالناس الذين يدركون معنى الترابط ومعنى الارتباط بأناس آخرين ،
يشعرون بالحماس ويكونون أسعد. أريد أن ألقى قصيدة ، تسمى "سارق الكعكة"
لــ(فالارى كوكس). وأثناء إلقائى هذه القصيدة ، يوجد بها شخصيتان فقط :
رجل و امرأة. ضعوا أنفسكم فى موقفهما. كونوا يقظين وفكروا فى الموقف ،
وفى ماذا كنتم لتفعلوا. اتفقنا ؟ هيا بنا : فى ليلة ما ، كانت سيدة تنتظر بمطار رحلتها لعدة ساعات طوال. فحصلت على كتاب من محل في المطار. واشترت كيسا ممتلئا بالكعك ،
ثم وجدت مكانا للجلوس. كانت مندمجة فى كتابها ،
إلا أنها رأت رجلا بجانبها ،
وبكل جرأة يمتلكها أخذ كعكة أو اثنتين من الكيس بينهما. فحاولت تجاهله لتتجنب غضبها. فاستكملت القراءة ومضغت الكعك وراقبت الساعة بينما سارق الكعكة
يقلل مخزونها من الكعك. كانت تزداد غضبا كلما مرت الدقائق. مفكرةً : "لو لم أكن مهذبة
للكمت عينه " ومع كل كعكة أخذتها ،
أخذ واحدة أيضا. وعندما تبقت واحدة فقط ،
تساءلت عما سيفعل. وبابتسامة على وجهه ،
وضحكة متوترة أخذ الكعكة الأخيرة ،
وبالنصف قسمها (ضحك) وأعطاها أحد النصفين أثناء أكل النصف الآخر. فانتزعته منه وفكرت :
" عجبا ! ، هذا الرجل جرئ ،
ووقح أيضا ، فلم يظهر حتى أى عرفان بالجميل " لم تشعر بمثل ذلك الغضب من قبل. وشعرت بالراحة حينما رأت نداء طائرتها. فجمعت حاجتها وتوجهت للبوابة. رافضةً النظر للخلف :
إلى السارق ناكر الجميل. صعدت الطائرة وجلست بمقعدها. ثم بحثت فى الحقيبة عن كتابها
الذى قاربت إنهاءه وأثناء بحثها فى حاجتها ،
ذهلت من المفاجأة ، فقد رأت أمام عينيها كيس كعكاتها. (ضحك) " إن كان كيسى أنا هنا.."
قالت متألمةً ، "إذن الكعكات الأخرى كانت
ملكه وكان يشاركنى " "لا يمكننى الاعتذار الآن "
لقد أدركت بحزن ، أنها هى التى كانت وقحة
والناكرة للجميل والسارقة. أذن ، أين كنتم من كلامى ؟ أين كنتم ؟ أى جانب اخترتم ؟ هل كنتم تفكرون باستقلالية ؟
أم بترابط ؟ أنا لا ألومكم إن كنتم تفكرون باستقلالية ؛ فلقد تربينا على ذلك. على أن المتعاونين متأخرين ،وأن الاهتمام
ينصب على الأنانيين ذوي المشاكل وعلى أن نذيع إنجازاتنا الشخصية وحسب ، على الاستقلال. نولد فى الحياة لنجد أنفسنا
معتمدين على غيرنا ، ثم نتشوق جدا لأن نصبح مراهقين. وعندها نصبح أكبر من أن نلعب مثل الأطفال ،
وأصغر من أن نفعل ما يفعله الكبار. ؛ لذا سنفعل ما لا يفعله أحد آخر
حتى نؤكد استقلاليتنا. والبعض منا يعلق فى ذلك التفكير ،
فنعلق بعمق فيه. سأنجز أنا أمورى ، لا أحتاجك. ذلك ليس جيدا. فنحن نحتاج بعضنا البعض ،
يجب أن نساند بعضنا. نحتاج لمعنى المجتمع. ثقافة الاستقلالية تلك التى لدينا
علينا أن نتجاوزها إلى الترابط. حسنا إذن ، أربع كلمات تبدأ بحرف الـ C
تستطيع إشعال الحماس الذاتى وأظن أنها قادرة على تفعيل
الاهتمام بين الناس أيضا. دعونى أخبركم بقصة ،
لألخص الأمر كله معا. لقد حدثت منذ أكثر من ستين سنة ،
أنا أتذكر الأمر وكأنه البارحة. سألنى والداى : " يا سكوت ، ..ما رأيك لو أخذت دروسا فى لعب الطبول ؟
هل تحب أن تلعب الطبول ؟ " يا للعجب ! حقا ؟ أخذت أفكر فى (بادي ريتش)
و (جين كروبا) معظمكم لا يعرف تلك الأسماء ،
لكنهم كانوا لاعبي الطبول. فى تلك الأيام ، كانت الطبول
توضع فى مقدمة الفرقة. كان لديهم طبول ماركة وايت بيرل ،
ورأيت نفسى فى ذلك ، فكانت تلك رؤيتى. فكان لى رؤية تخيلت فيها النتائج ،
وكانت هذه رؤيتى. ثم قلت : "نعم أريد أخذ
دروس فى لعب الطبول" فكان المدرس يحضر
معدات طبوله بجانب طبولى ، ولم يكن لدى طبلا جيدا مثل هذا. فقد اشترى لى والداى
طبلا متواضعا من مزاد علنى. وقالا لى : " إن تحسن مستواك ،
إن أخبرنا مدرسك أنك تتحسن ، – فهم بذلك يحاسبوننى – إن أخبرنا المدرس أن مستواك يتحسن ،
فسنشترى لك طبول أفضل من نوع آخر. ثم طبول من نوع آخر ثم آخر
لتكمل المجموعة " وكانت هذه رؤيتى ،
وكانت دافعا لى لأعمل : النتائج. وكان المدرس يدخل ويرينى. هكذا تلعب ، باليد اليسرى. هكذا كان يلعب (بادى ريتش)
بيده اليسرى ويده اليمنى. ثم كان يرينى حركات ، مثل حركة
تسمى Flam (طبل) هل يمكنك سماع ذلك بالخلف ؟
جيد ؟ وهذه تسمى Rimshot (طبل) كان يرينى حركات ، كنت فقط
فى العاشرة من عمرى ، تذكرون ؟ وعندما أرانى حركات ،
شعرت بالانذهال. أرانى تلك التطبيلة البسيطة فيقول:
"شاهدنى يا سكوت شاهد هذا" (طبل) وتدربت عليها وفعلتها ،
كنت أشعر أننى كفء. أرانى حركة paradiddle فقال :
" اسمع .. paradiddle .. paradiddle " ويقول: "اذهب إلى المنزل وتدرب. وفى
الأسبوع المقبل أريد أن أراك تفعلها" فقلت : " شاهد هذا " (طبل) ثم قلت : " شاهد هذا " (طبل) فقال : " تلك حركة double paradiddle ،
نحن لم نتدرب عليها بعد ! " كنت حقا متقدما ؛
لأننى كنت متحمسا ذاتيا. فأنا أشعر أننى كفء. كنت أسير فى مدرسة نيو بيرج الثانوية
بألين تاون – بنسيلفينيا فأرى مدرس الموسيقى وهو يقول : " سمعت أنك تتعلم لعب الطبول " فقلت :" نعم ! فإن مستواى يرتفع " فقال : " يمكنك الانضمام للفرقة ،
يمكنك أن تكون واحدا من الطبالين " يا للعجب ! كان شعورا جيدا ،
فهى رؤية أخرى. ثم يأتى المدرس ، – وكانت دروسا خصوصية بالمناسبة ،
بدولارين ، كان ذلك منذ زمن طويل – ويقول : " يا سكوت ، جاهز
لتأدية حركة Drum Roll ؟ " فأقول : " بالطبع أنا جاهز لذلك " ثم يقول : " شاهد هذا يا سكوت !
هيا بنا ، شاهد هذا " (طبل) فأفكر قليلا ، وأقول " هل يمكنك
أن ترينى ذلك مرة أخرى ؟ " -" يا سكوت ، إن الأمر سهل ، شاهدنى " (طبل) " والآن أريدك أن تتدرب وفى الأسبوع
القادم أريد أن أراك تفعل ذلك" فيعود الأسبوع القادم ويقول
"ما أخبار حركة الـ Drum Roll؟" فأتردد وأقول:" أستطيع فعل حركة paradiddle" فيقول : " هذا انحسار فى مستواك.
فأنا أريد رؤية حركة Drum Roll " مر أسبوع وراء أسبوع ،
الآن نحن نتحدث عن القلق. نحن الآن نتحدث عن اللامبالاة. نحن الآن نتحدث
عن العجز المكتسب. هكذا يسميها علماء النفس. أتذكر مشيي في
المدرسة الابتدائية ، ورؤيتى مدرس الموسيقى الذى قال : " إذن يا سكوت ، كيف حالك ؟
وكيف حال التطبيل ؟ " – " ليس جيدا ، فـأنا لا أجيد
حركة Drum Roll " فقال مثلما يفعل الكبار :
" لا تقل أنك لا تستطيع ، .. فأنت تستطيع أن تكون
أى شئ تريده يا سكوت " – "لا ، فأنا لا أستطيع
عمل Drum Roll. قد حاولت وحاولت ،
وقد استسلمت نوعا ما " فيقول : "يا سكوت ، عندما تشعر
أن الحركة مربكة ، قطّعها. قطعها ، هل تفعل حركة paradiddle ؟ " – " نعم ! " (طبل) -"حسنا ما هو الإيقاع الثانى ؟"
-"قرعتان" (طبل) – " نعم ، تلك هى الـ Drum Roll
يا سكوت جيلر ، فهى مكونة من قرعتين. (طبل) ..فلتذهب إلى المنزل وتتدرب
وتقول : " بابا وماما " – تذكروا كنت فى العاشرة – " فلتقل بابا وماما .. بابا وماما… (طبل) إنها حركة الـ Drum Roll ! عاد مدرسى الأسبوع المقبل ليقول : " حسنا يا سكوت ، أعتقد أنك
لا تستطيع فعل Drum Roll " فقلت : " شاهد هذا " (طبل) فقال : " عجبا ! كيف تعلمت فعل ذلك ؟ " فأريت مدرسى. (طبل) لقد علمت مدرسى
فى سن العاشرة. قال : " لقد نسيت ،
لقد اعتدت على أن أفعل ذلك فقط " (طبل) " لقد نسيت أنها قرعتان " " لقد علمتنى كيف أدرس
الـ Drum Roll يا سكوت " يوجد درس هنا ، نحن نستطيع دائما
أن نتعلم من بعضنا البعض. نحتاج أن يكون لدينا
التواضع لنتقبل ردود الأفعال ، والشجاعة لنتكلم بصراحة. ونحتاج إلى مساعدة بعضنا
على الوصول للتحمس الذاتى. كيف ؟ أعطهم إدراك الكفاءة ،
علمهم أن 'النتائج تقودنا'. دعهم يدركون قيمة الاختيار ،
واتركهم يعرفوا مجتمعهم. فنحن فى تلك التجربة معا ،
ونحتاج إلى بعضنا البعض. شكرا لكم. (تصفيق)

Naomi Oreskes: Why we should trust scientists

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Many of the world’s biggest problems require asking questions of scientists — but why should we believe what they say? Historian of science Naomi Oreskes …

A scientific approach to the paranormal | Carrie Poppy

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What’s haunting Carrie Poppy? Is it ghosts or something worse? In this talk, the investigative journalist narrates her encounter with a spooky feeling you’ll want to …

Tyler DeWitt: Hey science teachers — make it fun

Views:435475|Rating:4.94|View Time:11:21Minutes|Likes:13556|Dislikes:156
High school science teacher Tyler DeWitt was ecstatic about a lesson plan on bacteria (how cool!) — and devastated when his students hated it. The problem was the textbook: it was impossible to understand. He delivers a rousing call for science teachers to ditch the jargon and extreme precision, and instead make science sing through stories and demonstrations. (Filmed at TEDxBeaconStreet.)

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المترجم: Lubna Elsanousi
المدقّق: Anwar Dafa-Alla دعوني أحكي لكم قصة. إنه عامي الأول كمدرس لمادة العلوم في مدرسة ثانوية جديدة، و أنا متلهف للغاية. و متحمس ، باشرت بوضع مخططاتي للدروس التي سوف أدرّسها. و لكني تدريجياً بدأت ادرك برعب، أن تلاميذي ربما لم يتعلموا شيئاً. في أحد الأيام، حدث التالي: قمت بتكليف الفصل بقراءة فصل من الكتاب المدرسي في موضوع مفضّل بالنسبة لي في مادة الأحياء : الفيروسات و كيفية مهاجمتها للجسم. في قمة حماسي للنقاش معهم حول الموضوع، أقول لهم ، " هل يستطيع أحد أن يشرح لي رجاءً الأفكار الرئيسية و لما هذا الأمر رائع؟ " و ساد الصمت. ثم تتجاوب طالبتي المفضلة و تنظر مباشرة إلى عيني و تقول ، " لقد كانت القراءة سيئة للغاية. " ثم قامت بالتوضيح. قالت ، " أتعلم، أنا لا أقصد أنها سيئة . ولكن ما أقصده هو أني لم أفهم و لا كلمة من قراءتي. لقد كان الأمر مملاً. لا أهتم ، لقد كان الأمر سيئاً. " ثم ظهرت الإبتسامات المتعاطفة عبر الفصل كله، و أدركت أن طلابي جميعهم في نفس المركب، إنهم يقومون بتسجيل الملاحظات و يقومون بحفظ المصطلحات من الكتاب المدرسي، و لكن لم يكن أي منهم يفهم على وجه الدقة الأفكار الرئيسية. لم يستطع أي منهم أن يوضح لي لما هذا الفصل رائع، لما هو مهم. و كنت جاهلاً بالأمر تماماً. و ليس لدي أدني فكرة ، ما الشئ الذي أفعله. و الشئ الوحيد الذي خطر في بالي لأقوله، " اسمعوا. دعوني أخبركم بقصة. الشخصيات الرئيسية في القصة هم البكتريا والفيروسات. و هذه الشخصيات تكاثرت بالملايين. البكتريا و الفيروسات في غاية الصغر و لا نستطيع رؤيتهم إلا بواسطة الميكروسكوب، و أنتم ربما تعرفون البكتريا و الفيروسات لأنها تسبب لنا المرض. و لكن ما لا يعرفه الكثيرون هو أن الفيروسات تصيب البكتريا بالمرض أيضاً. الآن ، القصة التي أبدأ بسردها للطلبة ، تبدأ كأنها قصة رعب. في يوم من الأيام كان هنالك بكتريا صغيرة و سعيدة. لا تتعلقوا بها كثيراً. ربما تكون سابحة داخل معدتكم أو في أكل فاسد في مكان ما ، و فجأة تبدأ بالشعور بالتوعك. ربما تناولت شيئاً غير مناسب على الفطور، و بدأت الأمور تزداد سوءاً، فجِلد البكتريا بدأ بالتمزق ، و وجدت فيروساً خارجاً من دواخلها. و تسوء الأمور أكثر عندما تنفجر البكتريا ، ويخرج منها جيش من الفيروسات متدفقة من دواخلها. إذا– آآآي هي الكلمة المناسبة — إذا رأيت ذلك ، و كنت بكتريا، فإن هذا أسوأ كابوس مرّ عليك. و لكن إذا كنت فيروساً، سوف تضع رجلاً فوق الأخرى ، و تفكر في نفسك ، " كم نحن رائعون " لأن هذا الأمر تطلب الكثير من البراعة من أجل إصابة البكتريا بالعدوى. و هذا ما حدث. قامت واحدة من الفيروسات بالقاء القبض على بكتريا وقامت بغرس الحمض النووي الخاص بها في البكتريا. بعد ذلك ، قام الحمض النووي للفيروس بتكوين مادة قامت بتقطيع الحمض النووي للبكتريا. و بعد أن تخلصنا من الحمض النووي الخاص بالبكتريا، يقوم حمض الفيروس النووي بالسيطرة على الخلية و تأمرها بالبدء بصناعة فيروسات جديدة. لأنه ، كما ترون ، فإن الحمض النووي مثل المخطط الذي يخبر الكائنات الحية ماذا تصنع. هذا يشبه الدخول لمصنع سيارات و تبديل المخططات الخاصة بالسيارات بمخططات لرجال آليين مدربين على القتل. سوف يأتي العمال في اليوم التالي ، و يقومون بعملهم ، و لكنهم الآن يتبعون تعليمات مختلفة. لذا فإن تحويل الحمض النووي للبكتريا بالحمض النووي الخاص بالفيروس يحول البكتريا لمصنع لتصنيع الفيروسات — حتى ، تمتلئ جنباتها بالفيروسات و تصل حد الإنفجار. و لكن هذه ليست الطريقة الوحيدة التي تصيب بها الفيروسات البكتريا بالعدوى. بعضها أكثر براعة من ذلك. عندما يقوم عميل سري من الفيروسات بإصابة بكتريا بالعدوى، فإنهم يقومون بالقليل من أعمال التجسس. هنا ، هذا عميل سري من الفيروسات ملثم بردائه ، يقوم بتمرير حمضه النووي داخل خلية بكتريا، و هنا مصدر المفاجأة : إن الفيروس لا يقوم بأي شئ مؤذي — ليس من البداية. بدلاً من ذلك ، فإنها تنزلق داخل الحمض النووي للبكتريا ، و تكمن هنالك تماماً كما تفعل خلية ارهابية نائمة منتظرة للتعليمات. و ما هو مثير للإهتمام في هذا الموضوع ، أنه كلما اصبح للبكتريا أطفال ، فإن هؤلاء الأطفال يحملون الحمض النووي للفيروس بداخلهم. و يصبح لدينا الآن عائلة ممتدة من البكتريا ، ممتلئة بخلايا نائمة من الفيروسات. و هم يعيشون معاً بسعادة حتى تحدث الإشارة و — بوم! — ينفجر كل الحمض النووي خارجاً. و تقوم بالسيطرة على هذه الخلايا ، و تقوم بتحويلها إلى مصانع لتصنيع الفيروسات، و تنفجر كلها ، عائلات بكتريا ممتدة ، كلها تموت بوجود فيروسات منفجرة من احشائها، و تقوم الفيروسات بالسيطرة على البكتريا. إذاً الآن تعلمون ، كيف أن الفيروسات تقوم بالهجوم على الخلايا. توجد طريقتان : في الناحية اليسرى ، تدعى بالطريقة التحللية، حيث تقوم الفيروسات بالدخول و السيطرة مباشرة على الخلايا. في الناحية اليمنى هي طريقة المستذيب التي تستخدم عملاء سريين من الفيروسات. إذا هذه الأمور ليست صعبة كما قد تظنون ، صحيح ؟ و الآن كلكم يفهمها. و لكن إذا تخرجتم من الثانوية العامة ، يمكنني أن اجزم انكم رأيتم هذه المعلومات من قبل. لكني اراهن أنها قدمت لكم بطريقة بحيث أنها لم تثبت في أذهانكم. فعندما كان طلبتي يدرسون هذا لأول مرة ، لماذا كرهوا المادة بهذه الصورة ؟ حسن ، كان هنالك عدة عوامل. أولاً، استطيع أن اضمن لكم أن كتب المنهج لم تكن تحكي عن عملاء سريين من الفيروسات ، و لم يكن بها قصص رعب. تعلمون ، في محاولة توصيل العلوم هناك هوس بالجدية. هذا يقتلني . أنا لا أمزح. كنت أعمل لدى ناشر تربوي، و ككاتب ، كانوا يخبروني بعدم استخدام القصص على الإطلاق أو لغة ممتعة و جذابة، لأن عملي لن ينظر إليه كعمل "جاد" أو "علمي". صحيح؟ أقصد ، لأن الله حرّم المتعة عند تعلم العلوم. لذا لدينا مجال في العلوم يتحدث عن المواد اللزجة، و تغير اللون. انظروا لهذا. و لدينا أيضاً، بالطبع ، كما يتوجب على أي عالم جيد ، إنفجارات! لكن إذا كان الكتاب يبدو ممتعاً أكثر من اللازم، فإنه بطريقة ما يعتبر غير علمي. و الآن مشكلة أخرى كانت اللغة في كتب المنهج كانت حقاً مبهمة. إذا أردنا تلخيص القصة التي أخبرتكم بها سابقاً، يمكننا البدء بقول شئ مثل ، "إن هذه الفيروسات تعمل نسخاً من نفسها باسقاط الحمض النووي الخاص بهم داخل البكتريا." و الكيفية التي ظهرت بها هذه القصة داخل كتاب المنهج ، كانت كالآتي : " يبدأ تناسخ البكتريا عبر ظهور الحمض النووي الفيروسي داخل البكتريا." هذا رائع، ممتاز للطلبة من أعمار 13 سنة. و لكن أود اخباركم شيئاً. يوجد الكثير من الناس يعملون في مجال تعليم العلوم ، ينظرون إلى هذه المناهج و يقولون ، لا توجد طريقة أبداً لإعطاء هذه المواد للطلبة، لأن بها لغة غير دقيقة. على سبيل المثال ، قلت لكم أن الفيروسات لديها حمض نووي. حسن ، يوجد نسبة ضئيلة من الفيروسات ليس لديها حمض نووي. لديهم ما يدعى بالحمض النووي الريبي كبديل. لذا سيقوم كاتب مختص في العلوم بتدوير ذلك و قول ، " هذا يجب أن يذهب. يجب أن نغير ذلك لشئ أكثر تخصصية." وبعد أن راجع فريق من المحررين المختصين في العلوم هذا التفسير البسيط جداً، سيجدون خطأ في كل كلمة استخدمتها، و سيقومون بتغيير أي شئ غير جاد بما فيه الكفاية، و سيغيرون كل شئ ليس مثالياً بنسبة 100 بالمائة. بعدها يصبح كل شئ دقيقاً، و سيكون فهمه مستحيلاً. إن هذا مروع. أتعلمون ، استمر في الحديث عن هذه الفكرة فكرة سرد قصة، و كأن توصيل العلوم يتبنى فكرة ما اسميه بطغيان الدقة، حيث لا يمكنك سرد قصة. و كأن العلوم اصبحت تمثل راوي القصص المروع الذي نعرفه ، إنه يخبرنا بكل التفاصيل التي لا يتهم بها أحد، حيث يكون مثل ، " حسن ، لقد قابلت صديقتي على الغداء في ذلك اليوم، و كانت ترتدي بنطلون جينز قبيح. أقصد ، لم يكن حقاً بنطلون جينز، كان اشبه بالبنطال المطاطي الضيق، بل ، أظن انه كان اشبه ببنطال الجينز المطاط الضيق، و اظن – " و انت تقول في نفسك ، " يا إلهي. ما هو الهدف؟ " أو حتى اسوأ، تعليم العلوم أصبح مثل الرجل ، الذي يقول دائماً ، " في الحقيقة." حسن ؟ و انت تريد ان تقول ، " يا رجل ، كان علينا الإسيتقاظ في منتصف الليل و قيادة مائة ميل في ظلام دامس. " و يقول ذلك الرجل ، " في الحقيقة ، كانت 87.3 ميل. " و انت تقول في نفسك ، " في الحقيقة ، اصمت! انا فقط اريد أن اخبر قصة. " لأن رواية القصص الجيدة تعتمد على الإتصال العاطفي. يجب أن نقنع الجمهور أننا نتحدث عن امور هامة. و لكن المهم أيضا هو معرفة أي تفاصيل لا تستحق ان تروى حتى نستطيع توصيل الهدف الرئيسي من القصة. أنا اذكر ما قاله المعماري ميس فان دير روه ، و سوف أعيد صياغة ما قاله ، عليك أحيانا أن تكذب لتخبر الحقيقة. أظن ان هذا الرأي له صلة بتعليم العلوم. و أخيراً، فإني أحياناً أشعر بخيبة الأمل عندما يظن الناس أني أنادي بتسطيح العلوم. و هذا غير صحيح على الإطلاق. أنا حالياً طالب دكتوارة و طالب في معهد أم-آي-تي ، و أفهم أهمية التفصيل العلمي حين يتم التواصل بين الخبراء، و لكن ليس حين تعلم من هم في عمر 13 سنة. إذا كان متعلم صغير يعتقد أن كل الفيروسات لديها حامض نووي ، هذا لن يؤثر في فرص نجاحهم في العلوم في المستقبل. و لكن إن كان متعلم صغير لا يستطيع أن يفهم شيئاً في العلوم و تعلم كيف يكرهها ، لأن كلها تبدو له بهذه الطريقة ، فإن هذا سوف يحبط محاولاتهم للنجاح. على هذا الشئ أن ينتهي، و أتمنى أن يحدث التغيير من المؤسسات في القمة التي تحافظ على هذه المشكلات ، و أنا اسأل و التمس منهم ان يتوقفوا. و لكن لا أظن ذلك سيحدث. لذا نحن محظوظون أننا نمتلك مصادر مثل الإنترنت ، حيث نستطيع محاصرة المؤسسات من الأسفل إلى الأعلى. و توجد أعداد متزايدة من المصادر على الإنترنت مكرسة فقط لشرح العلوم بصورة بسيطة ، مفهومة. احلم بموقع مثل ويكيبيديا يقوم بشرح أي مفهوم علمي تستطيع التفكير فيه بلغة بسيطة يستطيع أي طالب في المدرسة المتوسطة أن يفهمه. و أنا نفسي أقضي معظم وقت فراغي اعمل مثل هذه الفيديوهات العلمية و احملها على اليوتيوب. أقوم بشرح التوازن الكيميائي باستخدام التشبيه برقصات المدارس المتوسطة الغربية ، و اربط حديثي عن خلايا الوقود بقصص بقصص الأولاد والبنات في المخيمات الصيفية. التغذية الإسترجاعية التي احصل عليها ، احيانا تكون مكتوبة بأخطاء املائية و تكون متكوبة احياناً بصور القطط المضحكة، و لكن رغم عن ذلك فيها الكثير من التقدير و الشكر فاعرف ان هذه هي الطريقة الصحيحة التي يجب ان نوصل بها العلوم. و يوجد الكثير من العمل المتبقي الذي علينا عمله ، فإذا كنت مشارك في العلوم بأي طريقة إني احثك أن تشاركني. التقط كاميرا، انشئ المدونة الخاصة بك ، أي شئ ، لكن اترك الجدية ، و اترك المصطلحات العلمية المعقدة. اجعلني اضحك. اجعلني اهتم. و اترك تلك التفاصيل المزعحة التي لا يهتم بها أحد و اوصلنا للهدف من الحديث. كيف تبدأ ؟ لما لا تقول ، " استمعوا ، دعوني اخبركم قصة " ؟ شكرا. (تصفيق)

Math is the hidden secret to understanding the world | Roger Antonsen

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Unlock the mysteries and inner workings of the world through one of the most imaginative art forms ever — mathematics — with Roger Antonsen, as he explains how a slight change in perspective can reveal patterns, numbers and formulas as the gateways to empathy and understanding.

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المدقّق: Fatima Zahra El Hafa مرحباً. أود التحدث إليكم عن عملية الفهم
وطبيعة الفهم، وعن ماهية جوهر الفهم، لأن الفهم أمر نهدف إليه، جميعنا. إذ أننا نود فهم الأمور. ادعائي هو أنَّ الفهم أمر له علاقة بقدرتنا على تغيير منظورنا. إن كنتم لا تمتلكونها،
فليست لديكم الكمية الكافية من الفهم. لذا فهذا ادعائي. وأريد أن أركز على الرياضيات، العديد منا يعتقد أن الرياضيات هي عبارة
عن الجمع والطرح والضرب والقسمة الكسور والنسب المئوية والمفاهيم الجيومترية
وعلم الجبر … كل هذه الأشياء. ولكن في الحقيقة، أريد أن أتكلم
عن جوهر الرياضيات وطرحي هنا هو أن الرياضيات مرتبطة بالأنماط. خلفي، ترون نمطًا رائعًا، وهذا النمط ينتج عن رسم الدوائر وحسب بطريقة محددة. لذا تعريفي للرياضيات اليومية التي أستخدمها هو التالي: بدايةً، إنها حول إيجاد الأنماط. وأعني ب"الأنماط" اتصالات،
وهيكلًا وبعض التناسق، بعض القواعد التي تضمن تشكيل ما نراه. ثانياً، أعتقد أنها حول تمثيل هذه الأنماط
بواسطة لغة. سنصنع لغةً إن لم نمتلكها، وفي الرياضيات، هذا أمر أساسي. إنها أيضاً حول صنع الافتراضات واللعب بهذه الافتراضات لنرى ماذا يحدث. سنقوم بفعل ذلك قريباً جداً. وفي النهاية، إنها حول القيام بأعمال رائعة. الرياضيات تمكِّننا من القيام
بالكثير من الأشياء. لذا دعونا نلقي نظرة على هذه الأنماط. إذا أردت أن تعقد ربطة العنق، فهناك أنماط. عقدات ربطة العنق لديها أسماء. ويمكن أيضاً أن تستخدم الرياضيات
لعقد ربطة العنق. هذا هو الشمال خارجاً، اليمين داخلاً،
المركز خارجاً واربط هذا هو الشمال داخلاً، اليمين خارجاً،
اليسار خارجاً، المركز خارجاً واربط. هذه هي اللغة التي ابتكرناها
لأنماط عقد ربطة العنق، وهذه هي عقدة نصف وندسور. هذا كتاب رياضيات حول عقد رباط الحذاء في المستوى الجامعي، لأن هناك العديد من الأنماط
في رباط الحذاء. يمكن أن تقوم بها بالعديد من الطرق. يمكننا تحليلها. يمكننا أن نختلق لغة خاصة لها. وتمثيلها يتم بالكامل بواسطة الرياضيات. هذا هو رمز لايبنتز من عام 1675. لقد اخترع لغة للأنماط في الطبيعة. عندما نرمي شيئًا في الهواء، سيسقط نحو الأرض. لماذا؟ نحن لسنا متأكدين، لكن يمكننا أن نمثل ذلك
بواسطة الرياضيات في نمط. وهذا أيضاً نمط. وهذه أيضاً لغة مخترَعة. هل يمكن أن تحزروا لماذا؟ إنها في الحقيقة نظام رموز للرقص،
للرقص النقري. وهذا ما يمكِّن مصمم الرقص
من عمل أشياء رائعة، من عمل أشياء جديدة، لأنه قام بتمثيلها. أريد أن تفكروا حول روعة تمثيل شيء ما. هنا تأتي الكلمة "رياضيات". ولكن في الحقيقة، إنها نقط وحسب، صحيح؟ لذا كيف يمكن لهذه النقط أن تمثل الكلمة؟ حسناً، إنها تمثلها. إنها تمثل الكلمة "رياضيات"، وهذه الرموز تمثل هذه الكلمة وهذا ما يمكننا سماعه. إنها تبدو هكذا. (بيب) بشكل ما، يمكن لهذا الصوت
أن يمثل الكلمة والمبدأ. كيف يتم ذلك؟ هناك شيء رائع حول تمثيل الأشياء. لذا أود التحدث عن السحر الذي يحدث عندما نمثل شيئاً. هنا نرى مجرد خطوط مختلفة في العرض. إنها تحل محل الأعداد في كتاب محدد. ويمكنني أن أنصحكم بهذا الكتاب،
إنه كتاب رائع جداً. (ضحك) فقط ثقوا بي. حسناً، لذا دعونا نقوم بتجربة، فقط لنعبث ببعض الخطوط المستقيمة، هذا خط مستقيم. دعونا ننشئ واحدًا آخر. لذا فكل مرة نتحرك فيها،
نتحرك مرة للأسفل ومرة للجانب، ونرسم خطاً مستقيماً جديداً، صحيح؟ نقوم بهذا مراراً وتكراراً، ونبحث عن الأنماط. لذا هذا النمط ينتج، وهذا نمط رائع. إنه يبدو مثل منحنى، صحيح؟ فقط عبر رسم خطوط مستقيمة وبسيطة. الآن أستطيع أن أغير منظوري قليلاً.
أستطيع أن أديرها. ألقوا نظرة على المنحنى. كيف يبدو؟ هل هو جزء من دائرة؟ إنه في الحقيقة ليس جزءًا من دائرة. لذا يجب أن أكمل تحقيقي
وأبحث عن حقيقة النمط. ربما إذا نسخته وصنعت لوحة فنية؟ حسناً، لا. ربما يجب أن أُمدِّد الخطوط هكذا، وأبحث عن النمط هناك. دعونا ننشئ المزيد من الخطوط. قمنا بهذا. ونصغِّر الصورة حتى نغير منظورنا مجدداً. ومن ثم يمكننا أن نرى أن ما بدأناه
كخطوط مستقيمة وحسب هو في الحقيقة شكل منحنى
يدعى القطع المكافئ. والذي يمكن أن يتم تمثيله
بواسطة معادلة بسيطة، وهو نمط رائع. لذا فهذه الأشياء التي نقوم بها. نجد الأنماط ونقوم بتمثيلها. وأعتقد أن هذا تعريف يومي رائع. لكن اليوم أود أن أذهب أعمق قليلاً، وأفكر في طبيعة هذا. ما الذي يجعله ممكنًا؟ هناك شيء واحد أعمق بقليل، والذي يتعلق بالقدرة على تغيير منظوركم. وأفترض أنك عندما تغير منظورك، وإذا أخذنا وجهة نظر أخرى، فستتعلم شيئاً جديداً حول ما تشاهده أو تنظر إليه أو تسمعه. وأعتقد أن هذا أمر في غاية الأهمية
وأمر نقوم به طوال الوقت. لذا دعونا ننظر إلى هذه المعادلة البسيطة، x+x=2*x إنه نمط رائع للغاية وهذا صحيح، لأن 5+5=2*5 ، وهكذا. نرى ذلك مراراً تكراراً ونمثل ذلك كالآتي. ولكن فكروا في ذلك: هذه معادلة. إنها تقول أن شيئًا مساوٍ لشيء آخر، وهذا يمثل منظورين مختلفين. أحد المنظورين هو، أنها عملية جمع. إنها جمع شيئين مع بعضهما. من ناحية أخرى، إنها عملية ضرب، وهذان منظوران مختلفان. وأريد أن أذهب أبعد وأقول
أن كل معادلة هي بهذا الشكل، كل معادلة رياضية تستخدم إشارة المساواة ما هي إلا استعارة مجازية. ما هو إلا مماثلة لطرفين. أنت تعرض شيئاً من وجهتي نظر مختلفتين. وتعبر عن ذلك باللغة. ألقوا نظرة على هذه المعادلة. إنها واحدة من أجمل المعادلات. إنها تقول ببساطة، حسناً، أن شيئين، يساوي كلاهما 1-. هذا الشيء على الجانب الأيسر يساوي 1-
ونفس الشيء على الجانب الآخر. وهذا، كما أعتقد واحد من الأجزاء الرئيسية للرياضيات… إنك تأخذ وجهات نظر مختلفة. لذا دعونا نلعب معاً. دعونا نأخذ عدداً. نحن نعلم ما هي أربعة أثلاث.
نحن نعلم ما تمثله. إنها 1.333 ولكننا يجب أن نحصل
على هذه النقاط الثلاث، وإلا لن تكون أربعة أثلاث كاملة. ولكن هذا فقط في الأساس 10. أنتم تعلمون، نظام العد،
نحن نستخدم النظام العشري. إن غيرنا ذلك واستخدمنا رقمين فقط، فإن ذلك يدعى بالنظام الثنائي. وهو يكتب هكذا. لذا نحن الآن نتحدث عن العدد. والعدد هو أربعة أثلاث. يمكن كتابته هكذا، ويمكننا بتغيير الأساس، تغيير عدد الأرقام ويمكننا كتابته بشكل مختلف. لذا هذه كلها تمثيلات للعدد نفسه. ويمكن حتى أن نكتبه بشكل أبسط
مثل 1.3 أو 1.6. هذا يعتمد على عدد الأرقام لديك. أو ربما يمكننا تبسيطه
وكتابته على هذه الصورة. أحب هذه بالتحديد،
لأنها تقول أربعة مقسومة على ثلاثة. وهذا العدد يمثل علاقة بين عددين. لدينا أربعة على هذا الجانب
وثلاثة على الجانب الآخر. ويمكننا تصور ذلك بالعديد من الطرق. ما أفعله الآن هو أني أستعرض لكم ذلك الرقم
من وجهات مختلفة. إني أعبث وحسب. ألعب بكيفية عرض شيء معين. وأنا أفعل ذلك عن عمد. يمكننا أخذ شبكة. إذا كانت أربعة مربعات جانبية وثلاثة علوية،
فهذا الخط يساوي خمسة دائماً. يجب أن تبدو هكذا. إنه نمط جميل. أربعة وثلاثة وخمسة. وهذا المستطيل، الذي مساحته 4×3 أنتم ترونه في كثير من الوقت. إنه معدل مساحة شاشة حاسوبكم. 800×600 أو 1600×1200 إنها شاشة تلفاز أو شاشة حاسوب. لذا هذه كلها تمثيلات رائعة، ولكن أرغب أن أذهب أبعد قليلاً
وألعب أكثر بهذا العدد. هنا نرى دائرتين، أريد أن أديرهما هكذا. راقب تلك التي في أعلى اليسار. إنها تتحرك بشكل أسرع قليلاً، أليس كذلك؟ يمكنكم رؤية ذلك. إنها فعلياً تتحرك أسرع بأربعة أثلاث. وهذا يعني أنها عندما تدور أربع مرات، فإن الأخرى تدور ثلاث مرات. الآن دعونا ننشئ خطين
ونرسم هذه النقطة عند التقاء الخطين. سنحصل على هذه النقطة ترقص حولها. (ضحك) وهذه النقطة ناتجة عن هذا العدد. صحيح؟ الآن يجب علينا أن نرسمها. دعونا نرسمها ونرى ماذا يحدث. هذا ما تدور حوله الرياضيات. إنها تدور حول رؤية ما سيحدث. وهذا ما نتج عن الأربعة أثلاث. أحب أن أقول أن هذه هي صورة الأربعة أثلاث. إنها أجمل بكثير… (هتاف) شكراً لكم! (تصفيق) إنه أمر ليس بجديد. إنه معروف منذ وقت طويل، لكن… (ضحك) ولكن هذه هي الأربعة أثلاث. دعونا نقوم تجربة أخرى. دعونا نأخذ الآن صوتاً، هذا الصوت: (بيب) هذا هو حرف (أ) مثالي، 440 هيرتز. دعونا نضربه باثنين. نحصل على هذا الصوت. (بيب) عند تشغيلهم معاً، يبدو الصوت هكذا. هذه هي الطبقة الصوتية الثامنة، صحيح؟ يمكننا لعب هذه اللعبة. يمكننا تشغيل صوت،
شغل نفس صوت (أ). يمكننا ضربه بثلاثة أنصاف. (بيب) هذا ما ندعوه بالخمس المثالي. (بيب) إن صوتها جميل معاً. دعونا نضرب هذا الصوت بأربعة أثلاث. (بيب) ماذا حدث؟ لقد حصلنا على هذا الصوت (بيب) إنه ربع مثالي. إن كان الصوت الأول (أ)
فإن هذا الصوت هو (ث). يبدو صوتها معاً هكذا (بيب) إنه صوت الأربعة أثلاث. ما أفعله الآن هو أنني أغير منظوري. إني أعرض العدد من منظور آخر. يمكنني حتى فعل ذلك باستخدام إيقاع، صحيح؟ يمكنني أخذ صوت إيقاعي وعزف ثلاث ضربات
مرة واحدة (أصوات قرع الطبول) في مدة زمنية محددة، ويمكنني عزف صوت آخر
أربع مرات في نفس المجال. (أصوات قعقعة) تبدو أصواتًا مملة ولكن استمع إليها معاً. (أصوات قرع الطبول وأصوات قعقعة) (ضحك) ها! لذا. (ضحك) ويمكنني حتى أن أجعلها أجمل قليلاً. (أصوات قرع الطبول وقرع الصنج) هل باستطاعتكم سماع هذا؟ لذا، هذا هو صوت الأربعة أثلاث. مجدداً، فهو هكذا كصوت إيقاعي. (أصوات قرع الطبول وقرع الجرس) وأستطيع أن أستمر بفعل ذلك
وألعب بهذا العدد. إن العدد أربعة أثلاث هو عدد عظيم.
أنا أحب عدد الأربعة أثلاث! (ضحك) بصدق… إنه عدد مستخَف به. لذا إذا نظرتم إلى كرة
ونظرتم إلى حجم الكرة، إنه فعلياً يساوي أربعة أثلاث
حجم أسطوانة معينة. لذا فإن الأربعة أثلاث موجود في الكرة.
إنه حجم الكرة. حسناً، لذا لم أقوم بكل هذا؟ حسناً، أريد أن أتحدث
عن ماذا يعني أن تفهم شيئاً وماذا نقصد بفهم الأشياء. إنه هدفي هنا. وادعائي هنا هو أنك تفهم الشيء عندما تمتلك القدرة على عرضه
من منظورات مختلفة. دعونا نلقي نظرة على هذا الحرف.
إنه حرف الراء الجميل، صحيح؟ كيف علمتم ذلك؟ حسناً، في الحقيقة،
لقد رأيتم حزمة كم حروف الراء، ولقد عممتم ولخصتم ذلك ووجدتم نمطاً. لذا فقد علمتم أن ذلك حرف راء. لذا ما أهدف له هو أن أقول شيئاً حول كيف أن الفهم وتغيير منظورك مرتبطان. وأنا مدرس ومحاضر، وأستطيع أن أستخدم هذا لتعليم شيء، لأني عندما أعطي شخصًا آخرًا قصة مختلفة،
استعارة، أو مشابهة، إذا رويت قصة من وجهة نظر مختلفة، فإني أمكِّنك من الفهم. أجعل الفهم ممكنًا، لأنك يجب أن تعمم فوق كل شيء تراه وتسمعه، وإذا أعطيتك منظورًا آخر فسيصبح أسهل لك. دعونا نقوم بمثال آخر مجدداً. هذه هي أربعة وثلاثة.
هذه هي أربعة مثلثات. لذا فهذه أيضاً أربعة أثلاث، بهذه الطريقة. دعونا نربطها معاً . الآن سوف نلعب معاً لعبة؛ سوف نقوم بطيِّها في مجسم ثلاثي الأبعاد. أحب هذا. هذا هرم رباعي. ودعونا نأخذ اثنين منها ونضعها معاً. لذا هذا ما يسمى بثماني الأوجه. إنه واحد من المجسمات الأفلاطونية الخمسة. الآن نحن نستطيع حرفياً أن نغير منظورنا، لأننا نستطيع أن نديره حول كل المحاور وأن نعرضه بمنظورات مختلفة. وأستطيع أن أغير المحاور، و أستطيع أن أعرضه من وجهة نظر مختلفة، لكنه نفس الشيء، ولكنه يبدو مختلفًا قليلًا. وأستطيع أن أفعلها مرة أخرى أيضًا. في كل مرة أفعل ذلك، يظهر شيء آخر، لذا أنا فعلياً أتعلم أكثر حول الجسم عندما أغير منظوري. يمكن أن أستخدم هذا لخلق الفهم. أستطيع أن آخذ اثنين منها وأضعها معاً هكذا وأرى ما الذي يحدث. وهي تبدو أكثر مثل ثماني الأوجه. ألقوا نظرة عليه إذا أدرناه هكذا. ما الذي يحدث؟ حسناً، إذا أخذت اثنين منها
ووصلتها معاً وأدرتها، إنه ثماني الأوجه مجدداً، مجسم رائع. إذا وضعته بشكل مستوٍ على الأرض، هذا هو ثماني الأوجه. هذا هو مجسم ثماني الأوجه. وأستطيع أن أستمر بفعل هذا. يمكن أن أرسم ثلاث دوائر كبيرة
حول ثماني الأوجه، ويمكن أن تدور حوله، لذا هناك ثلاث دوائر عظيمة
مرتبطة بثماني الأوجه. فإذا أخذنا مضخة دراجة ونفخناها، يمكنكم أن تروا أن هذا أيضاً
يبدو كثماني أوجه. هل ترون ما الذي أفعله هنا؟ إني أغير منظوري كل مرة. لذا دعونا نأخذ خطوة للخلف … وهذه فعلياً استعارة، أخذ خطوة للخلف … ونلقي نظرة على ما نفعله. أنا فقط ألعب بالمتناظرات. أنا أعبث بالمنظورات والمتجانسات. وأروي قصة واحدة بطرق مختلفة. أنا أروي قصصًا. وأبتكر روايات؛ أبتكر العديد من الروايات. وأنا أعتقد أن كل هذه الأشياء
تجعل الفهم ممكنًا. أعتقد أن هذا هو جوهر فهم الأشياء. أؤمن بذلك بصدق. لذا هذا الشيء حول تغيير منظورك… إنه أمر رئيسي للبشر. دعونا نلعب بالكرة الأرضية. دعونا نكبِّر الصورة إلى المحيط،
ألقوا نظرة على المحيط. يمكننا فعل ذلك مع أي شيء. يمكننا أن نأخذ المحيط ونعرضه بشكل قريب. يمكن أن ننظر إلى الأمواج. يمكن أن نذهب إلى الشاطئ. يمكن أن نعرض المحيط من منظور مختلف. في كل وقت نفعل ذلك،
نتعلم شيئاً آخر حول المحيط. إذا ذهبنا إلى الشاطئ،
يمكننا أن نشم رائحة المحيط، صحيح؟ يمكن أن نسمع أصوات الأمواج. يمكن أن نشعر بالملح على ألسنتنا. لذا كل هذا حول منظور مختلف. وهذا هو أفضلها. يمكن أن نذهب داخل الماء. يمكن أن نرى الماء من الداخل. وهل تعلمون ماذا؟ هذا جوهري في الرياضيات وعلوم الحاسوب. إذا كنت قادرا على رؤية الجسم من الداخل، فيمكن أن تتعلم شيئاً عنه. وهذا بشكل ما جوهر الأشياء. لذا عندما نفعل هذا، ونبدأ هذه الرحلة داخل المحيط، يمكن أن نستخدم مخيلتنا. وأعتقد أن هذا مستوى أعمق، وهو فعلياً من متطلبات تغيير منظورنا. يمكننا القيام بلعبة صغيرة. يمكن أن تتخيل أنك تجلس هناك. يمكن أن تتصور أنك هناك وأنت تجلس هنا. يمكن أن تعاين نفسك من الخارج. إن هذا لشيء مختلف. أنتم تغيرون منظوركم. أنتم تستخدمون مخيلتكم، وترون أنفسكم من الخارج. إنه يتطلب مخيلة. الرياضيات وعلوم الحاسوب
هي أقصى أشكال الفن التخيلي. وهذا الشيء حول تغيير منظوركم يجب أن يبدو مألوفًا لديكم، لأننا نقوم بذلك كل يوم. وهذا ما يدعى بالتعاطف. عندما أرى العالم من منظوركم، فأنا أتعاطف معكم. إذا كنت أفهم حقًّا كيف يبدو العالم من وجهة نظركم، فأنا متعاطف. هذا يتطلب مخيلة. وهذه هي كيفية حصولنا على الفهم. وهذا كله موجود في الرياضيات
وهذا كله موجود في علم الحاسوب وهناك بحق اتصال عميق
بين التعاطف وهذه العلوم. لذا فإن استنتاجي هو التالي: إن فهم شيء بشكل عميق جداً مرتبط بالقدرة على تغيير منظورك. فنصيحتي لكم هي: جرِّبوا أن تغيروا منظوركم. يمكن أن تدرسوا الرياضيات. إنها طريقة رائعة لتدريب أدمغتكم. تغيير منظوركم يجعل أدمغتكم أكثر مرونة. هذا يجعلكم منفتحين على أشياء جديدة، وهذا يمكِّنكم من فهم الأشياء. ولاستخدام استعارة أخرى: امتلك عقلًا مثل الماء. هذا لطيف. شكراً لكم. (تصفيق)

Chris McKnett: The investment logic for sustainability

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Professor Milan Hejný is a number one among Czech math teachers. He promotes an approach where children can build on their everyday experience and …

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TEDxEnola: February 1st, 2012 Dr. Jane Kise Neuroscience, Jungian Type and Mathematics: Insights into Student Struggles Enola, Pennsylvania In the spirit of …

TEDxCaltech – Drew Berry – Visualization: Biology and Complex Circuits

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Drew Berry is a biologist-animator whose scientifically accurate and aesthetically rich visualizations elucidate cellular and molecular processes for a wide range of audiences. Trained as a cell biologist and microscopist, Drew brings a rigorous scientific approach to each project, immersing himself in relevant research to ensure current data are represented. His three- and four-dimensional renderings of key concepts such as cell death, tumor growth, and DNA packaging, capture molecular shape, scale, behavior, and spatiotemporal dynamics. His groundbreaking animations of DNA replication, translation, and transcription enlighten both scientists and the scientifically curious. Drew received B.Sc. (1993) and M.Sc. (1995) degrees from the University of Melbourne. Since 1995, he has been a biomedical animator at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research. His animations have appeared in exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art, the Guggenheim Museum, the Royal Institute of Great Britain, and the University of Geneva.  In 2010 he was named a MacArthur Fellow.

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On January 14, 2011, Caltech hosted TEDxCaltech, an exciting one-day event to honor Richard Feynman, Nobel Laureate, Caltech physics professor, iconoclast, visionary, and all-around “curious character.” Visit for more details.

okay well what I'm gonna do hopefully is going to show you what I think are some of the astonishing molecular machines that create the living fabric of your body the way I'm going to show this stuff to you is through digital animation that reconstruct biology derived from the scientific data now what I'm doing is absolutely nothing new scientists have always created pictures as part of their thinking and discovery process they create pictures as part of what they're observing with their eyes whether it's up through a telescope or down through a microscope and also what they're thinking about in their minds we start I've got a few examples just to illustrate this and we start of course with Richard Fineman the legendary communicator the artist the musician the dad who also did some physics and his diagrams which he invented his geometric diagrams to help get through all the massive calculations he was doing and what I find to be fascinating about these diagrams is they don't represent physical phenomena they are representations of mathematical probability functions of particle transition states and I have to say quite confidently that as a biologist I have no clue as to what these diagrams represent but I still admire them for their elegance and their simplicity on much more comfortable ground for me is Charles Darwin the superstar of biology and with this entry in his notebook he begins in the top left-hand corner with I think and then sketches out the first tree of life which is his picturing of what the the the connections are between species through evolutionary history the Origin of Species through natural selection and divergence for an ancestor population if I had a tattoo I'd do that but I'm the kind of a guy anyway um I used to go to lectures many many lectures by molecular biologists and I used to find them incomprehensible with all the jargon and technical language and the focus on individual molecules until about a dozen years ago I encountered the artworks by David Goodsell who is a professor of molecular biology at the Scripps Institute and he did has countless paintings of the molecular world and what you're looking at here is actually a transection troop blood the yellow green area is the fluids of blood which is mostly water but it's anybody's like Pamela was describing it's it's sugars it's hormones and so on the red region is a slice into a red blood cell and the red molecules are hemoglobin and hemoglobin are actually red that's what gives blood your color and they're like a molecular sponge that soaks up the oxygen in your lungs and carries it to other parts of the body I was very much inspired by these sorts of images so and everything's to scale and there's been a lot of work that's been put into these sorts of images and I wanted to see if I could Rican recreate or we can do this with digital animation and the main reason we want to try I wanted to try this digital animation can show dynamic behaviors it can show active systems which is a fundamental feature of biology so we could set up the first video please okay you're looking down on the surface of a stem cell it's this view wasn't working for me it's about it magnified about a million times so I rotated the camera down and this blue structure is like a sensor its receptor and it's it scans the bloodstream for a particular message a hormone and that's the hormone coming in and docking there the yellow object letting in this particular case it turns out you don't you need two of these receptors both were their hormones doc to get together and when they do the signal is transmitted into the stem cell and it creates lots of blood cells and this discovery of this particular hormone colony-stimulating factor has enabled millions of people to survive high-dose chemotherapy if we get the next video please we're for the rest of my talk I'm gonna focus on DNA and DNA science and show you some visualizations of that so here is DNA and it's classic double helix form and if we unwind the double helix and unzip it you start to see it's it's its structure these things that look like teeth that are wiggling away there those letters of genetic code that's where the genes are written and this stuff is kind of really important and if you don't believe me you can ask craig Venter at a coffee break but I want to talk about a different part of it which is these two strands and they physically run in opposite directions one strand runs in one direction one strand runs in the other direction for reasons I can't go into now but it creates a number of complications for your cells as you're about to see most particularly when the DNA is being copied and what I'm about to show you is a accurate representation of the actual DNA replication machine as it's occurring inside your body at least 2002 when this was created the DNA is entering the production line from the left hand side it hits this collection this miniature biochemical machines the blue doughnuts shaped molecule it's splitting the DNA strands one strand can be copied directly and can be seen being copied off to the right hand side but things aren't so simple for the other strand because it must be copied backwards so it's thrown out repeatedly in these loops and copied one section at a time the end result is two new DNA molecules new you have billions of this machine operating approximately in this at this speed right now whirring away with extreme accuracy copying your DNA what I'm gonna show next this was work from a long time ago I want to show you some my current works in progress and this is the first time I've ever presented to anyone so be gentle with me it will show you some updated technologies but also updated science and I'm trying to tackle even bigger whopper protein structures so again we begin with DNA and it's wiggling and jiggling there because of the surrounding soup of molecules which I've stripped away so you can actually see something DNA is about two nanometers across that's really quite tiny but in a typical human cell the average DNA strand is about 30 to 40 million nanometers long so to keep it organized and to regulate access to the genetic code it's wrapped around these purple proteins called histones the names not important but it's it so spooled around this and packaged up and bundled up all of this field view is a single strand of DNA and this huge package of DNA is called a chromosome and we're going to focus on chromosomes we'll come back to them a bit of a minute the camera is now zooming out pulling away from a single chromosome we're now assuming outside the doughnut shaped structure is a nuclear pore it's a gateway to this compartment that holds all the DNA and we have a whole semesters worth of biology right in front of you and three minutes to go so to just focus on the chromosomes we're pulling out to a view which is as if you would look down a normal microscope this is a living cell it's under time-lapse so that's how you can see it all moving the nuclear envelope breaks down the chromosomes are released and they go through this very striking sort of movement it just needs to be all focused on I've added these little red dots that see they can be tugged and pulled to this equator position and when the cell feels everything is ready to go the chromosomes are ripped apart one set of DNA goes to one side the other set of DNA goes the other identical copies of DNA and the cell and splits down the middle creating two living cells to daughter cells so we're gonna rewind and just focus on the DNA or the chromosome and look at this structure so again here is that equator moment it's the the chromosomes are wiggling around and I'm just gonna isolate just one chromosome out of it we're gonna have a look at its ultra structure and how it's made so here's one chromosome those things that are sticking out either side that look like whiskers are part of the the cells scaffolding it's called microtubules are there they're there for orienting the the cell and for locating it that that's that Center origin point the sausages are the it's one chromosome it's got two pieces of DNA one's wrapped up in one sausage the other ones the other strand of DNA the red regions what we're to focus on it's a gigantic huge protein complex which is made up of a hundred of 200 proteins and it is the interface between the chromosome and these long fibers these guide these microtubules we even we've known about this red structure I labeled it red for more than a hundred years and we have a lot of information about it it is obviously central to the movement we have Clou really as to how its actually achieving the movement but it's also a Broadcasting System it tells a cell that it's not ready it's it's also a tension sensing system it's able to tell through tension whether it is ready to undergo the separating of the chromosome and it also is able to it grows these microtubules it hangs on to the growing and shrinking mic tubules they're growing only in this this particular image so it's able to transiently couple onto the microtubules it's turning green because it's sensed that the tension is just right all the proteins get ready and you'll see there's one little last bit that's still remaining red that stops signal and that is the signal broadcasting system and it's literally walked away down the microtubules and away from the kinetochore i mean it's that mechanical and so with a little bit of eye candy Molecular eye candy these cool guys are kinase UNS are like little courier molecules carrying these little packages on their back and here are the dynein coming from the kinetochore carrying that red broadcasting system and they've got their long legs so they can step around obstacles where the other guys they could so the kind you can only want and walk one way dining can only walk the other so purpose of my talk is to really give you guys some feel for what molecular biology is actually like and perhaps to woo some of you nanotechnologists and physicists over to the world of Elgar to the hottub of biology because I have to say though the water is warm and it's bubbling so come on over you

Metaphors, mathematics & the imagination | Roger Antonsen | TEDxOslo

Views:20456|Rating:4.92|View Time:17:8Minutes|Likes:411|Dislikes:7
Mathematics is about finding patterns, representing patterns, making assumptions, and changing perspectives. In this talk, Roger Antonsen, highlights the importance of these aspects of mathematics and build a bridge from metaphors and mathematics to empathy and the imagination. Pictures from the slideshow from Colourbox.

Roger Antonsen is a researcher, author, mathematician, logician, and computer scientist. He has a PhD in computer science and mathematics, in the field of mathematical logic and proof theory, and he is the author of the book «Logical Methods: The art of abstract and mathematical thinking» (2014).
Through numerous and creative talks, shows, courses, and projects, he combines science, mathematics, and computer science with entertainment, philosophy, and visualizations. In the last years, he has given hundreds of popular science talks, with titles such as “Logic and Games”, “Experimental Mathematics”, “Coding, Understanding, and Mathematics”, “Playing with the Infinite”, “Deterministic Chaos and Cellular Automata”, and “30 Mathematical Mysteries in 30 Minutes”.
At the present, Roger works at the Department of Informatics at the University of Oslo as a researcher, lecturer, and science communicator. His vision is to communicate science differently, to inspire creative thinking, and to remove the common misconceptions about mathematics and computer science.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

المترجم: zahraa alakhrass
المدقّق: Hussain Laghabi مرحباً. أود أن أتحدث عن الفهم،
وعن طبيعة الفهم، وعن ماهية الفهم والاستيعاب، لأننا جميعاً نهدف إلى إدراك ما حولنا، جميعنا نرغب في فهم الأشياء، ادعائي هو أن الفهم يجب أن يتم
عن طريق تغيير زاوية نظركم. إذا لم تملكوا ذلك،
فأنتم لا تملكون القدرة على الفهم. هذا هو ما أدعيه. وأود أن أسلط الضوء على الرياضيات. كثيرُ منا ينظرون إلى الرياضيات
على أنها الجمع، والطرح، والضرب، والقسمة، والكسور، والنسب المئوية، والهندسة،
والجبر ،كل تلك المفاهيم. لكن في الحقيقة، أود أيضاً أن أتحدث
عن جوهر الرياضيات. وادعائي هنا هو أن الرياضيات
يجب أن تغير في فهمكم للأنماط. أنتم ترون خلفي نمطاً جميلاً، وهذا النمط يظهر في الحقيقة
بسبب رسم دوائر. بطريقة خاصة جداً ومحددة. إذن، تعريفي المبدئي للرياضيات
الذي أستخدمه بشكل دائم هو التالي : أولاً: هو إيجاد الأنماط. وأعني بـ" الأنماط" : وجود رابط،
بنية ما، انتظام ما، قواعد معينة تحكم ما نرى. ثانياً : أعتقد أنها تعنى بتمثيل
هذه الأنماط باستخدام لغة. نحن نصنع لغة إذا كنا لا نملكها، وفي الرياضيات، هذا أمر أساسي. إنها كذلك تعنى بوضع افتراضات واختبار تلك الافتراضات
ومشاهدة ما يحدث ! ونحن سوف نفعل ذلك قريباً. وأخيراً، إنها تتضمن
القيام بأشياء رائعة ! تمكننا الرياضيات من القيام بأشياء كثيرة. لنلق نظرة على هذه الأنماط. مثلاً إذا أردت أن تربط ربطة عنق، هناك أنماط ! أشكال ربطات العنق لها أسماء. وتستطيع أن تطبق رياضيات ربطات العنق. هنا تُخرج لليسار، تُدخل من اليمين
تُخرج من المنتصف وتربط. في هذه تُدخل لليسار، تُخرج من اليمين،
تُدخل لليسار، تُخرج من المنتصف، وتربط. هذه لغة شكلناها لأنماط ربط ربطة العنق، بالإضافة إلى طريقة (نصف ونزور). هذا كتاب في الرياضيات
عن ربط رباطات الأحذية في المرحلة الجامعية، لأنه توجد أنماط لرباطات الأحذية. تستطيعون ربطها بطرق كثيرة مختلفة. ونحن نستطيع تحليلها. ونستطيع صنع لغة للتعبير عنها. والتمثيلات كذلك مرتبطة بالرياضيات. هذا ترميز (لايبنيز) عام 1675. لقد اخترع لغة للأنماط الموجودة في الطبيعة. عندما نقذف شيئاً ما في الهواء، يسقط. لماذا ؟ لسنا متأكدين، لكننا نستطيع تمثيل
هذا كنمط باستخدام الرياضيات. هذا نمط آخر. هذه لغة مخترعة أخرى. هل تستطيعون أن تخمنوا لأجل ماذا؟ هذا نظام ترميز للرقص !
لرقصة التاب (النقر). وهذا يساعده كمدير للرقص للقيام
بأشياء رائعة وجديدة. لأنه قام بتمثيلها. أريدكم أن تفكروا كم هو رائع تمثيل شيئ ما ! هنا تظهر كلمة (mathematics). ولكنها في الحقيقة مجرد نقاط، أليس كذلك ؟ إذن كيف يمكن لهذه النقاط تمثيل تلك الكلمة؟ حسناً، إنها تفعل ! إنها تمثل كلمة (mathematics)، وهذه الرموز أيضاً تمثل ذات الكلمة ونستطيع سماعها كذلك. إن صوتها كهذا. (صوت تمثيل كلمة mathematics) بطريقة ما هذه الأصوات تمثل الكلمة والمفهوم كيف يحصل هذا ؟ هناك شيء ما مدهش بخصوص موضوع التمثيل. إذن، أود أن أتحدث عن السحر الذي يحدث عندما نمثل شيئاً ما. هنا ترون مجرد خطوط مختلفة في عرضها. إنها تمثل أرقاماً لكتاب معين. وأنا أوصي بقراءته،
إنه كتاب جميل للغاية. (ضحك) ثقوا بي. حسناً، لنقم الآن بتجربة. لاختبار بعض الخطوط المستقيمة. هذا خط مستقيم. لنصنع واحداً آخر. في كل مرة نتحرك، نتحرك مرة للأسفل
ومرة بشكل متقاطع، وهكذا نرسم خطاً جديداً، أليس كذلك ؟ ونقوم بتكرار ذلك المرة تلو الأخرى، ونبحث عن الأنماط. فيظهر هذا النمط، وهو نمط جميل إلى حد ما. إنه يشبه المنحنى، أليس كذلك ؟ فقط عن طريق رسم خطوط مستقيمة بسيطة. الآن أستطيع أن أغير منظوري قليلاً،
أستطيع أن أقلبها. ألقوا نظرة على المنحنى. ماذا يشبه ؟ هل هو جزء من دائرة ؟ في الحقيقة إنه ليس جزءاً من دائرة. إذن يجب علي إكمال بحثي للوصول
إلى النمط الصحيح. ربما إذا نسخته وصنعت نموذجاً فنياً ؟ حسناً، لا. ربما علي مد الخطوط هكذا، والبحث عن النمط هناك. لنصنع المزيد من الخطوط. نفعل هكذا. لنصغر الآن ونغير منظورنا مرة أخرى. ثم نستطيع أن نرى أن ما بدأ كمجرد
خطوط مستقيمة هو في الحقيقة منحنى يسمى قطعاً مكافئاً. ويمثل بواسطة معادلة بسيطة، وهو نمط جميل. إذن هذا ما نفعله. نحن نجد الأنماط، ونمثلها. وأنا أعتقد أن هذا تعريف جيد
للاستخدام اليومي. لكنني أود أن أتعمق أكثر بقليل، والتفكير في طبيعة هذا. ما الذي يجعله ممكناً ؟ هناك شيء ما أكثر عمقاً، وهو الذي يعمل على تغيير زاوية نظرك. وأنا أدعي أنه عندما تغير زاوية نظرك، وتنظر من زاوية نظر أخرى، فإنك تتعلم شيئاً جديداً عما تشاهد أو ترى أو تسمع. وأنا أعتقد أنه أمر في غاية الأهمية
ونحن نقوم به طوال الوقت. لنلقِ نظرة على هذه المعادلة البسيطة، س + س = 2س. إنه نمط جميل للغاية،
وهو صحيح, لأن 5 + 5 = 2×5، و إلخ .. لقد شاهدنا هذا مرات كثرة ونحن نمثله هكذا. لكن فكروا : هذه معادلة. إنها تخبرنا أن شيئاً يساوي شيئاً آخر، وهاتان وجهتا نظر مختلفتان. وجهة النظر الأولى هي الجمع. إنك تجمع شيئاً ما مع نفسه. ووجهة النظر الأخرى هي الضرب، وهاتان وجهتا نظر مختلفتان. وأود أن أتعمق أكثر لأقول
إن كل معادلة هي كذلك، كل معادلة رياضية تستخدم فيها رمز المساواة هي في الحقيقة استعارة. إنها تمثل تشابهاً بين شيئين. إنك تُعاين شيئاً وترى وجهتي نظر مختلفتين، وتعبر عن ذلك بواسطة لغة. شاهدوا هذه المعادلة. هذه واحدة من أجمل المعادلات. إنها تقول : يوجد شيئان، هما الاثنان يساويان -1. الشيء في الجزء الأيسر هو -1،
وفي الجزء الأيمن كذلك هو -1. وهذا، فيما أعتقد، واحد من الأجزاء الأساسية في الرياضيات؛ أن تأخذ زاويتي نظر مختلفتين. دعونا نختبر شيئاً آخر. لنأخذ رقماً. نحن نعرف الأربعة أثلاث.
نعرف ما تمثله الأربعة أثلاث. إنها 1.333، لكننا يجب أن
نكتب هذه النقاط الثلاث (1.333…)، وإلا فإن الرقم لن يساوي أربعة أثلاث بالضبط لكن هذا فقط في نظام الأساس 10. في نظام التعداد نحن نستخدم 10 منازل. إذا قمنا بتغيير هذا،
واستخدمنا فقط منزلتين، هذا ما يعرف بالنظام الثنائي. إنها تُكتب هكذا. نحن لا نتحدث عن العدد. العدد هو ذاته، أربعة أثلاث. نستطيع كتابته هكذا، نستطيع تغيير الأساس،
تغيير عدد المنازل، وثم نستطيع كتابته بطرق أخرى. هذه كلها تمثيلات مختلفة لنفس العدد. حتى إننا نستطيع كتابته هكذا : 1.3 أو 1.6. إنه يعتمد فقط على عدد المنازل
الذي تستخدمه. أو ربما نستطيع تبسيطه ونكتبه هذا. أنا أحب هذا، لأنه يقول :
أربعة مقسمة على ثلاث. وهذا العدد يعبر عن علاقة بين عددين. لدينا أربعة في جهة،
ولدينا ثلاثة في الجهة الأخرى. وتستطيعون تخيل هذا بعدة طرق. ما أقوم به الآن هو استعراض هذا الرقم
من زوايا نظر مختلفة. أنا أقوم بالاختبار. أنا أقوم باختبار كيفية رؤيتنا لشيء ما، وأنا أفعل ذلك عن قصد. نستطيع أخذ شبكة. إذا كانت تمثل أربعة مربعات عرضاً
وثلاثة طولاً،هذا الخط يساوي خمسة، دائماً. يجب أن يكون كذلك.
هذا نمط جميل. أربعة وثلاثة وخمسة. وهذا المستطيل، الذي مساحته 4×3، أنتم ترونه كثيراً. إنه معدل مساحة شاشات حواسيبكم. 800×600 أو 1600×1200 هذه شاشة تلفزيون أو حاسوب. هذه كلها تمثيلات جيدة، لكني أود الذهاب قليلاً أبعد من ذلك،
واختبار هذا الرقم أكثر وأكثر. ترون هنا دائرتين.
سوف أقوم بتدويرهما بهذا الشكل. وأراقب الدائرة العلوية على اليسار. إنها تتحرك أسرع قليلاً، أليس كذلك ؟ تستطيعون رؤية هذا. في الحقيقة إنها تتحرك أسرع من الأخرى
بمقدار أربعة أثلاث بالضبط. هذا يعني أنها عندما تدور أربع مرات، فإن الدائرة الأخرى تدور ثلاث مرات. دعونا الآن نرسم خطين، ونرسم هذه النقطة
في محل التقاء الخطين. سوف نحصل على هذه النقطة الراقصة. (ضحك) هذه النقطة تأتي من ذلك الرقم. أليس كذلك؟ علينا أن نتتبعها الآن. دعونا نتتبعها ونرى ماذا يحدث. هذا هو ما تقوم الرياضيات به. إنها تعني مراقبة ما يحدث. وهذا يظهر من أربعة أثلاث. أحب قولها بهذا الشكل :
هذه هي صورة الأربعة أثلاث. إنها أجمل بكثير. شكراً ! (تصفيق) هذا ليس جديداً. لقد كان معروفاً لوقت طويل، لكن، (ضحك) لكن هذه أربعة أثلاث. لنقم بتجربة أخرى. دعونا نسمع صوتاً، هذا الصوت : (بييب) هذه A مثالية، 440 هيرتز. دعونا نقسمها على 2. سنحصل على هذا الصوت . (بييب) عندما نشغل الصوتين معاً،
نحصل على هذا الصوت. هذا صوت موسيقي، صحيح ؟ نستطيع القيام بهذه اللعبة. نستطيع
تشغيل صوت، الـA مرة أخرى. نستطيع ضربها بثلاثة أنصاف. (بييب) هذا ما نسميه (الخُمس المثالي). (بييب) إنها تصدر أصواتاً جميلة حقاً وهي مجتمعة. لنضرب هذا الصوت بأربعة أثلاث. (بييب) ماذا يحدث ؟ ستحصلون على هذا الصوت. هذا هو الجزء الرابع المثالي. إذا كان الأول هو A، فهذا D. إنهما يصدران صوتاً كهذا معاً. (بييب) هذا هو صوت الأربعة أثلاث ما أفعله الآن، هو تغيير وجهة نظري. أنا أقوم باستعراض رقم ما من وجهة نظر أخرى. أستطيع فعل ذلك مع الإيقاعات، أليس كذلك ؟ أستطيع أخذ إيقاع ما وعزف ثلاثة قَرعات معاً خلال فترة من الزمن، وأستطيع أن أعزف صوتاً آخر أربع مرات
في نفس تلك المدة الزمنية. (أصوات قعقعة) إنها مملة بعض الشيء،
لكن استمعوا إلى الصوتين معاً. (أصوات قرع طبول وقرقعة) (ضحك) إذن ! (ضحك) حتى إنني أستطيع عزف القليل من الهاي هات. (قرقعة طبول وأصوات صنج) هل تستطيعون سماع هذا ؟ إذن هذا هو صوت الأربعة أثلاث. مرة أخرى، هذا إيقاع. (قرقعة طبول وأجراس) أستطيع الاستمرار في القيام بهذا
ولعب ألعاب بهذا الرقم. الرقم ثلاثة أرباع رقم عظيم حقاً.
أنا أحبه ! (ضحك) حقاً، إنه رقم غير مُقَدَر. حسناً، إذا أخذتم كرة وحسبتهم حجمها، إنه في الحقيقة يساوي أربعة أثلاث
لأسطوانة معينة. إذن أربعة أثلاث هو حجم الكرة. حسناً، لماذا أقوم بكل هذا ؟ حسناً، أريد أن أتحدث عن
معنى أن تفهم شيئاً ما وماذا نعني بفهم شيئ ما. هذا هو هدفي هنا. وادعائي هو أنك تفهم شيئاً ما إذا كنت قادراً على استعراضه
من وجهات نظر مختلفة. دعونا نرى هذا الحرف.
حرف R جميل، أليس كذلك ؟ كيف تعرفون ذلك ؟ حسناً، في الحقيقة، لقد شاهدتم
العديد من حروف الـR، وقمتم بتعميم ذلك وقمتم باختزالها كلها وأوجدتم نمطاً. لذلك أنتم تعرفون أن هذا حرف R. ما أهدف إليه من هذا هو قول شيئا ما عن كيف أن الفهم وتغيير وجهة النظر مرتبطان ببعضهما. أنا أستاذ ومُحاضر، وبإمكاني أن أستخدم هذا لتعليم شيء ما، لأنني عندما أعطي أحداً قصة أخرى أو مجازاً،
تناظراً ما، وإذا رويت القصة من وجهة نظر أخرى، فأنا أُمَكنه من الفهم، أجعل فهمه للأمر ممكناً، لأنه يجب عليكم أن تقوموا بتعميم
كل شيء ترونه وتسمعونه، فإذا ما أعطيتكم وجهة نظر أخرى،
سيكون الأمر أسهل بالنسبة لكم. لنقم بمثال آخر بسيط. هذه أربعة وثلاثة.
هذه أربعة مثلثات. فهذه أيضاً أربعة أثلاث بطريقة ما، دعونا ندمج الأشكال ببعضها البعض. سوف نلعب لعبة الآن ؛ سنقوم بطيها. في بنية ثلاثية الأبعاد. أحب هذا. هذا هرم رباعي. دعونا نأخذ اثنين منهم ونضعهما مع بعضهما. هذا ما يعرف بالمجسم الثماني. هذا أحد المجسمات الأفلاطونية
الصلبة الخمسة. الآن حرفياً نستطيع تغيير زاوية نظرنا، لأننا نستطيع تدويره حول جميع المحاور واستعراضه من زوايا مختلفة. أستطيع تغيير المحور، ثم استعراض الشكل من زاوية نظر أخرى، لكنه الشيء نفسه،
لكنه يظهر مختلفاً قليلاً. أستطيع فعلها مرة أخرى. في كل مرة أفعل هذا، يظهر شيء ما آخر، إذن أنا فعلياً أتعلم أكثر عن هذا المجسم عندما أستطيع تغيير زاوية نظري. أستطيع استخدام هذا كأداة لخلق الإدراك. أستطيع أخذ اثنين من هذا المجسم
ووضعهما معاً هكذا ومشاهدة ما يحدث. وهو يبدو كأنه يشبه قليلاً المجسم الثماني. انظروا إليه عندما أدوره هكذا. ماذا يحدث ؟ حسناً، إذا أخذتم اثنين من هذا، ودمجتموهما
ببعضهما وقمتم بتدوير الشكل، هذا هو مجسمكم الثماني مرة أخرى، بنية جميلة. إذا قمتهم بوضعه على السطح، هذا هو المجسم الثماني. هذا هيكل الرسم البياني للمجسم الثماني. وأنا أستطيع الاستمرار في فعل هذا، تستطيعون رسم ثلاث دوائر كبيرة
حول المجسم الثماني، وتدويرها، إذن في الحقيقة ثلاث دوائر كبيرة
ترتبط بالمجسم الثماني. وإذا قمتُ بأخذ مضخة دراجة
وقمتُ بنفخها، فإنكم تستطيعون أن تروا أن هذا يشبه
قليلاً المجسم الثماني. هل ترون ما الذي أقوم به هنا ؟ أنا أغير زاوية النظر في كل مرة. دعونا نرجع قليلاً إلى الوراء وهذه الجملة في الحقيقة مجاز،
" الرجوع إلى الوراء ". ونلقي نظرة على ما نقوم به. أنا أقوم باختبار المجازات. وأقوم باختبار زوايا النظر والتناظرات. أنا أقوم برواية قصة واحدة بطرق مخلتفة. أنا أروي القصص. أنا أصنع حكايات؛
أنا أصنع حكايات مختلفة. وأنا أعتقد أن كل هذه الأشياء تجعل
من الإدراك أمراً ممكناً. أعتقد أن هذا هو فعلياً جوهر فهم شيء ما. أنا أؤمن بذلك. إذن فإن تغيير وجهة أو زاوية نظرك، هو بالتأكيد أمر أساسي للبشر. دعونا نقوم باختبار الكرة الأرضية. دعونا نُكبّر باتجاه المحيط،
نلقي نظرة على المحيط. نستيطع القيام بهذا مع أي شيء. نستطيع استعراض المحيط عن قرب. نستطيع أن نشاهد الأمواج. نستطيع الذهاب نحو الشاطئ. ونستطيع استعراض المحيط من زاوية نظر أخرى. في كل مرة نقوم بهذا، نتعلم أكثر قليلاً
عن المحيط. إذا ذهبنا إلى الشاطئ، نستطيع
أن نشم رائحته، أليس كذلك؟ نستطيع سماع هدير الأمواج. نستطيع الشعور بالملح على ألسنتنا. هذه جميعها زوايا نظر مختلفة. وهذه هي أفضلها. نستطيع الدخول إلى أعماق المياه. نستطيع رؤية المياه من الداخل. أتعرفون ؟ هذا بالتأكيد أمر أساسي في
الرياضيات وعلم الحاسوب. إذا كنتم قادرين على استعراض بنية
ما من الداخل، إذن فأنتم فعلاً تتعلمون شيئاً ما عنها. هذا هو، بطريقة ما، جوهر الأشياء. إذن عندما نقوم بهذا،
ولقد قمنا بهذه الرحلة إلى داخل المحيط، فإننا نستخدم خيالنا. وأنا أعتقد أن هذا أعمق بدرجة. وهذا في الحقيقة متطلب لتغيير زاوية نظرك. يمكننا لعب لعبة صغيرة. تستطيعون التخيل أنكم تجلسون هنا. تستطيعون التخيل أنكم هنا في الأعلى،
وأنكم جالسون هنا. تستطيعون معاينة أنفسكم من الخارج. هذا حقاً شيء غريب. أنتم الآن تغيرون زاوية نظركم. أنتم تستخدمون خيالكم، وتشاهدون أنفسكم من الخارج. هذا يتطلب تخيلاً. الرياضيات وعلم الحاسوب هما أكثر
أشكال الفن احتياجاً للتخيل على الإطلاق. وهذا الأمر حول تغيير زاوية نظركم من المفترض أن يكون مألوفاً لكم نوعاً ما، لأننا نمارسه كل يوم. وهذا ما يسمى بالتقمص العاطفي. عندما أقوم بمعاينة العالم
من زاوية نظركم، فإنني أمارس التقمص العاطفي معكم. إذا كنتُ حقاً أفهم كيف يبدو العالم من وجهة نظركم، فأنا مُتعاطف. هذا يتطلب تخيلاً. وهذه هي الطريقة التي نحصل فيها
على الإدراك. وهذا كله مرتبط بالرياضيات وبعلم الحاسوب، ويوجد حقاً ارتباط عميق بين
التقمص العاطفي وهذه العلوم. إذن خاتمتي هي التالي : إن فهم شيء ما بعمق حقيقي يجب أن يؤثر على قدرتك على
تغيير زاوية نظرك. وبالتالي فإن نصيحتي لكم هي:
جربوا أن تغيروا زوايا نظركم للأشياء. يمكنكم دراسة الرياضيات. إنها طريقة جميلة لتمرين عقولكم. تغيير زوايا نظركم يجعل عقولكم
أكثر مرونة. يجعلكم تستكشفون أشياء جديدة، ويجعلكم قادرين على فهم أشياء أخرى. ولأجل أن أستخدم مجازاً آخر : تحلوا بعقل كالماء. هذا جميل. شكراً لكم. (تصفيق)

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The maker movement: Jeff Sturges at TEDxMidwest

Creator and community idealist, Jeff Sturges discusses the creation of “Makerspaces” where people come to learn, tinker and make things together. Sturges emphasizes how “Makerspaces” is a catalyst for social interactions that build communities and allow people to live happier, healthier, meaningful lives simply by connecting people.

Jeff Sturges enjoys making things and connecting people. Inspired by his experience with the MIT Fab Lab GreenFab program and the NYCResistor hackerspace, he moved to Detroit to build community workshops such as the Mt. Elliott Makerspace and OmniCorpDetroit. Sturges believes that collaborative making and learning can be much more than just STEM and STEAM education – they can be a way to strengthen our communities and ourselves. By cultivating a DIY/DIO mindset and increasing access to tools and knowledge, we the people will be better equipped to make things better.

In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

hi everyone I'd also like to take a quick poll how many people consider themselves makers ok who's not raising their hand now raise your hand you are liars so how many people tell me I'm going to actually pick somebody out I'd like to actually embarrass somebody who has made something recently that they're very proud of raise your hand and then I'll pick on you oh the young lady in front of the television oh yeah I'll harness for your dog sweet awesome and why did you make it awesome and where did you make it at home fantastic so we've just learned about a maker we've just learned about what they've made and we've just learned about their makerspace so which i think is quite fascinating I really think we're all makers we have these things called hands with a poseable thumbs so to make is human I believe I also consider myself a maker although I haven't really been making things a lot lately I've been doing more of making spaces and the reason why is because I grew up maker as a young kid I was always tinkering with things taking apart the fan fixing the fan destroying things I remember I fixed my neighbor's lawn mower and spilled gas all over the garage they had to have actually evacuate their house in the middle of the night they're still friends they were very nice about it I then did fix it later but as I got older I became very frustrated because I I felt like I started to lack the spaces and connections to continue making it sort of seem like okay it was now time to go to college it's time to get serious I did explore engineering programs I actually was looking in the engineering and I ended up being a physics major and I didn't like the math so I end up becoming an economics major and that wasn't awesome I actually fell asleep a lot but so in college I was doing the economics and then I started to build lofts and do these things which would still excite me to a certain extent played a lot around with computers and then I was like okay well you know computers that's making decent money so I'll be a computer guy and I did I graduated college became a computer guy and it was it was ok I didn't feel like it was tapping into my creativity a lot but I was actually very fortunate this is around the dot-com era when things were really at their peak and I was fortunate to work with a company that actually is partnered with the MIT Media Lab so I they brought me to the Media Lab and that just blew my mind all of the sudden I saw a place where I'm like wow people actually do this and they actually took me to a couple of architecture schools in the area in Boston the Graduate School of Design at Harvard and the Graduate School or in this School of Design at MIT and all of a sudden my mind was blown I was like wow people actually do this for a living the only person I know that designed things or that made buildings was Mike Brady so if anyone knows what Mike radius I thought it was the only one he must have done everything so it's very nice building it migrated but that passion you know that passion and that discovery made me start to develop a passion for my really really my passion for making things definitely started a passion for how do we make these spaces and how do we develop these connections and then it started and somehow actually I started to think about how do I help other people do this because I started to get actually different positions at different jobs I actually did go to Cranbrook Academy of Art for architecture which is a really another amazing makerspace of sorts very multidisciplinary and while there I learned about Detroit and actually read a book called tools of conviviality by Ivan Illich I don't know if anyone's have read that book I highly recommend it and it really started to make me think about well what are the tools and the places and the things that really start to make better lives for more people as much as possible what are these things that increase our social interaction and build community and also tap into our awesome desire to develop creative things so with these passions and with this desire I eventually made my way back to Detroit and I decided to develop this thing that I at the time was calling a makerspace because it didn't seem to fit anywhere else and it was really a place that I wanted to see if I could expose people to at an earlier age or wherever they were at to this awesome creative act of making and see what it would do and to see if we could do it at the lowest cost possible so I'd like to share with you a video which which explains that space and maybe gives you a better glimpse into what we're doing there at the mountain a makerspace we have four areas of concentration and transportation electronics digital media and wearables it is the hottest thing at church Messiah right now it is where a lot of the wrong people as well as a lot of the adults come here and they get to twist themselves besides building things I like to fix things like I fix the stereo and their speakers I use the drill a hammer and a heat gun I think your screwdriver yes and drivers in the spaces is productive and time-consuming you know so while you are here you can actually get something done but at the same time you're not out with the temptations of doing anything else you want said you're not you you don't actually think about you don't have any money in your pocket if you just made like time at the makerspace we facilitate learning experiences so we we want to connect people to each other someone who may have knowledge an area that someone does not and likewise we want to provide learning experiences as I guess facilitators or conductors of the makerspace didn't know nothing about the hard drive the C Drive the dis I mean what makes it function with the fan the motherboard you know I really got tired of spending my money I don't know what was wrong with my computer and what make it so good though hands-on that would make it so different you know touching I'm fixing I'm unscrewing seeing what made it taste I'm putting something back together when I came here I mean like I said it really gave me something positive to stand on I had class but when I don't have class I'm gonna get some money I have to worry about money because the church is really helping me do my dream like what I've been really wanting to do you know helping build certains I wouldn't mind being part of something that's that's stable enough for the whole community you get a part of the makerspace what I really love is that it provides a safe and a healthy place for my children it's benefited my life in the way of I wasn't getting enough exercise until on my bike well it's improved my life because as you can see me and my son get to work together so he's helping me earn a bike we're trying to do now is to continue develop this model of a makerspace but also to develop a network of maker spaces we don't want to be the only one we want other people to be developing maker spaces in parallel with us so that we can then get together and learn from each other and develop even better and even faster all right you can fade that out all right thank you thanks as you can imagine I'm particularly proud of all the work that is being done there this space is really awesome it's I think it's really important because after a while we've developed our mission and our mission is it is a is a place for learning in tinkering and making things together as a way to strengthen ourselves and our communities so that we can live healthier happier and more meaningful lives so that we can create those lives for ourselves and this involves a lot of skills and I know there's a lot of talk about stem and steam which is science technology engineering and math and science technology engineering math and arts and I think those things are important but in order to make more creative people you know which actually creative lawyers are good and creative accountants are good and creative doctors all these things are very important so in order to make more creative people I think we need to think about more core skills that aren't just 21st century skills they're any century skills and to me that's developing skills like creativity problem-solving courage and persistence so you won't stop and you'll keep trying things even when you fail multiple times collaboration self-reliance community reliance and adaptability these things this breadth of skills you'll be able to do almost anything with those and another very important skill that we develop there is the ability to exchange things or entrepreneurship and I'll tell you a little bit about that with a story about Raven so Raven was a young lady with the with the cloth on her head which actually was the beginning of her to making her own sorry so sorry by the way is an Indian dress I did not know that she came out to me and said I'd like to make a sari I'm like sweet sorry and she was like it's an Indian dress because she knew I was looking it up and so say yeah sure go right ahead and Ravens quitting any kid she's quite amazing she's actually taught over 200 people how to solder yeah that's pretty amazing yeah and she actually helps she draws and other young people which also help people learn how to solder and I've brought them actually to the farmers market to Detroit and we've worked on things like how to actually sell that as a service to people and how much the little solder badge that we make cost and how to market yourself and then how to count up everything afterwards and how to divvy that up fairly so this is the way that we develop both making skills and skills for exchange because I think it's important that we teach those as early as possible that's the real world that we're going to be in when we're done with school so let's make sure the kids know how to do that so they can even do that while they're in school I think another great story is about Dwight so that was the young man who was talking about music Dwight actually I don't see him so much at the makerspace anymore but that's because he found another studio outside the makerspace where he's doing a lot of work with a producer who's making his music while he writes it he came down said he was interested in music and so I said hey well here's GarageBand I didn't even know how to use GarageBand he sat in front of it figured it out started making music with his friend Bobby and actually then he went out about two months later went to the Hard Rock Cafe and one amateur night won $5,000 yeah so those are only a couple stories and if I had a lot of time I'd tell you a bunch more but these stories are incredibly inspiring and make me so excited when I'm there that it makes me really wish that I could do more well these stories have inspired a vision that is not a new vision it's fortunately a vision a lot of people have is that we need to develop and strengthen a network of these maker spaces and there can be small ones like this makerspace which is in the basement of a church larger ones which may exist in a library or may be connected to the MIT Media Lab or to my former hacker space NYC resistor or my current hacker space Omnicorp Detroit but developing those connections in those relationships will be very important so people can find their passion really get deep into it find their peers find these connections and spaces that were so important to me and hopefully earlier rather than later because if we find something that we love to do we'll do that bender than anything else and that to me will make a better world so this vision in this network that we're building we've already started there's there's hackerspaces there's actually almost a thousand all over the world I think you know fab labs there's probably boy over a hundred of those and there are youth maker spaces developing and schools libraries and elsewhere and I think that's very exciting what's also exciting to me is developing the makerspaces in schools but my passion is how can we make makerspaces and schools absolutely indistinguishable how can you be so excited about going into school that you're actually going in there and you can't wait to get there because you're going to work on something that might be a real problem to solve in your community or you're going to create something amazing and you're going to learn about math and you're going to learn about systems of exchange you're going to learn about science and biology and all these other very important things but you're going to do it doing something that you love and so these spaces this network will be awesome because we're going to learn so much from each other as we do it and I'd like to share with you three things that I've learned while being in Detroit first thing I've learned this most important is that race and privilege are a pretty serious concern in Detroit and in many cities one thing I did learn is you can't just come in there and pretend you're going to do something and save the city or whatever fortunately I knew that before I came in so I said I'd like to bring this where does it fit and we found out where it fit in a church but a lot of times I think people are going into cities in Detroit and they want to save things they want to do whatever please understand there have been a lot of people there have been trying to save things for a while and they're tired so if you want I think doing the right thing is to be supportive find out how you can create spaces and how you can connect people in a way that amplifies all these existing amazing resources the second thing that I've learned is that everybody I believe is born with some sort of a capability or a gift and if we start fertilizing the ground for that gift to grow and blossom it will be a better world we will be better people the third thing I've realized and this is to touch upon what shaka was talking about it's amazing how I'm feeling like finishing in the same way is that love is critically important these maker spaces at least the ways that I'm very passionate about developing them they're not as much about making things as they are about connecting people with each other it's as much about empathy and love as it is about making things in fact making things is really a way to get to compassion to empathy to understanding to share with one another and if we start to learn that if we start to regain that feeling of love for ourselves love for our communities and begin to strengthen community I really think that every city that's having trouble in our own country and many countries the world over will be better and stronger thank you very much

The math of learning | John Mighton | TEDxCERN

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This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. An invisible problem in our society is that we underestimate …

Banned TED Talk: The Science Delusion – Rupert Sheldrake at TEDx Whitechapel

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Re-uploaded (again, just in case), since TED’s Chris Anderson censored Rupert Sheldrake, along with Graham Hancock, and removed this video and Hancock’s from the TEDx YouTube channel. They dared question the Scientistic Orthodoxy, and for that they have been publicly castigated and defamed. Follow this link for TED’s dubious statement on the matter (and the many comments appropriately critical of TED’s rationale):

Presumably TED disavows any copyright claim, as they’ve disavowed association with the videos.

Rupert Sheldrake, Ph.D. (born 28 June 1942) is a biologist and author of more than 80 scientific papers and ten books. A former Research Fellow of the Royal Society, he studied natural sciences at Cambridge University, where he was a Scholar of Clare College, took a double first class honours degree and was awarded the University Botany Prize. He then studied philosophy and history of science at Harvard University, where he was a Frank Knox Fellow, before returning to Cambridge, where he took a Ph.D. in biochemistry. He was a Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, where he was Director of Studies in biochemistry and cell biology. As the Rosenheim Research Fellow of the Royal Society, he carried out research on the development of plants and the ageing of cells in the Department of Biochemistry at Cambridge University.

While at Cambridge, together with Philip Rubery, he discovered the mechanism of polar auxin transport, the process by which the plant hormone auxin is carried from the shoots towards the roots.

From 1968 to 1969, based in the Botany Department of the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, he studied rain forest plants. From 1974 to 1985 he was Principal Plant Physiologist and Consultant Physiologist at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) in Hyderabad, India, where he helped develop new cropping systems now widely used by farmers. While in India, he also lived for a year and a half at the ashram of Fr Bede Griffiths in Tamil Nadu, where he wrote his first book, A New Science of Life.

From 2005-2010 he was the Director of the Perrott-Warrick Project funded from Trinity College,Cambridge. He is a Fellow of Schumacher College , in Dartington, Devon, a Fellow of the Institute of Noetic Sciences near San Francisco, and a Visiting Professor at the Graduate Institute in Connecticut.

He lives in London with his wife Jill Purce and two sons.

He has appeared in many TV programs in Britain and overseas, and was one of the participants (along with Stephen Jay Gould, Daniel Dennett, Oliver Sacks, Freeman Dyson and Stephen Toulmin) in a TV series called A Glorious Accident, shown on PBS channels throughout the US. He has often taken part in BBC and other radio programmes. He has written for newspapers such as the Guardian, where he had a regular monthly column, The Times, Sunday Telegraph, Daily Mirror, Daily Mail, Sunday Times, Times Educational Supplement, Times Higher Education Supplement and Times Literary Supplement, and has contributed to a variety of magazines, including New Scientist, Resurgence, the Ecologist and the Spectator.

Books by Rupert Sheldrake:
A New Science of Life: The Hypothesis of Formative Causation (1981). New edition 2009 (in the US published as Morphic Resonance)
The Presence of the Past: Morphic Resonance and the Habits of Nature (1988)
The Rebirth of Nature: The Greening of Science and God (1992)
Seven Experiments that Could Change the World: A Do-It-Yourself Guide to Revolutionary Science (1994) (Winner of the Book of the Year Award from the British Institute for Social Inventions)
Dogs that Know When Their Owners are Coming Home, and Other Unexplained Powers of Animals (1999) (Winner of the Book of the Year Award from the British Scientific and Medical Network)
The Sense of Being Stared At, And Other Aspects of the Extended Mind (2003)
The Science Delusion (2012, published in the US as Science Set Free)

science delusion is the belief that science already understands the nature of reality in principle leaving any of the details to be filled in this is a very widespread belief in our society it's the kind of belief system of people who say I don't believe in God I believe in science it's a belief system which has now been spread to the entire world but there's a conflict in the heart of science between science as a method of inquiry based on reason evidence hypothesis and collective investigation and science as a belief system or a worldview and unfortunately the worldview aspect of science has come to inhibit and constrict the free inquiry which is the very lifeblood of the scientific endeavor since the late 19th century science has been conducted under the aspect of a belief system or worldview which is essentially that of materialism philosophical materialism and these Sciences are now wholly owned subsidiaries of the materialist worldview I think that as we break out of it the sciences will be regenerated what I do in my book the science delusion which is called science set free in the United States is take the ten dogmas or assumptions of science and turn them into questions it's seeing how well they turn how well they stand up if you look at them scientifically none of them stand out very well what engage do is first run through what these 10 dogmas are and then I'll only have time to discuss one or two of them in a bit more detail but essentially the ten dogmas which are the default world view of most educated people all over the world are first the nature's mechanical or machine like the universe is like a machine animals and plants are like machines we're like machines in fact we are machines we are lumbering robots in Richard Dawkins vivid phrase with brains that are genetically programmed computers second matter is unconscious the whole universe is made up of unconscious matter there's no consciousness in stars in galaxies in planets in animals in plants and there ought not to be any in us either if this theory is true so a lot of the philosophy of mind over the last hundred years is being trying to prove that we're not really conscious at all so the matters unconscious then the laws of nature are fixed and this is the dogma 3 the laws of nature are the same now as they were at the time of the Big Bang and they'll be the same forever not just the laws but the constants of nature are fixed which is why they are called constants Dogma for the total amount of matter and energy is always the same it never changes in total quantity except at the moment of the Big Bang when it all sprang into existence from nowhere in a single instant the fifth Dogma is that nature's purposeless there are no purposes in all nature and the evolutionary purpose the evolutionary process has no purpose or direction Dogma 6 the here a biological heredity is material everything you inherit is in your genes or in epigenetic modifications of the genes or in cytoplasmic inheritance its material Dogma 7 memories are stored inside your brain as material traces somehow everything you remember is in your brain in modified nerve endings phosphorylated proteins no one knows how it works but nevertheless almost everyone in scientific world believes it must be in the brain dogma 8 your mind is inside your head all your consciousness is the activity of your brain and nothing more Dogma 9 which follows from Dogma 8 psychic phenomena like telepathy are impossible your thoughts and intentions can not have any effect instance because your minds inside your head therefore all the apparent evidence for telepathy and other psychic phenomena is illusory people believe these things happen but it's just because they don't know enough about statistics or they're just they're deceived by coincidences or it's wishful thinking and Dogma ten mechanistic medicine is the only kind that really works that's why governments only fund research into mechanistic medicine and ignore complementary and alternative therapies those can't possibly really work because they're not mechanistic they may appear to work because people would have got better anyway or because of the placebo effect but the only kind that really works is mechanistic medicine well this is the default worldview which is held by almost all educated people all over the world it's the basis of the educational system the National Health Service the Medical Research Council governments and it's just the default worldview of educated people but I think every one of these dogmas is very very questionable and when you look at it it turns they they fall apart I'm going to take first the idea that the laws of nature are fixed this is a hangover from an older worldview before the 1960s when the Big Bang Theory came in people thought that the whole universe was eternal governed by eternal mathematical laws when the Big Bang came in then that assumption continued even though the Big Bang revealed a universe that's radically evolutionary about 14 billion years old growing and developing and evolving for 14 billion years growing and cooling and more structures and patterns appear within it but the idea is all the laws of nature were completely fixed at the moment of the Big Bang like a cosmic Napoleonic Code as my friend Terence Mckenna used to say modern science is based on the principle give us one free miracle and we'll explain the rest and the one free miracle is the parents of all the matter and energy in the universe and all the laws that govern it from nothing in a single instant well in an evolutionary universe why shouldn't the laws themselves evolve and after all human laws do and the idea of laws of nature is based on a metaphor with human laws it's a very anthropocentric metaphor only humans have laws in fact only civilized societies have laws as CS lewis once said to say that a stone falls to earth because it's obeying a law makes it a man and even a citizen it's a metaphor that we got so used to we forget it's a metaphor in an evolving universe I think a much better idea is the idea of habits I think the habits of nature evolve the regularities of nature are essentially habitual this was an idea put forward at the beginning of the 20th century by the American philosophers CS purse and it's an idea which various other philosophers have entertained and it's one which I myself have developed into a scientific hypothesis the hypothesis of morphic resonance which is the basis of these evolving habits according to this hypothesis everything in nature has a kind of collective memory resonance occurs on the basis of similarity as a young giraffe embryo grows in its mother's womb it Tunes in to the morphic resonance of previous giraffes it draws on that collective memory it grows like a giraffe and it behaves like a giraffe because it's drawing on this collective memory it has to have the right genes to make the right proteins but genes in my view are grossly overrated they only account for the proteins that the organism can make not the shape or the form or the behavior every species has a kind of collective memory even crystals do this theory predicts that if you make a new kind of crystal for the first time the very first time you make it it won't have an existing habit but once it crystallizes then the next time you make it there will be an influence from the first crystal to the second ones all over the world by morphic resonance it'll crystallize a bit easier the third time there'll be an influence to the first and second crystals there is in fact good evidence that new compounds get easier to crystallize around the world just as this theory would predict it also predicts that if you train animals to learn a new trick for example rats learn a new trick in London then all around the world rats of the same breed should learn the same trick quicker just because the rats have landed here and surprisingly there's already evidence that this actually happens anyway that's my own hypothesis in a nutshell of morphic resonance everything depends on evolving habits not on fixed laws but I want to spend a few moments on the constants of nature too because these are again use assumed to be constant things like the gravitational constant the speed of light are called the fundamental constants are they really constant well when I got interested in this question I tried to find out oh I their given in physics handbooks handbooks of physics lists the existing fundamental constants to tell you their value but I wanted to see if they'd change so I got the old volumes of physical handbooks I went to the Patent Office library here in London and they're the only place I could find that kept the old volumes normally people throw them away when the new values come out they throw away the old ones when I did this I found that the speed of light dropped between 1928 and 1945 by about 20 kilometres per second it's a huge drop because they're given with errors of any fractions of us a decimal points of error and yet all over the world it dropped and they were all getting values very similar to each other with tiny errors then in 1945 it went up in 48 it went up again and then people started getting very similar values again I was very intrigued by this and I couldn't make sense of it so I went to see the head of metrology at the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington metrology is the science in which people measure constant and I asked him about this I said what do you make of this drop in the speed of light between 1928 and 1945 and he said oh dear he said you've uncovered the most embarrassing episode in the history of our science so I said well could the speed of light have actually dropped and that would have amazing implications if so he said no no of course it couldn't have actually dropped it's a constant so oh well then how do you explain the fact everyone was finding it going much slower during that period is it because they were fudging their results to get what they thought other people should be getting and the whole thing was just produced by in the minds of physicists if we don't like to use the word fudge I say well what do you prefer he said well we prefer to call it intellectual phase-locking so I said well if it was going on then how can be so sure it's not going on today and that the present values are produced by intellectual phase-locking and he said oh we know that's not the case I said how do we know he said well he said we've solved the problem well how he said well we fixed the speed of light by definition in 1972 so I said but it might still change you said yes but we'd never know it because we defined the metre in terms of the speed of light so the unit's had change with it so he looked very pleased about that they'd fixed that problem but I said well then what about big G the gravitational constant known in the trade as big G is written with a capital G Newton's universal gravitational constant that's varied by more than 1.3 percent in recent years and it seems to vary from place to place and from time to time and he said oh well those are just errors and unfortunately there are quite big errors with big G so I said well what if it's really changing I mean perhaps it is really changing and then I looked at how they do it what happens as they measure it in different labs they get different values on different days and then they average them and then other labs around the world do the same and they come out usually with a rather different average and then the International Committee on metrology meets every ten years or so and average the ones from labs run well to come up with the value of big G but what if G were actually fluctuating what if it changed it does already evidence actually that it changes throughout the day and throughout the year what if the earth as it moves through the galactic environment went through patches of dark matter or other environmental factors that could alter it maybe they all change together what if these errors are going up together and down together for more than 10 years I've been trying to persuade metrologist s– to look at the raw data in fact I'm now trying to persuade them to put it online on the internet with the dates and the actual measurements and see if they're correlated to see if they're all up at one time all darnos another if so they might be fluctuating together and that would tell us something very very interesting but no one has done this they haven't done it because Jesus n't there's no point looking for changes I see here's a very simple example of where a dogmatic assumption actually inhibits inquiry I myself think that the constants may vary quite considerably well within narrow limits but they may all be varying and I think the day will come when scientific journals like Nature have a weekly report on the constants like stock market reports and newspapers you know this week big G was slightly up the speed on the charge on the electron was down the speed of light held steady and so so that's one area just one of the one area where I think thinking less dogmatically could open things up one of the biggest areas is the nature of the mind this is the most unsolved problem as Graham just said that it sounds simply can't deal with the fact we're conscious and it can't deal with the fact that our thoughts don't seem to be inside our brains our experiences don't all seem to be inside our brain your image of me now doesn't seem to be inside your brain yet the official view is there's a little Rupert somewhere inside your head and everything else in this room is inside your head your experience is inside your brain I'm suggesting actually the vision involves an outward projection of images what you're seeing is in your mind but not inside your head our minds are extended beyond our brains in the simplest act of perception I think that we project out the images we're seeing and these images are touch what we're looking at if I look at for you from behind you don't know I'm there could I affect you could you feel my gaze there's a great deal of evidence that people can the sense of being stared at is an extremely common experience and recent experimental research suggests is real animals seem to have it too I think it probably evolved in the context of predator-prey relationships prey animals that could feel the gaze of a predator would survive better than those that couldn't this would lead to a whole new way of thinking about ecological relationships between predators and prey also about the extent of our minds if we look at distant stars I think our minds reach out in a sense to touch those stars and literally extend out over astronomical different distances they're not just inside our heads now it may seem astonishing that this is a topic of debate in the 21st century we know so little about our own minds that where our images are is a hot topic of debate with consciousness studies right now I don't have time to deal with any more of these dogmas but every single one of them is questionable if one questions it new forms of research new possibilities open up and I think as we questioned these dogmas that have held back signs so long science will undergo re flowering a Renaissance I'm a total believer in the importance of science I've spent my whole life as a research scientist my whole career but I think by moving beyond these dogmas it can be regenerated once again it and become interesting and I hope life-affirming thank you

TEDxMidwest – Helen Fisher – Biology of the Mind

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Why do we fall in love with the people that we do? Dr. Helen Fisher argues that the brain is one of the most powerful systems on earth, responsible for love through chemicals and complex thinking patterns. Her studies have identified both the smitten and broken hearted, uncovering the connection between how humans are drawn towards one another.In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

the ancient Greeks call dramatic love the madness of the gods people live for love they kill for love they die for love is one of the most powerful brain systems on earth so many years ago I decided that I would try to start putting people into a brain scanner and understand what happens in the brain when you fall madly in love so with my colleagues dr. Lucy Brown dr. art Aaron and dr. Bianchi Acevedo we have now put over 75 men and women into a brain scanner 17 were people who had just fallen happily in love 15 it were people who had just been rejected in love and 15 were people who were reported that they were still in love after an average of 21 years of marriage I talked a lot about this in other places so I'll just say a very few things now and then go on to what I really want to talk about which is why you fall in love with one person rather than another for most the things that I've learned most important perhaps is that love is a drive it comes from very primitive parts of the brain way below the cortex as a matter of fact parts of the cortex actually begin to shut down when you fall in love with somebody you can't notice anymore that they've got three heads because you're madly in love in fact this brain region that becomes active the entire brain system that becomes active is linked with focus with energy with craving and with motivation and indeed it is a motivation to find life's most greatest prize which is a mating partner indeed I think that romantic love is one of three basically different drives that evolved from mating and reproduction I think that the sex drive evolved to get you out there looking for a whole range of partners I think romantic love evolved to enable you to focus your mating energy on just one at a time and I think that third brain system of attachment evolves so that you can tolerate this human being at least long enough to raise your children together as a team and of course these three brain systems operate in many different ways there's only one new thing that I've discovered very recently that I want to share with you before I go on and that is about hooking up having sex with somebody indeed when you have these three brain systems are connected when you have sex with somebody you can actually trigger the brain system and trigger feelings of intense romantic love so recently with the internet dating site we did the first actually a very large national study of singles in America based on the US Census and one of the questions that I asked in the study is did you ever go into having a one-night stand with somebody and then find that it turned into a long-term partnership and indeed one-third of the people who went into a one-night stand ended up in a long-term partnership it's actually from a Darwinian perspective not a bad way to do it I mean either you can spend three years talking about the guy's college plans or you can get them into bed tonight and trigger the brain circuitry for romantic love so I'm not surprised that that people do it I'm just simply saying that casual sex is not casual unless you're so drunk that you've forgotten who the person is something happens in the brain it's one of the most powerful systems on earth so I had written my fourth book on this and I was between things and two days before Christmas gave me a call and asked me to come in after Christmas and talk with them for the day so I went in in the middle of the morning they said to me why do we fall in love with one person rather than another and I said I don't know nobody knows psychologists know that timings got to be right we tend to fall in love with people from the same socio-economic and an ethnic background people are the same degree of intelligence and good looks and education people with the same social and economic and religious values the same social goals your childhood definitely plays a role but you can walk into a room and everybody is from your background and same general level of intelligence and education and you don't fall in love with all of them so they invited me to start a new dating site with them called chemistry calm and at the time I said you know I don't know if you got the right person I mean I study why we're all alike and you want to know why we're all different so they said to go home think about it and and see if I wanted to do this with them so anyway I went home and it began to think okay there's two basic parts of personality there's your character which is everything you grow up to believe and do and say and think and there's your temperament all of those traits that come out of your biology now I do know from epigenetically tremendous new field of epigenetics that these are never torn apart bottom line is though at least 50% of who you are originates from various biological processes so I decided I would go through all of the academic literature took me a couple years to see what traits are linked with what's brain systems and indeed after doing that I began to see there's a lot of brain systems but they're not all linked with personality traits some of them just keep the heart beating or the eyes blinking only for brain systems seem to be regularly linked each one of them with a constellation of personality traits so I had these four sheets of paper the dopamine system the serotonin system the testosterone system and the estrogen and oxytocin system in front of me and I thought to myself maybe I could create a questionnaire to see the degree to which you express each one of these categories of personality traits and then put them on this dating site and then watch who's naturally drawn to whom people will say well we had chemistry or we didn't have chemistry and I thought maybe there's something to that so I created the questionnaire and began to watch who's drawn to whom so what I really want to talk to you about today and thank you for inviting me is is what I found 10 million people have now taken this questionnaire in 40 countries 30,000 people take it every week so I can continually ask questions about why you fall in love with the people that you do so first I'm going to go through the four broad very styles of thinking and behaving and then go on to what I think some of this means but first of all we are all combination of all four of these things these are not cubby holes they're not types they're brain systems and of course each one of them were going to express each one of them to some extent but in fact I just looked at a hundred thousand people on chemistry calm and no two people took that question near the same way I'm an identical twin even my twin sister and I are not exactly like but there's patterns to nature and there's patterns to personality and over and over again I saw these four cornerstones of personality expressed in these various people so I'm now actually working on the genetics of this with a with a geneticist from Princeton University dr. lee silver and in fact the first academic articles were going to do on this are going to be in math journals because he's hooked on the math of these patterns and the different kinds of patterns there was there is no case in which it's not random personality is not random it does fall into in fact we found 25 very dramatic patterns of thinking and behaving so these are the four cornerstones of it I'm going to whiz through them by the way I have to because I was working with a dating site I had to name these people so I called people who are very expressive of aspects of the dopamine and norepinephrine system explorers not a great term I'm stuck with it now anyway these are some of the characteristics of the of this kind of person they're not really seeking risk-taking very curious the academic term is sensation seekers energetic Restless exploring physical exploration or mental it's not just people who jump off cliffs it's people who can sit in a room like this and listen all afternoon and collect a lot of interesting ideas and then talk about it enthusiasm optimism are both in the dopamine system as a matter of fact right after obama was elected president you may have seen the the header headline of the humor magazine the onion said black man given worst job in the world and indeed he was optimistic about it I doubt he's so optimistic about it today but independence and self-reliant seems to be in the dopamine system impulsive spontaneously generous mentally flexible open-minded and one of the most characteristic traits in the dopamine system is what they call idea generation and creativity these people are very creative as a matter of fact if you give l-dopa to a Parkinson's patients very often their creativity goes way up they'll turn into very good poets very good painters also addict addiction is in the in the dopamine system on the downside of this there's a dark side of every moon they can be susceptible to boredom reckless unreflective I'm a very much of the Explorer type as I would Express expect most of you are also and most of these people don't really care who they are they look out not in and as a matter of fact I was making a speech to a group of therapists about 600 therapists in California some time ago and I heard myself say but you know I don't really care who I am and somebody from the back of the room shouted you want to talk about it I didn't really they tend to be manic they can be insincere opportunistic and very unpredictable I did a study of 178 thousand people it's called the lexical hypothesis it comes out of the 1930s people do use words that express who they are I want to know if there was biology to that word usage so I looked at one hundred and seventy eight thousand people these are the top ten words that the people who are very expressive of the dopamine system use adventure new fun travel outgoing passion and active all due to these chemical systems perfect example is Richard Branson I have always thought the rules were made to be broken I would imagine a lot of people in this room think so too I found out the rules of the road don't want to die but bottom line is I don't follow the rule just to follow the rule not the different type of explorer we're not measuring intelligence we're measuring temperament I'm sure she's extremely bright but a different sort of bright than probably Richard Branson she's got a tattoo of a window on her arm let me out only the Explorer I think would would do that they tend to live in the big city certainly in Chicago is among them yellow is the color I chose for all of the explorers and not in Dallas in Houston and not in Phoenix and all Las Vegas but there in most of the big cities where the action is those who are called the builders they're expressive of the serotonin system in the brain they tend to be they conform they follow social rules they like familiarity their harm avoidant self control they've in control is very important to them frugal they tend to be managerial they follow plans and routines and schedules they're orderly I've got a friend who annually he and his wife go off to a I think it's some sort of money manager and they were sitting at their table together and with the money manager and he just by chance leaned over on the desk and moved the guy's pencil sharpener and the guy immediately moved it back and now every single year he goes and he does that it every year he moves it back there fact oriented more close friends they're calmer is why you take something like Prozac of paxil they tend to be more religious they're interested in loyalty we all want loyal I one of my favorite questions on the questionnaire is do you want to have loyal friends or interesting friends but we all want loyal friends and we all want interesting friends but they have got to have loyal friends loyalty is very important to them on the downside they tend to be close-minded controlling rigid sub stubborn and moralistic cop word they uses family also have trust loyal respect loving values where values is very important to them ben bernanke I think is a very good example of one I think George Washington I've very gotten very interested in history he was the right man in the right time and in American history I think was very expressive of the serotonin system in the brain testosterone system these people are analytical logical they've got very good spatial skills they're very good at music which is actually a spatial spatial task I think Beethoven was very much of this type experimental exacting a rank oriented emotionally contained you know I made a speech at Davos and I I saw that they're moving to things in Davos moving their thumbs on their blackberries and moving their mouths that's about it they're very self controlled high tide high testosterone time decisive bold and direct these are the ones that say get to the point on the downside they can be uncompromising impatient demanding mind blindness is an academic term the inability to climb into somebody's head and see what's going on less empathetic and aloof intelligence is one of their top would there's lots of different kinds of intelligence but it's very important to them politics driven challenge Larry Ellison is a good example Hillary Clinton I think is another very good example when asked why she was attracted to Bill she said he wasn't afraid of me last type very broad style of thinking and behaving these are the big picture seers expressive of estrogen and oxytocin very imaginative it's actually because of the way the estrogen affects the brain in the womb people skills social skills very intuitive able to climb into your head empathetic what we call pro-social introspective these are the ones that care who they are and who you are on a very genuine level seek harmony stab you in the back never hit you in the face emotionally expressive and diplomatic intelligence on the downside they're scattered there indecisive they all say well where do you want to go for dinner where we go here we go there we go make up your mind make in my mind they're going through all of the alternatives while they while they do it placating ruminating gullible hypersensitive backstabbing unforgiving effusive now we don't have all these traits of course but these are the traits that have been linked with the estrogen system top thing word they use is passion learn random they like the word random no good high testosterone likes the word random nor does any good serotonin type I think Bill Clinton actually may have been our first female president he whole world knows he can't stop talking highly emotionally expressive he was the one that cried at his daughter's wedding his wife didn't crying he did and of course he's well-known for saying I feel your pain dark Charles Darwin the the grandest synthesizing mind I think that's ever come into this planet this is a god of course ten million of these things so I got everybody's zip code all of the conventional traditional high serotonin types are in the Midwest and the south high testosterone is all around Washington where they're trying to run the world and are out in Las Vegas whether all the spatial skills of gambling or in Alaska where they're shooting the animals they're all spatial skills everything that's loose rolls into California that's a high dopamine type and of course the tree huggers tree hugger green I call that for the very liberal highest region touchy-feely big reading the type of person so as it turns out the high dopamine type is goes for people like themselves people who are energetic curious and creative want people like themselves and so do the high those expressive of serotonin they also want somebody like themselves traditional ones to additional but opposites attract when it comes to the highest region in the high testosterone so I'm we're now studying our genetics of this we need some funding down the road but we've isolated 63 genes we want to begin to understand these patterns of personality I've also done with the Lucy Brown and Bianca Acevedo put 34 people into the brain scanner and beginning to find some of the brain circuitry of these cornerstones of personality so I would just close with two things number one I think that that these four broad styles of thinking and behaving evolved when for millions of years lived in little hunting and gathering bands there were maybe about 25 individuals to a group ten or twelve or children that left ten or twelve grown-ups you got them all walking over the hill and suddenly you see a pile of mushrooms well you can't have twelve explorers saying oh let's try the mushrooms you need some builders serotonin ties to say we've never tried the mushrooms it's not in our tradition you need some high testosterone tripe or experimental and say well let's feed them to the dog and see what happens not my dog with some dog and we need some high estrogen types who were going to say listen down and talk about these mushrooms in other words I'm a group selection estanque that these broad styles of thinking and behaving evolved together and I think that hopefully that can be very useful in understanding business putting together corporate boards hiring advertising selling reaching people where they live as a matter of fact my editor when he first read a rough draft of the book he called me up and there was a long pause and then he said how long I finally understand my son and indeed I think that we can so now I want to really close with a story matcom came to me one day and said would your questionnaire work in other countries and I said if it doesn't I have failed because I'm not studying the American mind I'm studying the human mind I'm studying human nature so it's been went in a lot of other countries and it's worked out so anyway we we went to Japan and to want to sight in Japan and the week went by I've talked a lot of journalists etc and then came the final night and on the final night I showed up at this huge wedding palace I mean the giant thing quite look like the White House with mannequins with wedding dresses and balloons and flowers etc so I was sitting in the green room and I said well what am I supposed to do tonight they said well we're going to have everybody take your questionnaire and then put a band around their hand so that we know whether they tend to be expressive of dopamine serotonin testosterone or estrogen and what you're going to do is we're going to wheel out two-foot-wide a bottom of wedding cakes and all of the Explorers are going to decorate one wedding cake and all the negotiators another etc sitter and you are going to judge the wedding cakes like that oh yeah the nadir of my scientifical experience what do I know about wedding cakes so anyway I I the dud that came along and there were least 400 people in the room that they they were all wheeled out the cakes were wheeled out and and there was all this commotion and there was all the decorating and all the negotiators were here and the builders there and the Explorers here and the directors there so my moment came and I had to go over the first wedding cake and judge it I go over this wedding cake in the crowd parts I couldn't see it and this was the negotiator cake the high estrogen cake the cake was smiling at me it was a trying to like me and it had even role of on the wedding cake so then I go over to the Builder cake these people are formal by nature traditional and sure enough this was the it's a nice cake it's probably the kind of cake that most people have it's formal it's lush we got one Kiwi twenty REE when Kiwi when cherry on Kiwi when cherry it's an orderly cake so then I go over to the directors cake the high testosterone cake and the crowd parts and I take a look at this cake there is no emotion in cake it is the most contained cake I've ever seen but these people are invited and they decorated around the cake so then I go over to the Explorer cake and the crowd parts and the first thing I see are three men Harleen fruit at the cake they take one look at me and one of them a fourth one grabs a bunch of flowers in a vase having nothing to do with the decorations of this cake and plunged it in the middle of that cake how's the cake thank you very much you

A young scientist's quest for clean water | Deepika Kurup

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Deepika Kurup has been determined to solve the global water crisis since she was 14 years old, after she saw kids outside her grandparents’ house in India …

Laura Schulz: The surprisingly logical minds of babies

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How do babies learn so much from so little so quickly? In a fun, experiment-filled talk, cognitive scientist Laura Schulz shows how our young ones make …

The scientific method of love and poetry: Big Poppa E at TEDxMiddlebury

Views:1884|Rating:4.72|View Time:17:4Minutes|Likes:17|Dislikes:1
BIG POPPA E is a spoken word artist and three-time veteran of HBO’s “Def Poetry” who melds rhythmic verse, stand-up comedy, and dramatic monologue into explosive works that skewer pop culture, politics, and the tangle of pain and beauty in relationships. His musings have led to appearances on BET’s “The Way We Do It” sketch comedy series, National Public Radio, and CBS’s “60 Minutes” (although, truth be told, he was only on for about three seconds… but still… have you been on “60 Minutes?” Yeah, didn’t think so.)

In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

hi guys hey guys doing there's this little timer thing here that's like shouting at you how how much time I have left alright so uh I'm a writer and I right and this is totally my process like when I first saw that this was going to be the topic or the the theme you know it sounds like you know research stuff like real stuff like building stuff like engineering stuff and I was like how can I apply this to poetry but that's exactly the same process I go through and pretty much everything that I do so it was nice to kind of step back and rethink the way I look at the way I do my stuff the work of a poet as far as I can tell is putting words to that feeling you have in your gut that is indescribable and the reason you do that is so you can share it so that somebody else can see these words or hear these words and convert it into that feeling into their stomach like that's the reason you put words to something and it takes a lot of research to go back through your life and find the lessons that you've learned say for instance love my ability to love myself and love someone else and allow someone else to love me is built on a pile of failure and bad decisions and selfish behavior that I have researched by thinking why do i have y have an i found love yet and so you look back at all the terrible decisions you've made and start trying to make sense of it and putting words to the things that you've you've done to your life and that's that's how it works it's sort of like journalism of the soul I made that up but that sounds so cheesy don't cut don't don't encourage that that's just terrible that's totally cheesy um so I have a couple for instances and I'm gonna hold my safety net here just because I'm a little nervous can you tell oh you're so kind so when I look at the idea of love what in the world does that mean if there's anything that's just like indescribable people have been trying to do it for you eat for as long as there's been people putting it to to music and to poetry into books and we're still writing about it so we're still trying to figure it out and myself I had to really sit back and look through all the relationships that I've ever had to find out what is love like is it the thing that you can buy on a Hallmark card is it in a Christina Aguilera song is it like what is it what do I qualify as love and we often turn to the poet's to help us with that which segues into this 10 know what I hate want to know what I hate poets wanna know why erotic poetry because most of the happy horseshit being passed off as erotic poetry these days is nothing more than lists of body parts and what they intend to do with them interspersed with endless repetitions of the word love love love as if that actually meant something that's not sexy that's lazy if you can't write a love poem without using the word love you're not a poet you're a greeting card salesman well I'm here to take I love you back so when I say it it won't be some vague erotic notion know when I say I love you I mean as long as I'm around you will always have someone to pick you up from the airport that is sexy and you will always have someone to help you carry your heavy ass couch up three flights of narrow apartment complex stairs and you'll always have someone to hold your hair back from your faces route you regurgitate margaritas into the bathtub and I know it's the bathtub and not the toilet because you think sticking your face in a toilet is nasty and I know this not because I love you and the information is seeped into my brain through love osmosis no it's because I pay attention you know what love is I will tell you what love is I will go to the corner store at 3am on my bicycle in the rain to buy you tampons and I will remember the by the pint of chunky monkey you didn't even ask for because i know you like ice cream when your cramps are bad and i know this because I've got your back and by that I mean the little oval of flesh between your shoulder blades you can never reach when it is really bad i freakin got that when I want you to know I love you I'm not gonna waste money on flowers oh look honey here's something beautiful you can watch die no I'm gonna sneak over to your apartment while you're at school and clean your kitchen that is sexy and I won't allow our arguments to become fights because I will spend more time listening than simply waiting for my turn to talk more time giving you the benefit of the doubt then picking it old wounds to score points more time learning from my mistakes than simply apologizing for them it's easy to love you when we are so beautiful but I will love you even when things get really frickin ugly I will love you even when I freaking hate you and should the time come where it's time to move on I will let go and when you introduce me to your new boyfriend i will tell you he seems like a nice guy and i'm happy for you even though your name is tattooed to the center of my chest so no matter how hard somebody else presses their body against mine you will always be closer to my heart and I mean that metaphorically cuz I'm not getting a tattoo when I say I love you I mean it so drumroll please if you ever have a chance to do that just do it it's just so cool everybody do this everybody this burp Charlie burb crap Oh Joe oh Willy Wonka okay anyway oh that's an scene okay so love brings up sex and the two are completely separate or different and easy to be confused with each other but it's best when they're just the same thing and that's something that took me a long time to learn lots of mistakes I spent so much time looking for the one instead of learning how to become the one and there are many ones that I thought I met but I just wasn't there yet so you go back through your history to find out what's going on so you can rethink what the hell is going on and then move forward and that is what this next piece is about it's me picturing what sort of advice do I have to give to someone about sex it's called how to make love if i had a son and he came to me as a young man for advice about sex this is probably what I would tell them one by condoms by them and keep them with you at all times and use them before you were asked to use them and use them every time the peace of mind you allow your partner will free her to be vulnerable with you and that my son is exactly what sex is about condoms are sexy in fact coal buying condoms foreplay footnote if you were too embarrassed to buy condoms you were not ready to have sex too kissing is not merely foreplay spend entire evenings making out on the couch while fully clothed believe me dry-humping rocks three sex is not just about friction it's about emotion don't worry about trying to find or clitoris find her heart then she'll help you find her clitoris for if you really want to know how to please a woman asked her how she masturbates then do that a lot if she claims she doesn't masturbate offered to take her shopping for a vibrator so you can both learn the vocabulary of your bodies together five don't put anything in her butthole you wouldn't want in your own footnote try a pinky finger it's actually kind of Awesome don't act like you don't know about the pinky finger six widow it only gets better six when you go down on her and you will go down on her and if you are my son you will be amazing at it tell her tell her how good she tastes stop in the middle and kiss her deeply so she knows how good she tastes and do the same when she goes down on you seven a simple Google search yields 1347 euphemisms for male masturbation yet only 23 for female masturbation if guys spent less time jacking off and more time jilling off the world would be a happier place eight everything you need to know about the importance of the clitoris is in the movie star wars your partner's body is the death star and you are Luke Skywalker piloting your penis shaped x-wing fighter deep inside her trench remember seventy percent of all death stars can be blown up through penetration of the trench alone it must be through focus contact with that little exhaust port at the top of the trench otherwise any explosions you experience will be merely Hollywood special effects number nine just because you've come doesn't mean she has so don't you dare come before her concentrate on pleasing your partner don't worry about getting yours you're a guy you always get yours your job is to make sure she's getting hers 10 it's sex with your partner last no longer than this poem you are not making love you are masturbating with her body instead of your hand shame on you go back to step one you've got a lot of learning to do love dad so many uncomfortable giggles throughout that whole place he said pagina um believe me that that poem was built on the back of a lot of really bad relationships that I finally finally finally have learned on about also i'm now writing if I had a daughter version of this and if I had a transgendered son if I had a geisa there's only about 75 genders to go so eventually I will cover all my bases but it is a monumental task I have just enough time to do one more so I'll do that talk amongst yourselves here we go um I'm really freaking shy the guy who was just talking about introverts extroverts I'm the introvert who is freaking the heck out was that you you doll face um he was totally describing me and I often find myself like what the hell am I doing here I'm so freaking freaked out right now my mouth is so dry why did I agree to do this right but when I look back at the progression from from shy kid to now it kind of makes sense and so that's what this was about it's called embouchure any musicians in the audience and almost here is the set of muscles you develop when you place a the trumpet and the more you play the stronger it gets the better you get to play embouchure I don't have childhood friends we move too much to schools in two different states for 3rd grade 3 4 4th grade 2 4 5th my dad was in the Navy but the time he was discharged in my sixth grade year this once gregarious boy had grown silent when hormones hit the predatory peacocks in gym class drew all the eyes of the girls who wanted to kiss them and the boys who wanted to be them and the boys who wanted to kiss them and the girls who wanted to be them and away from me and my bad posture and shabby college-level reading skills while they grew closer I grew inward replacing their affections with books records and movies things you can do alone who needs friends when you have the company of 13 ax-wielding dwarves and a gaunt wizard who drags you from your hobbit hole and pushes you toward adventure in high school the kids with friends party with Jim Beam and jose cuervo but me I kicked back in my bedroom what Kurt Vonnegut Richard Pryor and Freddie Mercury instead of doing my homework I press pencil points to temples and splattered suicidal thoughts across notebook pages my dad grounded me for most of my junior year and I just laughed at him like I have someplace to go this pissed him off so we confiscated all my books and records and tore down my rush posters causing a rift that remains unfilled to this day here is wisdom you do not mess with a lonely kids rush posters if there had been school shootings back then pointed glances and whispered accusations would have shouted me down the halls with every boldface headline but this was nineteen eighty-three not in 2003 I was simply ignored utterly just another weird kid with a backpack full of Conan books in a Crown Royal bag full of 20-sided dice no one is more surprised to find me on a stage in front of people with a microphone clinched in my fist than I am it took a long time to unlock the chains that held me back but poetry kissed me a key houdini beneath my tongue that set myself free to bellow down Jericho with the trumpet of my voice and nurture the connections I never had growing up the shy kid the lonely kid he's still here and he's reaching out to your fat kid your pimply kid your nerdy kid you're silent kid and he's saying if I can do it you can do it so let's do it let's hang out with Charles Bukowski and Henry Rollins forget the cool kids we've got George Carlin and Langston Hughes we've got Sylvia Plath and Jill Scott we've got each other and that's all we've ever needed so let's slam our bedroom doors crank some rush on the stereo and unleash our voices together thanks

Quantum Life: How Physics Can Revolutionise Biology: Jim Al-Khalili at TEDxSalford

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Jim Al-Khalili is a professor of physics, author and broadcaster based at the University of Surrey where he holds a chair in the Public Engagement in Science. He is active as a science communicator and has written a number of popular science books, between them translated into over twenty languages. He is a regular presenter of TV science documentaries, including the Bafta nominated Chemistry: A Volatile History, and presents the weekly Radio 4 programme, The Life Scientific. He is a recipient of the Royal Society Michael Faraday medal and the Institute of Physics Kelvin Medal.

He has also presented Atom, a three-part series for BBC Four, The Secret Life of Chaos, and Science and Islam, covering the leap in scientific knowledge that took place in the Islamic world between the 8th and 14th centuries. He’s also a regular on Radio 4 and on the BBC’s Horizon programme.


Camerawork: Nathan Rae & Team –
Post production: Elliott Wragg –
Audio restoration : Jorge Polvorinos –
Head of IT and Design: Vlad Victor Jiman –
Intro: Mike Wood –

المترجم: Amany Allam
المدقّق: Nada Qanbar مرحبًا! هل أنتم مستعدون للمزيد
من العلم، "سالفورد"؟ هل أنتم مستعدون لقلي أدمغتكم؟ نعم، حسنًا! في عام 1944، قام فيزيائي نمساوي
يسمى (إروين شرودينجر) بعضكم سمع اسمه من قبل قطة (شرودينجر)، المفارقة الشهيرة،
وضع الرجل قطة في صندوق وبشكل ما كانت القطة
حية وميتة في نفس الوقت. سوف أحاول شرح كل ذلك. (إروين شرودينجر) في عام 1944 كان أحد الرواد في ميكانيكا الكم، أحد أعظم وأهم النظريات العلمية في 1944 قام بنشر كتاب
بعنوان "ما هي الحياة؟" ترون، حتى الآن، من آواخر القرن 19
إلى النصف الأول من القرن 20، حكم الفيزيائيون. لقد كنا قادة العلم. وجميع الاكتشافات الكبرى -ربما يعترض الكيميائيون والأحيائيون- ولكن حينها كان لدينا (أينشتين) وآخرون، الذين أحدثوا ثورة بالفيزياء. وكان (إروين شرودينجر) أحد رواد
نظرية ميكانيكا الكم الجديدة. وكان الفيزيائيون مغرورين
للغاية ومتعجرفين، لدرجة ظنهم أن بإمكانهم
إجابة جميع معضلات العلم. وكان كتابه "ما هي الحياة؟" حيث شعر أن بإمكانه استخدام
الفيزياء لشرح الحياة ذاتها. الفيزياء لشرح الأحياء. كان طموحًا للغاية بهذا المشروع. وقد ألهم وأثر على العديد
من العلماء الآخرين. في الحقيقة، لقد ألهم (فرانسيس كريك)
و(جيمس واتسون) بعمله في اكتشافهم للحمض النووي
والحلزون المزدوج. في الواقع، كان (فرانسيس كريك)
نفسه فيزيائيًا. بعد عقدين، في أوائل
الستينيات، في عام 1963، نشر فيزيائي آخر ورقة بحثية، والتي لم تحظ بشهرة كبيرة. كان اسمه (بير أولوف لودين)،
وهو فيزيائي سويدي، كتب ورقة بحثية عن الأحياء. كتب ورقة بحثية، حيث اقترح طريقة لإمكانية
تحول الحمض النووي. الحمض النووي يتكون من جديلتين
من الجزيئات المعقدة، ملتفة في شكل حلزون مزدوج، والحمض النووي يحوي مخطط الحياة. نسمع هذه الأيام أن علماء الأحياء
يصنعون خريطة للجينوم البشري، وقد قطعنا خطوات هائلة
في العقد الماضي. حسنًا، في عام 1963، حاول (لودين) أن يفهم
ما الخطأ الذي يحدث -أو حقيقة، ليس خطأ، فنحن
نحتاج الطفرات لتتطور الحياة- كيف تحدث الطفرات؟ نحن نعلم نوعًا ما
أن هناك آليات عديدة مختلفة. أحيانًا تكون فقط أخطاء نسخ عشوائية، عندما تنحل الجديلتان وتنقسمان، وتصنعان زوج جديد من الجدائل وتتكاثر. أحيانًا يحدث خطأ بالنسخ. أحيانًا يكون هناك إشعاع من الخارج،
مثل الإشعاع الكوني من الفضاء، الذي يخترق ويصطدم
بالحمض النووي داخل خلايانا، ويسبب تكسرها، وتشكل أنماط جديدة. اعتقد (لودين) بوجود طرق أخرى. جديلتا الحمض النووي مرتبطتان ببعضهما -هي تشبه السلم الملتف حول نفسه- درجات السلم، الغراء الذي يلصق الجديلتين معًا، هو بالأساس ذرات هيدروجين. ذرات الهيدروجين توفر الغراء، فهي روابط. ترتبط بذرة في جديلة وذرة بالجديلة الأخرى، وتثبتهما معًا. اقترح (لودين) أنه ربما يمكن لذرة الهيدروجين فعل أمر غريب، شيء من ميكانيكا الكم، يسمى النفق الكمي. أساسًا، يمكن أن تتواجد بجوار إحدى الجدائل، وبشكل عفوي، ولأسباب كمية غريبة، تعبر إلى الجانب الآخر. وبسبب ذلك، يتغير التكوين الجزيئي للحمض النووي، ويمكن أن تحدث طفرة. لقد كان نموذجًا رياضيًا، ولم يكن لديه دليل تجريبي
أن هذا قد يحدث فعلاً. وكان ذلك منذ نصف قرن مضى. وحتى اليوم، لا نعلم إذا كان النفق الكمي يفسر بعض أنواع الطفرات. ولكن في ورقته البحثية، في الفقرة الأولى، يقول: "حقيقة أن فيزياء الكم يمكن أن
تفسر ظواهر معينة في الأحياء قد تقودني إلى تقديم مجال جديد من العلوم، والذي سأسميه الأحياء الكمية." مر الأمر بهدوء ولم يحدث شيء حقًا. في السنوات القليلة الأخيرة،
تحديدًا آخر ثلاث أو أربع سنوات، الأحياء الكمية، كمجال جديد،
بدأت تكتسب الأهمية مرة أخرى. ليس لأن علماء فيزياء الكم أصبحوا أكثر مهارة
ببعض أفكارهم الحمقاء، ولكن لأن علماء الأحياء
الجزيئية أصبحوا أكثر مهارة في تطوير التجارب
لاختبار هذه الأفكار الحمقاء. سوف أعطيكم بعض الأمثلة
خلال دقيقة. ولكن دعوني أقول شيئًا
عن ماهية ميكانيكا الكم. لقد تم اكتشافها في النصف
الأول من القرن العشرين. بمجرد أن قام أشخاص مثل (إرنست رذرفورد) وهو أول شخص ينظر داخل الذرة ورأى أن هذه الذرات كانت في أغلبها فراغ، تحتوي نواة صغيرة وإلكترونات تدور حولها، مثل نظام شمسي مصغر أدركوا أنهم بحاجة لفهم تركيب هذه الذرات. وأدركوا أن قوانين الفيزياء التقليدية التي فهمها الجميع، والتي تعود حتى (اسحق نيوتن)،
لا يبدو أنها تعمل. فكان هناك أمور غريبة تحدث
على المستوى الذري وأدنى منه. ونوع جديد من الميكانيكا،
ليست ميكانيكا (نيوتن)، ولكن ميكانيكا الكم، كان يجب أن تطور. وطوال عشرينات القرن الماضي، أصبحت نظرية رياضية كاملة وقوية. واليوم، لا يوجد شك حول ميكانيكا الكم. فميكانيكا الكم تخبرنا
كيف تستقر الإلكترونات حول النواة، في المدارات. و تخبرنا كيف تتلاءم الذرات معًا،
وطبيعة القوى بينها، لصنع جزيئات، لصنع كل شيء نراه في الكون. ولكن ميكانيكا الكم
قاصرة على المستوى الذري. فنحن لا نرى، عمومًا، أثر ميكانيكا الكم
على مستوى الحياة اليومية. فهي تحدث في مقاييس صغيرة
غير مرئية تمامًا لنا. ومع ذلك، نقوم بتصميم التجارب
في كل وقت في مختبرات الفيزياء، التي يبدو أنها تثبت، مرارًا وتكرارًا،
أن ميكانيكا الكم تعمل حقًا. ميكانيكا الكم إذًا،
تدعم الكثير من الفيزياء، وأغلب إن لم يكن كل الكيمياء؛ والكيمياء تدعم الأحياء، فالأحياء على المستوى الجزيئي
هي مجرد جزيئات، يحدث بينها تفاعل كيميائي،
وبينها روابط كيميائية؛ الأحياء هي بالأساس كيمياء عضوية؛ والكيمياء العضوية هي بالأساس
ميكانيكا كمية. وميكانيكا الكم،
وسوف أجادل بذلك، هي الأهم، وأقوى نظرية في مجمل العلم، فهي تهزم الانتقاء الطبيعي
(لداروين) بذراع واحدة والانتقاء الطبيعي (لداروين)
هي أحد أعظم الأفكار التي أتى بها البشر. ولكن، في قلبها، فميكانيكا الكم غريبة. غريبة للغاية حتى أن أحد المؤسسين،
وهو (نيلز بور)، قال مرة: "إذا لم ترتبك بسبب ميكانيكا الكم، فإنك لم تفهمها." عليك أن تفكر، "كيف يحدث ذلك؟" إذا فكرت، "نعم، أفهم ذلك"، فلديك مشكلة. لأنها غير قابلة للفهم
بمستوى الإدراك العادي. فهي غريبة حقًا. ميكانيكا الكم تقول
أن الذرة يمكن أن تكون بمكانين في نفس الوقت، ذرة واحدة، عندما تنظر لترى بأي مكان تتواجد، ستختفي من مكان لتظهر في آخر. كيف تعلم أنها كانت بمكانين في آن واحد؟ يمكننا تصميم تجارب تثبت أنها لم تكن في كلا المكانين في آن واحد، ولن تحصل على النتائج التي تراها. فالإلكترون – جسيم صغير يدور
حول الذرة – يدور، ليس بالطريقة التي تدور بها
الأرض حول محورها، ولكن بطريقة أكثر غرابة. إلى حد أن الإلكترون، عندما لا ننظر، يدور في اتجاه عقارب الساعة
وعكس اتجاه عقارب الساعة بنفس الوقت. هذا يبدو مثل، "أنتم الفيزيائيون تخترعون
هذا الهراء، كيف تعلمون ذلك؟" هذا ما يحدث حقًا، وبدون ذلك لما كان لدينا
الجزء الأكبر من العلم الحديث. أي شخص منكم يستخدم جهاز- هاتف ذكي، أو تليفزيون
أو حاسب، أي شيء يحوي رقاقة – جميعها تعتمد على ميكانيكا الكم. وبدون ميكانيكا الكم لما كنا فهمنا طبيعة المادة. ولما كنا فهمنا طبيعة أشباه الموصلات، وبالتالي، لما كان لدينا رقاقات متقدمة، ولما كان لدينا حواسيب. معظم التكنولوجيا الحديثة اليوم
تعتمد على ميكانيكا الكم. ومع ذلك، في أساسها هي غريبة جدًا. حسنًا، لقد قلت، كما تعلمون، الأحياء في قلبها هي كيمياء، والكيمياء بالأساس هي ميكانيكا الكم. لذلك، بالتأكيد، فالأحياء، في نهاية المطاف،
تعتمد على ميكانيكا الكم. حسنًا، أنها تعتمد على ميكانيكا الكم، بمعنى أن ميكانيكا الكم
تصف كيفية تناسب الذرات معًا لتصنع جزيئات الحياة. ولكن هذا المجال الجديد،
مجال الأحياء الكمية، يتساءل ما إذا كانت الجوانب
الأغرب في ميكانيكا الكم تلعب دورًا في الأحياء. فقط الأسبوع الماضي – الأسبوع قبل الماضي، الآن- تم إعلان جائزة نوبل للفيزياء. ومنحت لفيزيائيين قادا فريقين بحثيين، أحدهم في "باريس"
والآخر في "بولدر، كولورادو". لذا، فالرجلين الذين فازا بجائزة نوبل
كانا أساسًا قادة الفريق، ولكن الفضل يرجع إلى هذين الفريقين. وما فعلوه على مدار العقد
أو العقدين الأخيرين، كان تصميم تجارب تثبت أن الغرابة الكمية تحدث حقًا. ربما سمعتم عبارات مثل التشابك الكمي، أو التماسك الكمي. في عالم الفيزياء – بالفيزياء أعني العالم غير الحي- نرى هذه الآثار طوال الوقت. النفق الكمي، كمثال، أمر غريب. فالنفق الكمي يشبه (هاري بوتر) وأصدقاؤه، عندما يمرون عبر الجدار
في الرصيف رقم تسعة – هل كانت تسعة ونصف؟ لا أذكر- في محطة "كينجز كروس". حسنًا؟ إنه سحر! في العالم الكمي يحدث ذلك طوال الوقت. تمر الجسيمات عبر الحائط. هذا يشبه ركل كرة فوق نتوء بقوة كافية، لتصل إلى الأعلى
ثم تتدحرج إلى الجانب الآخر. إذا كانت كرة كمية، في المستوى الذري، يمكنك ركلها نصف الطريق للأعلى، فهي لا تحمل الطاقة الكافية لتصل للأعلى، ولا تريد أن تتراجع مرة أخرى،
وتقرر الذهاب إلى الجانب الآخر. فتختفي وتظهر في الجانب الآخر، مثل خدعة سحرية. ولكن هذا هو ما يحدث. وهذا سبب وجودنا هنا، لأنه سبب إشعاع الشمس. تحصل الشمس على طاقتها من عملية تسمى الانصهار النووي الحراري، والانصهار النووي الحراري
هو أساسًا ذرات هيدروجين بالأساس نوي ذرات هيدروجين،
بروتونات تعتصر معًا. الآن، البروتونات تحمل شحنة كهربية موجبة، وكما تذكرون من المدرسة، الشحنات المتماثلة تتنافر-
لدينا شحنة موجبة وموجبة – لا يمكن دفعها معًا. وكلما قربتهما معًا، كلما زاد تنافرهما
وأرادا الابتعاد عن بعضهما. ومع ذلك، في الشمس، هما يلتصقان معًا. لأن غاز الهيدروجين في الشمس
يتحول ببطء إلى غاز الهيليوم – العنصر الثاني في الجدول الدوري- وخلال عملية تحويل الهيدروجين إلى هيليوم، يتم إنتاج الكثير من الطاقة،
طاقة في شكل حرارة وضوء. ما يحدث هو أن البروتونات
ليست كرات صغيرة، صغيرة للغاية، هي مثل أشياء متموجة ضبابية،
يمكنها الاقتراب كفاية من بعضها، وترغب في التنافر مع بعضها، ولكن من فترة لأخرى، يقول أحدها: "آه، أود اختراق حاجز القوة هذا، والمرور إلى الجانب الآخر." بمجرد أن تصبح قريبة من بعضها تلتصق معًا، لأنه يوجد قوة أخرى تتغلب على قوى تنافرهما الكهربية، وهذه القوة النووية
هي ما يربط البروتونين معًا. وبدون ميكانيكا الكم لما فهمنا كيف يمكنهما الاقتراب كفاية
لتتغلب هذه القوة النووية. ومع ذلك، يحدث الأمر. لذا، النفق الكمي يحدث طوال الوقت. أود أن أخبركم، باختصار،
عن أثرين في الأحياء الكمية، أحدها يعتمد على دوران الإلكترونات
في اتجاهين في نفس الوقت، والآخر يعتمد على النفق الكمي. أبو الحناء هو ربما أكثر
الطيور شيوعًا في بريطانيا، وأكثر الطيور المحبوبة لدينا. أبو الحناء يعيش في بريطانيا
على مدار العام. ولكن أبو الحناء الأوروبي، الذي يعيش بشمال أوروبا،
في اسكندنافيا وروسيا، العديد منها تهاجر خلال الشتاء. وهي تهاجر إلى جنوب أوروبا،
وحتى إلى شمال أفريقيا. الطيور تستطيع الملاحة باستخدام مجموعة كبيرة من الحيل الذكية. واتضح، بعد العديد من سنوات الدراسة، أن أبو الحناء الأوروبي يمكنه التوجه
باستشعار المجال المغناطيسي للأرض، وهو مجال ضعيف للغاية، ولكن يمكنه استشعاره. وهو لا يشعر به كبوصلة، فهو، بشكل ما، لا يملك
نظام تحديد المواقع العالمي، الذي يخبره، كما تعلمون،
في أي اتجاه يجب أن يذهب. اتضح أنه حساس تجاه تغيرات أكثر دقة في المجال المغناطيسي. ولا أحد يستطيع أن يفهم حقًا
كيف يحدث ذلك. تبين أن السيناريو الأكثر احتمالاً
يقوم على ميكانيكا الكم. داخل شبكية العين اليمنى لأبو الحناء – وليس اليسرى، فقد تم استبعادها بالتجارب- داخل شبكية العين اليمنى لأبو الحناء يوجد بروتينات صغيرة،
جزيئات صغيرة تدعى (كريبتوكروم) حساسة للضوء – لذلك هي موجودة بعين الطائر- وخاصة، الضوء ذو الطول الموجي الأزرق، ضوء الشمس يحوي جميع ألوان
قوس قزح، وجميع الأطوال الموجية، ولكن الضوء الأزرق يحوي طاقة خاصة، وما يفعله هو أنه يقصي
إلكترون من أحد الذرات داخل بروتين (الكريبتوكروم)، وسوف يقفز هذا الإلكترون بعيدًا عن رفيقه الذي كان يدور معه. الآن، هذه الإلكترونات، ترتبط مصائرهم، فهي متشابكة. ومع ذلك، عندما تنفصل، فإنها تبقى، مع المسافة، بطريقة ما، في اتصال فوري مع بعضها. وعندما تنفصل تعني هذه المسافة أن سلوك هذه الذرات حساس تجاه التغيرات
في المجال المغناطيسي للأرض. وأي تغيرات سوف تغير التفاعلات الكيميائية التي ستنتجها هذه البروتينات، بإرسال إشارات إلى العقل
ليعلم الطائر أين هو وأي اتجاه ينبغي أن يسلك. لذا، حتى لشيء غير كمي
مثل ملاحة أبو الحناء الأوروبي يبدو أنه يتطلب ميكانيكا الكم. ولكني أريد أن أختم بفكرة (لودين) واقتراح أن طفرات الحمض النووي
يمكن أن تحدث. وهذا هو الأمر الذي أصبحنا
أكثر اهتمامًا به مرة أخرى. فقط نحتاج طريقة لإثبات أن النفق الكمي – نفس العملية التي تنتج طاقة الشمس- يمكن أن تسبب طفرات وتطور في الحياة. علماء الأحياء يصبحون أمهر بتجاربهم، ويمكنهم عزل الحمض النووي،
والنظر إلى هذه العمليات. وفي هذه اللحظة، نحن في مرحلة حيث يحاول الفيزيائيون تطوير
نماذج متطورة جدًا، ويطور علماء الكيمياء العضوية
برامج حاسب متقدمة جدًا يمكنها تمثيل مئات الآلاف من الجزيئات، وكيف تهتز جميعها وتتحرك، وتنتج تكهنات يمكن لعلماء الأحياء استخدامها
لإجراء التجارب والاختبار. وإذا اتضح أن فيزياء الكم
لها دور في الطفرات، فلا نعلم إلى أين سيقودنا ذلك، وأي تطبيقات سوف تنتج عنه. أحد الأمثلة المتوقعة بقوة، والذي يهتم به الباحثون الأمريكيون، هو فهم إذا كانت هذه الطفرات
مسئولة عن السرطان. كيف تصبح الخلية مسرطنة يميل إلى الاعتماد على عدة
طفرات غير محتملة للغاية. ومع ذلك، فالسرطان في كل مكان، وسوف يؤثر على واحد من ثلاثة منا
بمرحلة ما من حياتنا. إذا كانت ميكانيكا الكم مسئولة عن الطفرات، فربما يمكننا التحكم بها. الآن، أنا لا أقترح أن ميكانيكا الكم سوف تعالج السرطان، ولكن هذا مجال بحثي جديد، وحديث، وتأملي، حيث يتحد الفيزيائيون،
والكيميائيون، والأحيائيون. ومن يدري إلى أين يقودنا
ذلك في المستقبل. وشكرًا جزيلاً لكم. (تصفيق)

Reasons for religion — a quest for inner peace | Daiko Matsuyama | TEDxKyoto

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This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. Taizoin Temple Deputy Head Priest Daiko Matsuyama, explores …

Street math | Laura Overdeck | TEDxJerseyCity

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Math isn’t just for the engineers and scientists out there. We all need number sense to make decisions in regular daily life. We’re bombarded with information, but we fail to put those numbers together usefully – and that leads us to make both small mistakes and big ones. See how simple street math shines light on the worst problems that we allow to continue in our society and in our own personal lives – and how being a little math savvy can turn them around.

Laura Bilodeau Overdeck is the founder of Bedtime Math, a nonprofit that helps kids love math. Over 50,000 kids and parents enjoy Overdeck’s wacky nightly math problems online and in her two books, with the third launching soon. Having garnered press in TIME Magazine, The New York Times and others, Bedtime Math has now launched Crazy 8s Club, a hands-on after-school math club for elementary-school-aged kids. Today there are more than 1,600 clubs serving over 25,000 kids, making it already the biggest after-school math club nationwide for grades K through 5.

In addition to being a social entrepreneur, Overdeck is Chair of the Overdeck Family Foundation, which supports math/science education reform. She is also Vice Chair of the Board of Liberty Science Center, and serves on the boards of Johns Hopkins Center for Talented Youth and Governor’s School of New Jersey. She holds a BA in astrophysics from Princeton University and an MBA from the Wharton School of Business.

This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at

Translator: Yifat Adler
Reviewer: Denise RQ Hi, everyone. I'm Laura Overdeck and today,
we are going to talk about how our fear of numbers
in society trips us up in the most ordinary ways every day. Before we start,
just a couple of quick questions. How long do you think the stripes are?
The dashes in a road stripe on a road? They have a standard size. Most people guess
they are two or three feet. They're actually ten feet long. And the gaps between them are 30 feet,
about double the length of your car. How about highway signs? How big do you think
that little interstate shield is? It's always the same.
It's about 3 feet tall. It's probably about
half as tall as you are. These things are
much bigger than we think because thanks to speed and distance, they don't look the way they should, and you're going to find out
what size they are, only if you go and look up the numbers. And what's interesting is, even if we do know the numbers,
sometimes we totally blow it. Look at what we do to Alaska. You know, it's always
shoved in the corner. If you map Alaska to the same scale
as the US, this is what it looks like. It's huge. Now, the fact that Alaska
is a couple of thousand miles wide, doesn't really affect us day to day,
unless you happen to live in Alaska. But the road stripes do,
because we clearly don't really know how far we are from the car in front of us
when it slams on the brakes. And it turns out that that lack
of awareness of numbers pervades all kinds of actions we take
and decisions we make every day. The problem is that math in our society
is not really a popular subject, right? It is seen as a dry, tedious subject
that you study in school, and when you leave
the classroom you think: "Oh, I'm never going to
have to use that again." But the fact is, we see in the news
that technology jobs are going begging looking for people with the right skills,
and we depend on that. These are the innovators
who are going to develop cheap, clean fuel or new medicines, or all the other things
that we take for granted in our lives. So that's bad enough. But I would argue
we have a bigger problem, which is that everybody on the street
needs to know how to do math. Just to live daily life, to be able
to know what's happening to you, and how you make a good decision,
how your decisions will have an impact. And we're not talking about
complicated math, this is street math. This is just understanding numbers
and powers of ten and proportion. The problem is just like
not having street smarts, if you don't do the street math, you can really go down
some bad blind alleys. And as a society, collectively,
if we bumble long not doing the numbers, we can really go off the rails
on a couple of things as we're going to see. Now, thankfully the math is easy, so hopefully these are things
we can turn around. So let's start by looking at
how things pile up. Turns out there's something you do
every day for a certain number of minutes. If you multiply that by six, that tells you how many hours
a year you do it. So if you play video games
40 minutes a day, that doesn't sound so bad, right? But that's 240 hours a year. That's a week and a half of your life,
basically achieving nothing every year. And tasks we do add up that way too. So, if you wash your face
morning and night, and you take a towel and rub
to dry your eyes a couple of times, that's 1,800 times a year
that you are pulling on your eyes, and your crow's feet,
and the bags under your eyes. You don't want to do that, right? When you do the math,
you start to see how things pile up. And what is the math here?
It's just multiplying, which is the same as adding
the same number over and over. Things add up, and as they add up,
they start racking up zeros. Making one bad choice
as a one off is not so bad. But if you make that choice daily, in three months you've done it
almost a hundred times. In a year, that's a third of a thousand.
It really starts to rack up. What makes the numbers get really big, is when you multiplied that out not just
for you, but for everybody around you. So, when you are sitting in a traffic jam – because the road construction
next to you isn't done, and they're not really
hurrying up finishing it – it's not just your time that's racking up, it's all the people pumping through
that highway every day. Day after day, week after week.
We see this all the time. Jury selection. There're over 3,000 county court houses
around the country, all of them with people sitting for hours,
mostly waiting not to be picked. Or the DMV, right? The DMV makes you come, check in,
and then sometimes sit for an hour, before you can finish
your five minutes transaction. This is nothing short of sadism, right?
This is 50 shades of the DMV. (Laughter) And, you know, there's
no pleasure in it. This is painful. You know, there's no ticker in the sky, adding up everybody's hours
to see what really is the impact of making us all wait
not producing anything. The reason that we instinctively
know this is bad is because time is money,
everyone's time is worth something. If you have a job,
the market has put a value on that. If you're a family member
caring for child or an aging parent, you're producing something,
there's a value. Volunteers have value.
Everybody's time is worth something. So, every time you use
your time, that's a cost. So, if you drive a couple of miles
out of your way to get cheaper gas. Let's say it's 20 cents cheaper a gallon. So, if you fill a whole tank, that's going to come to
a few dollars, and that's good. The question is,
is that a good decision? People might say: "Well, you use
a little gas getting there." That fraction of a gallon
is not the swing vote here. The swing vote is the value of your time. Because if you take 10 minutes
out of your way to do this, at federal minimum wage that's a $1.20. Now, if you're not working,
and you have no opportunity cost, this might be a good decision because there isn't
much cost with your time. But if you're working,
you worth at least that, and if you make more,
your time is worth more. If you make 60,000 dollars a year,
those 10 minutes shake out to be 5 bucks. It might not be worth it. And the more you make, the more
out of balance it's going to be, and the better the deal
has to be to make it worth it. So, the point is every time
you make decisions where you use time, there's always a cost
aligned with the benefit. So, when you pick up something
instead of paying to have it delivered, or you hunt through the Internet or through your junk mail
and look for coupons, or on a bigger scale, if you take on a home improvement project
instead of hiring professionals to do it, in every one of those cases,
your time is costing something. And what's the math
that we are talking about here? Again, this is just multiplying, right? It's multiplying your time
by the dollars per hour. When you stop and do the math, you find that some of your decisions
don't shake out the balance the way you thought they were going to. Now, the reason you have to value
your time and look out for yourself, is because no one else
out there is going to do that. The Martha Stewart Living website
has organizing tips that are going to make your life better. This one says that you should
in your pantry keep a clipboard for every time you take
a scoop of Cheerios or a teaspoon and a half of salt, you should write that down, so you know
when everything is going to run out. Because you know, picking up the box
and shaking it doesn't work. I don't know that any responsible person
has ever sat with a stopwatch to see what kind of time that chews up, if you did that day after day
and week after week. Another tip on there said you should print out
little calendar shaped labels and put them all
on the food in the freezer so you know what date they went in. You know, a marker works just fine,
and takes like five seconds. Again, no one is valuing your time,
so it's not easy to see what the cost is. Again, as with jury selection, the DMV, when you multiply this out
over lots of people you get bigger and bigger effects. And sometimes with the best of intentions.
Look at the volunteering world. Charities are happy to ask for our time
to help them fund raise, right? To bake for the big sale, to round up the auction items
or sell ruffle tickets. I've never seen a non-profit
after the fact add up everybody's hours to see how much was put in, and how does that line up
with the money that was raised. Obviously there's a value
to volunteering. It feels good, people bond,
they're working towards a cause. But if this is a charity that's really
depending on that funding, the top priority really is to raise money. And if we are not doing
the math to value the time, we might not know whether
we're getting the most out of it. Now, we see a common theme here, which is that when we don't
see the numbers, it's harder to think about them. When your chocolate wrapper tells you
that calories exist only if you count them it's not actually true, they are there. And there are all kinds of numbers
that whistle by us all the time, that we are not thinking about it. So quick, how many of you know how much income tax you've paid
this year since January? Kind of have to stop
and think about it, right? Which is scary, because it is
one of the biggest chunks of change we hand over to somebody else every day. But why don't we think about it?
Because we don't see it. We never possess
some of that money to begin with, so we don't have to hand it back. And when we do catch
of a glimpse of it on a pay stub, it's usually weekly or biweekly,
it's little slices of numbers. We don't sense how the numbers pile up.
We are not doing the street math. Now, that leads to a third way
in which we kind of resist doing the math. And that is because we don't see how small numbers
pile up into the big ones, we don't see how small numbers
are a piece of the whole, and which pieces of the pie
are the important ones. So, a few years ago, I couldn't understand why our electric bill
kept going up at my house. Not just the dollars,
but the actual usage. So I crawled into the bushes
and learnt how to read our electric meter, and then I went and turned off
everything in the house, and I turned on one thing at a time to see what happened to the electric meter
and how much everything was using. And I was stunned by what I found. After the air conditioner, the biggest user of electricity
was the clothes drier. We kept having more kids
and more kids is more laundry. More loads per week,
more loads per month. The kids keep getting bigger and dirtier.
We just keep doing more laundry. And that really started to add up.
And that's what was driving it. And once we zeroed in and realized
what fraction of the whole mattered, we knew the solution. Stop having children.
(Laughter) Immediately.
Because that's where it counts. So, what's the math we talk about here?
Here we are talking about fractions. Just understanding parts of the whole. Americans hate fractions. It is the cliff that every kid, a lot of kids fall off
when they take standardized tests. This is the reason that restaurants
have to calculate the tip for us. Because taking one fifth makes us nervous.
It's not a comfortable topic. But, if there is one form
of street math we need to do, it's understanding parts of a whole, and how we can find
the highest priority thing to tackle. So, look at road rage.
If you're driving 60 miles an hour, yes, you can go a little faster
by weaving in and out of traffic, beeping at the idiot in front of you. You might be able to add on
three miles an hour. As you see, that's
really a tiny piece of the total. You have to drive an hour and 40 minutes
just to gain five minutes, if that's the gain you're getting, because it is
a small fraction of the total. Or, when you're looking at a budget. You know, chopping 20 percent
out of the yellow wedge fills good. But chopping 20 percent off
that other piece is a lot better. When we know how the pieces line up,
we make better decisions. We can see many cases in society
where we don't find the lever that's really going to move the needle. A perfect example is the SAT. This is the test that high schoolers take
that will make a break in many cases, their choice of college
they are going to get into. And if you line up kid's scores
against their family income, you see that the wealthiest kids
score the highest, the poorest kids score it lowest, and everybody else falls neatly
on a straight line between the two. And there's a really big gap. And people argue that test prep
is what's making that happen. It turns out if you look
at the mock numbers, test prep gets you an average
about a 30 point gain. It doesn't explain the 400 point gap
over the 3 sections added up for the wealthiest kids
versus the poorest kids. And that's because 50 hours of test prep
is not what we're looking at. What we're looking at is 16 or 17 years
of living a completely different life. Compared to the kids who are in trouble, kids who live comfortably
eat 6,000 more meals, because they've got
breakfast every morning. They're going to school
well-fed and ready to learn. They're being read to,
sometimes 10,000 more hours, because their parents know to do
that and can afford to take the time. They live in a house
with 50 books per child, rather than on our poorest neighborhoods, where it can be one book
for every 300 kids. So, by the time they've gotten here,
they've lived a 140,000 hours of a life that is completely different. 50 hours of test prep
is not going to turn it around. The math here is easy, right? 30 points? Or the remaining 370
that we should be thinking about. And by the way, schools
are only part of the solution. Before we beat on schools and teachers for not getting
our lowest performing kids to perform, you have to remember
that of the 8,800 hours that a kid lives in a year,
they spend about 1,100 in school. It's only part of the equation. For kids who are already in high school, we can't rewind and redo
what has happened. Test prep is all that's left. That's why it's so admirable
that Sal Khan at Khan Academy, and David Coleman at the College Board, are working to have free access
for everybody to test prep. It's a good thing it's free,
because these kids need a lot of it. Not even just to do well on this test,
but actually to learn the skills. To have the reading and the math skills
that we are talking about to be able to live everyday life. And for the kids who haven't got
in high school yet, it's a time to think about
doing a different calculus on how our communities provide
a fabric and a network for these kids. How we can provide more awareness,
and support, and resources for parents, so that we can nurture
the potential on every single kid. So as we see, numbers shine
bright light into dark corners that we might not want to look into. But we have to look into them, right?
Because this's how we turn around society. So, how do we turn this around? I think there are
three distinct parts to this. One is that from the get-go,
kids should learn to love math as something that is not only fun,
and cool, and beautiful, but totally woven into their normal life. You know, at night we read to kids, and so they learn to love books,
and as adults we read for pleasure. I never hear people talk about
"math for pleasure," right? And that should change. Kids should see that it is really part
of their playtime and their normal life. Secondly, in our schools, regardless
of what curriculum we are arguing about, it has to tie-in with real life
and decision making. Kids should taste the excitement
of the victory of a good decision. That's what our math should look like. Because that's what they're going to do
every day as grown-ups. And, finally, for those of us
who already are grown-ups, we have to retrain our thinking,
we have to do the street math. We have to see how there are numbers
behind everything around us, and in every decision we make, and that there's a number in every object,
and chunk of time, and chunk of money. If we are aware of that,
we can make the better decisions. And in most cases the numbers
are all out there waiting for us. We just have to do the math. Thank you. (Applause)

Math dance: Erik Stern and Karl Schaffer at TEDxManhattanBeach

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Karl Schaffer and Erik Stern founded the Dr. Schaffer and Mr. Stern Dance Ensemble in Santa Cruz, California in 1987. Drawing on their combined backgrounds …

Teaching creative computer science: Simon Peyton Jones at TEDxExeter

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This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. Simon Peyton Jones wants children not just to consume technology, but to be creative with it. What does that mean for teaching computer science in schools, and why is the rest of the world watching England?

Simon Peyton Jones is a principal researcher at Microsoft Research in Cambridge. His research focus is in programming language design and implementation, and the purely-functional language Haskell in particular. He is a founder member and current chair of the Computing at School working group, which has played a central role in the recent reform of the school Computing curriculum.

At TEDxExeter 2014 our speakers and performers connected us with other worlds. Our talks exposed corruption in big business, shared effective approaches to tackling social inequality and gave a voice to those whose human rights are under threat. We explored the impact of fast changing technologies on all our lives. We journeyed through fire and forest to frozen landscapes. We were challenged to consider worlds of extremes, cutting edge controversies and risky opportunities.

Video Production Chromatrope (
Production Manager Andy Robertson (

About TEDx, x = independently organized event In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

Britain stands today on the brink of a major revolution of the way we teach our children about computing not all revolutions are good but this one is and it's been watched with intense interest from other countries around the world and some envy so I just want to tell you a little bit about what's been happening why it's important and how you can help to make it a success so here let's start with them something that's Richard Wylie who is a secretary for education in the United States a little while ago said education should prepare young people for jobs that don't exist using technologies that have not been invented to solve problems were not yet aware of that's a big challenge right how do we do that so here's what we do at school so we teach children about skills immediately applicable knowledge typically involving artifacts you know so you can might think sewing machines or band saws or yes computer programs like Microsoft Office right so we might teach them how to use these this stuff purposefully and that's immediately applicable and useful but it dates fairly quickly so to address which would vilas point we also teach them about foundational disciplines so you might think this is long term knowledge so stuff like physics or history or mathematics this last your whole lifetime it doesn't take quickly and we would use words like principles ideas techniques methods body of knowledge to describe that kind of stuff now in my field of computing what has happened is that the subject information and communication technology which phrase be is part of our national curriculum up to now but has become focused on technology all right so it's even in the very title so it's in the left-hand part of this slide all focused around using things purposefully and thoughtfully and that is important but we've lost sight or perhaps never gained sight of an underlying subject discipline which is the discipline of computer science and perhaps that's not surprising but even as a university level that's a fairly young discipline certainly compared to physics say so it's atrophy devayne what – I think what we've ended up doing is in and what we tell our children about computing we've ended up focusing too much on technology on things on devices on those seductive boxes and not enough on ideas so I want our children not only to consume technology but to be imaginative creators of technological artifacts I want them to be creative writers as well as appreciative readers I want them to understand what they're doing as well how the stuff that they're using works as well as using it arthur c clarke once famously remarked that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic and I think it's very damaging if our children come to believe that the computer system that used are essentially magic that is not under their control made by somebody else not something that they can interact with or indeed take participate in creating with I think that's bad so if you walk up to a person on the street today and ask them what does the computer scientists look like they would probably say probably male socially challenged geek spotty probably a bit a little bit like Simon actually well-paid maybe but living in a basement writing code I want to encourage you instead to think of computer science in the way that you might think of science that is as a foundational subject that every child should have the opportunity to learn from primary school onwards that's a big shift in perception isn't it and so to help you make that shift I want to just give you some idea of what computer science is particularly in the context of a school so here are some words so computer science is to do with the study of information and computation not primarily about machines at all it should be called computing science really it's about algorithms and data structures and the way that the computational processes communicate and coordinate it involves reusable skills programming and coding certainly and you will have seen a lot in the press about why we must teach our kids to code but computer science is about much more than that it's not just about coding to get they get the job done it's also about broader thinking skills like computational thinking and abstraction and modeling and design so these are all abstract words I want to show you give you a visceral sense of what computation the information might look like photo of computer science so here is a video made by my um the amazing timbre from New Zealand I'm showing how of kids learning to sort so here they are standing on an Network John on the floor and when two children walk along those lines and meet at one of the round circles they're each holding a number and if the kid on the left is on that day they swap over if one number is bigger than the other they're not bigger they don't swap and then when they all start at the beginning and they do this together so this is a parallel algorithm happening and they walk along the lines and they meet and they swap over and if everything goes right will it go back actually I think that's going to go right they end up sorted at the end and that's there's something rather wonderful about that and you can do it as a competition it's kind of quite fun you can see who can do it fastest and you can even do it on a larger scale in a playground tim tells me this five seconds of video took him all morning to record why did I show you this so I showed you this because it's fun because it involves primary school children because it's um it's intriguing like there's something clever happening and it's because there's no computers involved anywhere this clearly is about computation and not about technology it encourages you to ask questions like could we do this with more numbers did the teacher put us in the right order at the beginning to end up sorted at the end shall we try it with a different way around to get the idea and some of those questions have like deep answers but I love the way that a child could ask them so that's about some computation let's do one about information so my friend Jared over here supposing I want to exchange a message with Jared so you probably have the idea that I could encrypt it some way if Jared and I shared a secret key right so like marmalade then we could somehow encrypt our message send it through each other provided none of you knew our key you can decrypt it but what if we didn't have a secret key between us could we have a public conversation in front of you all at the end of which Jared and I shared a secret key that we could use to encrypt our subsequent conversation but which none of you knew that doesn't sound very plausible does it but if you heard everything we said you'd know everything we knew but it's possible it's not only possible it's quite easy a 12 year old can understand how it's done it's called diffie-hellman key exchange and like many of these lovely ideas of computer science it's immediately applicable when you go on to Amazon or Ebay or something and send your credit card details a little padlock appears on your browser and diffie-hellman key exchange is going on with Amazon or Ebay to secure your credentials because you don't want to take your seat you don't want don't share a secret key yet with your supplier so it's a lot of clever idea looks superficially plausible that's what I mean about ideas not technology so you might say all right so you convinced me reasonably that computer science a kind of interesting and maybe some kids should do it but should every child do it from primary school so let me ask you this why do we ask every child to learn science from primary school not because they're all going to become physicists so why it's because we science teachers are something about the world around us and that we know nothing about the way the world around us works we're disempowered citizens even when you switch on the lights you know that the light doesn't happen by magic it happens by the city that comes along wires that can wires can be dangerous it comes from a power station the power station burns the fuel it may cause global warming all of that is underpinned by the science knowledge that you gained at school whether or not you're scientist and so I think it's very important that every child knows something about the digital world that they inhabit which is so as we heard in our previous taught so infuses every aspect of our lives and it's not just them built world the artificial world computation is increasingly helpers they understand the natural world too if you look at a termite colony that builds these extraordinary structures that architectures are still architects are still trying to figure out how did they get so well ventilated is through a giant termite brain that designs that structure no somehow these little creatures are operating very simple programs in there very simple brains which collectively do something amazing and computer scientists are very interested in working at how that distributed computation takes place and other colleagues of mine at Microsoft working out how how cells figure out whether they're going to become kidneys or backbones and that's a little computational process that's going on in you know in the bodies of embryos all the time so increasing we're thinking of computation as a way to understand the natural world and lastly of course computer science gives you generic thinking skills that are useful regardless of what profession to an analysis and design and computational thinking are useful in any profession now I know every subject likes to tell you that but in case of computer science it's true so so all we have to do then is to establish an entirely new subject at school computer science the amazing thing is that this is not an aspiration this is reality there's been a review of the National Curriculum and as from September 2014 there really is a new subject called computing right not information technology anymore though it still includes the good bits of the using and applying computers but the term covers computer science and IT and I want to show you in this new curriculum the aim so the whole curriculum it's only three pages of a four you can easily read it but here are the aims right for aims can understand and apply the fundamental principles of computer science including logic and algorithms can analyze problems in computational terms and have repeated practical experience of writing programs to solve them no other country in the world has statements anything like as crisp as this from this remember this applies from primary school onwards right the way up to GCSEs so I think this is this is a big breakthrough so it's happening right here and everybody else is very interested in watching us this is where in pole position here in the world but many other countries are struggling with these exact same issues and I sort of we're all fumbling our way towards finding a good solution we in Britain happened to be in that exciting and dangerous position being in pole position here so what is the new challenge well it's no longer to change the policy it's to encourage and support and equip our existing computing teachers to do a fantastic job of delivering this new curriculum and that's not easy they are motivated they are hardworking they care deeply about their children but many of them come with not enough background in computer science because after all they've never been asked to do this before so we have to help them and so who is going to help them well we are so in the past it would have been the government right in the government this time is standing back there providing air cover in the form of the curricula and providing some money but basically it's the sector teachers universities IT professional software developers for people in this room the people watching this video everybody has got to get together and our schools to make a fantastic job of this and to deliver it with not reluctantly and grudgingly but with confidence and enthusiasm because I think we can and it's so it's actually a kind of big society thing this is the big society actually working there's a kind of creative wave of enthusiasm these are a whole bunch of little groups that have grown up in the United Kingdom and there are many others elsewhere in the world you know doing similar things in their own country that are trying to support schools and students though it to run coke class after school to support mentor teachers and just at the moment to run training courses to support teachers let me tell you very briefly about one which is the computing at school group which I'm sure often helped start a few years ago computing school is has been at the epicenter of this whole whole exercise it's a volunteer grassroots organization it now has 10,000 members but it was the the probably the organisation that mainly made the case for establishing computer science as a component of our school curriculum and so we're now stepping up to this challenge of running a big program of training for our teachers across the country but it is a big challenge there are three and a half thousand second or three schools the sixteen seventeen and a half thousand primary schools and this is England alone and Scotland and Wales and Ireland are going through similar upheavals in their own country the curriculum I showed you is just for England so there is a lot to do and that means that you can actually do something to help so whether if you are in the IT sector specifically yourself you can be you have specific things to give right you could start a coke club on an after-school programming club in schools you would go to your school and give a talk or just be a role model you could speak to your your computing teachers and act as a mentor for them but even if you're not an IT computing specialist you could talk to your school about about what their response to the new curriculum is is it a fearful one or confident one what could we do to get them more support to make it possible so a lot of schools and so this this is a boots-on-the-ground job this is not a sort of air war something that can be solved centrally if all of us have to help so if you just if we just all sit around and wait for somebody else to do it nothing will happen right it's kind of fantastic opportunity here so just let me finish by going back to our children what are we hoping to gain from this I hope that our children if we make a good job of establishing the new computing curriculum in its birth from computer science through ICT and digital literacy if we make a good job of that I think they will become more engaged and curious and playful about the digital technology and up also about the natural world that surrounds them I want them to become creator creative users of computers and there's nothing more creative than writing programs actually it builds there's these enormous artifacts that people build out of pure imagination I want them to be informed and empowered citizens who understand enough about the technology that surrounds them that they can make informed choices about it again harking back to our previous talk and I do want them to have jobs – I haven't emphasized that very much but in the modern knowledge economy nothing equips you better for a good job than having the skills that I've spoken about so I think we have a kind of once in a generation opportunity to do something remarkable to make a qualitative improvement in the kind of education we give to our children so there's everything to play for but it's not going to happen by magic it's going to happen because you helped to make it happen thank you you

A Passion for Math: Elly Schofield at TEDxClaremontColleges

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Elly is a student studying math. And she’s mad. She’s mad about how math was taught to her growing up and why nobody told her that being good at math has nothing to do with finishing problems quickly or flawlessly. She puts forth her idea of what more effective math curriculum might look like in the future.

About TED:
In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.

Editors–Ian St. Lawrence
Camera crew–Jacqueline Legazcue, Sam Jones, and Ted Neckar

thank you very much I love math like I really really love math it's been a part of my life for pretty much as long as I can remember I'm planning on pursuing it as a career I study it right now and frankly I care about math a lot both its beauty and its utility and I want other people to care about it as much as I do and that's really why I'm here today because I'm really angry about the math education system that we have here in this country because it doesn't serve that purpose at all why would I be angry I mean right now even here today we've heard people talk about the amazing technology and movements that are going on in education and I personally have gotten to see some of the many many very talented math teachers that are out there who don't get nearly the recognition they deserve but for me that wasn't enough I feel personally betrayed by the math education system in this country because for me I was never told until I got to college what it meant to be good at math now when I guess I mean even since I was in preschool so like three years ago um I was told that I was good at math and I was told that because I exhibited a particular set of traits speed and accuracy i memorize things quickly i computed things quickly i applied things quickly and i turned in my problem sets and quizzes and tests quickly and i got it right i got the highest scores right and that's that's what's important right now in our math education system that's what my peers admired me for or hated me for i don't know um and so what my teachers admired me for it's what everyone around me and every number around me was telling me was good and i fell in love with mathematics somewhere along the lines there and I decided this is great I'm good at math and I like math I'm gonna pursue math as a career and so I came to Harvey Mudd College and I discovered that math is a lot harder than it ever was before because there's a secret that mathematics isn't about computation it's about problem solving and I didn't really have as much experience as I would have liked doing problem solving and I got really confused and flustered because I started doing problem sets and quizzes and tests where I didn't know what formula I was supposed to apply anymore I was sure I had somehow just missed that part of the lecture where I was supposed to know exactly how to do this particular problem I started struggling I started not succeeding all the time in fact occasionally failing very beautifully and dramatically and I quickly became convinced that that must mean that I am not good at math cuz I'm not fast anymore I'm not accurate anymore maybe this isn't for me and that's why I'm angry I'm angry because that convinced me almost to completely abandon mathematics something that I love so dearly and I'm sure that it convinces millions of people around this country every year not to pursue mathematics so when we talk about math in the system of education that we have right now when we talk about this fast computation that's in my view exactly the opposite of what real problem-solving is about real problem-solving is about patient failure when you think about it and what do I mean by that well when I see myself solving problems now because I never seem to remember the right formula from class if I'm faced with the problem I tend to try and figure out okay what can I do to solve this and I try something and chances are it fails beautifully big display of failure just right there on my page and I take a look at what went wrong and I see okay this part could have gone a little bit better maybe if I had done this small thing instead and then I try again that's productive failure and productive failure is a thing that we use every day it's a thing that is used in problem-solving in mathematics in innovation in general productive failure it's how we solve the greatest problems of our time and it's how we approach day to day life but strangely there's nowhere in math education or as far as I can see really in the education system in general where people are told that that's anything but a bad thing productive failure it's weird too because we've known for centuries of productive failure is key history remembers people who have had enormous achievements enormous problem solved over the course of years or centuries stacked up work of tons of people that's I mean in mathematics we talk about that all the time people don't remember the problems that got solved quickly the small problems I have this bizarre dream of what it might have been like when I was a kid a kid if I had actually had a classroom environment that wasn't just about rewarding success say my classmates and I were put in a room with just no front of the classroom just tables with maybe a teacher there maybe some tutors and we were given a problem just outside our scope of knowledge I'm told go and the expectation at the end of the class wasn't that we're gonna hang back a sheet of paper with the solution or even with showing our work showing the correct method by which that solution can be obtained the goal was to actually show your work you were rewarded based on the fact that we provided you know a description of what exactly we tried first what went wrong who we talked to what we asked what we tried next because that's really where problem-solving is happening I'm not talking about an overhaul of the system here I'm not talking about changing all of mathematics education as we know what I'm talking about just an hour a week maybe to reverse the sense that only quick accurate success is actual success all right here I am right now 20 years old standing in front of a room full of people I don't know trying to tell you that I know how to fix some part of math education let's be honest I don't know if what I say here today is gonna effect on what you do in the next week or what you think about in the next hour but I'm ready to be up here anyway because I think this is a problem that we shouldn't wait until someone else knows how to solve I think the time has come and gone to wait for solutions and it's time to productively fail so I want to leave you with the question is there some issue that you care about something that you care about as much as I care about math education in this country that you'd like to see fixed and if so would you be willing to stand up here today and talk about it – thank you

TEDxCaltech – Scott Aaronson – Physics in the 21st Century: Toiling in Feynman's Shadow

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Scott Aaronson is an Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT. Scott’s research interests center around fundamental limits on …

The Nature of Mathematics: Michael Randy Gabel at TEDxGeorgeMasonU

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Talk given at TEDxGeorgeMasonU, April 6th 2013. Read full bios and event information at Dr. Michael Randy Gabel is an …

Digital biology and open science — the coming revolution | Stephen Larson | TEDxVienna

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This talk was given at a local TEDx event, produced independently of the TED Conferences. What if we could better understand all of life by playing with virtual …

Running out of Time | Documentary on Holistic Management

| This in-depth documentary explores Allan Savory and how he has used Holistic Management to completely transform his land in Zimbabwe.

Holistic Management was made popular in Savory’s 2013 Ted Talk, How to Fight Desertification and Reverse Climate Change.

This documentary was produced by Trevor Langham and his crew at Fig Multimedia Tech in Zimbabwe. We share this video in hopes that Trevor’s amazing work will reach a wider audience to honor his memory.

Stay connected:

About Savory Institute:
Loss of grasslands leads to climate change, floods, droughts, famine, and worldwide poverty. It’s our mission to promote large-scale restoration of the world’s grasslands through Holistic Management.

Holistic Management is a process of decision-making and planning that gives people the insights and management tools needed to understand nature: resulting in better, more informed decisions that balance key social, environmental, and financial considerations.

there is only one option I repeat only one option left to climate and that is to do the unthinkable on February the 27th 2013 this man went before a worldwide television audience to propose a controversial solution to the greatest environmental threat to the survival of the planet as we know it today his topic was how to halt desertification and reverse climate change he was given a standing ovation his name is Alan savory and he'd waited a long time for this moment a Zimbabwean by birth wildlife ecologist and international consultant Allan savory is a passionately committed conservationist driven by an unshakable belief in an idea an idea so radical it has provoked extraordinary hostility some quarters yet he stubbornly persists in being heard citing compelling evidence to get his message across so what people need to understand is some very basic facts for example we need about half a ton of food per human every year for healthy maintenance of life etc but what we're doing today is we're producing more than 75 billion tons of eroding soil because of agriculture and that is equal to more than ten tons of eroding soil for every human alive today clearly we're going out of business savory is adamant that if we are to survive ideas have to change for most of which is the long-held belief that land degradation is caused by livestock rather it is the way humans manage livestock he argues but simply it is not too many animals on the land that are to blame but too few that are causing the destruction well this is typical of what we tragically have here just miles of country like this people on permanent food aid and every year is a drought it doesn't matter what rain we get I've been watching this for years and it's just like this it's now virtually desert country you see this this is a typical River in the area a bone-dry almost throughout the occasion it'll flash flood off for a storm and that's it and I'm afraid that's typical here typical now of a few cattle wandering past and we're 10 past 12 in the day they're not out grazing they're just wandering around the land they're not with any herd and this is what's destroying the land just too few animals wandering around but the problem is not limited to Africa save recess two-thirds of the world's land is in fact desertified so what is desertification desertification is just a fancy word for land drying up and turning to desert ultimately and there's a good spot to illustrate it it happens because of our practices that make the rainfall that we receive less effective and you see it yeah where soil is exposed any rain soaking into the soil will just evaporate out of it again because this is hot it's hot even to touch now and when high rainfall falls it runs off and you can actually see the runoff and the layer of litter that is swept off that as water runs and there's saying that people have that droughts caused the bare ground is nonsense it's the bare ground that causes the droughts it's the other way around what we're needing to do worldwide particularly where the country is desertified is to make the available rainfall more effective this is not taught in any university of the world and it's well illustrated in this picture this was taken while 25 millimeters or an inch of rain was falling in the Tehama desert and you can see the water running now in terms of drums of water that was equal to 1,250 drums of water on every hectare of land but the next day that land was completely dry and that is the desert vacation process in Zimbabwe it's the tail end of a poor rainy season on this ranch 30 kilometres south of the Victoria Falls called dim Bangor Bay it's been savories home for many years and while he's seen enough bad wet seasons to have learned to accept nature on its own terms he no longer believes he's a helpless victim to vagaries in the weather so the really the aim of what we're doing is trying to make the available rainfall more effective we're out in the rain right now and you can see it where the soil is bare this water is flowing and it's depositing silt or carrying silt depositing it down there where the grassland is where we've got grass plants growing and some litter there's absolutely no water flowing this is all just soaking in and that's what we've got to get and then that water should only leave the soil through growing plants or underground flow in the water to aquifers and in the soil to aquifers and the river how he solved the problem of providing that necessary ground cover we shall see later in the program for now he has a problem with the grasses grown in this paddock he doesn't have enough cattle to graze it and if it is not grazed in the next few months the grass must decay biologically before the new growing season because if it doesn't grassland and its soil will begin to die here's a good spot to show you why we have to get more animals into disparate to get the money and buy the cattle that we need because here you have grass that we did not graze last year and it just kills itself it's change to oxidation you see the different color that is gradual chemical breakdown not rapid biological breakdown and the plants just kill themselves the traditional response is been to use fire however that creates an arguably even greater problem burning one hectare of grassland gives off more and more damaging pollutants than 6-thousand cars and we are burning in Africa every single year more than 1 billion hectares of grasslands and almost nobody is talking about it what are we going to do there is only one option I repeat you only one option left to climatologists and scientists and that is to do the unthinkable and to use livestock bunched and moving as a proxy for former herds and predators and mimic nature savory corset holistic management and planned grazing and it works like this cattle sheep and goats are massed into large herds and because they dung and urinate over their own food source the animals have to keep moving which prevents over grazing more importantly however the impact of their hooves breaks up hard ground allowing air and water to penetrate the soil the trampling of old grass provides cover from the drying effects of the Sun and the wind and the animals dung and urine enriched the soil because the cattle are the main tool using their hooves etc to grow the grass they graze everywhere on the ranch so as you look up on these rocky hills you'll see all of that is fresh grass of the season and that's because the cattle are grazed right over the hills and everywhere there's no area where we don't use the cattle at some time in the earth but savory emphasizes without a carefully structured grazing program holistic management simply will not work the whole secret of the success here isn't just using the animals as a tool people think that all you have to do is to bunch the animals and move them but people have done that for thousands of years and created the deserts that doesn't work the secret to this is a planning process whereby we divide the land up into divisions then the people doing the planning follow a set of steps where they focus on one at a time and they bring the information onto a chart and we put it on a chart and they plot the months that they're planning across the top of the chart we put the paddocks down here then in another step they put the ratings and they fill in all the wildlife carving periods other factors that have to be borne in mind on the land and when the chart is all prepared finally they plot the movements of the animals and it's plotted where they'll go here is the main management herd for of cattle about 500 plus there are sheep and goats as well and they're grazing in this block of land following the plan and right now the herders are moving them down towards water and they'll drink it this midday period lie up for a couple of hours and then the herders will move them out again and continue the grazing in this block that that's planned to be grazed at the moment okay I love this because the cattle herd has done everything we want they flattened grass-blade litter scalloped the soil so that the water carbon everything is getting into the soil now this will rebound immediately we've used nothing but solar energy and we can do this day after day after day on different parts of the land creating the wildlife habitat we need and healing the land the herd will have covered a lot of ground by nightfall which begs the obvious question where will it spend the night driving 500 cattle sheep and goats to Furman and crawls sited at distant points around the 3,000 hectare ranch every evening is not a viable option and defeats the basic principle of planned grazing savory solution is to have the herders drive the animals into temporary enclosures called predator friendly crawls developed on dim bangkapi they are made from plastic sheeting which forms a protective fence that lions and hyenas were not challenged these crawls move with the herd while the primary purpose of the call is to provide secure overnight shelter for the herd concentrating a large number of food animals in such a confined space for a week provides a graphic demonstration of the impact on open grassland and there's another bonus when the herd moves on this site becomes far more productive than surrounding land 500 cattle in here for a week this is the overnight crawl and you can see that that's heavily domed and trampled and this is where the chicken coop was there's a mobile chicken coop that moves with the cattle when the scroll moves and from that you can see what the soil was like before we put that in and that will come through – very good grass whereas this will remain bad the higher the impact from the cattle the more the dung in the trampling the more grass tends to grow as long as you don't repeat it too long as long as it's a short time visitors to dim pangong be come away convinced that here is a simple and economically viable means of improving the livelihoods of rural communities throughout Africa particularly those reliant on food aid programs what I want to show you here is this is where we bring the overnight crawl about we're bringing it more frequently to this site because we wanted there's a crop field and let me show you this is on a Kalahari sand we selected a very poor soil area but you can see it's totally covered with manure and litter and if I dig through this to try to get to the soil okay now I'm getting to soil and you can see how dark and rich that is let me show you the contrast with this soil now and what it was alike now you guys are going to be amazed at the comparison yeah now that's the soil I picked up in there the same soil you see how totally different they are and this is just sand you feel it you can smell it smell of total difference that week going really good crops in now but it's the same poor soil and what we're doing that entirely by just using the over night predator friendly crawl now we've come into the area that we treated last year so this is where you had the cattle last year yes as you can see you can see them the maize stalks are set for lying around from the very good yield of crop we got so what will the crop yields be out of an area like this when we look at the average crop fields in the community with the traditional agriculture at the moment over here we're averaging or at least five to eight times the yield on these fields now this is the field we looked at before the rains and now it's got the crop in it unfortunately the crop is small because of two things first we got half the rainfall we should have had by now and second baboons got into the field one day and wrecked everything so we had to replant after Christmas but the crops despite that it's looking remarkably good to me so we're happy with it despite the problems when say reported in Bangor B in the 1970s the ranch was in a bad state if grasslands virtually destroyed and its landscape ravaged by continual felt fires it's an entirely different story today okay now when I bought this ranch the fellow who I bought it from had kept his cattle down in this flower every day of the and this was so bare that you could see a guinea fowl at a hundred yards almost any time in the earth and now I can't see anything yard from its well gir enough now here was conclusive proof that used properly holistic management could restore degraded grasslands anywhere in the world this was the vindication of the years of meticulous research savory had carried out he was aware however that like any idea to be truly effective it needed to be put into universal practice and this meant worldwide he began by targeting Africa in 1992 savory and his wife Jodi Butterfield set up the Africa Center for holistic management as a learning site for people from all over the continent located on dim Bangor be the center is tasked with empowering rural communities to manage their lives and natural resources effectively by making decisions that are economically and environmentally sound with the emphasis on acquiring the knowledge and skills to restore water catchments and River flow increase forage livestock and Wildlife production raise crop yields through concentrated animal impact restore damaged or degraded land and employ low stress animal handling a CHM singled out the nearby Wanga communal lands as the springboard for its plans to spread the holistic management message throughout Zimbabwe and the southern Africa region director of our our programs for developing holistic management in communities bringing holistic management to communities so that means I've been in charge of developing training materials a training program hiring the staff and making it happen this program started about four years ago and we've got a large award of almost five eight five point eight million and we've managed to do it in about five years to really start to where we're seeing success in communities we have been working with communities in the past where communities were struggling to understand what decision making using holistic management is all about what you get is you get a few people in the community wanting to do it but the holistic management concept will require the whole community if it is to work smoothly when we are doing the training we also make use of the mobilization to which we call community agency con and this it's a very powerful tool in bringing communities together and we have seen a lot of changes in communities in terms of communities being able to be soft land and also in terms of bringing back their dignity the major challenges that we've heard are culturally based and mythical I would like to say where people dread to mix their life start together because of different cultural medicines that they believe each home has and some historical conflicts that each family or each clan has in each community but we are seeing a lot of improvement in this community is one of them Michael alig they're very very healthy and faith tragedy of all this is that it doesn't have to be like it is we could have begun doing what we're doing that the communities now forty years ago we would be a long way ahead of it now much of holistic management's growing acceptance in these rural communities is due to Allan savory's total personal commitment despite a hectic promotional schedule that takes him abroad for many months of the year he'll try to find time to drive 50 kilometres to visit a local community where belief in his message is having a profound impact on the lives of thousands of families mourning innocent that's in value I'm well thank you thank you so much good to get down to see you around the work yeah things are moving money very well exactly and the commenter's are very very committed to the program yeah innocent man Cooley should know as a livestock management specialist employed by the center to advise the villagers he is hugely encouraged by this community's decision to abandon their traditional go it alone herding practices for the collective holistic management alternative well since I see the cattle are looking better than they were the ones we saw on the road yeah that's very true that is a very big difference we could get Lee which I met in the program having demonstrated very clearly on the ranch back at our headquarters what can be done we're now extending that into this greater community of about a hundred and fifty thousand people but starting with some of the smaller communities and this is one of the starting programs where having provided water for the cattle it is also providing water for the gardens innocent here is the man in charge who's coaching and training the people first of all reconstructed areas of orange and before after that yeah it used to be a kettle a kettle crawl then after that was to put a garden and then the garden is enable people to have to improve their nutrition as well as their income by selling veggies yes they're selling what can you tell me from your plan now is happening No number five the captain and then from where do they go that what did they plant then from part of five will be going to part of six so far the six down here this part of six and then from there then we from part of six then we'll be going through paddock seven but that is seven this is the area where we'll be this is where the cattle have been crawled for about a week or so and up until yesterday on this portion of the field and now they will prompt crops all over the field but get three to five times the yield on these areas where we put the crawls overnight the community is very very excited even personally as the field officer I am very very excited because there is a very high adoption of the method by the community really deserve this really this is bringing a very big change with the community when they this program intro was introduced in the community then it was something new to us because we could not even understand it to start with but after exercising what we were taught to do present together we experienced that there was a very big change I'm Mia Buda cabin the way all day look there's a very big change than previous they taught us everything now we don't have any cow dying because they taught us how we should keep them and I'm sure at the moment when these 5 cables I'm having now they will increase and I have money to buy more which is something very good the holistic management what they did we have quietly lentil Lords we are doing everything on our own this program has taught us to manage our lives to productively we used to struggle with water but now we have a water tank that supplies all the water we need for our livestock and gardening project okay okay so about two to three years ago these women here could not feed their families for the whole year they could only do it for three to four months in a year but now we have food all year round the present government of Zimbabwe has seen the results of what we're doing up here and become very supportive they've formed a permanent committee of heads of ministries to try and spread the knowledge around the country and what we are going to be doing shortly is recommending that in all schools we begin with the kids very young and giving them a basic environmental literacy and understanding of why livestock to few livestock destroy the people's lives water etc and how we can rectify all of this by running many more animals but properly managed this crop field here is Regina's field which she treated using and my impact and if you can just take this a look at this one today's the 6th of March this was planted on the 14th of January and look at the crop right on the other side which is much older but still looks very unhealthy and this is the same lady who fed all of us today in 2010 the Africa Center for holistic management won the Buckminster Fuller challenge for its work in reversing desertification in that same year Allen and Jodie with other partners founded the savory Institute in Boulder Colorado to promote large-scale restoration of the world's grasslands today holistic management is practiced by tens of thousands of people in countries across the globe it's reliably estimated that up to 16 million hectares or 40 million acres are under holistic management worldwide with the largest impact on the ranges and grasslands of the seasonal rainfall environments that's about two-thirds of the world's land surface it's a powerful endorsement to the seeds of an idea that grew out of the African bush harvest century ago and still has its roots there what we're doing here is a small part of our global operations the savory Institute is headquartered in Boulder Colorado and they run the global effort from there and then part of our strategy to get this to go to scale worldwide because of the seriousness of climate change desertification is to have locally led locally managed learning hubs around the world and this was the first of the hubs on which we're modeling others from 10 different countries Mexico Chile Argentina Turkey the UK Ireland the United States etc so there are many countries getting involved the last time I counted we trained people from 21 countries I think just here met rails and Katrina Fowler our Americans for Maryland where they grass-finished beef cattle they're here to see firsthand the reversal of desertification in action I can't believe it's taken us this long to get here it's exceeded my expectations beyond imagination the grass is even thicker and more diverse than I was ever expecting and at this hub we can accommodate 30 or more people and we have continuous trainings going on big party small parties coming here and we have training materials the textbook I wrote the handbook that Jody Butterfield wrote and many other training materials and increasingly because of the scale of the problem globally were going into internet training self-help more and more things and we are aiming to establish a hundred learning hubs around the world where people are learning teaching each other in their own language own culture self led virtually managed locally formed locally and so it's a strategic move we're taking on a global scale now I'm gonna take what I've learned from here back to the United States and do the best I can to get as many animals managed holistically under plan grazing as we can and try to scale this kind of management as great as we can Sally Nichol is a South African business owner from Johannesburg two months ago I had no interest in climate change and I discovered managing holistically and it has completely changed my life it's completely changed the way I think about the environment and about what is possible and about how we are connected to the land and yesterday I met a woman who had used her livestock and her neighbor's livestock she put fifteen animals together and impacted her crop field she then got borrowed seed from her neighbors and she has grown with without fertilizer the most healthy crop of corn or Millie's that I saw in that entire area I'd never seen anything like it so this is one of the most remarkable women in this community she lost her husband in 2011 left here with eight kids now she lost one last year she has seven to take care of the program has helped it feed her family it has helped it take care of her kettle it has helped her even have enough food for the whole year days end find savory relaxing back home with Jody his wife of 32 years who has played an active role in the development of holistic management I was born just south of here in Bulawayo and grew up in the country my home was a forty five thousand acre Raaj about 25 miles down that way and my kids were brought up there my father I buried his remains in the river and my sister and my oldest son here are buried here and my youngest son so it's very much just home to me and this is the way I like to live amongst the game I don't actually like living in a house at all we have another home in New Mexico but when we're out and live there and we tend to jokingly say that's Jody's home and this is mine I love it no I do love it and all my life I've been a person who likes to live out of doors I grew up hunting fishing doing all those things with my dad and and I've just loved this it's just it's heaven well the dramas seem to happen when I'm away it's when the elephants will be over there and or coming in at night or wild dogs will chase it bush buck and kill it right outside my window and I'm always here alone when that happens one day washing out of the kitchen Three Lions chased a kudu right there in front of the river is this incredible drama I get to see every day well though it seems were remote living in a bush camp like this for six months of the ER as we do thanks to technology we can keep in touch everything here is just solar powered operates off batteries down here but we've got a satellite connection and get some broadband right now Jody is on a Skype call to Daniella Hal our CEO in Boulder Colorado and so routinely we're holding conferences with people around the world I have to set up one tomorrow morning to speak to people in Switzerland before I go to London at the weekend but although it's not all that efficient always but it met we managed the dawn of a new day and it's raining again but it's only a passing shower not heavy enough to raise the level in the river in front of savories camp however something will have happened to this water on its journey downstream we've now come up higher in the catchment of the river that flows past my camp now you can see the water in the pool is muddy you cannot see a half an inch under the water and that's flowing down here as you look here you can see how much soil has been washed away from this perennial grass and it's cutting now by the time this gets to our camp now we are seeing clear crystal clear water elicits very high rains up here what's amazing to me here is because we've made the rainfall more effective soaking into the soil less surface flow so that the soil really absorbs the rain is that this remained clear after we'd had fifty millimeters or two inches of rain two days ago only a kilometer above this now how do we come here a few years ago that simply would not have been possible this would have flowed far more strongly muddy water and then settled over the next day or two this time it remained clear right throughout and hardly rose at all now we've joined a river of about the same size coming off the neighboring land national parks hunting lands and you can see where the flood water has reached this year and the vehicle in fact would be underwater where we are and we are 50 meters from the river and all of these millions and millions of gallons of water that rushed down here should have soaked into the land to keep rivers flowing aquifers etc it won't that river will go dry this year this pool on the D and gamba River has never gone dry though it is the driest it has been in 15 years it won't rain for another three months and as this is the only surface water in the area savory is preserving it for the hundreds of elephants in Buffalo that water here and making other arrangements for the domestic livestock while dim ban Gumby was primarily concerned with regenerating the land and wildlife Savery found that this could not be achieved without using cattle as the main tool of wildlife and land regeneration today this 3,000 hectare property is also home to a large population of Wildlife fully integrated with the livestock through the grazing planning what I want you to see now is where we're preserving bare ground for the wildlife otherwise we all begin to lose some of the wildlife and here you see it well life here on this whole project are a critical part of it not just because of my passion but because that it takes funds to run the sort of operation and we've been completely unable to get any support or financial support from environmentalists or environmental organizations and the bulk of the funding that supports us and has done all this work has come from the hunting so we are safari hunting at the same time and that literally has been what has supported most of this work this is a high door blind that we constructed for people to sit in and watch the game coming to the Bay Area and take pictures and so on and we had an amusing incidence where we had some guests in here and when we came back there were three lands sitting on the top and very terrified guests India which we thought was very amusing but they didn't there's one large animal however that visitors do like to meet okay name is dojo and we found her as an orphan she's about 15 years old now and she's very very gentle very sweet we have people with her all day close to at night she stood at the size with his could killer this must be one of the last unspoiled places on planet earth mana pools National Park in the Zambezi Valley is so special it's been declared a World Heritage Site the surreal light filtering through the trees of the forest creates a distinctive cathedral-like atmosphere for which the park is renowned one of the most prolific of those trees the fade her BIA albedo is in danger of dying out nobody knows why yet they are growing in Allan savory's Mays garden for my life for most they have not been regenerating at all and people say it's because we've built dams and we're not getting the flooding well here we are far from alluvial soils we're on a Kalahari soil and this is if I do a BIA Alberta that has established with the cattle grazing that we're doing and it's now freely growing showing that there was nothing to do with flooding or any of the things we were saying and again I think it's the build-up of the soil structure that is affecting this savory is so convinced that managing holistically applies to all environments that he's embarked on a project to see whether he can save the teak trees in a nearby National Forest so this site that I'm photographing for our record now is where the first site that we have put the cattle crawl overnight where we hold them on the sand on the Kalahari sand much like we've done all over the ranch but this being the first on his hand to see what happens because these Kalahari sand forests in bad trouble without the teak trees regenerating and we want to see if by using the animals we can get the teak trees regenerating as we are getting with some of the species many years ago this superficially would have looked good on the hills in the growing season but down in the valley there was heavy over grazing a lot of bare ground and now you can only see bare patches right at the water points we've provided for wildlife and we're getting Buffalo and sable and elephants and everything coming here and you can sit from this point and see them every bit of this has been made possible by the cattle used as a tool savory could well argue he's proved conclusively that holistic management works yet fifty years after he first expounded his theory it is still being dismissed out of hand by established thinking what is very disappointing is although this textbook has been out for over twenty years we're writing the third edition now there's a Spanish condition and it was sent out like all textbooks are for review to all sorts of organizations and environmental organizations universities etc wouldn't even review it and yet the textbook is in use in more than twenty universities and colleges when I last counted up people often often ask me have I kept going despite all the abuse and ridicule rejection and people claiming it doesn't work and it just comes down to one word I believe and that is caring if you care enough about your country wildlife the people you'll do whatever you have to do to keep going I realize it's not personal it's happened to every single scientist without exception that I'm aware of in the history of the world that our position the research shows does not ever die down based on facts evidence anything of that nature it only dies down and institutions change when the views of society overall begin to accept it in other words when public opinion changes and that's why 20 minutes of talks on the TED talk has literally done more to advance this knowledge in worldwide than 50 years of struggling against official opposition has done and that's because the TED talk went has already gone to well over 2 million viewers that is still going up by thousands a day it's been very rewarding we have a long way to go but at least we can say it can happen in in a very challenging environment politically economically and if it can work here could work anyway I would say to any detractor of holistic management first and foremost come and see this here at the Africa Center with your own eyes come and see the reversal of desertification and the recreation of surface water the second thing I would say is understand what your detracting look into what managing holistically and holistically planning grazing has done all over the world of all the communities where I've worked over the past 30 years or so and that includes Asia Latin America Africa many countries this is the program that I think is the most sustainable of all of them because it really touches to the core of people's people's livelihoods people's social existence it brings together so many of those pieces that many other programs don't it's common knowledge today that biodiversity loss climate change loss of soil poverty violence rising all these things are threatening civilization as we know it now while it might have been argued 30 years ago today I don't believe any scientist would argue that management needs to be holistic embracing all science all sorts of knowledge and but if we're to have a hope it has to be done now we're running out of time

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Citizen science is a way for the average person to do real “help answer the big questions” science.

In the spirit of ideas worth spreading, TEDx is a program of local, self-organized events that bring people together to share a TED-like experience. At a TEDx event, TEDTalks video and live speakers combine to spark deep discussion and connection in a small group. These local, self-organized events are branded TEDx, where x = independently organized TED event. The TED Conference provides general guidance for the TEDx program, but individual TEDx events are self-organized.* (*Subject to certain rules and regulations)

it's so easy to feel overwhelmed by everything that seems wrong with the world today our bees are dying not by the thousands but by the millions and we don't understand why there's dire predictions about climate change that suggests that by the year 2100 some of our greatest cities will be underwater and in 2010 alone more than 600,000 people died of malaria most of them children in underdeveloped countries but what can you do you're just one person right I'm sure everyone here in this crowd does their bit but I'm equally sure that there are some days when just recycling your soda cans or writing a check to UNICEF once a year doesn't feel like enough well I have some good news for you you actually can make a difference it's called citizen science and it's a way for average people like you and me to do real honest-to-goodness help answer the big question science even if you never finished high school so what is citizen science roughly speaking it's science done by amateurs there are three main characteristics one is that when you do citizen science you're actually the researcher and not a test subject so if you're starting to get worried about having to give up a kidney or something rokay two is that it's conducted by or put together by researchers so it's a little bit different in the image you might have of an amateur scientist working away in his or her basement or bedroom and three is it it's done by large groups of people all at once so you can think of it as crowd-sourced science or distributed science or even participatory science now citizen science in amateur science has actually been around forever it used to be that if you're interested in science you just explored the world around you and you had the time and the money to go do that but the image you have today of a professional scientist is probably someone who had high lorries wearing a white lab coat maybe glasses and so on and the reason why that's changed recently is because in order to make new discoveries you had to specialize in order to break new ground so there's been a shift in the last hundred and two hundred years or so from amateur science to professional science and some of the people I'm thinking of who are actually amateur scientists were people like Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel and Eva Ekblad so if citizen science has actually been around for a long time why are you just hearing the concept now and the answer is as with most things that technology has changed a lot of stuff for example we now have the ability to collect huge amounts of data about a particular subject for example the Hubble Space Telescope alone has made more than 1 million images in its lifetime and obviously that's more than one scientist even a team of scientists could hope to go through in their own lifetimes of course we have the internet that big game-changer the Internet has grown in so many ways it's in different countries now all over the world and it's also in different places it's in your pocket it's in your thermostat it might even be in your refrigerator and of course the cost of transmitting data and storing it has come down tremendously as well science departments haven't been immune to budget cuts any more than anybody else has and there just aren't the resources in the labs so like the gentleman earlier in the film they've had to be more creative with how we do do science we also have something called cognitive surplus and by that I mean here at least in the Western world we actually have the time to do this kind of thing we're not living a hand-to-mouth existence and I know a lot of us like to think we're busy but consider this in a single year Americans watch more than 200 billion hours of television just Americans so we probably have a bit more time than we like to admit and of course we have those big problems I mentioned earlier the big hairy intractable seeming complicated problems that not likely to be solved by a single person with a flash of insight and a really good patent lawyer so that's enough background it's time to get our geek on I've developed a framework it sort of divides up all the projects that are available to you and so you can find out where you might want to dive in and where you might find your comfort level the first one is really easy you can just open your wallet and donate I'm sure everyone in this room has heard of places like Kickstarter and IndieGoGo those are crowdfunding sites and with those sites you can individually donate to a project that you'd like to see get off the ground it might be a book project might be an independent film and of course you can search for citizen science projects on those big sites but there are also sites very specifically directed towards science programs scientific studies so the one I show here called experiment comm you can directly fund scientific studies that interest you so if your space geek like me you might want to fund something about can you can you improve space propulsion or if you are a parent with children you might be interested in funding a study about ADHD this is all kinds of projects available and you can cut out the middleman and make sure your dollar is going to something you truly want to see investigated leveling up set-and-forget with these projects all you need is a computer and a reasonably decent internet connection you simply download a little bit of software put it on your computer set a few options and then you let it do all the heavy lifting and basically what you're doing is you're donating your computer's processing power to the project so that scientists don't have to depend on getting time on the local supercomputer so if you're interested in doing something about that malaria issue you can download a program called fight malaria at home and what it does is it runs through a bunch of drug testing models to find out what is the most cost effective treatment for malaria if you're interested in doing something about climate change you could run climate prediction net and this one because climate change science is so complicated and there are so many potential variables with this one it runs through all kinds of different potential scenarios so we can get a better handle on what might actually happen with climate change web-based in activities now here's where it gets way more interesting and interactive it turns out one of the things that computers still can't do better than humans is figure out what's in an image so a lot of the web-based citizen science projects want you to look at images and tell the researchers what it is you're seeing so if you go to a site called Zooniverse org you can join a project they're called cold weather and with that one you just look at images of old ships logs from the Navy or the Coast Guard and you transcribe what was said in the log the researchers get data from ships logs and really really accurate information about how weather patterns were in that particular area of the world and of course you get to snoop through people's logs and find out what happened in various historical times around the world if you want a deep dive you could go underwater with seafloor Explorer this one has had a robotic submarine taking pictures of the ocean floor and what you do is you identify what you see in the picture whether it be some fish or some other aquatic life or what kind of brown cover is there now I know what you're thinking yeah that's great but what if I don't know a trout from a tuna or what if I get it wrong well that's okay first of all not only do these Heights have really really good tutorials and guides to help you through this sort of thing but they also have the data checked by several people so the same image you see will be presented two three four maybe five or six different people so don't worry you can't screw it up okay now hands up everyone here who has gotten sucked into one of these games like candy crush or farmville or you know Mafia Wars the rest of you are lying I know I have and I know when I do play them that I sometimes feel like their great entertainment and they're great for decompressing and so on but you sometimes feel like you should be doing something a little bit more productive yeah I can tell by the laughter you were lying in any case with web-based or with citizen science games you can actually enjoy the games and get the entertainment value out of them but be doing something good for science as well so when I show here is called fraxinus it's on Facebook and it's a genetic puzzle game where you actually try and figure out the the right stoic sequence there and as to help determine why ash trees are prone to dying from a particular fungus the other one I show here is called Eterna and it has to do with RNA ribonucleic acid that's the stuff inside us that codes and decodes our genes and helps us express our genes and you're presented with a particular shape like they show on the screen and you take the four colored dots which represents the nucleotides and you just arranged them and see how that changes the shape and the idea behind the game as you try and make your string into the shape you see and there are hundreds of different possible combinations so your solution might be completely different from the next person who does it and this one's quite fun I played it myself citizen signs well yes of course there's an app for that there's an app for everything these days and here I show five you can do things on your cell phone the first one is called instant wild and this one has you get images from remote cameras that are located in wildlife preserves all around the world and these cameras are constantly taking pictures they send you the pictures and you simply identify what you see in the picture using a field guide that you're provided and in so doing you give researchers and conservationists real-time data about what populations are doing and how they're faring and how many times are sighted and it allows them to make smarter decisions about what's going on in that particular area the second one is called sound around you you simply take your phone where you are and you do a sound clip record something you upload it to the server and we know and we're doing this because we know that constant levels of noise can affect us physically and mentally and we also know that more and more people are moving into increasingly urban areas what is that going to do to us individually and as a society over time this starts getting a handle on that problem by getting real-time data the third one is a problem you might not think too much about light pollution it used to be that the stars were so very important to us we used to use them in to navigate by and to tell time by but these days with things like car headlamps and fast-food signs and streetlights we can't see half of the stars that are in the sky and that's when we remember to look up by – using this app and trying to inform them about which stars you can actually see you get you give the researchers a better idea of how bad the light pollution is in your area and this will help inform us as to how can we stop washing out our view of the stars the fourth one is called marine debris tracker and it works a lot like Foursquare you just do a check-in whenever you see debris by your local waterway and this one's important because it helps authorities look after their waterways more cheaply and more efficiently because they're not having to go out and run inspections for every single waterway they get the data in real time and they can go deal with the problem as it happens next one is called hummingbirds at home and this one I love hummingbirds because they're such amazing tough little characters that travel long distances and this one wants you to go out into your garden patch and take pictures of the hummingbirds that show up what flowers they prefer and this will let researchers know what species are in your area it will let them compare that data to what species should be in your area give them better idea of how things are changing in your environment now with this level you can really get your hands dirty I talked earlier about the bee problem and as you might suspect there are citizen science projects dealing with bees the first one is called befriend your garden much like the hummingbird one it talks about or has you go out into your garden and look at the pollinating plants and what insects are on them and what kind of things they prefer and if you're really brave you can try native buzz that one wants you to build a nesting site for solitary bees and wasps and you can get one of their kits and by so doing also support the project financially or you can do a DIY thing monarch watch is another really really cool one you can actually get a garden kit sent to your house full of the flowers and plants that monarchs prefer to eat from and you can beautify your house at the same time and help provide a place for monarchs to eat and also act as a Waystation when they do their incredible migration all the way down to Mexico and even cooler than that you can actually buy a larval kit and raise monarchs from the larval stage and release them from your backyard so you can do actual conservation work yourself at your house and I wasn't kidding earlier when I said you could get your hands dirty shark finder is an awesome project what they do with that one is they send you ocean sediments dirt stuff that's millions of years old and they send it to your home and they want you to look through it for shark and Ray and skate fossils so you can be a paleontologist at your kitchen table now my children and I were involved in a similar project last year called Mastodon matrix and with it they sent us a bag of dirt from an excavation site where there had been a mastodon and we looked through it for things like algae spores and Mastodon hair and shell fragments and plant fragments and so on and the idea behind that one was to give researchers a better idea of what life was like during the time of the mastodons of course the kids loved it it was getting dirty it was playing with a microscope it was looking for stuff finding puzzles and competing with each other about what they found it was a great project and great family time now I've talked quite a bit about what you can do with citizen science and I bet you're wondering at least a little bit because it's a perfectly natural thing to wonder about well that's great but what could I get out of it personally so the first thing is that a lot of these sites do actually offer recognition for your work this might happen in the form of earning badges at the site because a lot of these projects are gamified it might be that you see your name up on the scoreboard and you you know leaderboard for all of the different things that you do it might also be that you get your name on a scientific paper because some of these projects that are publishing the results will put participant names on the paper or if you're involved in one of the astronomy projects you might actually get credit for discovering something that nobody has ever seen before they have 10 year olds who've been credited with finding things like exoplanets and comets and different types of asteroids I joked earlier about those games but I'm not kidding when I say that you can relax decompress after a week's work and play these games and not feel the slightest bit guilty about them so you do get the relaxation value the modern era to has been really tough on our institutions things like our governments surely our education systems our churches and we've all become perhaps a little bit cynical and a little bit at but apathetic and I'm not going to stand here and try and tell you that citizen science is the path to enlightenment but it is a way to belong to something bigger than yourself and to inject maybe just a little bit more meaning and purpose into your everyday life you can pick your favorite topic or you can deep dive into something you know nothing about and go exploring and in so doing you can learn and protect yourself and this is going to be increasingly important as we go further into the 21st tree things like genetically modified food and climate change these are heavily debated in the media today and when you get directly involved and understand the science behind them you won't be so easily swayed by special interest groups on either side of the argument so in that case you'll be able to make better informed decisions now I've just brushed the surface of what's available here there is so much more I could speak to but here's the takeaway citizen science is fun it's easy and you can get involved today and I hope you do thank you

Why are these 32 symbols found in caves all over Europe | Genevieve von Petzinger

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Written language, the hallmark of human civilization, didn’t just suddenly appear one day. Thousands of years before the first fully developed writing systems, our ancestors scrawled geometric signs across the walls of the caves they sheltered in. Paleoanthropologist and rock art researcher Genevieve von Petzinger has studied and codified these ancient markings in caves across Europe. The uniformity of her findings suggest that graphic communication, and the ability to preserve and transmit messages beyond a single moment in time, may be much older than we think.

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المترجم: Zeineb Trabelsi
المدقّق: Anwar Dafa-Alla يوجد شيء حول الكهوف– فتحة غامضة موجودة في الجرف الحجري
الذي يشدك إليه. بعبورك البوابة الفاصلة بين
النور والظلام، فإنك تدخل عالما خفيا ومجهولا– مكانا مظلما طوال الوقت، يمكنك
أن تشم فيه راحة التراب ويعمه السكون. منذ فترة طويلة في أوروبا، دخلت الشعوب القديمة أيضا
هذه العوالم الموجودة تحت الأرض. وكشاهدٍ على مرورهم من هنا، تركوا خلفهم نقوشا ولوحات
غامضة، مثل هذا مجموعة من البشر والمثلثات والخطوط
المتعرجة من أوجو جوارينيا في إسبانيا. أنت الآن السير في نفس الدرب
كما فعل هؤلاء الفنانين القدامى. وفي هذا المكان السريالي، العالم الآخر، يعتبر من المستحيل تقريبا تخيّل أن تسمع وقع الأقدام للأحذية الجلدية
على الأرض الناعمة، أو أن ترى الخفقان الصادر من الشعلة
عند منعطف المقبل. عندما أكون داخل كهفٍ، كثيرا ما أجد نفسي أتساءل
ما الذي دفع هؤلاء للتغلغل عميقا وتحدّي الممرات الخطيرة والضيقة
كل هذا لترك بصمتهم فقط؟ في هذا الفيديو كليب، هذا على عمق نصف كيلومتر،
أو حوالي ثلث ميل، تحت الأرض، داخل مغارةة "كودون" في إسبانيا، وجدنا سلسلةً من اللوحات
الحمراء المنقوشة على السقف في جزء لم يقع اكتشافه سابقا
من الكهف. ومع زحفنا إلى الأمام، مثلما يفعلون في
التدريبات العسكرية، ومع انخفاض السقف أكثر، وصلنا أخيرا إلى حدٍّ
حيث كان السقف منخفضا جدا حيث لم يعد بإمكان زوجي
ومصور المشروع، ديلان، النجاح في التركيز على السقف باعتماد آلة
التصوير ذات العدسة الأحادية العاكسة. وبالتالي بينما كان يقوم بتصويري، ظللت أتابع أثار الطلاء الأحمر
باعتماد ضوء واحد وكاميرا عادية التي نحتفظ
بها لمثل هذه المناسبات. نصف كيلومتر تحت الأرض. حقا. ما الذي كان يقوم به أحدهم هنا في الأسفل
بشعلة أو مصباحا حجريا؟ (ضحك) أعني– أنا، هذا منطقي، أليس كذلك؟ ولكن كما تعلمون، هذا هو النوع من الأسئلة التي
أحاول الإجابة عليها من خلال أبحاثي. أدرس بعض أقدم
الفنون في العالم. تم إنشاؤها من قبل
الفنانين القدامى في أوروبا، بين 10،000 و 40،000 سنة مضت. والأمر هو أنني لا أدرسها لكونها جميلة فقط، بالرغم أنّ بعضها كذلك
بالتأكيد. ولكن ما يهمني
هو تطوّر العقل الحديث، وتطور الإبداع،
والخيال، والتفكير المجرّد، حول ما يعنيه أن تكون إنسانا. بينما تتواصل جميع الأنواع
بطريقة أو بأخرى، تمكن الكائن البشري فقط من
أخذها إلى مستوى آخر. تعبر رغبتنا وقدرة على
المشاركة والتعاون جزءا كبيرا من قصة نجاحنا. استناد عالمنا الحديث على شبكة عالمية
لتبادل المعلومات أصبح ذلك ممكنا، في جزء كبير منه،
بفضل قدراتنا على التواصل– ولا سيما، باستخدام الرسوم البيانية
أو أشكال التواصل الكتابية. الأمر هو، على الرغم من أننا قمنا ببناء الإنجازات العقلية لأولئك الذين سبقونا منذ فترة طويلةٍ، فإنه من السهل أن ننسى أن بعض
قدراتهم لم تكن موجودة بالفعل. انها واحدة من الأشياء
التي أجدها أكثر من رائعة حول دراسة تاريخنا العميق. لم يكن هؤلاء يملكون القدرة لجعل الآخرين
يركبون عليهم. كانوا هم الأصل. وبينما تظهر الأعداد المفاجأة حول
الاختراعات المهمة التي وجدت في تلك الفترة البعيدة، ما أريد التحدث عنه اليوم
هو اختراع التواصل الذي يعتمد الرسوم. يوجد ثلاثة
أنواع رئيسية للتواصل، المنطوقة والإيمائية
– مثل لغة الإشارة – والتي تعتمد على الرسوم والأشكال. تعتبر المنطوقة والإيمائية
عابرةً بحكم طبيعتها. تتطلب اتصالا مباشرا ليتم
إرسال رسالة واستقبالها. وبعد فترة من ايصال المعلومة،
تختفي إلى الأبد. التواصل الذي يعتمد على الأشكال،
من ناحية أخرى، فصل هذه العلاقة. وباختراعه، أصبح من الممكن ولأول مرة أن يتم نقل رسالة وحفظها أبعد من فترة معينة في المكان والزمان. تعتبر أوروبا أول مكان التي بدأنا فيها برؤية رسوم تخطيطية
تظهر بانتظام في الكهوف والملاجئ الصخرية وحتى في بعض
المواقع المفتوحة التي لازالت موجودة. ولكن هذه ليست نفس أوروبا
التي نعرفها اليوم. كان هذا عالم تغطيه
صفائح جليدية شاهقة، بيلغ ارتفاعها ما بين
3 و4 كيلومترات، مع السهول الواسعة
والتندرا المجمدة. هذا كان العصر الجليدي. خلال القرن الماضي، تم العثور على أكثر من 350 موقع صخري
يعود إلى العصر الحجري في أنحاء القارة، زُيّنت بصور حيوانات وأشكال مجردة
وحتى صور لإنسان أحيانا مثل هذه الرموز المحفورة في
كهف ديل أدّورا الموجود في صقلية. تقدم لنا لمحة نادرة إلى داخل عالم الإبداع والخيال
الخاص بهؤلاء الفنانين القدامى. منذ اكتشافها، حظيت الحيوانات بأكبر جزء من
الاهتمام فيما يتعلق بالدراسة مثل هذا الحصان الاسود
من "كولالفيرا" في إسبانيا، أو هذا البيسون الأرجواني النادر
من لابياغا. ولكن بالنسبة لي، كانت هذه الأشكال
التجريدية، ما نسميها أشكال هندسية، السبب في دراستي الفنّ. المضحك هناا هو أنه في معظم المواقع الأشكال الهندسية تفوق صور
الحيوانات والإنسان بكثير. ولكن عندما بدأت هذا في عام 2007، لم تكن هناك ولو قائمة نهائية
عن العدد الإجمالي للأشكال الموجودة هناك، ولا حتى دليل قوي ما إذا كانت ظهرت في نفس المكان أو الزمان. قبل أن أتمكن حتى من
البدء بطرح أسئلتي، كانت خطوتي الأولى تجميع
القاعدة البيانية لجميع الأشكال الهندسية المعروفة
من جميع مواقع الصخرية. كانت المشكلة أنه مع الرغم من أن
بعض المواقع كانت موثقة جيدا، عادة تلك مع الحيوانات لطيفة جدا، إلا أن عددا كبيرا منها كان غامضا جدا– لم يكن هناك الكثير
من الوصف أو التفصيل. لم يقع زيارة بعضهم
منذ نصف قرن أو أكثر. كانت هذه التي استهدفتها
للعمل الميداني. على مدار العامين الماضيين، أمضيت مع زوجي الوفي ديلان
أكثر من 300 ساعة تحت الأرض، المشي لمسافات طويلة والزحف والتلوي
في حوالي 52 موقعا في فرنسا واسبانيا والبرتغال وصقلية. وقد كان الأمر يستحق العناء. وجدنا علامات هندسية جديدة وغير موثّقة
في 75 بالمئة من المواقع التي زرناها. هذا هو مستوى من الدقة الذي
عرفتُ أنني سأحتاج اليه إذا أردت أن أبدأ بالإجابة على
هذه الأسئلة الكبيرة. لذلك دعونا نحصول على تلك الإجابات. باستثناء جملة من العناصر الخارجية،
لا يوجد سوى 32 علامة هندسية. 32 علامةً فقط طيلة فترة زمنية مدتها 30،000 سنة
وقارة أوروبا بأكملها. هذا عدد ضئيل جدا. الآن، إذا كانت هذه مجرد
رسومٍ عشوائية أو زخارف، نتوقع أن نرى مزيدا من التنوع، ولكن بدلا من ذلك ما وجدناه
لم تكن سوى نفس الرموز التي تتكرّر نفسها عبر الإطار
المكاني والزماني. فرضت بعض الرموز نفسها بقوة،
قبل أن تخسر رواجها وتتلاشى، مع اختراع رموز أخرى لاحقا. ولكن ظلت 65 في المئة من تلك العلامات
قيد الاستخدام خلال تلك الفترة بأكملها – أشياء مثل خطوط والمستطيلات
والمثلثات والأشكال البيضاوية والدوائر مثلما نرى هنا
من نهاية العصر الجليدي، في موقع يبلغ من العمر 10،000 سنة
موجود في أعالي جبال البيرينيه. وعلى الرغم من بعض الرموز
تمتد لآلاف الكيلومترات، تملك بعض الرموز الأخرى
أنماط توزيع محدودةٍ، مع وجود بعضٍ منها يقتصر على
منطقةٍ واحدة، مثلما نرى هنا مع هذه المستطيلات المقسمة التي لا توجد إلا في شمال اسبانيا، والتي تكهن بعض الباحثين إمكانية كونها العلامات
تشير إلى عائلة أو عشيرةٍ. في الجهة الأخرى من اللوحة، توجد درجة من التشابه تثير الدهشة
في أول صخرة فنية وجدت على طول الطريق من فرنسا واسبانيا
إلى اندونيسيا واستراليا. مع ظهور العديد من نفس علامات
في مثل هذه المناطق النائية، خاصة في الحقبة الممتدة بين
30,000 و40,000 سنة، بدأ الأمر يبدو بشكل متزايد
و على الأرجح أن هذا الاختراع يعود مرة أخرى
إلى النقطة المشتركة للأصليين في أفريقيا. ولكني أخشى،
أنه موضوع للنقاش في المستقبل. لذلك لنعد إلى الموضوع الذي نتحدث عنه. لا يوجد شك في أن هذه الرموز
كانت ذات مغزى لمبتكريها، مثل هذا النحت الغائر
البالغ من العمر 25،000 من "لا روكي دي فيناسكو"في فرنسا. قد لا يعرف ما تعنيه،
ولكن الناس في ذلك الوقت يعرفون بالتأكيد. يخبرنا تكرار نفس علامات،
لفترة طويلة، وفي الكثير من المواقع أن الفنانين كانوا يقومون باتخاذ
قرارات متعمدة. إذا كنا نتحدث عن الأشكال الهندسية، ذات معانٍ محددة، والمعترف بها ثقافيا،
ومتفق عليها، من الممكن جدا أننا سنبحث في واحدة من أقدم نظم التواصل
البياني في العالم. لم أتحدث عن الكتابة بعد. لا توجد في هذه المرحلة شخصيات
بما فيه الكفاية لتقوم بتمثيل جميع الكلمات
في اللغة المنطوقة، الأمر الذي يعتبر شرطا
لنظام كتابة متكاملٍ. كما أننا لا نرى علامات
تكرار بانتظام بما يكفي تشير إلى أنها
نوعا ما حروف أبجدية. ولكن ما لدينا هي بعض الرموز
الشاذة التي ظهرت مرة واحدةَ، مثل هذه اللوحة من "لا بازيقا" في إسبانيا
المعروف بأسم "النقش"، مع علامات متناظرة على اليسار، صورة لأيادي نوعا ما موجودة
في الوسط وتشبه أسلوبا معينا، وما يشبه قليلا
القوس على اليمين ظهرت أقدم النظم التواصل القائمة
على الرسوم في العالم – المسمارية السومرية، والهيروغليفية المصرية،
والكتابة الصيني القديمة جدا، ما بين 4000
و5000 سنة مضت، مع ظهور كل شيء ليصبح ملموسا
من النظام الأولي القديم بتكوين علامات العد
والتمثيلات التصويرية، حيث المعنى
والصورة هو نفسه. لذلك صورة لطائر من شأنها حقا
أن تمثل هذا الحيوان. بدأنا في وقت لاحق فقط برؤية هذه
الصور تأخذ شكلا نسقيا إلى أن أصبحت لا يمكن التعرف عليها تقريبا وعندها بدأنا أيضا أن نرى
أنه تم اختراع مزيد من الرموز لتمثل كل تلك الكلمات الأخرى
المفقودة في اللغة – أشياء مثل الضمائر، الأحوال، الصفات. بمعرفة كل ذلك، يبدو مستبعدا جدا أن تكون العلامات
الهندسية من العصر الجليدي الأوروبي حروفا مجردة بالفعل. بدلا من ذلك، يبدو من المحتمل حقا أن هؤلاء الفنانين القدامى كانوا
يقومون بصنع علامات للعد، ربما مثل هذه خطوط
من "ريبارو دي زا مينيتش" في صقلية، فضلا عن إحداث
صور ذات شكل نسقي من الأشياء الموجودة من حولهم. هل يمكن أن تكون بعض علامات
رمزا للأسلحة أو السكن؟ أو ماذا عن الأجرام السماوية
مثل مجموعة النجوم؟ أو ربما حتى الأنهار والجبال،
والأشجار – معالم لمناظر طبيعيّة، ربما مثل هذا الريشية السوداء والتي
تحيط بها علامات غريبة على شكل جرس من موقع كاستيو في إسبانيا. ويعني مصطلح الريشية
"على شكل ريشة" في اللاتينية، ولكن هل يمكن أن يكون هذا
رسم لنبتة أو شجرة؟ وقد بدأ بعض الباحثين
بطرح هذه الأسئلة بشأن علامات معينة في مواقع محددة، ولكن أعتقد أن الوقت قد حان
لإعادة التطرق إلى هذه الفئة بأسرها. المثير للسخرية في كل هذا، طبعا، مجرد وجود تصنيف واضحٍ
للعلامات في فئة واحدةٍ، لدي شعور بأن وجهتي المقبلة
سيشمل تقسيمها بما أنه وقع تحديد الأنواع المختلفة للصور
وفصلها. لا تسيئوا فهمي، كان إحداث كتابة متطورة كليا مؤخرا، إنجازا رائعا في حد ذاته. ولكن من المهم أن نتذكر أن تلك النظم الكتابة القديمة
لم يأتي من فراغ. وأنه حتى قبل 5000 سنة، كان الناس يسعون بالفعل لبناء
شيء أكبر من ذلك بكثير، مع أصولهم التي تمتد لعشرات الآلاف
من السنين، للعلامات الهندسية
من العصر الجليدي في أوروبا وخارجها، إلى تلك المرحلة، العميقة
في تاريخنا المشترك، عندما جاء شخص ما لأول مرة بفكرة
اعتماد العلامة والأشكال، وتغيير نوعية التواصل فيما بيننا
إلى الأبد. شكرا لكم. (تصفيق)