This is the film, which the famous Pussy Riot church scene is taken from. WINTER, GO AWAY! was filmed by the graduates of Marina Razbezhkina and Mikhail Ugarov’s Documentary Filmmaking and Theater School. Ten young directors did not part from their cameras for two months. The result was a chronicle of Russia’s winter protests – a chronicle of those who make the political climate and those who are dissatisfied with the makers. We see people, their faces, their conversations, rallies, victories and defeats ahead of the presidential election. A living camera interacts with living heroes. WINTER, GO AWAY! is funny in places – and yet contains an overall sadness: A unique account of Russia today.

Understanding Slope (Simplifying Math)

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Understand what slope is and how to calculate slope when given a graph! Easy as Pi! For fun brainteasers and IQ puzzles to build up your math brain: …

Carl Sagan – 'A Glorious Dawn' ft Stephen Hawking (Symphony of Science)

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MP3: My own musical tribute to two great men of science. Carl Sagan and his cosmologist companion Stephen Hawking …

Incredible Robots – Rise of the Machines

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Machines are evolving 10 million times faster than we are. Are you ready for robots that run our homes, watch our neighborhoods and even fight our wars? One day in the not too distant future, robots will travel to the far reaches of the universe, they will be the first to colonise new worlds. Robots will lead the way in the exploration of deep space.

Robots, machines of our nightmares, or servants of man? In the 1930s film Metropolis the robot was an evil character, it represented our darkest fears. By the 1950s they had become even more sinister and powerful, but over that last few decades our opinions of robots have dramatically changed, they’ve been reinvented as the police force of the future. But can real robots match the exploits of their celluloid cousins?

While the movies were creating ruthless men of steel, real robots were starting their own painful march into the world. Robots are still basic but over the past few decades they have advanced enormously. Before robots can become the masters of the universe, or even the servants of mankind, they need to accomplish one important thing, they need to move around.

This 1999 documentary includes interviews with prominent roboticists and artificial intelligence specialists. Beginning with robot locomotion and historical clips of ingenious experiments from MIT’s Leg Laboratory, BigDog’s ancestors dynamically walk, hop, trot, and perform impressive gymnastics. To find out the best way for a robot to move around the scientists look to nature. There have been many attempts to copy nature, some successful, others less than perfect.

Some of the robots discussed in this documentary :

Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Genghis II
Hermes the Hexapod
Micro-robot Cricket
Mine Clearer Ariel
Ambler the Massive Six-legged Planetary Rover
Adaptive Suspension Vehicle
Odetics Inc’s Odex 1
Spring Flamingo Robot
Honda’s P3 Humanoid Robot
Xavier from Carnegie Mellon University Robotics
Cog Project at MIT’s Humanoid Robotics Group
Mark Tilden’s BEAM Robotics
SPAWAR’s Robart 3
NASA’s Surveyor 3
Mars Rover Sojourner
JPL Robotics’ Rocky 7 Rover
Nomad Rover Test Vehicle
Nanorover Technology

one day in the not-too-distant future robots will travel to the far reaches of the universe all systems activate systems prepare for disembarkation they will be the first to colonize new worlds robots will lead the way in the exploration of deep space after they are robots the future of mankind robots machines of our nightmares or servants of men in the 1930s film metropolis the robot was an evil character it represented our darkest fears if we're not careful it may indeed be the case that early generations of super intelligent robots will simply eliminate us you know as and as a nuisance basically having better things to do with the space in the matter we're occupying without you what could he do there's no limit to what he could do he could destroy the earth and by the 1950s they had become even more sinister and powerful but over the last few decades our opinions of robots have dramatically changed they've been reinvented as the police force of the future and really good matter guys but can real robots match the exploits of their celluloid Cussler's although it looks really good that robots can on TV you know like lift up a building and throw Captain Kirk across the room in real life robots are fragile weak machines which don't have the energy to do anything more than barely move themselves around while the movies were creating ruthless men of steel real robots were starting their own painful march into the world robots are still basic but over the last few decades they have advanced enormous Li before robots can become the masters of the universe or even the surface of mankind they need to accomplish one important thing they need to move around locomotion in general of course is very important because a robot that can't transport itself around is a very inefficient sort of thing without mobility a robot is limited only to where it can reach and so the mobility is a function is the crux it is the essential capability for complex achievement getting around isn't easy the simplest method is to use wheels but they can be defeated by uneven terrain or stairs even tracks will eventually fail all sorts of ingenious modes of locomotion have been tried the best solution is to build a robot with legs I think that in a practical sense walking is absolutely critical to the incorporation of robots into everyday life we have built our world four-legged creatures namely ourselves and so any robot that is going to move around in that world in an efficient way in a relatively quick way is going to have to traverse terrain that we have built for ourselves things like stairs and of course since we have legs it makes sense to have the robots headlights also to find out the best way for a robot to move around the scientists look to nature nature basically slithers walks and swims and flies so I think that's the future of robotics this nature has already done a lot of the work and tried out a lot of the possibilities and so it makes sense to take advantage of whatever lessons Nature has already figured out nature is sort of the ultimate engineer you know it's had time to play around with all the different ideas and it's picked the ones that really work the best there have been many attempts to copy nature some successful others less-than-perfect some robots have gone where even nature didn't dare go the first question that needs to be answered is how many legs should a robot have it's two legs better than four and we say well you know ostriches are really fast they run on two legs but the fact is the fastest animal is a cheetah and it has four legs the first six legs walking insect robots were created in the 1980s at MIT these evolved into Genghis it walks like an insect always keeping enough legs on the ground at any one time so it doesn't fall over Hermes is more advanced the legs have been programmed to move in different patterns so it can walk with different gaits cricket was made from model airplane parts it moves it's six legs in a simple gait using just three motors the robot aerial is based on the crab this mind clearing robot walks sideways it is designed to operate in shallow water and can still walk even if flipped over on its back [Applause] designed at carnegie mellon university Ambler is a massive six leg robot a 20 feet high it's the largest walking robot ever built but because it only moves one leg at a time it's pretty slow the adaptive suspension machine is also modeled on an insect this human-driven robot uses six legs and can walk sideways as well as forward it is designed as a truck that could climb over terrain impossible for a wheeled vehicle one of the most revolutionary six legged robots ever made is owed x1 built in 1983 by Steve Bartlett it was years ahead of its time the robot gets around by moving three legs at a time and maintains its balance by keeping the other three legs firmly on the ground this is known as static balance a static leg system is one that when he stops or for that matter when he's in motion he always has at least three feet on the ground at one time with the center of gravity somewhere within that pattern so he doesn't have to actively balance himself he's always stable and when he comes to a stop it's just a stable isn't free like a stool because she's got at least three feet on the ground arrayed in a pattern and center of gravity is safely for the center of it Oh Dex uses the same technique to climb stairs but six leg robots have a major disadvantage six legs requires six motors which increases the robot's weight and power requirements this is a problem that Nature has already overcome once you're larger than a mouse those extra legs are redundant they're a waste they're more energy and power than you actually need mother nature knew this you'll never find a creature in nature larger than a an ounce with more than four legs poor leg robots are lighter and more energy efficient but they're more unstable with quadrupeds the issue is somewhat more complicated you still need to figure out how to get from point A to point B but you have to do so in a manner that doesn't get your legs tied up or caused an instability to occur the solution is to move one leg at a time keeping the other three on the ground but these robots are painfully slow is it possible for a robot to walk with just two legs I like robots that have two legs and the advantage there is that if you're going to have more than two limbs you can use the other two limbs as arms 2 for me is good because two legs is half of 4 legs so I only need to make half as many legs which is a factor I mean cost goes down if you only have to go two as opposed to four legs and it makes the robots smaller and lighter so there are some engineering advantages to making two legs the major disadvantage is that balance is much more difficult so you are now if you have two legs during a great part of the walking cycle you're really only on one and you have to achieve balance with that and so the robot has to have mechanisms to balance which are different than what you would have with six legs with six legs you can just stop at any point and you are statically balanced with two legs you have to do dynamic balanced dynamic balance was developed by Mark raybert who founded the MIT leg laboratory in the 1980s he started with one leg dro BOTS in our lab we've been concentrating on active balance and to do that initially we built machines that only had one leg a one legged machine has to balance because it doesn't have any opportunity for static support that is you can't spread out the feet in order to keep it balanced passively so we built one legged machines they actually hop instead of walked and we found that the control of these machines wasn't really too difficult the robot had sensors which measured its motion and had a computer brain which use this information to reposition the leg between ops mark Raber then moved on to two legged robots the computer calculated where the legs should move to keep it balanced all Rae Bert's dynamic robots had to keep moving to stay on their feet his dynamic robots performed amazing feats this robot is spring flamingo it doesn't need to keep hopping or jumping to stop itself from falling over it walks by field sensors in its ankles tell it how to angle its feet to maintain balance spring flamingo was developed by Gill Pratt the present chief of the leg laboratory most robots built to date have really incorporated their vision systems or their navigation systems very tightly into the control loop for locomotion and what we're trying to do with our robot is very similar to the way that a hiker in the woods tends to walk which is that the hiker doesn't look at his or her toes all the time but rather just sort of trust their feet to do the right thing spring flamingo uses another idea borrowed from nature tendons the motors are located above the legs and power is transferred down wire tendons in animals you find that the same thing happens any fast animal you find that the angles of the animal tend to be very graceful and very lightweight and there's really just bone and tendon there and all the muscle is pushed up as far into the leg as far up towards the body of the animal as possible this allows the leg to move as quickly as possible to accelerate very fast and thus less power has to be used in order to move the legs of the robot this robot copies another brilliant idea from nature muscles if you want something that moves backwards and forwards whether it's a finger or an arm or a leg taking motors which are spinning fast and gearing them down and starting and stopping and so on it is very difficult Richard Greenhill has developed robotic muscles they work by pumping compressed air into a rubber sheath surrounded by a wire outer mesh as the rubber sheath expands the mesh contracts and moves the lid so we've now got a muscle that behaves remarkably similarly to a human muscle it contracts about the same amount similar speed similar power and the thing about it is that it's very natural and easy then to connect it to a hand to an elbow to an arm and you get the same movement as a human this robot not only copies human muscles it has two legs and is designed to walk upright good reason for following the human design is it's a design that's been tried and tested it's been through a hole that nature can throw at it for millions of years it is the best design why should we sit down and invent something if we can just borrow from this brilliant and wonderful thing so if we want to build a robot what better of course the problem is can we and that's the challenge it's extremely difficult even though we take walking for granted it's something humans take years to master keeping upright and not falling over is more difficult than it first appears early humanoid robots tried to keep their balance by rocking from side to side or using a counterweight this robot walks more like a human but it still needs its student helpers to stop it from falling over but there is one robot that makes all the others look like beginners this is the Honda robot p3 the most advanced robot in the world it has taken over 20 years to develop at a cost of over 100 million dollars there were numerous prototypes which slowly learn to replicate human walk the Honda p3 walks by moving its weight from one leg to the other using sensors in the ankles knees and hips and a sophisticated vision system it can actually walk up and down stairs this is the latest version of the p3 slightly smaller and lighter it can walk much faster it is so good it looks almost like a man in a robot suit it can easily walk up and down any steps the tether is only in case it falls but just walking is not enough to be a true humanoid a robot needs hands fingers and thumbs allow the robot to touch grasp and perform complex tasks the first robotic hands were simple crude devices for grabbing and holding they became more sophisticated as industrial robots took on more and more complex jobs but they were still unable to perform intricate maneuvers the breakthrough came when roboticists were able to copy our own hands the human hands a masterpiece of Engineering it uses tendons to transmit power to the fingers down muscles in the forearms this robotic hand uses the same system the reason tendons are used in in biological systems as well as robot systems is because it allows you to place the actuator at a distance from the place where work is being done by situating the actuators or motors which power the tendons at the base of the arm the fingers can be thin in dextrous the hand is controlled by rope tendons which bent or extend the fingers the hand can grasp and make fine movements just like a human hand and it can do them with precision and without ever tiring the ultimate machine intelligence was how discovery one voyages towards Jupiter controlling the mission is a talking computer known as hell hell you're the brain and central nervous system of the ship does this ever caused you any lack of confidence let me put it this way mr. aimer no 9000 computer has ever made a mistake or distorted information Halla was conceived by arthur c clarke the famous science fiction writer probably before the end of this century we will be able to construct computers or artificial intelligences which can guard on their own and develop lines of thought irrespective of any programming and which may in principle be more intelligent than we are machines as intelligent as how have yet to appear we already have robots that can move around but we need them to become more intelligent mobility is the thing that sets the stage for the evolution of intelligence because it creates novel conditions for an organism to deal with simply by bringing the organism from one place to another in the in the wide and surprising world humans learn by moving and experiencing new stimuli this could also be the key to developing robotic intelligence roboticists argued robots would be able to learn movement as easily as humans in the 1960s when computer controlled robotics started it was believed that interacting with the world would be a fairly minor problem Hans Moravec found that writing a computer program for a robot to navigate across a room was more difficult than first thought it turned out though that moving across a room was far harder than proving geometry theorems after nine years of working his problem I finally in 1979 ended up with a program that could sometimes pick its way across a cluttered room this whole process only worked about three times out of four the the other time out of four it would become confused about where it was or it would fail to see an obstacle and would would would be there run into a silly place or or simply bump into something vision recognition systems require a powerful computer to identify an obstacle and then maneuver around it takes a huge number of calculations and if an object is moved the robot becomes easily the revolution in microchip technology greatly enhanced the way that robots work tasks that once took minutes could be achieved in a fraction of a second these advances have allowed robots like Xavier to move freely knowing where to go and how to get there it can visually identify and avoid obstacles and stop when it has finished its task xavier here I just stopped to say hi but there is more to intelligence than just navigation and obstacle avoidance a robot must be able to think if it is to function in the real for survival a robot must be able to deal with an infinite number of possible situations if a robot brain were programmed with every single possibility it would have a nervous breakdown trying to cope with all the information the alternative is not to program the robot with all eventualities but to program it how to learn as children grow up they learn to perform simple tasks by trial and error as they mature their brains allow them to learn abstract rules and concepts they not only know how to move the chess pieces but where to move them they learn that if they make a bad move they lose the game these experimental robots also learn by trial and error they have the equivalent of 50 brain cells compared to our billions enough to learn not to bump into the walls of their enclosure a sensor tells them when they are getting close to the wall they learn to control their wheels when detecting the wall so that they rarely hit it this humanoid robot cog is also a learning robot but it's far more complex and learns by watching human behavior this is our robot cogs got eyes up here which should respond to motion right now it's looking to see when it something moves and then it tries to reach out to it so when it first title it didn't really know how to look at motion and it didn't really know how to reach for that motion but over time it's what those two things match is a human child Minton learns over the first few weeks of life how to coordinate its eyes with what it sees and then how the coordinated stubby little arms and reach out towards things the single most surprising thing that happened with this robot was one day Cynthia Farrell was playing with the robot trying to demonstrate that the arms were moving and we were videotaping it and afterwards when we looked at that videotape we said oh the robot and Cynthia are taking turns doing something but we our plan wasn't to put turn-taking into the robot for quite a while cog was learning to behave just like a child with his parent but this level of sophistication takes immense computing power and years of programming now some roboticists believe that even this self learning approach will reach a limit and require too much computer power they believe this will stop the robot from evolving into the Machine of our dreams the complexity barrier is one that I've seen happen with a variety of robotics projects and it is essentially an absolute killer it basically starts when a roboticist has a wonderful idea of I want to build a robot and he has a wonderful three week period we actually builds the frame and builds a thing that carries the computer and then it might be as much as two men years of programming just to get the robot to actually do anything at all and when they finally get it do something if they want to make it do something a little bit more oh it walks across the carpet but now can we get it to go up a step all of a sudden now they need twice as much power and twice as much programming the whole trick then is how do we overcome this complexity barrier mark Tilden's solution is a radical new concept his robots don't use digital computers for brains they use simple analog transistors an idea inspired by nature we have to recognize for example that out of 20 million species on this planet now one of them uses a computer for a brain but most of them in fact all of them can handle the chaos and complexity of the real world there are ants out there that only have 20,000 equivalent transistors in their entire body but a digital watch has over half a million transistors on average why is it the mother nature can do so much with so little well that's exactly the sort of things that I'm trying to find out tilden has gone back to basics he constructs his robots from the simplest electronic components with the fewest number of transistors to keep them simple and tough from old electronic circuits and bits of discarded Walkmans he can construct a robot from scratch in under an hour once powered up the robot starts to interact with its world without the aid of a program to digital brain several years ago we found a method by which we could actually get creatures that using just twelve transistors or arrays of twelve and six we all of a sudden we're getting robots that for an equal increase in complexity we were getting an equal increase in ability the breakthrough was the development of the nervous net like an animal passing electrical signals through its nerves the nervous net is a series of signals that pass through transistors in the circuit board to make the robots walk different signals can produce different walking techniques even though the robots are electrically and mechanically simple they can climb over and avoid any obstacles one of major advantages of nervous networks is in fact to the degree of robustness that we've noticed with these devices and they think survive no matter what sort of damage you do to them now compare this against something like a computer brain if you all of a sudden quake a beer and you just dry some brain cells okay you wake up the next morning and you got a bit of a sinking head but you're still working but if you do the same thing to a single transistor in the millions that you find inside a computer then goodbye charlie Tilden's robots will work even if their limbs are damaged in fact they will keep on going to the bitter end Tilden believes that this sort of ruggedness will be crucial if robots are to survive in the real world no one is quite sure where mark Tilden's nervous nets will lead but his robots are certainly unique and he has managed to achieve so much with very limited resources it's exactly how biologics work that is if you can make machines which essentially don't use computers per segment but essentially just use the same nervous tissue or equivalent nervous tissue as mother nature does then the future of robots might be very cheap and very biologic indeed this is a vision of the future the urban warrior series 3000 week on and react robot is capable of operating for months at a time it has bulletproof Kevlar armor and can track its enemy in the dead of night urban warrior exists only in the imagination but Robart 3 is for real it has been built to respond to urban conflict battlefield scenarios are changing more into urban warfare and the idea here this is a robot you could take into a scenario like that send it into a building that may or may not contain snipers or other enemy agents it would search out the building and leave the humans outside where it's a little safer Robart three is programmed with sophisticated machine intelligence so it can learn how to operate in an environment it has never seen before it's linked to an operator who decides where to search but robot 3 makes all the decisions on how to get there rhobar three has a companion robot that follows it into a building it provides a communications link with the operator when robot three goes deep inside the companion can also detect intruders if they enter a room after robot three is left and robot 3 has another trick up my sleeve the next obvious step is okay URM this thing and you give it the capability to actually do some damage Robart three is armed with a Gatling gun that can shoot ball bearings or tranquilizer darts we want some type of device on there that can deter or delay a detected intruder without actually performing permanent injury our death ocular four is active there is an object 70 edges robot 3 can identify and shoot a target but the military doesn't want it to be completely independent yet there'll be a human involved there at least initially to make the determination that this is in fact a valid target before any type of lethal action will be authorized robot is still a laboratory experiment but there are active killer robots already on patrol they don't look like the Terminator they are four-wheel drive vehicles that have been converted into lethal robots this robotic rifle is capable of firing 240 rounds a minute with pinpoint accuracy it never tires it never misses this is fire end a mobile tank destroyer it goes out into the bush and waits for days months even years for its prey when it identifies an enemy tank it fires with deadly precision will Modern Warfare be fought exclusively by robots looking to the near future we are going to have technological warfare we're not very far from it now but essentially humans removed from the war there's a lot to be said for doing that and we're just having one set of robot machines fighting against another set of robot machines I don't see a scenario in my lifetime anyway where it's going to become exclusively machine versus machine it's nice to think that only the robots will fight with the robots and no one will ever get hurt and somehow it'll be just like a rather expensive chess game being fought with robots of Steel I can't help but worry that some of that warfare is going to spill over and that there will always be human casualties if hunter-killer robots are let loose will we be able to control it this very threat prompted science fiction writer Isaac Asimov to create his laws of robotics in the 1950s the first law is as follows a robot may not harm a human being or through inaction allow a human being to come to harm number two a robot must obey orders given it by qualified personnel unless those orders violate rule number one in other words a robot can't be ordered to kill a human being rule number three a robot must protect its own existence after all an expensive reason equipment unless that violates rules one or two but these laws were fiction do they work in the real world in reality they're not applicable even if you look at some of the military machines of today a cruise missile it does not obey Asimov's laws in fact it breaks them so when we look to robots intelligent robots of the future I don't think we can look to fictional laws to save us the robots will be doing things for themselves and that certainly won't be stopping because they might injure a human I wouldn't build any type of autonomous system that I hadn't provided all kinds of safety precautions in there to keep it from doing things that I didn't want it to do I wouldn't focus strictly on the three laws that Asimov put into his literature but you've got to do that kind of thing you're going to have trouble on your hands tobor the most amazing the most fantastic creation of man's mind Oh for tobor can live for no human can breathe in the airless atmosphere of outer space Electronics scientists have designed a practical spaceship atomic power makes space travel possible eating only the most valuable of all secret scientific achievements space conquering giants that man can control like tobor are real space explorers are robots robotic space probes like voyagers 1 & 2 travelled through our solar system out into the far reaches of the universe they may not have arms or legs but they do have fantastic vision systems those types of systems have their place a rover on the surface provides you close-up analysis of the surrounding terrain you can actually put a science instrument up against the rock fury in the sky you can't do that the first robotic system to land on the moon was surveyor 3 in 1963 but it wasn't mobile and could only study what its arms could reach if you land in one spot in your immobilize the only thing that you get I think that most scientists feel that mobility is absolutely essential NASA used research from different areas of robotics to develop mobile space Rovers Rovers provide mobility we might think of a rover as a mobile instrument platform the rover is providing the mobility with which the scientific tool can look around and feel and see different sights that it can be exposed to the first successful autonomous rover to explore another planet was Sojourner which explored the surface of Mars in 1997 it investigated the area around the lander and sent back detailed pictures of the Martian surface this is its successor rocky 7 like Sojourner it uses wheels legs may be the best system on earth but for Space Exploration they would be too heavy clumsy with the legs you use more energy than with wheels and for space applications you want to use as little energy as possible so not only do we use low energy electronics on board we also want to use low energy forms of mobility wheels our proven technology rocky 7 is extremely stable it has a sophisticated computer brain and it's designed to explore its way around the planet it has never seen before the Sojourner was basically controlled by the lander so he could not move outside the line of side of the lander which means it couldn't go more than about 30 meters distant from the lander so distance is a major factor rocky 7 has the capability for self location even outside the line of sight of the lander so it uses landmarks it uses Sun sense and it uses various approaches to figure out where it is rocky 7 will have to operate for long periods on its own it's intelligent enough to explore without direct control from earth all Mars rovers have to be autonomous because the amount of time it takes for signal to get from Earth to Mars is too long and so we send it some commands in the morning and then it's on its own all day long and it has to be autonomous enough to be able to accomplish something meaningful after it receives its commands rocky 7 can navigate large distances collect samples and analyze the bites the purpose is to provide a surrogate for the scientists to be able to do experiments to be able to view the terrain send pictures back place instruments send science data back instead of sending an astronaut you send the road despite all its sophistication rocky 7 cannot be expected to explore a whole planet planets vast territories and we don't explore them by just seeing a little piece our traditional view of planetary explorers are that they'll and leave the lander but not very far they're reliant for computing for commands for processing for viewing for position estimation on the lander as a mothership read Whittaker has been working on a robot that can travel much further distances this is nomad nomad is a new class of planetary Explorer which is self-contained self-reliant with the ability to leave the lander and travel far it has the ability to perform long distance long duration traverses majored in hundreds of kilometers not a few meters and to operate over months or years not days or weeks Nomad may be the perfect machine to explore the Martian terrain in the future but it has one main disadvantage sighs because payloads onboard future missions are so limited NASA is looking for much smaller Rovers this is the nano rover tiny robots like this may be the future of space robotics measuring just 12 inches long it's going to the surface of an asteroid that mission will be to find interesting places that we can take images of that we can take scientific data we carry two different spectrometer instruments that will determine the elemental composition and the mineralogical composition of the asteroid the unique wheel supports can swivel around if a nano rover tips over on its mission it will face a more serious problem an asteroid has almost zero gravity the designers have decided to use the low gravity to help the robot move around the asteroid by flicking its legs together it can jump up and bounce over the surface when you go faster than a certain speed in a zero-gravity environment you will take off from the surface and you can plan that trajectory much like you plan trajectories for spacecraft by controlling the speed and understanding how fast you turning the wheels you could predict where you're going to land so literally I mean flying will just hop and we'll use scissors like motion of the struts to hop the vehicle into the sky as much as as little as a meter or two and perhaps as much as 100 meters or more other robots are already at work in space a dexterous robotic arm is an essential tool for astronauts working on the space shuttle it helps them capture and repair satellites like the Hubble Space Telescope the primary advantage of using a robot in space is to avoid having to have a human go out in space and do extra vehicular activity for EDA as its called it's very dangerous operation one estimate done about ten years ago was that there would be a fatality approximately every 1,000 hours of EBA it's much more safe to have a robot doing things in space than a human NASA scientists are developing even more sophisticated robot arms to work on the International Space Station but the strength of a robotic steel arm can be a hazard because a robot is made of metal and as strong it can do damage and this presence of potential safety hazard to manned operations to prevent this the arms have been programmed with machine intelligence that teaches them to avoid getting too close to the space station or the astronauts robot arms and robots in general for space missions will be very important in the future for several reasons one is they they can be stored indefinitely with with very little environmental requirements they don't require food oxygen waste disposal they're expendable should they fail you don't lose human life and that's what's very important they can operate in environments where humans cannot operate because of radiation heat cold the fears of course are the same as with any science mission that something will go wrong as some famous old guy here at JPL once said you're always one transistor away from failure when you reach the forbidden planet you will need a charming character in the robot able to produce on order ten tons of lead or a slinky evening gown always at your service NASA hopes that in the future robots will help us colonize new worlds and build bases across our galaxy yeah I can picture fleets of robots in the sense of colonies doing comprehensive exploration that that is going to happen and also as precursors to human exploration I hope that someday we'll have machines which will terraform Mars take huge sections of the moon and make it basically ready for colonization robots will be able to produce fuels life support materials like water and oxygen and to build habitats and power infrastructure before the time of human presence in the more distant future spaceships will travel out to the far reaches of the universe insistence activate they'll travel for hundreds of years close to the speed of light they'll carry intelligent autonomous robots system sensors once the ship reaches the atmosphere of a new planet the robots will be activated systems prepare for disability the robots will construct homes and biospheres for future human expeditions without robots it will be impossible for us to explore the universe robots may even be our first contact with alien civilizations realistically the most likely alien form we're going to see is not a little green man or anything that looks like a human but is a robot is a machine because just as for us it's best to send robots out into space so for someone else and other species elsewhere more than likely they would send robots down here robots have come a long way in the last 50 years they can move around and some are learning to think but how fast are they really evolving I've decided that robots are evolving about 10 million times faster than we did they're currently in their minds roughly as complex as insects but that's already a large step from where they were 50 years ago so by mid-century I think we will have machines that are our equal and in fact our superior in most ways his hands more of it right will robots ever control us I don't really subscribe to the theory that the robots are going to take over and become smarter than the humans the fact of the matter now is the most sophisticated robots that we have in existence today fall orders of magnitude short in terms of their capability in comparison to even the most inept human being I think in my own mind there is certainly a very real scenario where robots more intelligent than humans will actually be running the earth after all if they're more intelligent than us why would they want to do what we tell them I must say I do read with some amusements this robots taking over idea we're finding it just so bloomin hard to make a robot pick up a car I don't believe that we will ever see a day when all sudden we will have to fear that our toaster basically has plans against us I think robots are our children they will in time grow more capable than we are and will eventually replace us they will inherit the universe from us and I think this is not a bad thing I think they will remember us and they will be able to accomplish far more than we ever could have so I think the universe will be better off for our having done this for their coming to existence

Most Advanced Humanoid Robots :Rise of Machine(Special Documentary)

Most Advanced Humanoid Robots :Rise of Machine(Special Documentary) Watch More INteresting videos and documentaries Future Wearable NanoTechnology 2015 – (Future Are Here) .

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[Robot Online 2014 HD] Living Machines – The Rising of the Robot – new Robot Full Documentary HD. Also watch these interesting Videos Ebola: The world’s .

This documentary tackles the issue of pending greater-than-human artificial intelligence and the possible ramifications. Different individuals with different.

Crown The Empire – Makeshift Chemistry (Official Lyric Video)

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A lesson learned is easier said than done
when you’re living in a world with out the sun
My mind is struggling to remember

I wish I could find a way
to make up for all that I’ve done
I know the choice was mine 
but can you blame me?

Yeah, The choice was all mine, 
But I never thought that I’d
Be the last man standing alone.
I miss you here by my side
But darling I can’t help but feel like
love has died

Operator is there anybody at all
that can explain why I’d give everything and more up for her
I know it’s unbelievable but something bout her I can’t resist
but she doesn’t even know I exist

So yeah I pulled the plug
but I swore the spark would still be there
Buried beneath the promises and lies

We suffocated
in all our own filth
I swear I only wanted what was best, but you just left

I was just lonely
you were in love
But now it seems
that the table’s have turned
and I feel so alone.

The choice was all mine, 
But I never thought that I’d
Be the last man standing alone.
I miss you here by my side
But darling I can’t help but feel that our love has died.

Operator is there anybody at all
that can explain why I’d give everything and more up for her
I know it’s unbelievable but something bout her I can’t resist
but she doesn’t even know I exist

Darling won’t you forgive me
I’m just looking for a little bit of love in this heartbreak city
Darling won’t you forgive me
I’m looking for a little bit of love but you don’t even know that I exist 

All I wanted was to be your love
But now you’ve left and I can not fill the void

All I wanted was to be your love
But now I’m finally moving on

Oh, and I don’t I GIVE A F#&@.

I waited all this time to watch you jump out of my life
If I knew you’d only wanted me for just a single night
I would’ve left
And never had came
but you had to beg me to fall in again
and now I’m just your slave

Oh operator is there anyone at all
that can I explain why I gave everything and more up for her?
I know I sound so gullible but something bout her just drew me in…
But that bitch didn’t even notice me.

Operator is there anybody at all
that can explain why I’d give everything and more up for her
I know it’s unbelievable but something bout her I can’t resist
but she doesn’t even know I exist

Ten Minute History – The Late British Empire (Short Documentary)

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This episode of Ten Minute History (like a documentary, only shorter) covers the growth of the British Empire after the American Revolution all the way to its end with the handover of Hong Kong. The first half deals with the Pax Britannica and British global hegemony through the Sepoy mutiny. The second half deals with the apex of the empire after World War One and its subsequent decline and fall.


Ten Minute History is a series of short, ten minute animated narrative documentaries that are designed as revision refreshers or simple introductions to a topic. Please note that these are not meant to be comprehensive and there’s a lot of stuff I couldn’t fit into the episodes that I would have liked to. Thank you for watching, though, it’s always appreciated.

Ten Minute History – The Early British Empire (Short Documentary)

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This episode of Ten Minute History (like a documentary, only shorter) covers the birth and rise of the British Empire from the reign of Henry VII all the way to the American Revolution. The first part deals with the Tudors and their response to empire in Spain (as well as the Spanish Armada). The second part deals with England’s (and later Britain’s) establishment of its own empire in North America and India. It then concludes with the Seven Years’ War and the American Revolution.


Ten Minute History is a series of short, ten minute animated narrative documentaries that are designed as revision refreshers or simple introductions to a topic. Please note that these are not meant to be comprehensive and there’s a lot of stuff I couldn’t fit into the episodes that I would have liked to. Thank you for watching, though, it’s always appreciated.

The Inventor: Out for Blood in Silicon Valley (2019) | Official Trailer | HBO

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From Academy Award-winning director Alex Gibney comes a documentary about the rise and fall of Theranos, the one-time multibillion-dollar healthcare company founded by Elizabeth Holmes. Premieres March 18 on HBO.


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what do you dream for that less people have to say goodbye to you soon to people they love I had heard about fairness and Elizabeth Holmes but you know her story's so compelling she was gonna herald a revolution in medical treatment in this country it was obviously such a incredible story a woman creating this 9 billion dollar company everyone worshipped the ground she walked on she could do no wrong she was the next Steve Jobs the idea with the Edison was to stick the lab inside the box she wanted Edison devices in every home in America this could be the apple of healthcare you all are part of something that is gonna change our world what higher purpose is there Elizabeth came to me and she described her idea it's impossible physically Elizabeth was lying about the accuracy of the blood tests it's all at show she didn't want anybody to see what was going on in there we don't mean to explain ourselves to competitive companies she aligned herself with very powerful men who succumb to a certain charm she was deceiving investors to the tune of 400 million dollars it comes back to fake it until you make it there was definitely something going on behind the scenes she had pulled her class on their windows anything I typed was watched it was very scary like what are they trying to hide the mantra in Silicon Valley has moved fast break things that's not the way you approach science let's go to the impacting people's lives quite frankly people can die it's snowballs into this crazy situation in a panic I went and bought a burner phone that called The Wall Street Journal what is coming out of their mouth is not reality she did ever thought she had any limits she was going to conquer the world this was real Lina she meets all secret I don't have many secrets you

The History of Anatolia : Every Year

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Anatolia has always been an interesting region in a historic point of view. Indeed, that is where the biggest empires ever were created and where they spread from.
From the Achaemenids to Byzantium, from the seleucids to the Ottomans, see the history of this complex region from 1550 BC to today.


Musics :

Civilization V – Augustus Caesar War Theme
Civilization V – Harun Al-Rashid War Theme
Civilization V – Suleiman War Theme


Sources :
Ollie Bye – History of the Ancient Middle East
S&F productions – The Struggle for the Mediterranean
Emperor Tigerstar – History of the Middle east
Encyclopedia Britannica
History World
Historical World Atlas Map

The Roman Empire – Episode 1: The Rise of the Roman Empire (History Documentary)

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The Roman Empire – Episode 1: The Rise of the Roman Empire (History Documentary)

Two thousand years ago, one civilisation held the entire Western world in its grasp. From Northern Europe to Africa, it imposed laws, ideas and a single language. Rome was the super power and a colossal empire.

Travel back in time and experience the exporting of the Roman world through the glory years of conquest to the longest period of stability the world has ever known.

Two thousand years ago, one civilisation held the entire Western world in its grasp. From Northern Europe to Africa and the Middle East. It imposed laws, ideas and a single language. Rome was the super power of the ancient world. Indeed later super powers never stopped learning the lessons of her spectacular rise and fall. Rome truly was a colossal empire. During the rise of the Roman Empire, it was not always easy to separate virtue from vice, or hero from villain. Indeed, all too often, they were one and the same. Rome was still an adolescent discovering who it wanted to be, and its dream of greatness was a prlude to a nightmare. It was not for another 100 years that the state would mature and commit to one enduring view of itself. It would be the army, more than any other force that was destined to shape Rome’s lasting identity.

over a thousand years after Rome's fall the armies of the French Emperor Napoleon descend on the city Napoleon's forces have already battled their way through Europe to take Rome seems an afterthought by this time it's a backbone but for Napoleon it has an almost religious significance he claims he's the spiritual descendant of the Roman emperors he has himself painted wearing the Roman crown of laurels as if Rome still rules the world his troops march unopposed into the city it's like walking into a ghost town they find the frightened Romans huddling among the ruins of the ancient city crumbling palaces and arches still seem to echo the Magnificent triumphs they were built to celebrate goats and cattle graze where thousands once thronged the streets in 70 AD when the emperor vespasian started building the massive colosseum rome was ten times larger than the city napoleon found the space and wanted a great theater for the gory spectacle Romans so loved the scale of the Roman games like the scale of Rome itself was staggering the Coliseum had seating for 45,000 and standing room for 20,000 more in one series of games 5,000 people and 11,000 animals were slaughtered nothing in Hollywood could compare with this gruesome splatter fest the blood and brutality were all too real and the Romans were addicted to when he saw the blood rather than turn away he fixed his eyes on the scene and took in all its frenzy he reveled in the wickedness of the fighting and grew intoxicated with the bloodshed when he left the arena he took with him a sick mind which left him no peace until he came back again send Augustin they did get excited about you gonna go on another I'm not denying that but you know what so do we I think for example of the brouhaha over Mike Tyson right what Mike Tyson did when he bit Evander Holyfield's here that would have been applauded in the Roman arena that's great that's what you're supposed to do in fact you're supposed to rip the ear off and and march around the arena with it in your mouth that's what you're supposed to do [Applause] Rome's savagery was matched by its size when the Colosseum was built Rome was a city of a million people and growing not until London of the 19th century would a city approach this size again but I think you'd notice if a time traveler went back would be the smell the noise the dirt the crowdedness I think there were lots of beggars lots of signs of sickness disease lots of small children we're rather like Calcutta or real crowded modern town very poor with these monumental buildings in the centre expressing the wealth and power of the Empire traffic was terrible Julius Caesar forbade wheeled traffic during the day so people could move around which meant that at night all these carts started going on these stone streets and it was so noisy that you couldn't sleep to manage the problems of organizing such a huge concentration of people the Romans invented the science of urban planning they invented cement built gigantic public storehouses and installed citywide sewage systems but their greatest achievement was the water supply the aqueducts of Rome reached sixty and seventy miles into the hills to guarantee a continual flow of fresh water into the city that flow of fresh water are provided enough of water gallons per person per day that was not equalled by the city of Rome until the 1950s along with millions of gallons of water Romans consumed a staggering 8,000 tons of grain weekly supertankers each carrying a thousand tons of grain criss-crossed the Mediterranean they were the largest ships built until the Atlantic steamers of the 19th century the city of Rome was the heart of an empire that stretched from Scotland to Syria never has the Western world's been better organized or more United in the year 100 AD you could travel from Egypt to France on paved roads with only one currency and one passport in your pocket and this vast well-organized empire would muster the largest army the world had ever seen over half a million soldiers Rome was the superpower of the ancient world later superpowers never stopped learning the lessons of its spectacular rise and fall Napoleon was not alone in his obsession twenty years before Napoleon marched into Rome on the other side of the Atlantic a group of men who were designing a political system for their new country in designing the constitution of these United States of America we have at various times sought precedent in the history of that ancient Republic and endeavors to draw lessons both from its leading ideas and from the tumult and factions which finally brought it low Thomas Jefferson the American Founding Fathers spent most of their childhood and much of their adulthood reading the Latin classics to the founders the past was not something that was dead it was something that was alive especially the Roman past it was alive with personal and social meaning this was crucial I think to the American Revolution because they were doing something really unprecedented in this revolution and it and yet they were able to feel that they were not the first the basis of our political system I think lies in Rome the Western world grew up in Rome's shadow it's legends its loss it's institutions and its language Napoleon said the story of Rome is the story of the world it's a story of great commanders and politicians men like Caesar Augustus Hadrian and Constantine but it's also a story of the poor who bore the brunt of their leaders ambitions it's a story of vast idealism and an equally vast greed for power and finally it's the story of long spectacular fall and the chaos that far but behind all that are the stories of Rome's beginnings almost 3,000 years ago in the lush hills of central Italy when the Mediterranean sailors of ancient Greece and Egypt looked west toward Italy they stared into a great unknown it was 800 years before the birth of Christ and Rome still didn't exist but stories were told of mysterious peoples with strange exotic customs and untold riches the tales were irresistible setting off from the great civilized cities of the East like Athens and Tyre adventurous Greek traders sailed west into uncharted scenes navigating by the stars without instruments they began to explore a remote and little-known Peninsula of the western Mediterranean they called it Hesperia the land of the Evening Sun on the eighth century BC time of westward expansion Phoenicians going west Greeks going west founding colonies when the Greeks sailed into Italy they found something they didn't expect in advanced civilization already there here in the hills of Tuscany they were already walled cities there were kings and high priests there were skillful craftsmen who created a tender and sensuous art like no other in the Mediterranean and there were traders ready to barter the finest gold and iron work the ancient world had ever seen before Rome there were the Etruscans they taught the Romans everything but left no written records incredible the Etruscans were some of the most amazing artisans that the West has ever seen they worked in metal for sculpture they worked in terracotta and life-size statues with these amazing inviting expressions very warm they're not cold and distant but they are there they're people that you want to meet the Etruscans lived in the fertile hills of Tuscany but their real wealth lay underground the richest deposits of iron ore copper and tin in the central Mediterranean as early as 700 BC they created shafts tunnels subterranean galleries smelters and slag heaps so vast that two and a half thousand years later mussolini reprocessed them to produce weapons for world war ii Etruscans traded their metalwork as far afield as Syria Portugal and even Sweden but above all the Etruscans were famous for their open displays of affection between men and women it shocked the ancient world the Greeks who knew the Etruscans from very early on before Rome was anything before Rome was saw that the Etruscan people gave a position to women that the Greeks certainly wouldn't not only were women part of the entire house women reclined at banquets with men which for a Greek was absolutely unthinkable it is no shame for the Etruscans to be seen having sexual experiences for this to is normal there it seems to be the local custom Posidonia s' and they show no shame in sensuous acts while the torches are still lit servants bring in courtesans sometimes even their own wives and they all engage in lovemaking publicly via pompous the Greeks and later the Romans love to embroider scandalous stories about the decadence of the Etruscans they were almost certainly untrue but it is true that the Etruscans created memorable portraits of sensual pleasure after the Etruscans the idea of portraying such intimacy between men and women disappeared from Western art for almost 2,000 years the change began with the Romans who grew up in their shadow the first Romans were primitive tough backwoodsman they resented the Etruscans but had everything to learn from them including the darker sides of civilization like all ancient people the Etruscans were rigidly / class brutal rituals enforce the power and prestige of the nobility Etruscans staged games at the funerals of important men the losers were killed their blood celebrated the prestige of the dead man and was an offering to his spirit the wrestlers were slaves captured in warfare their lives were worth nothing only their deaths were significant the practice of human sacrifice was common in the ancient world the Etruscans were no exception the blood of slaves and captives watered the ground at state rituals throughout the Mediterranean Romans inherited the Etruscan taste for sacrificial blood gladiatorial combat was the Roman equivalent of these glory celebrations of power Rome took everything from the Etruscans the truscum engineers showed them how to drain the marshes where Rome now stands and channel the water and underground sewers Etruscan architects and builders laid out the Roman Forum as a public square in the seventh century BC the Romans owed everything to the Etruscans they would one day turn on them crush their beautiful cities and defame the memory it would be the first step on Rome's path to Empire [Applause] most of what we know about the birth of Rome comes from the work of one man one of Rome's greatest historians Livy he lived in the reign of the Emperor Augustus over 700 years after the city was founded the glory of Rome was at its height but Romans were already haunted by the specter of decline the Empire was emerging from decades of civil war bitterness and political intrigue were rampant decadence read and profiteering with the order of the day two men like living raised on the Roman stoic virtues of valor loyalty and self-sacrifice it seemed the spirit of Rome was rotting I feel that indulgence has brought us through every form of sensual excess to be morbidly attracted to death in all its forms Rome is at the dark dawning of an age in which we can neither endure our vices nor face the remedies needed to cure them living a cure was what Emperor Augustus was looking for he cracked down on dissent and passed laws to punish a morality he was determined to reform the empire and force a return to Roman family values body poets like Ovid who wrote the art of love were banished to the Asian steppes when his own daughter Julia was rumored to have slept with half the Senate Augustus banished her as well livvie saw in Augustus or in Octavian a chance for the world to finally settle down and get back to business what made Rome great to begin with you got to go back and look who were the heroes of the past that made Rome the city she was I hope that history maybe the best cure for a sick mind at least it can remind us of what we once were and show us the depths to which we are now sinking Livy set out to write a brief history of early Rome celebrating its glories and virtues propaganda for the reforms of Augustus what he had to go on were stories handed down over the centuries they were a mixture of fact and legend I for one am looking forward to absorbing myself in antiquity because I am so deeply tired of the modern world and all the troubles which torment it Livy he believed Rome's mythological beginnings would reveal the stories of heroism and nobility Romans needed to hear but the stories of Rome's origins were short on stoic virtues and long on murder rape mayhem in fratricide to his dismay Livie discovered they echoed the cruel realities of the Roman world of his own day legends told that Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus twins who were cast into the wilderness to die but the boys were said to be saved by a she-wolf who suckled them they grew up like savages in the woods when they returned to found the city of Rome they were filled with the simple ferocious spirit of their wolf mother according to legend Romulus and Remus then led their people to the bend in the river Tiber where she found their Rome was born the year was 753 BC but hardly had they founded the city then the two brothers quarreled over who should be king it was left to the augurs to decide boggers were the priests of early Rome who divined the will of the gods they studied the movements of birds the weather the entrails of sheep before making their pronouncements known as the auguries the augers placed each brother on a hilltop then waited when birds flocked over Romulus they knew he would be the first king of Rome but Remus refused the augury and the brothers fought Romulus killed him the first king of rome suckled by a wolf bathed in his brother's blood walked away furious and triumphant it was a fitting augury for the bloodshed and strife that lay ahead the story about Romulus killing his twin brother the members of the founding of the city is a very old story it's very very remarkable that in the late Republic the Romans were fighting civil wars and of course it didn't escape their notice that there seemed to be prefigured in the in the myth with Romulus killing his brother they actually thought this was a sort of curse on them that they were fated to to destroy each other well the whole Roman psyche was was based on violence if you look at the foundation legends of Romulus and Remus that's based on fat fratricide right one brother kills another to found the city and from that point it just escalates [Applause] the violence of the early Romans in fact and fiction was born of desperation in real life shunned by neighbouring tribes Rome was forced to welcome outcasts vagrants and fugitives and they lured their neighbors the say binds to a ritual of peacemaking and they're all pretty desperate a lot and Rome the earliest community that is organized in that way of course there's a place where no woman wants to go so they haven't got any women that's the first problem and so the Romans Romulus in particular got an idea new religious festival let's invite the neighbors bring your wife and kids especially the daughters the say binds were weary but accepted as the festivities went on into the night the say binds relaxed their guard was what the Romans were waiting for Romulus gave the sign and they attacked they grabbed the women and drove off the say by men the ones they didn't kill when painters of a later age portrayed the rape of the Sabine women they imagined a classical city they were wrong the early Romans were primitive people struggling desperately to survive the grim stories of the first Romans were as surprising to Livy as they are to us they certainly didn't provide the role models he was looking for his little book turned into one of the most monumental histories ever written by the time he died in 1780 it had grown to a hundred and forty two volumes all written laborious ly in wax it had absorbed his entire life Livi's Chronicle was the bestseller of its day it was more successful than he could ever have hoped but had no effect whatsoever on the moral chaos of Empire even a hundred and forty two books were no match for the influence of so much power by now Rome was a juggernaut whose momentum was unstoppable its course set by its mythic beginnings whether fact important fiction as it approached the 5th century BC Rome was emerging from its legendary past into the real world of recorded history it was now a thriving province of the Etruscan world ruled by at Ruskin King's primitive mud and thatch huts of Rome's early days had given way to a city of brick Rome was absorbing people from surrounding lands and growing fast Etruscan and Greek traders met in its busy streets Phoenician boats from Sicily in North Africa sailed the Tyler wine olives and gold flooded into Italy [Applause] but rome was still no different from many other prosperous cities of the Mediterranean what first set it apart was not its capacity for trade or engineering or even warfare but its ability to organize itself the man who reshaped Roman society was an Etruscan king called Servius Tullius there are no statues of him we have no idea what he looked like he never became as famous as later rulers of Rome but his mark on history may be even greater and yet all Servius Tullius did was carry out history's first census now the census the Roman census a very important institution they would count the Roman citizens alright and list them and then distribute them in their appropriate classes and political units and so on the census was a kind of way of grading Roman citizens according to their status and prestige in the sixth century BC the census detailed every Romans obligations to the city to obey its laws pay taxes and do military service but much more important it also gave them rights this was the great innovation of service in proportion to their contribution Romans were given a say in how their city was run Servius sowed the seeds of representational government he organized an assembly to govern the city and gave it a name the Senate finally census decreed that each of the city's social classes should contribute a group of soldiers for Rome's defense they were called the legions the fighting force that was going to put Rome's destiny back in its own hands and one day give it the world the census didn't create equality or democracy Rome remained a society governed by Kings and Nobles women had few rights but it created a level of organization unheard of in the ancient world no man did more for Rome than the Etruscan Kings service his reforms laid the foundations for Rome's greatest achievement the creation of the Republic but like so many Roman rulers he was brought down by treachery and intrigue the Kings own daughter wanted her husband Tarquin on the throne her henchmen knew how to get him there and after they murdered the great king power and paranoia went hand in hand in Rome for almost two centuries Rome had been ruled by Etruscan kings and Etruscan nobility under Servius things had gone well under Tarquin his successor brutality and decadence flourished while he and his relatives devoted themselves to pleasure their henchmen carried out campaigns of political murder to remove any and all opposition Romans were beginning to hate everything the Etruscans stood for resentments smoldered a woman called Lucretia was the spark that would set it on fire she was well loved and highly regarded for her kindness beauty and loyalty she represented everything Romans felt they had and the Etruscans didn't honor virtue bravely one day the king's son and some of his Etruscan Nobles were on a journey away from Rome drunk they decided to creep back into the city and spy on the most beautiful women to see what they were up to they found their own wives as expected party they found Lucretia hard at work because this was an indication of good virtuous matronly behavior right this is how Roman women should behave they should not be sleeping with 300 members of the Senate like Augustus his daughter allegedly did they're not supposed to be poisoning members of their family as Livia allegedly did they're supposed to be producing cloth the next night when he knew Lucretia's husband was away King Tarquins son crept back to her house alone with a knife at her throat he raped her and swore that if she breathed the word of it he killed that would be unnecessary the next day to proud to live with her dishonor Lucretia killed herself Romans went white mobs tore through the streets and attacked the Tuscan wherever they found the stern nobleman named Brutus organized a furious attack on the Etruscan King in his quarters they were overwhelmed and fled for their lives Romans were finally free of their Etruscan overlords Lucretia's legacy to Rome was its freedom Romans vowed they would never again live under a king so how exactly were they going to live how would they govern themselves their solution was momentous they declared that the affairs of Rome would belong to the people that citizens would vote and that Rome would be a resolute lika a public affair a republican government would no longer be the business of Kings Rome would be ruled by laws and elected officials the first two elected leaders called consuls were Brutus and Lucretia's widowed husband and so King was replaced with first two praetor's eventually two consuls with – both of them in agreement on everything elected annually so that no one person ever had very much power for very long at all this paranoia about Kings continues all the way through Roman history in ways he never could have imagined Servius a census had borne fruit the New Republic would be organized according to the voting categories and classes he put in place forty years earlier the birth of the Republic staked Rome's claim to a place in history SPQR was the Republic's banner Sinatra's populist gay Romanus the Senate and people of Rome it was the ancient world's first representation of government it paved the way for Rome's glories and all democracies to come Roman set themselves free from the Etruscans in 510 BC next they needed to be sure they stayed free so they set about building the fiercest fighting machine the world had ever seen and now it had its old masters to practice against [Applause] for over a hundred years after Rome declared its independence it was at war with the Etruscans who fought desperately to regain their old possession they failed they were no match for the highly disciplined Roman legions who'd fight to the death to defend Rome's Liberty as Roman soldiers fought for the Republic a man named Publius codified its leading ideas this legal system set a remarkable precedent for republics of the future 2,000 years later when the founding fathers of the United States needed to defend their constitution they too wrote under the name of Publius I think the American Revolution was an exciting period for the founding fathers they were excited by the opportunity to match their ancient heroes struggles against tyranny in a sense arrival the noble deeds they had spent their youth reading about and they were thrilled by this idea by this thought that they were beginning anew the work of the ancient Republicans only this time with an unprecedented chance of success throughout the fifth century BC the struggle for the Republic went on Rome and the nearest Etruscan City they faced each other across the Tiber in an endless stalemate of attack and counter-attack finally after decades of bitter skirmishing a Roman army battled its way toward the Etruscan City the year was 392 BC their goal was to take baby by storm and once and for all bring to an end the Etruscan threat to Rome survival the trust console' Jers fought furiously at the city walls priests prayed to their gods to save them from destruction No Romans smashed through the Etruscan defenses and laid waste to the city they slaughtered the men and made slaves of the women it was Rome's first great victory there would be many more each celebrated by the building of a triumphal arch a monument to the glory of victory and the humiliation of the defeated Rome now piled victory upon victory all across Italy as one by one her neighbors fell to the legions Rome's rise was gathering momentum and by now seemed unstoppable but she suffered one setback which haunted the Empire forever the year was 386 BC from beyond the Alps horsemen appeared and thundered toward Rome Romans called them barbarians they were Celts from Gaul present-day France the Gauls were a warlike people but this time they weren't looking for battle Wars with their neighbors had pushed them out of their own territory now they needed a new home Rome dominated central Italy so the Gauls asked them for territory Roman envoys refused point-blank who did these barbarians think they were to presume upon Rome in this way they've insulted the Gauls which was a mistake the Gauls descended on Rome in a fury but they weren't given they would take Romans were fierce warriors but had no idea how to fight these people who charged into battle in a suicidal friends their savagery even by Roman standards was terrified taken by surprise the Romans barricaded themselves inside their city and hope these terrifying wild men would go away they didn't the bowls smashed the way into the city and ransacked the Romans only escaped being slaughtered by paying the Gauls everything they had to move on and leave them in peace Rome's humiliation was complete the words of the Gallic chieftain as he exacted his crushing payment would ring in Roman ears for centuries to come woe to the vanquished Rome rose from this devastation stronger better organized and more determined than ever it forged an iron spirit and a civilized code of honor the stoic virtues of valor and discipline and self sacrifice that code produced soldiers and commanders with an unflinching dedication to duty one of the most famous was Cincinnatus Cincinnatus was a roman who came to embody the classic virtues like no other although a nobleman he liked to work his fields with his own hands one day as he worked a messenger arrived with news that Rome was being attacked and in such an emergency situation as this the Roman Constitution called for the appointment of a dictator somebody who'd be elected by the people but then once elected would have absolute power life-and-death power over all citizens but only for a maximum of six months he dropped his plow hurried to the city took up command of the army and was named dictator he quickly won a great victory and returned to the city in triumph now he had could have stayed on and he and he could have used his power as he wished but the very day that he returned to the city were told he immediately resigned to the office of dictator walked back to his farm outside the city and continued to plow his farm and the Romans loved to tell that story because here was a man who was totally selfless who cared nothing for his own for his own livelihood for his own life but merely to serve wish to serve and so it's no accident that one of the most famous sculptures in American history instead of George Washington as a Cincinnatus George Washington knew that many people compared him with Cincinnatus and he liked that and he consciously worked to encourage that image and so for instance during the darkest periods of the war when some thought maybe he should resign he held off that resignation but as he wanted to do like Cincinnatus did wait until the enemy was defeated and then in a in a big show lay down his power which he did and he retired to his own plough at Mount Vernon Cincinnatus became the role model for the Roman politician commanders Napoleon so admired he embodied the code of conduct that powered Rome's rise and extended Rome's dominion over the entire Western world Rome's battles abroad would highlight the conflict within its own soul the struggle to resist the corrupting influence of so much power the group haunt the Empire for centuries to come but first Rome's era of power and glory was about to begin