Korean War – Battle of Inchon 1950 – COLD WAR DOCUMENTARY



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In the new episode of our animated historical documentary series on the Korean War, we will cover the counter-attack of the UN forces led by the USA in what was later called the Drive North. This video also features the battle of Inchon of 1950

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The video was made by our friend Benjin Pratt.

This video was narrated by Officially Devin (

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#Documentary #KoreanWar #ColdWar

إنه سبتمبر عام 1950 قوات الأمم المتحدة
التي تقودها الولايات المتحدة تدافع عن جزء من شبه الجزيرة الكورية يسمى
محيط بوسان ضد القوات الكورية الشمالية. ومع ذلك ، فإن الحرب الكورية بدأت للتو و
الأميركيون يركزون قواتهم حولها شبه الجزيرة للرد. مرحبا بكم في الثانية
حلقة في سلسلة لدينا على الحرب الكورية! إذا أنت مهتم بتاريخ هذا
عصر ، لا تنسى للتحقق من الثانية لدينا قناة – الحرب الباردة – الرابط في
الزاوية اليسرى في الأعلى . الراعي لهذا الفيديو – War Thunder! اللعب على الانترنت مجانا لعبة القتال متاحة على أجهزة الكمبيوتر ، PS4 و Xbox ، وفي اللعب المتبادل بين المنصات
مع عدم وجود شراء ضروري – مجرد تحميل واللعب! حرب الرعد لديه ترسانة لا تضاهى
أكثر من 1200 دبابة دقيقة تاريخيا ، الطائرات والمروحيات والسفن من 1930s
إلى في التسعينيات ، يمكن لعبها عبر 80 ميدان معركة كبير
الحرب العالمية الثانية والحرب الباردة. عظيم الرسومات والموسيقى والمؤثرات الصوتية وواقعية
نماذج الفيزياء والأضرار تزج تماما أكثر من 20 مليون لاعب في جميع أنحاء العالم في
معارك ضخمة. ثلاثة أوضاع مختلفة تسمح الجميع لتحديد مستوى الواقعية المناسبة
بالنسبة لهم. المطورين نشطة للغاية و باستمرار تقديم تحديثات رئيسية مجانية ل
لعبة وإضافة ميزات جديدة ، والمركبات ، والخرائط! فما تنتظرون؟ العب حرب الرعد
مجاني على PS و Playstation 4 و Xbox One! ادعم قناتنا والحصول على طائرة متميزة ،
دبابة أو سفينة ، وحساب لمدة ثلاثة أيام ترقية باعتبارها BONUS عن طريق الضغط على الرابط في
الوصف! قوات الأمم المتحدة كانت قادرة على صد
هجوم القوات الكورية الشمالية على بوسان محيط بحلول سبتمبر 1950. هدف الجيش الشعبي الكوري
كان لإنهاء الحرب في أقرب وقت ممكن ، وكانت الخطة لمواصلة مهاجمة
دفاعات الأمم المتحدة في الباقي فقط الأراضي التي لا تسيطر عليها الجيش الشعبي الكوري – بوسان
محيط. من أجل تخفيف وضع المدافعين
محيط بوسان ، الجنرال ماك آرثر والقيادة العسكرية للأمم المتحدة تعتزم
مفاجأة الكوريين الشماليين بهبوط وراء خطوطهم. بصرف النظر عن تقليل
الضغط على محيط بوسان ، هذه الخطوة تهدف إلى خفض العرض والاتصالات
خطوط الجيش الشعبي الكوري ، تسبب الذعر بينهم ، إجبار قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري على القتال على عدد
من الجبهات ، واستعادة عاصمة الجنوب كوريا في أقرب وقت ممكن.
نوقش عدد من مواقع الهبوط. في مرحلة ما كان ميناء كونسان يجري
ناقش كخيار أكثر تفضيلا ، ولكن يعتقد ماك آرثر أن بقعة الهبوط ينبغي
أن يكون غير متوقع من قبل الكوريين. في النهاية، تم اختيار ميناء إنتشون الخطير والصعب
كمكان هبوط. كان في إنتشون ممران بحريان فقط للدخول
الميناء الخاص به ، والذي كان من الممكن حمايته بسهولة عن طريق البحر الألغام. لكن ماك آرثر حسبت ذلك
لن يتوقع الكوريون الشماليون الهبوط في مثل هذا المكان الصعب. علاوة على ذلك ، كان سيول
قريبة جدا من إنتشون ، وهبوط ناجح سوف تسمح فرصة لتحرير سيول من قبل
قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري تعافت من صدمة الهبوط. وبالتالي ، فإن عملية الكروميت كان
أطلقت. قبل الهبوط في إنتشون ، القوات الأمريكية
استخدمت أساليب الخداع لإرباك الشمال الكوريين. قصف الأمريكيون البعض الآخر
بقع الهبوط المحتملة ونجحت في تحويل انتباه الجيش الشعبي الكوري إلى حد ما.
في 13 سبتمبر ، الأمريكية و بدأت القوات البحرية البريطانية قصف الشمال
الدفاعات الكورية في إنتشون وولميدو. بعد يومين ، في 15 سبتمبر ، الأمم المتحدة
بدأت القوات تهبط على ما يسمى الأخضر ، الشواطئ الزرقاء والحمراء في وقرب إنتشون.
وكان الهبوط الأول على الشاطئ الأخضر – الجانب الشمالي من جزيرة Wolmido. ال
تتألف قوة الهبوط من الكتيبة الثالثة ، مشاة البحرية الخامسة ، بقيادة المقدم روبرت
Taplett وتسعة M26 بيرشينج الدبابات من USMC 1st دبابة الكتيبة. قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري كانت
فاق عددهم بشكل كبير وخسر أكثر من 200 رجل مقابل 14 ضحية بين الأمم المتحدة
القوات. تم أخذ Wolmido بالكامل من قبلهم في غضون ساعات قليلة.
حتى بعد هزيمتهم في الشاطئ الأخضر ، القيادة الكورية الشمالية تعتقد ذلك
كان هذا الهجوم تسريبًا وهبوطًا رئيسيًا كان يجري في كونسان. قليل جدا
قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري كانت تدافع عن انشيون، و كان الهبوط في الأمم المتحدة في الشواطئ الحمراء والزرقاء ناجحًا
دون الكثير من الضحايا. الجيش الشعبي الكوري في 22 فوج المشاة ، الذي أحضر في البداية
للدفاع عن إنتشون ، وكان أمر بالانسحاب إلى سيول.
كان الهدف التالي من قوات الأمم المتحدة هو مسيرة في سيول واستعادتها في أقرب وقت ممكن.
في اليوم التالي ، التقسيمات البحرية الأولى والخامسة بدأت مسيرة نحو سيول. 17 سبتمبر
كان حتى نجاحا أكبر لقوات الأمم المتحدة. كانوا قادرين على هزيمة قوة الجيش الشعبي الكوري مقاومة
مسيرتهم نحو سيول ، وتدمير ستة دبابات تي 34 وقتل 200 رجل.
بعد ذلك كانت الفرقة البحرية الخامسة قادرة للقبض على مطار كيمبو في غاية الأهمية.
سابقا كان سلاح الجو الأمريكي يطير من اليابان لمهامهم. القبض على كيمبو
سمح لهم المطار باستخدام مطار داخل كوريا. منذ الجيش الشعبي الكوري لم يكن قادرا على تدمير
مطار كيمبو في الوقت المناسب ، وكان المطار في الغالب اليسار في براعة وجاهزة للاستخدام للأمريكيين.
جميع محاولات الجيش الشعبي الكوري لاستعادة كيمبو تم صد المطار.
حقيقة أن الجيش الشعبي الكوري ركزت في الغالب على بوسان محيط جعل الدفاع ضد أمريكا
الهبوط وراء خطوطهم ضعيفة نسبيا غير مستعد. ما يقرب من 7K قوات من
78 فوج المشاة المستقل و 25 كان لواء المشاة يدافع عن سيول
المنطقة ضد حوالي 40 ألف من قوات الأمم المتحدة ، عدد الذي أصبح ممكنا بسبب استمرار
هبوط القوات الأمريكية ، مثل 7 فرقة مشاة.
في 19 سبتمبر ، في المساء فوج المشاة الحادي والثلاثون من الفرقة السابعة
الاشتباك مع قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري في ضواحي سيول. في 25 سبتمبر القوات الأمريكية
دخلت سيول. كان محصنا بشدة. ال كان على الأميركيين الانخراط في فرض الضرائب من منزل إلى منزل
القتال ضد قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري ، الذين كانوا يدافعون بعنف. ومع ذلك ، بحلول 28 سبتمبر
كانت قوات الأمم المتحدة قادرة على هزيمة أي أعشاش المقاومة في سيول وتولى السيطرة الكاملة
حول المدينة. تكبدت قوات الأمم المتحدة أكثر من 500 خسارة
بين الهبوط في إنتشون وأخذ سيول ، في حين أن خسائر الجيش الشعبي الكوري كانت الطريق
أكثر أهمية في 35K. هزائم وأعقب الجيش الشعبي الكوري وتقدم كوريا الجنوبية
من مجازر Namyangju و Goyang koyang Cave ، فيها مئات المدنيين يشتبه في
قتل التعاطف الشيوعي من قبل الشرطة الكورية الجنوبية والميليشيات المحلية.
في وقت واحد تقريبا إلى الهبوط في إنتشون ، بدأت قوات الأمم المتحدة عمليات الاختراق
من محيط بوسان ، الذي دافعوا عنه بشراسة ، وترتبط مع القوى التي
هبطت في إنتشون. عشية الهجوم ، الذي تم إطلاقه في 16 سبتمبر ، المخابرات الأمريكية
يقدر أن الجيش الشعبي الكوري لديه 13 فرقة مشاة على الخط بدعم من 1 فرقة مدرعة و
لواءان مدرعان ، مع سلاح الجيش الشعبي الكوري النصف الجنوبي من الجبهة بعد 6 مشاة
الانقسامات مع دعم المدرعة – قوة من 47417 رجل ، والثاني فيلق على الشمال
والنصف الشرقي من الجبهة بعد 7 مشاة الانقسامات مع دعم مدرعة – قوة
من 54000 رجل. هذا جعل ما مجموعه 101417 جنود العدو حول محيط.
وقدرت تشكيلات الجيش الشعبي الكوري في متوسط ​​قوة 75 في المئة في القوات و
معدات. كان لدى قوات الأمم المتحدة 140 ألف رجل. الأمم المتحدة كانت الاستراتيجية للجيش الأمريكي الثامن وجيوش جمهورية كوريا
لاختراق محيط بوسان ودمج مع الوحدات التي هبطت حديثا من
السلك العاشر. الهجوم سيكون بقيادة فرقة مشاة الولايات المتحدة ال 24 ، مع 1st
انقسام الفرسان في العمق ، في حين أن 25 و 2 فرقة مشاة سوف تقدم من
اليسار وجمهورية كوريا الأول والثاني من السلك من اليمين. في 16 سبتمبر ، بدأ الهجوم.
كانت قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري لا تزال قادرة على ذلك تقديم مقاومة قوية لقوات الأمم المتحدة.
استغرق الأمر 3 أيام بالنسبة لهم لإجبار Naktong النهر وجعل الكوريين الشماليين الانسحاب وراء
ذلك. حتى 19 سبتمبر كان هناك شجاع KPA المقاومة في كل مكان وليس مؤشرا
الانسحاب الطوعي ؛ عموما تقدم الأمم المتحدة كانت طفيفة واشترى فقط على حساب
قتال عنيف وخسائر عديدة. ثم في ليلة 18-19 سبتمبر ،
بدأت الانقسامات السابعة والسادسة للجيش الشعبي الكوري في الانسحاب في الجزء الجنوبي من الخط ، حيث هم
كانت بعيدة عن كوريا الشمالية. الفرقة السادسة تركت وراءها تأخير منظم وفعال بشكل جيد
الأطراف لتغطية عمليات السحب. في ال 19 من سبتمبر ، سقطت Waegwan إلى 5 RCT الولايات المتحدة ،
والقسم الأول لجمهورية كوريا في الجبال اخترقت شمال تايجو إلى نقاط وراء
خطوط الشعب KPA 1 و 13th. هؤلاء الانقسامات ثم بدأت الانسحاب.
بحلول 23 سبتمبر ، كانت قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري تماما على الانسحاب بالطبع. الاخير
القوات الكورية الشمالية في كوريا الجنوبية لا تزال تقاتل هزم عندما الجنرال والتون ووكر
اندلع الجيش الثامن من محيط بوسان ، الانضمام إلى الجيش فيلق X في تنسيق
الهجوم على قوات الجيش الشعبي الكوري. من بين 70 ألف جندي من الجيش الشعبي الكوري حول بوسان ، المزيد
أكثر من نصفهم قتلوا أو أسروا. ومع ذلك، لأن قوات الأمم المتحدة قد ركزت على اتخاذ
سيول بدلا من قطع انسحاب الجيش الشعبي الكوري الشمال ، ما تبقى من 30000 جندي كوري شمالي
هرب إلى الشمال عبر نهر يالو. لكن الكوريين الشماليين عانوا عددا كبيرا
من الخسائر وخسر غالبية من الدبابات والمدفعية.
في 29 سبتمبر ، كوريا الجنوبية تم استعادة الحكومة في سيول. قواتهم
واصل تقدمه وذهب الماضي 38 موازية. حذرت الصين أنه إذا كانت الولايات المتحدة
القوات عبرت 38 موازية أنها سوف تدخل. ومع ذلك في 7 أكتوبر ،
سمحت الأمم المتحدة للقوات الأمريكية بالعبور في كوريا الشمالية.
بحلول 19 أكتوبر ، عاصمة كوريا الشمالية تم القبض على بيونغ يانغ من قبل قوات الأمم المتحدة. على
في 26 أكتوبر ، قامت الولايات المتحدة بالهبوط في Riwon و Wonsan ، ولكن كلاهما كان
اتخذت بالفعل من قبل الجيش الكوري الجنوبي. بواسطة ثم عانى الجيش الشعبي الكوري حوالي 200،000 رجل
قتل أو جرح ، ليصبح المجموع 335000 خسائر منذ نهاية يونيو 1950 ، و
قد فقدت 313 دبابة. كان الزخم بشكل حاسم على جانب
قوات الامم المتحدة. عدم القدرة على اختراق محيط بوسان ، يعاني الكثير من الضحايا
في محاولة للقيام بذلك ، وناجحة الأمريكية هبطت الهبوط في إنتشون مسار
الحرب الأهلية الكورية. لقد أصبح واضحا هذا فقط في حالة التدخل الأجنبي
يمكن أن تقدم قوات الأمم المتحدة يمكن أن يكون المتوقفة. صرح ستالين بوضوح تردده
لنشر القوات السوفيتية ، لكنه طلب ذلك أرسل الصينيون 5-6 فرق إلى كوريا.
سيثبت التدخل الصيني القادم لتكون قوة قوية بما فيه الكفاية لتحقيق الجمود
في الحرب الأهلية الكورية. حرب الرعد لديها تكرسانة لا مثيل لها من أكثر
من 1200 دبابة دقيقة تاريخيا ، الطائرات ، طائرات الهليكوبتر والسفن من 1930s إلى
1990s ، للعب في 80 ساحات القتال الرئيسية من
الحرب العالمية الثانية والحرب الباردة. دعم لدينا قناة والحصول على طائرة متميزة ، دبابة أو
سفينة وترقية حساب لمدة ثلاثة أيام باعتبارها مكافأة
عن طريق الضغط على الرابط في الوصف! نحن نخطط للحديث أكثر عن الكورية
الحرب على قناة الملوك والجنرالات وقناتنا الثانية "الحرب الباردة"
الرابط الذي يمكنك أن تجد في الوصف أو في الزاوية اليسرى العليا ، لذلك تأكد من ذلك
مشترك في كليهما. نود أن نعبر امتناننا لمؤيدي باتريون و
أعضاء القناة ، الذين يجعلون إنشاء مقاطع الفيديو لدينا ممكن. الآن ، يمكنك أيضا دعم
لنا عن طريق شراء البضائع لدينا عبر الرابط

Korean War- Documentary (1950-1953)



The Korean War in a way you’ve never seen it before

for the next 90 minutes you'll see Korea the way the soldier saw it in full shocking color this is a true picture of the war full of terror chaos blood and courage much of it has never been seen by the general public until now this is Korea the first great confrontation of the Cold War in the spring of 1950 just two months before tensions between North and South Korea boiled over into war a South Korean military photographer captured a mass execution on film it is gruesome evidence of the simmering feud that would tear the Korean Peninsula apart these North Koreans were captured while spying on the south these dead once fellow-countrymen are now enemies to South Korea the tensions between north and south born in the wake of world war ii have reached the boiling point korea called the land of the Morning Calm is really a harsh land of jagged ridges fickle weather and a checkered past the peninsula lies six thousand miles east of the United States in a remote corner of the Asian North Pacific sitting precariously between Russia China and Japan Korea was always at the mercy of its bigger neighbors for centuries foreign conquerors trampled over a Korean soil to do battle with each other as World War two came to a close the peninsula was up for grabs after decades of Japanese rule in July of 1945 Soviet leader Joseph Stalin joined forces with the United States to pinch the Japanese out of Korea with a two-prong attack from north and south the superpowers met at the 38th parallel the line of latitude running through the middle of the peninsula they agreed to split and occupy Korea along that line the Soviets would control the northern half while the u.s. took the southern half each set to work honing a government modeled in its own image when the superpowers pulled out in 1947 they left behind two starkly different regimes in the north zealous puppets of communist Russia and China took control in the south a Princeton educated autocrat named syngman rhee emerged both sides wanted the other eliminated threats grew stronger spies more numerous and violence more prevalent along the border this little Peninsula wasn't big enough for both of them the question was who would draw first blood at 4:00 a.m. on June 25th 1950 the armies of North Korea stormed across the 38th parallel hoping to crush the South in one overwhelming offensive 135,000 communists besieged a ragtag South Korean border patrol and steamrolled southward at outposts all along the border South Koreans and their American military advisers were overrun caught completely off guard the US had deprived South Korea of weapons and ammunition thinking it might invade the north and start a war syngman rhee the South's fiery and aggressive leader had threatened to do so all that held him back was a lack of firepower now the US strategy of restraint had backfired the South was on the receiving end with nothing to defend itself against the Communists tanks and heavy artillery in just two days Seoul the South Korean capital lying 30 miles below the parallel was captured by the north terrified South Koreans rushed to escape the city roads leading south over the Han River were jammed with refugees and truckloads of equipment but in fear of the Communist advance southern officials ordered the bridges destroyed when they exploded hundreds of refugees were still struggling to cross nearly all of them perished thousands more were cut off from escape news of Souls collapse spread quickly through the countryside overnight panic permeated the southern peninsula North Korea hoped the US would look the other way and let the South be taken but the American Home Front was being whipped into a frenzy over communist aggression if South Korea fell to the Reds would Japan be next sensing public outrage president Harry Truman immediately called for US air and sea strikes against North Korean targets Korea is a small country thousands of miles away but of what is happening there is important to every American an act of aggression such as this creates a very real danger to the security of all three nations this is a direct challenge to the efforts of free nations to build the kind of world in which men can live in freedom and peace this challenge has been presented squarely we must meet it squarely American Jets went right to work shooting down six North Korean fighter planes on their first day in action the Navy bombarded the enemy coastline from the sea but the Communists owned the land and they pushed on virtually unfazed there was speculation that the US would use the atom bomb as it had on Japan but Russia had deployed one successfully the previous summer presenting a dangerous new threat dropping the bomb now would risk Armageddon so it was clear to us commanders that this war would have to be fought from the trenches Truman called on the United Nations to lead a police action against North Korea the front section of the United Nations to put down lawless aggression and the prompt response to this action by free peoples all over the world will stand as a landmark in mankind's long search for a rule of law among nations United States forces would be the backbone of the operation but the force of the US military in 1950 was dangerously weak its budget was one-tenth what it had been in 1945 and combat troops in the Far East were few and far between what strength was left was thousands of miles away bolstering NATO forces against the Warsaw Pact nations in Eastern Europe Douglas MacArthur the commander-in-chief of Far East forces and a legendary world war ii general would face a great challenge as leader of operations a supremely confident man with a larger-than-life presence MacArthur was the face of America to the Asian world his cherished military legacy would be put to the test in Korea the first Brigade to reach the front was task force Smith its reports confirmed the dangers that lay ahead in early July the brigade ran into a column of North Koreans 30 miles below Seoul waiting in a cluster of Hills the force hidden motionless until the enemy was upon them and then let loose with everything they had but the northern tanks were undeterred task force Smith only knocked out four and the other 33 rolled right through its lines for the first of many times in the war the Americans were trapped behind the enemy and had to fight their way out dice fell around me as mortar rounds zeroed in on us one of my young guys got it in the middle oh Jesus the guy was moaning and groaning there wasn't much I could do but pat him on the head and say hang in there lieutenant Phillip day junior task force Smith it quickly became clear that this was no police action this was war and unless support arrived in a hurry it would be a short one troops from the US Eighth Army arrived from Japan over the next few weeks but they were trying to stop a flood with their hands the North Koreans were pushing steadily south toward Pusan and UN troops faced a real possibility of being driven into the sea first American strategy was to dig in along the front and set up blockades but time and again the North Koreans would move around them and block from the rear unit after unit was trapped in enemy territory by July 20th only a small corner of South Korea was left to conquer the United Nations was losing the race against time by August 1950 the US Eighth Army had its back against a wall it had been pushed to within 65 miles of Pusan and korea's southern shore the last real natural barrier before Pusan was the neck Tong river a strong stand there would be crucial but the UN line was dangerously shaky a division of 3,600 men can comfortably defend a front the length of 100 football fields but along the neck Tong single battalions of 400 men were covering 150 football fields [Applause] compounding the manpower shortage was a phenomenon known as the bug out in six short weeks these men had gone from relaxing peacetime duties to the carnage of the frontlines thousands had nervous breakdowns this infuriated general Walton Walker the field commander of the Eighth Army who reported directly to General MacArthur Walker had been one of Patton's corps commanders in World War two he was a no-nonsense Texan who didn't mince words on July 29th he issued a stand or die order he told his subordinates if I ever see you back here again it had better be in a coffin Walker's troops faced hostility no matter which way they turned they had to rely on their only advantage firepower to keep them alive along the south west shore of the perimeter US Marines headed off a hard communist charge overhead Marine Corsairs tore up the enemy line destroying vehicles and supply lines but north of there a US Army battalion was being ripped apart North Korean tanks rushes down from the hills and launched a concentrated attack from point-blank range the Americans lost all of their equipment suffered 160 casualties and were quickly overrun the battleground was nicknamed bloody Gulch further upstream the Communists found a gap in the UN line and exploited it during the night they crossed the nacht tongue and easily captured no-name Ridge the ridge ran straight south toward Pusan and unless the North Koreans were driven back quickly the whole perimeter could fall the Americans struck back hard for two weeks the battle raged on the same Hills were won and lost dozens of times punch-drunk infantrymen fought with everything they had air attacks bring down on the Communists after the firefight the American airstrikes hit the North Koreans on either side of the river the North Koreans were screaming we heard them and we were a mile or more away Floyd Atkins B Company the river line was eventually restored and the North Koreans fell back to lick their wounds the red tide had been halted for the first time by mid-august the United Nations had built up enough manpower to level the playing field units arrived through the port of Pusan from nations as diverse as France Turkey Thailand and Ethiopia the British Commonwealth forces drawing men from Great Britain Canada Australia and New Zealand were also important contributors most of these men were too young for World War 2 they were eager to make their own mark on this new battlefield but few of them could comprehend the harsh realities of war that awaited them American troops in particular showed a brash confidence coming off the boat whose son was like being in a college town on homecoming Saturday the kids were terrific they didn't walk off the dock they swaggered off their attitude said don't worry about it the Marines are here second lieutenant Tom Gibson among those arriving were thousands of black recruits unlike their predecessors in previous Wars they would serve in mixed units fighting alongside white troops for the first time and while most branches of the military still practiced segregation in 1950 the demand for fresh soldiers was immediate and units were filled on a first-come first sent basis regardless of race mixed units cooperated well on the hills of Korea whether in the midst of combat or campfire sing-alongs but on September 1st 1950 all attention turned to the enemy who launched a final offensive all around a wall of a perimeter the communists limped forward with exhausted men and a broken supply line but they were fought out and couldn't sustain the drive now they weren't losing the race against time the moment was right for the United Nations to strike back and General MacArthur knew just where to do it for weeks General MacArthur had been eyeing the port at Incheon for a counter-strike Incheon was nestled along the shores of the Yellow Sea he was the closest port to Seoul and a major supply center but it was deep in enemy territory and laden with natural obstacles such as the 33 foot shift between high and low tide the largest in the world to make matters worse Air Force flyovers revealed that the islands in the harbor were guarded by North Korean troops the hazards were tremendous naval commanders protested the plan but MacArthur was adamant he sent a telegram to the Pentagon on September 6th that read there is no question in my mind as to the feasibility of the operation and I regard its chance of success as excellent I go further and believe that it represents the only hope of resting the initiative from the enemy and thereby presenting the opportunity for a decisive blow the loss of Inchon would be an immense psychological defeat for the North Koreans conversely control of Incheon would give UN forces a tremendous boost in position and morale it offered a secure beachhead from which to launch attacks on Kimpo airfield and Seoul 25 miles away but the operation called for amphibious teams to land on a small beach scale a seawall and attack directly into a city it would require soldiers of unparalleled bravery MacArthur created a special 10th Corps to carry out the operation divisions from the Army Marines and Navy were pulled from the action around Pusan to leave the charge as the soldiers set sail for Incheon they reflected on what lay ahead as soon as we pulled out of Pusan we began to get the briefings on the tide situation in the Incheon Harbor area none of us ever had any experience operating under such title conditions before let alone ever having been involved in an amphibious landing as soon as the morning of September 15th approached we realized that we had all the ingredients for disaster on our hands in some George Gilman USS Mount McKinley the invasion strategy was as complicated as its target in sean's Harbor was too shallow at low tide for large ships to maneuver so MacArthur decided to invade in two phases synchronized with the high tides we'll need oh the main island at the entrance to the harbor would be assaulted with the first tide in the morning the main event would follow with the second time five days in advance of the operation Marine jets began blanketing more meadow with bombs two days before surface ships joined in and so it was on the morning of September 15th 1950 the tenth Corps moved in on burned-out wool meadow the North Koreans had been caught off guard and gave up the island easily suffering more than 300 casualties in the process only 20 American troops were injured none were killed for the next 11 hours the tenth Corps infantry waited for the tide to roll back while they rested 230 vessels moved in and marine Corsairs ravaged the city of incheon troops on wall meadow watches the air assault unfold reporter Jack Siegel was there to record the reaction as the evening approached the tenth Corps unleashed the main thrust of the invasion the landing targets were red Beach near the heart of the city and blue Beach to the south heavy naval and air bombardment cleared the path ahead of them landing ships made their way to the shore tanks and heavy equipment were unloaded onto the beaches infantrymen prepared to infiltrate the city on foot red Beach was secured within an hour and a half and troops entered the streets of the city on the lookout for snipers the following morning red beach and blue beach were linked and the operation was completed amazingly the invasion was executed with such precision that only 20 UN soldiers were killed McArthur's gamble was a rousing success and no one was more delighted than the great general but his thoughts quickly turned to the real prize that lay just over the horizon the loss of Inchon but the North Koreans still fighting south of there in deep trouble the UN invasion was completely unexpected and most of the Red Army was still fighting in the Pusan Perimeter area 130 miles south communist troops there were never informed of the defeat at Incheon they fought on for a week afterward unaware that they were in danger of being cut off but when word of in Shawn finally trickled down to the perimeter they fled northward almost immediately meanwhile the temp Corps marched northeast from Incheon on the road to Seoul they were battle ready and let nothing stand in their way the first target inland was Kim PO airfield as the closest major airstrip to Seoul its value was immeasurable Kimpo fell easily to the Marines on September 18th within two days Marine Corsairs were launching air strikes on Seoul from there Kim PO would play a key role in conquering the city the temp Corps had a three-prong plan v Marines would cross the Han River directly north of Kim Po and Vance wing East and attacked the city's western flank meanwhile the first Marines would capture the suburbs just south of Seoul and vent joined the 5th Marines to attack the city's west side finally the army 7th division would rush up from the Pusan Perimeter and cut off North Korean reinforcements on the eastern side the Marines crossed the Han as planned but hit strong resistance in the hills west of Seoul heavy fighting took its toll on the Marines the North Koreans were dug in deep and stuck to the hills like glue tank fire and air support rained down on the Communists for three days even flamethrowers couldn't loosen their hole the battle came down to the last man almost literally on a crucial Ridge known as Hill 66 Marines made a final push for control the last men standing charged heroically with their bayonets and pride the Communists from their foxholes when the smoke cleared just 33 of the company's 206 Marines stood to savor the victory southeast of the city the army 7th Infantry was blazing a trail advancing north like a steam train on September 22nd it beat back an enemy tank battalion and captured another airfield at Suwon 20 miles southeast of Seoul air missions from Suwon and Kim PO against Seoul helped clear the way for the soldiers below by September 24th UN troops held the high ground around the capital I'll never forget the sight I saw down below was a very big city smoke was coming from everywhere buildings and houses were on fire you could see the Corsairs dive down from the sky then swoop back up leaving a puff of black smoke and a dull explosion from the top of that hill it looked like I was watching a movie right before my eyes except that it was for real John Bishop private first class the next day the North Koreans fled the city American soldiers rushed down from the hills and triumph soeul the economic and cultural center of Korea was back in friendly hands on September 29th 1958 nitori's flew into Kimpo and made their way to seoul for a celebration it was full of pomp and pageantry the United Nations wanted the world to know that their police action was well in hand but snipers could still be heard in the distance during the ceremony an audible reminder of the dangers still lurking on the horizon in September of 1950 the momentum was shifting dramatically in favor of the United Nations the 8th army was pushing northward at a pace that recalled Patton's drive across France after Normandy the first objective was to reach the 38th parallel where the war began to reclaim South Korea's old borders South Korean divisions led the charge reaching the parallel on October 1st they kept moving right into North Korea a week later American forces were perched at the parallel anxiously waiting for orders to follow suit but back in Washington tough choices had to be made should the United Nations continue the drive into North Korean soil would this overstep the Mandate of a police action there were no easy answers u.s. commanders heard rumors that communist China was moving large numbers of troops north into Manchuria the Chinese resented American intervention in the region and feared that hostilities would spill over into their Manchurian territory intelligence reports estimated that up to 450 thousand tiny x' troops were lurking in the hills beyond the Yalu River poised to strike but these warning signs were cast aside by Americans thirsting for an unconditional victory after the world wars anything less would be a disappointment Korea didn't affect the everyday lives of most Americans as previous Wars had 1950s America was a pleasant peaceful place where there was a car in every garage and a drive-in diner in every town stories of the triumphs in Korea were an exciting diversion from the humdrum everyday and as the 8th army marched heroically onto North Korean soil aboard communists hitting populous watched with attentive glee as the fighting moved north the citizens of South Korea tried to resume their daily lives weddings funerals and the daily market went on as they had before the war as they recovered from the destruction of the previous four months they waited anxiously for their leader syngman rhee to deliver on his long-held promise to unite the peninsula after centuries of subjugation the Korean people were anxious to control their own destiny whether at the mercy of the Mongols Chinese Manchus Russians or Japanese South Koreans were always in the shadow and often under the command of foreign invaders they were most influenced by the Chinese who ruled the peninsula on and off for more than a thousand years the cultures of the two countries each centered around Buddhism and agriculture were closely linked but the politics of the two were worlds apart in 1950 South Koreans rejected the Chinese communism that threatened to devour their homeland within weeks their sons would meet their nemesis head-on in the hills of North Korea there the front was opening up the road to Pyongyang the North Korean capital was free and clear and UN battalions raced each other to it the North Koreans tried to establish a thin defensive line around their capital but they couldn't curtail the UN momentum the Eighth Army found itself at the gates of Pyongyang within ten days of crossing the parallel looking at the open road ahead the men couldn't help being optimistic General MacArthur announced that we would be home by Thanksgiving we believed them lives seemed good in Pyongyang morale was sky-high James Cardinal private first class the Eighth Army set out north and west from Pyongyang eager to vanquish the northern regime as they cross the Chungcheong River the last major land barrier in North Korea they could smell victory waiting for them on the other side but what they found was a mass grave holding over 100 executed American prisoners the North Koreans were turning even more savage in their desperation UN resolve was renewed on October 24th General MacArthur ordered his men to march straight to the Yalu River now he would let nothing stand in the way of total victory but just over the horizon squatting silently in the hills were hundreds of thousands of Chinese soldiers on October 25th 1950 the silent fears of the United Nations were confirmed the Chinese that had been quietly amassing between the UN forces and the Yalu River suddenly made their presence known in the central mountains thousands of American troops were ambushed and surrounded by a massive Chinese division entire battalions were caught off guard and decimated air drops for all the support the UN soldiers had they fought desperately in all directions trying to make it out alive most of them didn't as word of the massacre spread among the troops their morale which had been sky-high just hours before dropped quickly they said it sounded like Chinese no one knew what the hell was going on it was Halloween and colder than a witch we waited and froze it was very dark Robert Harper 19th infantry the Far East Command already gearing up for a victory parade still couldn't believe it was facing a full Chinese assault reports back to Washington claimed the attacks came from a small force assisting with the defense of the Yalu River and nothing more but general Walker was alarmed he ordered all of his units even those far from the attack to pull back to the Chong Chon River and reevaluate the situation then just as abruptly as the ambushes came they ended the Chinese faded back into the hills and waited throughout November American surveillance planes tried to determine just how many Chinese were out there estimates counted between fifty and seventy thousand a manageable number but it turned out they missed another 250,000 the Chinese were incredibly adapted concealing themselves they would keep still all day camouflaged under helmets covered with brush two planes flying overhead heavily occupied areas often looked like empty landscape most of November passed quietly and UN troops held out hope that they'd make it home for Christmas assured by the silence General MacArthur ordered a cautious advance on November 24th in the West the 8th army would head for the Yalu as a unified front hoping to prevent any single battalion from being caught out on a limb in the East the 10th Corps was ordered to make a major advance around the Chosun reservoir the first day of the offensive is encouraging modest gains were made all along the line but then on November 25th the war suddenly turned upside down the Chinese found a vulnerable gap between the 8th Army and the 10th Corps in the central mountains they struck there with all their might the entire UN line was split into three days into a renewed offensive the UN force found itself in a full-scale retreat the UN's lines as well as its spirits were broken and with the attack came the North Korean winter an enemy that would prove every bit as merciless as the Communists by late November of 1950 United Nations forces were fighting for their lives the police action that was supposed to produce fast results and total victory had managed to lure opposition from the world's most populous adversary China as the front to its West was crumbling the tenth Corps faced a mounting challenge along the Chosun reservoir the Chosun lay high in North Korean mountain country by late November the cold there was blistering the temperature fell as low as 40 below zero and 50 mile an hour winds made it feel even colder everything the troops touched turned to ice engine oil gun breaches morphine and even their own hands and feet the ground was so frozen that digging a foxhole was out of the question one pastime to keep the blood flowing was a friendly snowball fight this was certainly not the ideal place to spend Thanksgiving but the troops made the best of it for Thanksgiving we were all served turkey and all the things that go with it it had to eat fast because everything was turning cold the gravy and then the mashed potatoes froze first boy you ate fast and all the time the snipers were shooting at us William Davis Hospital Minh Siberian weather and enemy insurgents had taken their toll on the troops the men had worn the same clothes for weeks and good meals were few and far between troops hardly slept in the sub-zero cold but in true marine fashion they pulled themselves together and prepared to mount an offensive on November 27th the soldiers were bracing for the worst having heard the reports of Chinese overwhelming units to the west the objective was to move around the western side of the Chosun and head north toward kangay where the North Korean government was hiding UN troops were concentrated in four positions the frontline lay at you'd Omni where marine regiments were preparing to lead the charge south of there three thousand US Marines were stationed at the base of the reservoir down at koto reef were 4200 men including some army infantry and British Marines on the east side of the reservoir stood another 2,500 GIS supply lines to these troops were in severe jeopardy since units below them were already retreating to ports along the coast but they were ordered to press on alone to keep the supplies coming they relied on one of the newest machines of war the helicopter choppers first appeared in World War two but improvements to their design and stability made them indispensable in Korea especially during that Arctic winter when ground transport was next to impossible on the western shore of the Cho sin the Marines crept forward from Uganda and found a solid wall of Chinese waiting for immediately strategy shifted from offense to defense and the regiment fell back to the village to brace for an attack it wasn't long and coming on November 28th 1956 Chinese divisions descended on udemy for three days the battle raged the Marines unleashed their entire arsenal on the Communists the Marine Air Wing flew bombing ones from carriers out in the Sea of Japan but it wasn't enough the Chinese had them surrounded if these men were going to make it out alive they would have to fight every step of the way their commander Oliver P Smith offered some famous words of encouragement gentlemen we are not retreating we are merely attacking in another direction across the Chosun to the east an even greater disaster was unfolding the army seventh division was cut off on a 4000 foot plateau surrounded and vulnerable anywhere it turned it would face a vicious fight some soldiers went AWOL often to the hills or onto the ice of the reservoir hoping to escape the trap a special task force was created to bore a hole through the Chinese and back to friendly lines task force faith took only enough trucks to carry the wounded and destroyed all the weapons that couldn't carry it set out on December 1st enemy fire came from all sides as if this wasn't enough to contend with friendly napalm fell a little too close for comfort the two lead companies were shelled by planes flying close air support the task force came upon a village swarming with communists and was completely locked there was no option but to advance directly through the Chinese blockade 2,500 GIS entered the town only a thousand made it through those that could drag their fallen buddies with them after 13 days of hell task force faith finally made it to safe ground the campaign along the frozen Chosin has become legendary in modern war history rarely if ever was the cold more blistering the enemy more unmerciful were the escape more precarious and the men who served there are joined forever in a brotherhood known as the chosen few general McArthur watched from a distance as his forces crumbled in November 1950 Korea would be his final crusade and a resounding victory there would have assured his immortality but that victory imminent just days ago was slipping away his frustration was immeasurable and most of it was directed at the Truman administration Truman had limited MacArthur's resources to prevent him from attacking China he imposed airspace restrictions that forbade us fighters from chasing Chinese planes beyond the Korean border and he limited the amount of manpower and equipment that was sent to the front macarthur found these restraints crippling on November 28th he sent a message of warning to the Pentagon we face an entirely new war our present strength of force is not sufficient to meet this undeclared war by the Chinese this Command has done everything humanly possible within its capabilities but now is faced with conditions beyond its control and its strength General MacArthur the relationship between the president and his general never entirely cooperative was disintegrating as quickly as the UN's field position like its advanced two months earlier the UN's retreat gathered momentum as it went the mass exodus of soldiers was eclipsed only by that of petrified North Korean civilians thousands were eager to defect their restlessness may have been inspired by UN sponsored leaflets like these that were air dropped over North Korean villages the leaflets warned of the dangers of communism and touted the freedom of Western ideals disgruntled with their treatment in North Korea thousands fled south meanwhile the Chinese charge continued as Christmas approached un morale was desperately low the men resented limitations being imposed by Washington their complaint which would be echoed 15 years later in another Asian conflict was that they weren't being allowed to use their superior force to win the war they like their general thought that if they only had better support they could have spent Christmas in Kalamazoo instead of Korea to make matters worse two days before Christmas their field commander general Walker was killed in a jeep accident the fearless leader who'd once told his troops if I ever see you back here it had better be in a coffin would go home and one himself Walker's successor was Matthew B Ridgeway a proven leader who understood MacArthur's zest for conquest and Washington's wavering enthusiasm he'd served in both climates in World War two he commanded an Airborne Division over Italy later he served at the Pentagon his level-headed wisdom brought a vital balance to the battlefield when he arrived at the front Ridgeway was startled by the somber mood he wrote to a colleague it was clear to me that our troops have lost confidence I could read it in their eyes in their walk I could read it in the faces of their leaders from sergeant's right on up to the top there was a complete lack of that alertness that aggressiveness that you find in troops whose spirits are high general Ridgway the Chinese onslaught only added to their misery by New Year's Eve the Red Army had crossed the 38th parallel and was closing in on Seoul Ridgeway ordered a retreat back to the Han River except for an arc around Seoul there his troops were clinging to the northern fringes of the city but they couldn't hold out for long seven Chinese armies were stampeding straight for Seoul and once again the UN was overwhelmed On January 3rd Seoul fell for the second time and by the next day the UN line had dropped 35 miles south of the capital well below the Han River the troops were almost back to square one in the four months since they'd last been here all they'd gained were casualties luckily breakthroughs in war medicine were keeping many of those casualties alive what many people think of when the Korean War is mentioned is a wild group of TV characters with names like Hawkeye BJ and Hot Lips but unlike their TV counterparts the real troops who served in Mobile Army surgical hospitals known as mass units couldn't leave the set at the end of the day they witnessed every cruelty war could offer in graphic to tell day in and day out around the clock during the war the men and women of mash were the backbone of successful field operations mash units made their debut in Korea each was a complete life-saving system that can operate close to the frontlines and shift position at a moment's notice never before was war medicine so close to the war here it is two and a half hours after this man was wounded and he's lying fairly comfortably now I would say in the hospital how many miles behind the lines is this is about 10 miles his mash is right on the 38th parallel right on the 38th parallel the surgeries on the enough Korean this where he has nads in South Korea surgery is in North Korea and the APRI a broom is in South Korea each unit was equipped with a helicopter fleet for air rescue paramedics and cutting-edge medical technology but the basic function of a mash unit was known as meatball surgery doctors did whatever they could to keep a soldier stable until he could be airlifted to a full-scale Hospital further behind the lines or even offshore rescue teams adhere to the golden hour rule they made sure every wounded soldier was carried from the battlefield to a mash unit in under one hour the teams relied on road and rail lines where they could but in the craggy terrain of Korea airlift by helicopter was usually the best rescue option the teamwork of helicopter paramedics and mash doctors saved thousands of lives medical teams in Korea saved 25% more wounded than they had in World War two they became the inspiration for the rescue teams in Vietnam in the Persian Gulf well now over here we see them starting to carry the patient to the to the x-ray room Oh big what's gonna happen uh he's gonna x-ray his leg left leg what's your name green Bobby green a you a medical Kerman I'm medical technician technician I see will he be back in just a few minutes he'll be back since the x-ray I'm boy things really happen when they bring a patient into a match it takes around 30 minutes to get an operator who a game between battles life-form ash doctors occasionally resembled the lives of their TV counterparts women served alongside men back Van it was the closest they could get to the frontlines once the front settled down in late 1950 one Valley ball courts appeared at mass units games helped to pass endless hours of waiting but when the wounded suddenly flooded in medics had to be ready for action some mash veterans remember performing surgery for up to 80 straight hours these doctors would do more operations in three days than they had in a year of private practice back home and the rules of medicine were quite different with casualties of war we were concerned only with getting the kid out of here alive enough for someone else to reconstruct him up to a point we were concerned with fingers hands arms and legs but sometimes we deliberately sacrificed a leg to save a life we may lose a leg because if we spend an extra hour trying to save it another guy would die waiting dr. Richard Hooker mash rescue operations were like a well-oiled machine they were a vital part of keeping UN lines stacked with able-bodied men after being patched up the more critical patients boarded another helicopter bound for a permanent hospital those less seriously injured went back to the front to fight with the Chinese attacking that front from all angles UN forces needed every soldier it could gift by January of 1951 the Chinese had pushed United Nations forces back to the drawing board with a frightening display of manpower but they were quickly running out of steam they were overextended and in dire need of supplies they wouldn't be able to sustain an offensive much longer commander Ridgeway was confident the days of retreat would soon be over I find it difficult to understand the motives the Chinese communist leaders in continuing their aggression surely by now it must be clear to them beyond any shadow of doubt that they are incapable with their own resources of destroying the United Nations forces in Korea or of driving them into the sea as they continue to boast they will the general launched a task force named Operation Wolf found to investigate the communist weakness it set out north in the direction of Seoul the team made it all the way to Suwon halfway back to the capital before it found any strong Chinese force Air Force pilots overhead reported that the enemy was moving north instead of South the abrupt turnaround was mysterious Ridgeway decided the time was right for a full-scale offensive he commissioned an operation designed to push the Chinese back to Seoul and beyond on January 25th operation Thunderbolt was unleashed the troops charged forward and sent the Communists scrambling for cover within days they recaptured Incheon and Kimpo airfield taking both without a struggle by February the men found themselves looking triumphantly across the Han at Seoul as they had five months earlier no one could explain the sudden reversal of fortune but general Ridgway was determined to do all he could to exploit it his battle strategy recalled Napoleon's famous command never mind towns bring me prisoners Ridgeway was more concerned with destroying the Chinese army than with regaining territory under his watch curry would become a showdown between expendable UN firepower and expendable Chinese manpower but neither could compete with the wrath of Mother Nature in February mud from heavy rains blanketed Central Korea both sides were stuck in the quagmire the weather stalled the UN advanced but the Chinese were crippled by it their supply lines were wracked from above by Mother Nature and the American Air Force and they were dangerously malnourished as the famous military saying goes an army marches on its stomach and with Chow always on hand UN stomachs were satisfied UN spirits were high thanks in part to a new five-day are in our program that gave them a vacation from the front GIS were shipped off in groups to Japan where they took full advantage of their mini vacations treating themselves to great food lots of sleep booze and girls it was just what the men needed to recharge their batteries for a renewed offensive back on the peninsula USO shows kept the troops smiling and singing between battles by March 15th 1951 the rejuvenated Forces nod their way back within striking distance of the 38th parallel all the way to Seoul's doorstep they bombarded the city limits with heavy artillery and pride the Communists from the city once again there was no celebration this time after four invasions Seoul was in shambles it was business as usual UN forces pressed on and reached the 38th parallel by the end of March it had been six months since the first invasion of North Korea and again there was a debate over how far this offensive should go this time President Truman wanted a settlement as he saw the first attempt at uniting Korea had proven to be a mistake and a second attempt would only waste more American lives MacArthur had a different view he insisted that the campaign against China be widened to include blockades of its coast and air strikes on the Chinese mainland Truman had had enough he announced to the world that he was firing General MacArthur this is the deepest personal regret that I found myself compelled to take this action Jo MacArthur is one of our greatest military commanders but the cause of world peace is much more important than any individual it was a shocking development and sent Truman's popularity into a tailspin meanwhile MacArthur came home to a hero's welcome he concluded his lifelong quest for immortality with a speech to a joint session of Congress old soldiers never die they just fade away I now close my military career and just fade away an old soldier who tried to do his duty as God gave him the light to see that duty goodbye with bigmac gone the war went on without him general Ridgway took over the Far East Command and General James Van Fleet was called in to replace him as field commander Van Fleet was the consummate soldier a colonel at Normandy and a staunch anti-communist he demanded an enormous increase in ammunition so his forces would expend fire and steel not men as the UN Arsenal expanded the communist lines contracted on the map their retreat looked like a massive withdrawal but air surveillance reports suggested the Chinese were recoiling for a massive second wave of attacks when they came the UN would be ready and waiting in the spring of 1951 a Chinese buildup was in progress in the Iron Triangle a mountainous region north of the 38th parallel UN forces sought to conquer the triangle since it would provide a comfortable buffer zone between the enemy and Seoul but its borders were heavily guarded and tough to crack far east commander Ridgeway knew the Chinese were planning a major drive from the triangle so he assumed a conservative offensive strategy and the approaches to it after facing the Chinese for six months his troops knew how they operated they would come hard and then suddenly not at all they were vicious fighters but only in spurts so Ridgeway drew a series of lines leading up to the Iron Triangle that would mark the stages of his planned advance when the troops reached one line they would use it as a jumping-off point to put on for the next if they had to fall back the previous line would be a place to stop and shore up defenses so that the retreat wouldn't pick up speed each line was named for an American State the Eighth Army had recently conquered the Idaho Line and was now standing along the Kansas line a few miles above the 38th parallel the next goal would be the Utah line an extension of the Kansas finally the Wyoming line lay at the base of the iron triangle whether going or coming along that grid the UN goal was to butcher the enemy in massive numbers by late April UN forces were holding the Utah line and pushing hard to reach Wyoming then the second Chinese waves suddenly broke on April 22nd heavy attacks came against the weaker South Korean units in the center of the peninsula the Reds again threatened to split the UN front and to but the new phase line retreat strategy worked the Eighth Army fell back to the Kansas line and dug in deep there they held hard and took everything the Chinese could offer within a week the enemy ran low on supplies and Men and suffered huge losses for an insignificant piece of land to the American troops who had seen their adversaries run out of gas after all of their previous attacks this was no surprise the Communists were getting predictable two weeks later the Chinese tried one last major offensive but this time field commander Van Fleet had a special treat for them he ordered an unprecedented barrage of heavy artillery in a single 24-hour period one battalion fired off more than 12 thousand rounds an all-time record teams of troops operated an assembly line of ammunition sending an endless succession of shells airborne 35,000 Chinese were killed or wounded at a cost of only 900 UN servicemen the bombardment is remembered today as the VanFleet load the generals aim to expend steel not men had come to fruition UN firepower was beating red manpower in June van fleets forces made it to the Wyoming line their advance was moving so fast that they over an active communist bases and took thousands of prisoners and supplies as they went but when they tried to break into the Iron Triangle itself they collided with a steel wall of enemy resistance it took ten days of round-the-clock air support and artillery attacks to break into the triangles base but once they cracked the foundation the whole house collapsed to tank forces drove northward and took full control of the triangle putting the UN in their best position since the Chinese entered the war it was an ideal field position to bring to the truce table total victory over the Chinese might take years and cost countless American lives so Ridgeway wired Washington to say that time to talk peace was now President Truman and his Joint Chiefs concurred it was time to extend the olive branch at the end of June 1951 the United Nations offered to talk peace with North Korea two days later the Communists replied in kind it was encouraging news for the talks the truce team settled on the tiny village of Panmunjom between enemy lines right away it was obvious that the negotiations would be as torturous as the war itself both sides came to the table acting as the victor pressing the other to make concessions expected of the loser their objectives differed drastically the UN wanted a new border drawn along current front lines the Communists called for a return to the 38th parallel the Chinese demanded that all their prisoners be returned even against their will but the Reds had slaughtered most of the UN captives they had taken of the more than 100,000 UN soldiers thought captured by the Reds only about 13,000 came back relieved just to be alive those lucky few told horrifying tales of torture brainwashing and severe hunger they talked about the Chinese campaign to re-educate them and turn them against the cause of democracy they were forced at gunpoint to speak out against America on the radio and they described prison camps where there was no medicine and rampant disease thousands went crazy thousands more starved to death across the frontline UN prisons were safer and better organized the most threatening enemy within these camps were not the guards but other prisoners Chinese inmates split into pro and anti-communist factions often their animosity toward each other turned deadly and the Communists back at the peace table used the discord in these camps as propaganda against the United Nations the talks continually broke down neither side would budge on anything and when progress stalled at Panmunjom tensions heightened on the front lines heavy displays of force were a way of reinforcing diplomatic sincerity the last two years of the war were a series of highly charged skirmishes fueled by impatience frustration and resentment but between the periods of intense fighting there were countless idle hours of waiting troops on both sides passed the time by reinforcing their positions barracks were built and foxholes dug all over central Korea the dirt from the foxholes filled the sandbags that were stacked to build bunkers and from these bunkers high in the hills troops kept watch on the enemy who was spying back on them from across the valley while playing the waiting game troops took photos of Korean vistas to take home with them when they weren't building better bunkers or snapping photos troops would write letters home or attend religious services praying for their lost buddies but never for themselves you pray for your friends that they might be spared for yourself you pray that if you're killed it'll be quick and merciful you never prayed spare me God and I'll be good it would sound selfish if you prayed that you wanted to be spared Doug Koch private first class in these hills if there was one selfish wish worth praying for it was to always hold the high ground and in the summer of 1952 the 8th Army had their sights set on the hills ahead of them if they could just advance to the next Ridge that would be enough until they saw the ridge ahead of that but the enemy had the same idea and for the last two years of the war the same few Hills were fought over until they turned blood-red among the most famous of the Hills was Old Baldy so named for being swept clean by endless artillery fire the hill offered a bird's-eye view four miles to the north and south in June 1952 a game of king of the hill began when the UN unleashed an operation to take Old Baldy the infantry stormed the hill amidst enemy fire and put its stakes down on top but the Chinese kept coming back with strong challenges after nine months of an exhausting seesaw struggle they were finally repelled for good soldiers all over the perimeter were fighting in clashes like these hoping to scare the enemy into compromise at the peace table but the talks at Panmunjom went on and off with no progress if negotiations were going to get anywhere UN forces needed to find a better way to put pressure on the Reds so they turned to their most obvious advantage air power if there was one unquestionable imbalance in this war it was UN air superiority from the first day of UN intervention in Korea until the final day of battle American aircraft pulverized North Korea ceaselessly from above most planes in the UN fleet were built during world war ii like the b-29 Superfortresses that still dominated bombing operations but a new generation of US fighter planes was gradually being introduced and kept pilots a step ahead of the enemy jet planes like the f-86 Sabre assured in a new era for aerial combat and quickly became the air wars main attraction they replaced slower fighters with a more aerodynamic wing design and they were faster and deadlier than anything that came before the with the world's greatest aces in their cockpits UN jets ruled the skies in 1952 UN airpower reached its peak strength the US Air Force had nearly 1500 planes flying missions that year and more from the Navy Marines and other UN squadron that summer a massive show of force was unleashed over North Korean skies meant to force the Communists hand at the peace table the air force descended on a remote corner of North Korea just below the Yalu where the country's largest industrial targets were hidden but this was where the Chinese had their only strong fleet of fighter planes so UN pilots were prepared for anything on June 23rd us dive bombers and jets launched an intense string of attacks on several major industrial centers the primary targets were hydroelectric plants Air Force sabers flew top cover on the lookout for Chinese mix while bombers moved in and hit the plants the attacks were swift sudden and perfectly executed when the smoke cleared two days later 90% of North Korea's electrical capacity had been destroyed these air strikes would stand as the most vital of the war and they didn't escape the notice of South Korea's leader syngman rhee the communist columns everybody knows that American planes played the most important part in this world air force barrages could continue to pound the communists until the day the armistice was signed but while they gave the UN's and leverage of the peace table they weren't quite enough to close the deal to do that would require a whole new deal maker Korea was the hot-button issue of the 1952 American presidential campaign with voters running low on patience the Democrats faced an uphill challenge against the Republican nominee legendary General Dwight D Eisenhower Ike had commanded Allied forces in Europe during World War two and had retired earlier in the year from America's most prestigious command even MacArthur played second fiddle to Ike Harry Truman had served as president for more than seven years and decided not to seek another term as the Korean Conflict entered its third year Americans were afraid the war would drag on forever and one the leader who could end it quickly in a late October stump speech Eisenhower managed to put their fears to rest I shall go to Korea only in that way could I learn how best to serve the American people in the cause of peace after his victory president-elect Eisenhower made good on his promise he donned army fatigues and met with troops near the front lines he ate rations with privates and listened to their thoughts on ending the war they were rumors circulating in the press that Ike would use the atomic bomb to force an armistice as Truman had in World War two to capitalize on the speculation Eisenhower started to drop hints that this was a real possibility up to this point in the war the Communists had been emboldened by the UN's self-imposed limitations but they took Ickes nuclear warnings seriously just three months after Eisenhower's inauguration the Chinese cracked they sent a letter declaring their desire to end the war but the wars finale would be as tense as its beginning the armistice took another four months to iron out along the front soldiers on both sides knew the end was near and wanted to go out with the best field position possible hostilities broke out across the peninsula in last-ditch attempts to gain ground the armistice was finally signed on July 27th 1953 more than three years after the war began it divided the peninsula along the front lines in effect giving the UN a small victory in the field our Tillery blasts kept rolling for another 12 hours until the agreement took effect then all was quiet more than three million casualties fell on the hills of Korea over the wars three years counting civilians and servicemen wounded killed or missing the land of the Morning Calm had been ravaged by death and destruction with participants from more than 20 countries fighting on one side or the other this struggle remembered by most as a minor stalemate was in fact a world war in its own right the global fight against communism that would last for 40 years began here in the wilds of this small Asian Peninsula but unlike the Cold War it provoked the korean war goes on to this day soldiers from both sides still patrol the armistice lines in central Korea things there haven't changed all that much since that spring of 1950 today Korea is the only place in the world where a war is officially being fought but despite Korea's lingering ambiguities the men and women who served there were among the bravest and most selfless warriors in military history their legacy is one of courage in the face of despair conviction in a time of indifference and persistence in the face of overwhelming adversity unto these brave soldiers we owe our deepest gratitude [Applause] you you