PART 1: David Attenborough on Darwin – by Nature Video

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British broadcaster Sir David Attenborough presents his views on Charles Darwin, natural selection, and how the Bible has put the natural world in peril in an …

Sonic 2 – Chemical Plant Zone Acapella

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An original acapella arrangement of Chemical Plant Zone from Sonic the Hedgehog 2. Catch me live on Twitch! ▻ …

The garden of Eden has been found! Where is the garden of Eden

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Where is the garden of Eden? Well this video might help with that question. Get ready to dig deep only using your Bible and see what revelations are ready to be …

Sir David Attenborough On God

Views:982638|Rating:4.78|View Time:4:33Minutes|Likes:9509|Dislikes:443
Some wise and honest words from Sir David Attenborough on the subject of God, Creation, Genesis 1-3 and Richard Dawkins (from In Confidence: An Interview by Laurie Taylor)

I've gotta put this to you because we're near the end of time but I know that you get letters emails and other people who I mean when you're talking now and you're talking in such a wonderful enthusiastic appreciative way about about animals about nature at the world out there and I you know that this leads some people to say why can't you just say this is all so wonderful and so beautiful therefore there must have been a design therefore there must be a God because you do exhibit or you know the type of emotion perhaps someone might display entering a very grand Florentine Cathedral for example but it isn't it that it's not a religious or that you're showing is it you know how how do you isn't it well is it religious you want to use the word religious about it no III shrink from the word but but I wouldn't say that that meant necessarily that you you demonstrate that the God didn't exist on the contrary but the intelligent because what there was you're being nudged towards is an intelligent that's a different thing yes the I have no quarrel with basic fundamental religious attitudes if I have a choral if I have a call well I do have a quarrel about the literal interpretation of texts fundamentalism I have a quarrel about people who think that the book of Genesis is literally true and my argument dealing with that is if you 150 years ago people living in Britain might think that was there in the account of creation but we now know that societies all around the world each have their own account each has felt the necessity to explain why it is that they're human beings are here now all these accounts differ if you go to Thailand it's they believed there was that the in the first beginning of creation there was a sea of milk there was sneaking it and there were demons pulling it and churning it and when the Kurds came out they told the human being to go to the aboriginals they believed that the human beings were coughed up by a giant snake which became a rainbow in the sky you can produce hundreds of how are you to choose them how which is correct if you say I'm only going to believe the one that my mother told me when I was brought up of my mother's knee and I'm not going to question anything else well then that's up to you but if you take a mores more general view and say okay you can't all be right there is actually an answer but you can look in the rocks and that and the animals themselves and the interesting thing about that is that it's all the same no matter where you come from whether you're on a stray Morrison or European or whatever then that's the one I go forward you don't want to go the full dog because I mean somebody like your old friend Richard Dawkins just go tadpole in with him years ago think Richard Dawkins would say look let's use I think you've destroyed yourselves an agnostic but he want to say look why don't you say that you're an atheist because if you say that you clear away all this religious clutter and people can then appreciate the scientific wonder of the world but your agnosticism I think is that it's what you say to the scientific Gnosticism you feel as a scientist you should never say you know yeah I I mean I I can't help thinking of when I have for example taking off the the top of the termite hill and I've seen termites in there all busying about building walls looking after the Queen caring for the pupae clearing the nest all busier Partizan then they're all blind and they haven't the faintest idea that I am there watching what they're doing because they don't have those sense organisms which would allow them to know that and I do sometimes feel that maybe I'm lacking in some sense organ I don't know whether there's anybody else involved in all this sort of thing and it's a it's a very confident thing to say that are absolutely sure that that there's nothing in this world that I don't have the sense organs to appreciate that's that would be my position and Richard I don't that would say well that's rather feeble that's not being very brave and the human maybe he's got a case

Making $35,000 Bonsai Scissors

When it comes to Japanese craftsmanship, knives often get all the glory. But in the city of Sakai, where traditional metalwork goes back centuries, there is one man who has built his legacy on something a little different. Master blacksmith Yasuhiro Hirakawa is the only traditional scissor maker left in Japan. Using ancient methods, Hirakawa’s legendary scissors can take four times longer to forge than a traditional knife. To buy one of his creations can set you back a hefty amount—his most expensive pair of scissors cost $35,000. For bonsai craftsmen like Masakazu Yoshikawa, however, it’s a small price to pay for the chance to work with the highest quality tools.

This Great Big Story video was inspired by Genesis.


#Japan #SmallBusiness #Bonsai

Got a story idea for us? Shoot us an email at hey [at] GreatBigStory [dot] com

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– [Narrator] When it comes
to Japanese metal work, knives usually get all the glory. But in the city of Sakai, where blacksmithing
goes back to the making of samurai swords in the 14th century, one craftsman has built a legacy on something a little different. Scissors to split paper, food,
and, of course, Bonsai trees. This is Yasuhiro Hirakawa, who
works under the brand Sasuke. – [Narrator] Hirakawa is a
fifth generation scissor maker, and he has been doing
it for half a century. He is the only traditional
scissor craftsman left in all of Japan. – [Narrator] It takes
Hirakawa a week or longer, working 10 hours a day, to
make a pair of scissors- three to four times as
long as making a knife; and that effort is reflected in the price. (hammering) – [Narrator] But what are you gonna do with scissors that expensive? To answer that, here's Masakazu Yoshikawa,
a craftsman of Bonsai. (cheerful orchestral music) For a master like Yoshikawa, a key in crafting perfect Bonsai, is the perfect pair of scissors. (hammering) (snipping) (hammering) – [Narrator] And Yoshikawa still remembers his first pair of Sasuke scissors. (hammering) – [Narrator] But for Hirakawa, he's only just gotten started. (hammering)

「Rivalries」: ZeRo Vs. Ally (A Smash 4 Documentary)

New information on one of the players featured in this documentary, Elliot “Ally” Carroza-Oyarce, has come to light. I do not support any of his actions, nor do I believe he should be excused from the consequences just because he was a top player in the community.

After discussing with close friends and others who helped produce this piece, I have decided to leave the documentary up. When this was produced the objective was to highlight and capture a moment in Smash 4 history. That hasn’t changed. Going forward, none of my videos will feature Ally.

Well, it’s finally here.

You know this was only supposed to be 10 minutes, right? Just some small thing I was going to do to pass the time? What happened? How did I get here? I’m still not sure. But now that it’s happened, we might as well enjoy it, right?

There’s no rivalry that defines Smash 4 more than ZeRo vs. Ally. The sets these two had defined Smash 4 story-lines for most of 2016 and 2017. The king had finally come across a challenge – someone who could not only beat him, but do it consistently. Ally could slay the one who had plagued every other player for over a year, and the encounters these two would have were riveting. The rank #1 and #2 players at the time. ZeRo and Ally.

This is their story.


Everything is in the credits, but again, shoutout to everyone who helped contribute to the making of this project. This video would not exist in this form were it not for you guys. Let’s send off Smash 4 with a proper farewell, and have something to remember it by.

All sources listed in the credits. Credit headers tagged with the [YouTube] mean that the name on the right side is their YouTube account name. @ tags in the credits are Twitter tags.

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ANCIENT ASTRONAUTS: Are We Alone In the Universe? Comercial FREE Movir Rental

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In Loving Memory of Zecharia Sitchin 7/11/1920 – 10/9/2010, and his Contribution to Extraterrestrial Research. In a set of 6000-year-old stone tablets, the Sumerians of Mesopotamia vividly describe cataclysmic planetary events which billions of years ago gave our solar system it’s current configuration, fashioning our own planet in the process. Sumerian records also mention advanced human cloning technology and the existence of an additional planet in our solar system referred to as Nibiru, which is currently unknown to modern science, and is the recorded home of our human ancestors, according to these ancient records.

Eminent scientists agree that calculations tend to confirm the accuracy of the ancient Sumerian creation story. Now unmanned U.S. space probes have photographed pyramids and other strange features on the surface of Mars, suggesting this was once the site of an alien space base. Join Zecharia Sitchin, author of Genesis Revisited and The 12th Planet, as we embark on an exciting new journey into uncharted territory; a provocative reassessment of who we are and where we stand in the Universe.

Includes the facts about these amazing discoveries along with a series of spellbinding interviews with researchers and the best known, most credible scientists in the world today. Packed with expert analyses, in-depth commentary, and stunning unforgettable conclusions.

Are We Alone In the Universe? – Genesis Revisited

Game Physics (in Assembler) – Computerphile

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Just how do you turn basic number crunching into a physics system for gaming? Video Games programmer Matt Phillips explains.

More info on Matt’s Project:
Matt’s Kickstarter for Tanglewood:
Thanks to The National Videogame Arcade:

Sega Game Coding in Assembly:
Assembly/PacMan Easter Egg:

This video was filmed and edited by Sean Riley.

Computer Science at the University of Nottingham:

Computerphile is a sister project to Brady Haran’s Numberphile. More at

so Matt we have had to chat with you before about assembler and the game that you're writing so what we can look at today we're going to write some basic game logic and assembly language first I'm going to show the basics of the CPU from a programmers point of view so let's invent a CPU it's going to have a logic core and because we're programmers we don't concern ourselves too much with that what we do care about the registers and registers are very tiny typically four to eight bytes of storage inside the CPU itself for the logic court to operate on so it's imagine we've got a register one a registered to and we've got the pc the pc is the program counter and that stores the currently executing line of code so if you imagine back to your basic days we would have something like 10 print hello 20 go to 10 so the 1020 are the currently executing lines of code and basic obviously base it would have a software solution for this but the principle applies the pc would hold the 10 so the logic core would fetch that line of code to execute it would then advance the program counter to 20 and then execute that line of code but this go to routine would inject 10 back into the program counter so the next line of code would then be 10 again so this logic call let's imagine it's attached to some pseudo rom some ram maybe a graphics processor or something along physical wires and this is what we call the bus so the logical can fetch memory about using an hour bus when it initializes it's going to immediately start executing code the program characters could be initialized to 0 at which point SAT rom in our pseudo memory map it's going to immediately start executing code from the top of ROM so let's write some assembly we can interact with the other two registers then so the first thing we want to do is put some basic values in these two so let's do a move command so we've got address 0 which is the top of run and this instruction is going to move the literal value 8 into register r1 so that's what that command would look like next line of code let's imagine these lines of code are two bytes wide address number two we're going to move the literal value for into register r2 and then as a third line address for we're going to add the two together so we'll perform an ab command we're going to add eight and four together which we're in r1 and r2 so we add r1 and r2 together and the result would be stored in our two so what's going to happen when the cpu starts up its going to initialize the pc 20 which is address 0 in the run where our code is address 0 is going to move the literal value 8 into register r1 it's then going to advance the program counter 22 which is going to move the literal value for into register r2 then it's going to advance the program counter 24 and that's going to add register one to register to it's going to store the value into register two so we would expect 12 and register at this point just like basic using the go to Thurmond go and you can jump the pc around so let's perform that out operation again so on a dress 6 i'm going to jump back up to address for and that's going to perform the add again so once this instruction is completed is going to jump to 6 and that is going to inject address for into the pc so that the next executing line of code is going to be back to four again so we're going to again add r1 to r2 which would give us 20 so that would add what was still in r12 what was now in our to after the last ad yes yes changes are explicit you tell the CPU exactly what to do is not going to change these register values outside of the code you've written here this looks really good for you know the basics of doing some sums and things now how's this blow when you get into a game and I can see this being a good good way for adding up the scores but yep certainly we are going to look at some very basic platforming code so we're going to have a pseudo player that's awful start a blank page let me first translate this to 68,000 assembler actually that's what I was going to do okay so the 68,000 CPU which is in the sega megadrive is slightly different to the cpu we invented here it's got 18 registers which run from d0 to d7 for the general purpose registers those is used for a lot of logic and arithmetic we've also got a0 to a7 which are address registers which we use for accessing parts of memory rom ram other peripherals on the bus 68,000 logical we've got d0 to d7 registers we've got the a 0 to a 7 registers we've got the pc just like our fake cpu and the status register here the status register stores the state of the CPU after the last operation it'll have flags inside it called the Zed flag and the carry flag the Zed flag is used to determine if the result of the last operation was 0 so if we had four in our 14 and r2 and subtracted the to the result would be 0 it would then set the carry flag we can use that to compare two numbers to see if they're equivalent it's also got the carry register which tells us if the result of the last operation was a positive number going negative so if we had seven in our one we had a 12 in r2 and we subtracted are two from our 112 is greater than 7 the result is going to go negative is going to set that carry flag and we can use that for comparison so we can compare two numbers and we can perform logic jump around to different parts of code depending on the state of the flags and the status register okay so we're going to translate our pseudo example here into real 68,000 assembly so the first command the move aight into register r1 will be a move and we need to add the size of the operation here and that can be a biter word or a long for simplicity's sake i'm going to use along a byte is eight bits a word is 16 bits and a long word is 32 bits so we're going to move a long word worth of data 32 bits it's going to be a literal value eight and we're going to use these d registers which are the general purpose or rhythmic registers so let's use d0 next slime we're going to move another long word literal for into registered d1 and add together we're going to add two long words worth of data register d 0 to D 1 i've used long list for simplicity a bite would only write the eight into the lower bite and this would be whatever was last in the upper bikes of that register if we were to write it as a word we would get 08 into the lower half of the reg and whatever was last used in the register would be in the upper half but I always really work with long words so this register would contain 0008 and the same goes for the add operation we're going to add 32 bits of data so the entire register is going to be added with the entirety of another register I'm going to type this back up into the pburg ER and I'm going to show this running in the debugger so we can evaluate evaluate each step as it's running and then we get to add to it with some basic platform player logic let's go some basic assembly language then I've got environment setup for 68 k assembler for the sega megadrive which includes a basic skeleton here the first thing we do is we define the start and the end of the ROM file for including in the head or later we're going to include the header file here and previously explained that the pseudo CPU that we made was going to start executing code from address 0 for 68 k it's very slightly different the CPUs not going to look for code when it starts up it's going to look for this table in the first 512 bytes of memory so the first thing it's going to look for is the address to initialize the stack value to and this is the one we're interested in here is the CPU entry point so it's going to start executing code from the address that it finds in this entry of the table rather than immediately stream address 0 so we can define a label here a CPU entry point and then back in our code file here we can start executing code from here because this is a debugger it's very slightly different to a standard program we have to initialize the connection to the debugger using this subroutine but don't worry too much about it so we can then start typing our code out so our example before was to move a long word literal eight into register d0 we were then going to move a long word little forward to reg D 1 and then we're going out of the two together so add long word worth of data d 0 to D 1 and that should assemble and we can fire that up them ok so let's switch the devkit on load up the debugger and then we'll load our executable we have done a video on the dev kit for anyone who's interested oh just give people a kind of one sentence on what this dev kit is its a sega mega-cd development kit which has a snazzy board inside 468 keightley bugging on top of that it's got the Mega Drive daughter board on top of that it's got the mega-cd daughter board this is connected to the back of the pc by a scuzzy cable to a nicer card which can interact with the debugger here we've got an old ms-dos based debugger ready to debug code so it slowly executable the first thing we want to do is reset the CPU and then we can bring up a source window here ok so we can set a breakpoint on the first line as f9 to go so that executables now running on the debug get here and it's showing us in real time the results of that operation so we're on this breakpoint here so the first instruction was going to move the little eight and to register d0 so if we step we can see the result of that operation here the next line was going to move a little for into register d1 we can see the results of that here and then we're going to add the two together the d 0 plus d 1 and the result is going to be in d1 so that gives us 12 in hexadecimal here so that's all working if you didn't use this literal word you might be just overwriting some part of that memory yeah you can write a long word a word or a byte of data which will use the first bite two mics or four bikes for the register the same goes for add divide multiply subtract etc you have to specify how much the registers you're going to deal with that includes wrapping so if you're doing a bike tad 255 would wrap around 20 if you're doing a word size at 65 k we're at 64 k would wrap around 20 again and it's not useful those things are useful in certain circumstances on yes tis yes because a smaller the operation the faster it executes on the CPU so you can do a lot of optimizations by doing by size operations instead of words or long words ok so we're going to write some basic platforming code imagine we've got a player at a floor and he has a positive x velocity and a positive y velocity so he is running and jumping and we're going to handle the logic back to move the player the first thing we want to do is to designate some registers for the player x and y position so if we initialize the players exposition a zero and to register d0 so play it x plus we can initialize the players y position zero and use d1 for that and then we can initialize the velocity values so in d2 let's store the X velocity something like 16 in 2d too so player X velocity and we're going to initialize the player y velocity to something positive because he's jumping so 8 in 2d three player y velocity okay so now we need a game loop so let's write a label for the top of the game loop let's call it player update and then we can start moving the player using the velocity so we would need to add players X velocity to the players backs cause so we're going to add do 220 we're going to add the players y velocity the players y position so we're going to add d3 to do one so then we're going to loop back up to the player update start so if we do a jump back to player okay that's going to continue looping forever so let's save and assemble that and see it in action so this is a discreet bit of code for handling where that player is would that be right yes this is a very tiny game loop which would handle the velocity applying to reply x and y position obviously stuff would wrap around this for drawing the character and all yeah there will be extras here for the graphics once you calculate the players x and y position you would send it to the sprocket X on Y position that's a subject for another day though okay so let's break on this line will run again and then we can break here so let's initialize d0 to the play x position 0 will initialize the player why pulse 20 we're then going to initialize the place X velocity to 16 I'm going to initialize the y velocity 28 and then going to enter this infinite loop here so we're going to add the players X velocity 2z0 going to add the players y velocity to d1 and I'm going to jump back up and I'm going to continue doing this forever and the loop would just basically make him move it will make a move for so he'll continue to move right he'll continue to jump up so he's jetpacking news jetpacking so let's add to it let's define gravity we would use the equate label and we'll have gravity as something like 8 let's define the floor height as something like seven I haven't use an odd number yet so in the player update before we apply the y velocity we want to apply the gravity to it so we can subtract long word it's a little so we need the hash again gravity from the player y velocity here before we apply it once the position has advanced we want to check if we've hit the floor so to do comparisons you want to watch the status register to look at the last state of the CPU for the last operation so if we do the subtraction one number from the other the status register will have a flag in it to tell us whether that number had become zero or had become a negative number so you want to compare the floor height with the players current white position if the result of that comparison was a negative number the player is below the floor so to do a comparison we would compare the literal floor height with the players wide position do you want and then we would jump to a separate part of the code if that condition was met so we do branch if greater than there's also branch of less than this beqa branch of equal there's also equivalent for unsigned numbers as well so that's basically saying if this certain thing is true then go to a different bit of code yes exactly so we start by comparing the floor height with a d1 which in the background would perform a subtraction operation but without writing results when he registers it would only set the flags in the status register state say if the result of that operation would have been 0 or would have gone negative and then we can check those flags with the BGT branch if greater than so that's just going to check if the value for the carry flag is one or zero so branch is greater than and then we jump to another label so we'll call this floor and then we'll define that label here above floor so we compare the full height with d 1 if that was greater than then we are above the floor and we're going to skip this line of code we're about to write and head straight to above floor so if that condition was met we are below the floor and in that case we want to snap back the players white position to the floor height so we move the floor height to the players y position which is d1 we also want to null out the velocity because once we hit the floor we don't want to carry on going down so we reset that register to their player what y velocity will be 0 in that case so let's assemble and run that and we can step through at one at a time so back in the debugger I've changed the initial x and y Paul so he's already above the floor for this demonstration so let's run this then initialize the exposition 28 we're going to initialize the y position 28 we've initialized the X velocity to 16 and the y velocity 28 so this time the first thing we're going to do is subtract gravity from the player y velocity so that sin that's down to four before we apply the x and y velocity so add d 2 to the 0 at d 3 to do one and then we're going to check if we are still above the floor so we're going to compare the floor height to the new white position and we're going to branch if it's above the floor which is still is so we skip straight to this line and then we jump back up the player update once again we subtract gravity from d3 which sends it 0 which means we've hit the apex of the jump we're going to add the x la citty at the y velocity compare a four-syllable the floor which we still are once again we subtract gravity to d3 and this now goes negative which means we're past the apex of the jump we're going to start applying downward velocity instead of upward velocity so once again apply the X velocity to the exposition the y velocity to the light position i'm going to start moving downwards instead and we're going to keep going until we are below the floor here so the floor height was set to seven the white position is now zero so this comparison is going to ring true branch is greater than above the floor which will fail there we go so we are now below the floor we need to snap back up to the floor height so we set the full height into the Y position you want and then we know the player y velocity qui don't want to carry on going down so the y velocity is now zero and then back at the player update and then forever we will always snap back up to that floor height and we are always on the floor so now he's still moving to the side but he's just staying on the floor here's just stay on the floor yes because gravity's are basically clamping him to the floor right yeah indeed from here on it's not tricky to add things like acceleration deceleration in air drag things like that and once you start getting into control pad input and stuff like that that you can then apply the acceleration to the current velocity and then have basic pad inputs we've seen on your game in the previous video that you've got bouncing balls in it and is that just an extension of this there's a very basic physics engine in there which is just an extension of all of this very basic collision detection is just comparison of numbers applying clamps or bounce or restitution etc you can build it all up like Lego blocks like this just learn one thing at the time and if somebody out there wants to learn this kind of stuff and they obviously haven't got the dev kit and all this old kit lying around where would you suggest they start to sort of learn these these basic bits and pieces you can do exactly the same thing using an emulator and there are some freeware assemblers out there you just need a text editor assembler and an emulation off you go some are better than others find one with a debugger built-in obviously otherwise you'll get a bit lost but all the principles are essentially the same is this whereas what's cuz he is yeah it pronounced scuzzy I didn't realize that it was such a widespread terminology I thought I'd get laughed at saying scuzzy so I said se SI but whatever thank you internet

Physics and creation — an interview with physicist Dr Jim Mason (Creation Magazine LIVE! 3-22)

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Can a physicist, who has a detailed knowledge of radiometric dating, really accept a recent creation? Find out in this revealing interview with physicist Dr Jim Mason as we discuss physics, dating methods and the Higgs boson ‘God particle’.

The Creation Magazine LIVE! TV program is a ministry of Creation Ministries International. With offices in seven countries and more PhD scientists than any Christian organization this program features cutting edge science that supports the Bible delivered in a non-technical, visually-rich, discussion-based format.

Related Articles:
Interview with Dr Jim Mason (
Has the ‘God particle’ been found? (
Should creationists accept quantum mechanics? (
Large Hadron Collider: Will a black hole swallow us? (
Physicist’s god talk (

Related Products:
Radioactive Dating and a Young Earth (
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Dismantling the Big Bang (
Starlight, Time and the New Physics (

Nuclear physics is our topic today on
Creation Magazine LIVE! We'll be sitting down with Dr Jim
Mason whose PhD is an experimental nuclear physics. You won't want to miss
it. Welcome Creation Magazine Live I'm
Richard Fangrad and I'm Calvin Smith and we're pleased today
to have special guest Dr Jim Mason Jim thanks very much for joining us on
the show. My pleasure. Alright so here's a
physics related news item. Just recently it was announced that Peter Higgs in Francois Englert were jointly awarded the 2013 Nobel Prize in
Physics now this was for, to quote the Nobel
website, this was for the theoretical discovery
ever mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of sub-atomic particles and which
recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at Sir
NSE Large Hadron Collider other there's a
mouthful I the this mechanism as it's a referred
to in the announcement generally known as the Higgs boson right that's the "God
particle". Given this nickname what should
Christians make of this discovery? Does this discovery have anything to do with proving or
disproving God or or what should we take away
from this? In no way and I'll explain that in a bit but
first, to me the Higgs boson actually provides a pretty clear demonstration of
the quite incredible design intelligence there is behind the universe. That is in
fact the Creator God of the Bible. But to explain
that we need to understand a little bit more about
what the Higgs boson is and where it fits in our understanding of what matter is and
how it works. But I think first I'd like to comment on
that nickname matter has, the "God particle" That actually came about when a popular science writer was writing in a magazine and
refer to it as the God 'expletive deleted' particle because it had turned out to be so difficult to find. The people at the magazine thought I was
probably an inappropriate way to express it so they actually did
delete the expletive and it became known as the "God particle" but since that time it's kind of taken on
on almost religious connotation it's considered to be somehow you know a superior particle with almost
supernatural characters but it's not it's
just a particle. In fact it's 1 of 17 particles that
comprise what's referred to in particle physics as the standard model. And understand what the standard
model is it consists of three types of particles they're called quarks which people
may have heard from and may remember the CBC program Quirks and Quarks Leptons and Gauge Bosons of
which obviously the Higgs Boson is the most recent. The bosons of which
there are now five are the particles which give us the four fundamental forces
that we have in the universe. Those are the strong nuclear force, the
weak nuclear force, the force of gravity and the electromagnetic force. Prior to the experimental
confirmation of the Higgs Boson probably the best-known bows on was the photon which is the particle its associated
with the electromagnetic force. Photons are the things that that allow you to see light and which
make digital cameras work. The other gauge bosons are gluons
which are associated with the strong nuclear force, and that's a real name
that's what the scientists call it, the gluon I just didn't make that up. And W and
Z bosons which are responsible for the weak nuclear force. So with photons, gluons, W and Z bosons have a theoretical explanation of 3 of the four forces in the
universe and the thing that was missing was a
theoretical explanation of gravity and and that's because there wasn't a
good theoretical explanation for the the property of mass, and mass of
course is kind of critical to the force of gravity and that's
where the Higgs boson comes in because it was the theoretical particle associated
with defining mass for all the other
particles. Now to understand how a particle can create mass for other particles consider this analogy. You got an
auditorium full of people who are movie fans and so the people you can consider to
be the individual bosons – okay – and this room full of people is the field associated with those bosons. And so
you got some well-known movie star comes in one door the auditorium and
wants to cross over the auditorium and go out of the other door. He's gonna have difficult time. Because people are going to want to get
his autograph and talk to him about this and shake his hand and all that sort of
thing, so he's got a heavy mass. He's heavyweight, heavyweight actor. Alright, make sense. So if you got somebody who isn't a movie
star who comes in and wants to do the same thing they can walk cross quite
unimpeded because they're a lightweight. So
that's how a particle in a field and can create a a
property. So that's the direct significance for the
boson then, it provides a theoretical basis for mass which in turn provides
the basis for explaining gravity. To understand how this
shows the design intelligence behind the universe we need to know a little bit about the quirks and the quarks… or the quarks and the leptons. There are six of each. Four for them are highly unstable so, although we can create them in
the lab by banging other things together they tend to disintegrate pretty quickly and
transform back into the 2 that are stable the two quarks that are stable are the
things that make up protons and neutrons which people are
probably familiar yes One of the leptons that's stable is
the electron which is the other thing that people are probably familiar with. The other stable lepton onto something
called a neutrino which is, people probably don't know
because it doesn't interact with matter very much. Now it turns out all the matter that we can
see in the universe is composed of neutrons, protons and
electrons. And all of the forces are comprised of
these 5 bosons. So here we have everything in
the universe that we can see, in a physical sense made out of just 3 particles. Cool. They're just designed in such a
way that they can go together to make all
the elements that we know, with the resulting features in the
elements, that they go together to make all the compounds that we know. Put the compounds together to make all
kinds of stuff like this and this and you and me. So God has designed these
three fundamental particles so that everything in the universe can
be constructed of it. If you think a somebody trying to design
a car, for example, there are lots of different parts in a car so To be able to design something so that you
can make everything with only three distinct
parts seems to me to be an incredible bit of intelligent design. That's amazing. Let's talk more about this in 60 seconds. In 2001 a fossil skull found in Chad electrified the world's scientific
community. Nicknamed Toumai this creature supposedly
lived when the human and chimp lineages allegedly split making it the oldest
human ancestor ever found. The leader of the team that
made the discovery confessed "It's a lot of emotion to have in my
hand the beginning and the human lineage I have been looking for this for so long a
knew I would one day find it so it's a large part of my life." But not
all scientists accept this conclusion for instance
Dr Brigitte Senut of the Natural History Museum in Paris dismissed the skull as a mere female
gorilla. With such conflicting opinions about the
same skull it does make you wonder, perhaps the
skulls discover let his emotion and desire for discovery obscure his interpretation of the
evidence. To find out more from Creation Ministries International visit our website If you've just tuned in we're talking with Dr Jim Mason a physicist about physics and the
creation/evolution issue. That's what we're talking about today on Creation Magazine LIVE. That's right. Jim it's great to have you here you know
many times creationists are kind of chided, well, you know, no real
scientist believes what the Bible says that the Bible teaches a young earth, a
six-day creation, how can you possibly believe in Genesis I mean, you've go your PhD in
experimental nuclear physics You talk about radio isotope
dating all these kind of things you must be interacted
with. How do you answer people when they ask you things
like that and say, well how can you then with what we're commonly
being taught, how does that fit with what the Bible says about a young Earth and a recent creation? Good question Cal I think the evidence from from other
branches of science like geology and paleontology in
biology and genetics are all pretty clear they're all exactly what you would
expect from a biblical account of creation. But in the age issue especially with respect to radiometric dating that doesn't seem to be the case. And
that actually gave me a lot of trouble initially with this whole concept. As a physicist, As a
physicist. However radiometric dating isn't all it seems to
be when you look at it in some considerable detail. For example, using a technique that is
intended to measure the age of a rock from one – a molten rock from when it gets hard – we get wildly incorrect answers. For example the lava that was formed
during the eruption Mount St Helens which was in 1980, they
get measurements all the way up to 2.8 million years for the ages that
rocks since it became became using that technique. Those rocks for only about what, 30, 35 years old. Exactly. So this gets traced back to one of
the assumptions, and the assumption in that particular one is that there is no of the resulting product, the
radioactive decay product in the rock when it became hard because it was hot
before hand. So they developed other techniques that are supposed to account for that but when these
techniques are used to measure rocks they get wildly different ages, and they
should all agree. Okay. So it seems pretty clear from
looking at the results that these things that there's something amiss. And you can trace it back to the assumptions that go into the calculation the calculations themselves are pretty
straightforward but they all make certain assumptions like the one about there being no end
product in the rock to start with. And if you look at those assumptions,
they are assumptions about the history of the rock and since no
one's been around to actually observe and record their history you can't know whether any of those
assumptions are actually true. There are assumptions about the amount of radioactive element and
and resultant stable element that are present initially there are assumptions about whether or not – it's assumption about a closed system that assumes that nothing's been added
to or removed from the sample during its entire existence. And you just can't know whether
that's the case and there certainly lots of geological processes that could could make those things incorrect. So it's the unreasonable assumptions, that no one can know, lead to the
inaccuracies in that particular dating method. That seems to be the case
certainly when you look at the results they're just all over the place. And
when you know what the right answer is you seem to always get the wrong answer. So when you don't know what the right answer is how do you know the answer
you've gotten is right? So you're physicist and yet when we
talk about radioisotope dating the physics involved in that, here's a
physicist who doesn't believe that this particular dating method indicates that the earth is old. We'll be
back with more shortly. Refuting Evolution is a powerful,
concise summary that explains where the common evidences
used to promote evolution in text books are wrong while at the same time showing how
creation is better supported by scientific observations. It will stimulate much discussion and help
students and teachers think more critically about the creation evolution debate. Particularly the overlooked differences between operational and historical science
and how they relate to the topic of origins Order your copy today Welcome back this week we're talking to Jim Mason, and we're just talking
about radioisotope decay rates and these
assumptions that are made, unproven assumptions where I mean the average layperson when they
hear an expert quote, well this you know this rock here this is
you know 35 million years old. They often just go, Oh well they must know
they're talking about, and don't really understand those assumptions. So just elaborate on that a
little more for us Sure. Many of the assumptions, as we indicated are about the history of the
rock and cannot be verified one of them which is that the
transformation from the radioactive element to the stable element has
always been the same as it is today, it has been constant, has recently been shown by several experiments to actually not be true in the short term right here
and now today. They'd looked in various
universities, looked at decay rates of well-known radioactive substances. Cobalt-60
was one of them, it was one I used when I was doing my research and they found that that rate, the rate at which that decays varies on an annual basis. It seems
to be somehow related to the distance between the Earth and the Sun or maybe
the rotation in the Sun or something they don't actually know. So many people were taught that certain
radioisotopes decay at a certain rate we've measured them and so if we start here we've only got
this much, you know there's this much difference we can
calculate that, we can determine the age of something. That's just the way people
have it in their heads. That's correct. The assumption is that it's always been the same so we can use that in the equation
and and get and "age". That's now been shown not to be the case. I guess that's like a clock that would run at different speeds. Right?
How would you ever use it to tell time? If the clock is constantly fast or slow
that kind of thing, so that's a problem with this particular dating method –
pretty much – one of the problems. That's great. What about carbon dating? People often
say, carbon dating of course has nothing to do with millions of years, it's a little different type a dating method than the
ones that do give those vast ages. What do we know about carbon dating, why doesn't it work either? Well, again it's based on a number of
assumptions. A fundamental assumption and carbon dating is that – carbon dating is used for material which is originally of organic
nature because it's it's sorta made from the – right it's made initially from photosynthesis of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere in to plant material and then animals consume the plant material and
incorporate the radioactive carbon into their biological tissue and so on And as they are alive and doing that
it reaches some kind of equilibrium. But when they stop then they're not replenishing it in the
radiocarbon starts to decay away and and by measuring the ratio the
radiocarbon to the normal carbon in the sample at any
particular time you can then theoretically calculate how
long that's been going on. But it's based on the assumption that when
that plant material was growing the ratio of carbon-14 to normal
carbon, carbon 12 in the atmosphere is the same as it is today. And if that's incorrect than
the calculated age is incorrect. That seems like a reasonable assumption are
there suggestions that it's not? I would submit from the biblical perspective there's a
great deal of suggestion that there's not. To start with we don't know because the Bible doesn't
tell us, but carbon 14 is not essential for life carbon-12 is but not carbon-14 so it's reasonable to assume that God didn't make any. So then it would have to build up in the atmosphere so during the 1500 years that
the vegetation was growing prior to the flood, that
vegetation that essentially got buried in turn into coal, there will be a lower
amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere. There would probably also be a higher amount of carbon-12 in the atmosphere because there was a huge amount of vegetation
buried and that all needs carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to sustain it and that carbon dioxide would be made
pretty much all from carbon-12. So the ratio
was quite different before the flood quite a bit smaller than it is today and
therefore the age would be quite a bit less. So if
we take the biblical history into account it makes sense that of data that we're
seeing in science. Yes. Some creation scientists got some coal
samples from the US Bureau of Mines and actually sent them away for radiometric
dating. Now these coal samples should have been between 38 million and 318 million years old and that instruments that are used to
measure carbon-14 can only measure down to a level that
corresponds to an age about 90,000. So anything that's older than 90,000
would not have enough radiocarbon to be detected. These samples all came back with very
large amounts of radiocarbon and all about the same
regardless of the alleged age of the coal. So the
supposed to be in a time scale that's much much shorter than
the millions of years. Yes. And they all had more or less the same age which is exactly what you'd
expect if all of this coal resulted from
vegetation that was buried during the flood, and grew before the flood. With a lower ratio of With a lower ratio of carbon-14 to carbon12 exactly right. Fascinating stuff will be back with more. Many claim that our eyes retinas how
wired backwards thus they say our eyes could not have
been specially designed because an intelligent creator would
have wide them correctly. But this claim doesn't make sense. After
all octopus retinas are wired in the supposedly correct way but this site is poor compared to ours
ophthalmologist Dr Peter Gurney has shown that there are good reasons
are retinas are wired the way they are in particular allows the photoreceptors
to be in close contact with two special tissues behind the retina that are necessary for regenerating the
photoreceptors and absorbing excess heat but these tissues are both opaque so if
our retinas were wired the other way you be trying to look through to opaque
surfaces which would mean you'd see nothing. And then the eagles have the same wiring
as us and they are renowned for their eagle eyes. Maybe the creator got it
right after all. To find out more from Creation
Ministries International visit our website Welcome back, we're talking about nuclear
physics and radioisotope dating and nuclear decay rates with a nuclear
physicist Dr Jim Mason. So glad to have you on the program today.
Now, there was a creationist task force that
was set up a number of years ago now to study
specifically radioisotope dating and they – some groundbreaking
research there that the R.A.T.E. guys (Radioisotopes And the age of
The Earth) R. A. T. E. What is the rate program and what is some of the groundbreaking research that they were involved in? Well, as you mentioned the rate
program was a group of creation scientists who got
together to look at this issue of radioisotope decay and what it implied for
the age of the earth. And one of the experiments they did, one of the results
that they found was a stuff we mentioned about carbon-14 So that was pretty interesting. Another very interesting work was some
that they did on some really tiny crystals called zircon crystals which tend to accumulate uranium when there are formed in uranium decays
into lead. And when they looked at the ratio of lead to uranium
in these crystals and did the normal calculations for radiometric dating it gave an age of one and a half billion
years for the zircon crystals, which incidentally were dug out very deep
in the earth by Los Alamos National Laboratory and
given to these guys to do the work. But what they also noticed was
that there was an awful lot of helium in these crystals. Now when uranium decays to lead it
produces, for each uranium atom that decays 8 effectively helium nuclei which
then get electrons in turn into helium. And helium is, if you like a
slippery gas, it's very small it's noble it doesn't make any compounds so it leaks
out everything. It leaks out of helium balloons. So if these zircons crystals are about one
and a half billion years old they should have had essentially no helium left in them and they had amounts of helium that would correspond to about 58% of the helium that would have been
produced by result of the indicated decay. Okay so if they're very, very old
you just said that there shouldn't be a lot of helium there. That's because in one and a half
billion years it would've been plenty of time for the
helium to migrate away, to leak out, to diffuse
out of the zircon. But what did they find? Well
what they did before they found anything was, they did some
calculations of the rate at which helium would
diffuse through zircon if in fact the zircon crystals were one
and a half billion years old, and another set of calculations based on
what it would be if they were only six thousand years old. And the difference was pretty large like
it was a factor a hundred thousand so it's not even close. And then they got some other zircon crystals from the same bore
hole and sent them away to a lab to have this diffusion rate measured and the results came back exactly
corresponding to the prediction based on a 6000 year old earth. So it's a pretty good indication from radiometric
dating, if you like, for 6000 earth, based
not on assumptions about original content or anything like that, but
about how fast helium diffuses through zircon. Completely unrelated. And the difference is, you can
actually measure the helium diffusion rates instead of just having that as a bald assumption, we can measure that. That's correct. That's very interesting. And one of the corollaries of that is that because that the amount of lead that was present it's a pretty
clear indication that there was indeed a period have accelerated nuclear decay in
the past. So that this assumption about the decay rate be in constant over
time is probably not correct, as has been demonstrated by recent
experiments. Incredible. So it kind of all comes together. Science shows that accelerated nuclear
decay was a very real possibility and that fits wonderfully with the
Bible and it means that the rocks that are measured via this method are all artificially older. Correct, absolutely right. Fascinating stuff, and we'll be back shortly. Creation Ministries International edifies the body of Christ by providing more than 30 years of Bible-supporting scientific research delivered through speaking engagements,
books, magazines and a variety of media much of which is archived on our website Did you know that if you read 3 articles on each day it would take over 7 years to read
them all! Such a wealth of information didn't arise by chance however we do this through the faithful prayers and
gifts from our supporters which also find ongoing research. Support
the building up at the church by partnering with CMI. Donate today at Welcome back today we're talking with
Dr Jim Mason and now we've been talking about radioisotope dating and how that didn't seem to fit with biblical history, but at the first of the show you made a actually quite a bold
statement when you said, well you know the evidence from biology,
genetics, geology even paleontology seem to fit exactly what you'd expect
from what the Bible says. Now that's probably a very shocking
statement to many people. They would say, really? I thought all the evidence pointed
evolution. And coming from a scientist. Coming from a scientist. So, could you explain what you
mean by, give us some the evidence that you feel is just so blatantly obvious.
Right, I'll try. I'm gonna start with biology
and here I'd like to quote a Nobel laureate, Dr Jaques Monod. I'm going to read this to make sure I get it right he said "But the major problem is the origin of
the genetic code and its translation mechanisms. The code
is meaningless unless translated. The modern cells
translating machinery consists of at least 50 macromolecular components which are
themselves coded in DNA: the code cannot be translated otherwise
than by products a translation. When and how did this circle become closed? It is exceedingly difficult to imagine." In other words, the
instructions for making proteins that are encoded in DNA can't be decoded unless you've already
made some proteins using those machines to make the proteins. It's the chicken-and-egg problem. Precisely. Or the CD in the CD player you have instructions for how to make a
CD player on the CD… How do you make the… Exactly. Now it is indeed
difficult for evolutionists to imagine how that came about because it can't
come about by slow and gradual processes. But it's perfectly in agreement with what's in the Bible. And then in genetics what we've learned about
multi-level codes is that they can't come into existence spontaneously, they have to be
created by something. And yet we have this incredibly
complex code in the DNA that we don't really understand yet, it's many, many layers and people, they say that happened by
accident. Now on the other hand we have the SETI, the search for extraterrestrial
intelligence scientists, who are listening to to radiation from the cosmos because
they say if they see a code it'll be an indication of an
intelligence behind the code. So on the one hand they say if
you see a code it indicates intelligence behind it. On the
other hand you got all this complex code in the DNA, well I just got my accident. I mean
come on. Actually they're contradicting
themselves in their own in their own worldview right? Correct. Okay, well
there's two great evidences what else? Ah, and in genetics again the geneticists tell us that, by looking at
mitochondrial DNA which is inherited through the female line that we have all descended from
one woman. Imagine that. With three sub lines. And by looking at the Y chromosomal DNA
it says we've all descended from one man. Now that's exactly what you
would expect from the biblical account of creation, with the bottleneck at the flood reducing it to the three daughter-in-laws of Noah. Right.
What else could there be? I guess it's just the fact that many
people just never been exposed to the arguments, I guess that you know
CMI, Christian Ministries is known for on the website and things like that. The website is excellent yes, it has all this stuff available on the website
and it's just a great source of information Tremendous. And even the R.A.T.E. material, I mean if you're watching you can go to type in RATE or get the RATE book there, "Thousands not billions" just brilliant summary of that research, fascinating stuff. creation dot com that's we want to
go to get more this information and we'll see you next time here on
Creation Magazine LIVE! Thanks so much for joining us. It's been my pleasure.

Candy Craftsmanship: Korea's First Family of a Classic Confection

Views:3561705|Rating:4.92|View Time:3:Minutes|Likes:43392|Dislikes:693
In Chungju, South Korea, Bong-Seok Kang and his family carry on a generations-long tradition of a sweeter sort than most: they make yeot, a taffy-like candy that dates back more than 1,000 years. Originally a treat for the privileged classes, the stretchy confection is more popular than ever among everyone, and Kang’s authentic version is based on a 140-year-old family recipe. Hand-pulling the candy to get the perfect texture and making sure that his yeot is never too sweet is a legacy of craftsmanship that Kang values highly, and all it takes is one bite to see why.

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(energetic instrumental music) – [Narrator] In Chungju, South Korea, there is a family carrying on
a generations-long tradition of making yeot, an old school Korean treat that is still popular today. (speaks in foreign language) – [Narrator] Yeot dates
back more than 1,000 years to the Goryeo Dynasty. (speaks in foreign language) (playful instrumental music) (gentle instrumental music) (moves into lively instrumental music) (speaks in foreign language)

Deep Water- A historical documentary masterpiece by Louise Osmond & Jerry Rothwell Trailer HD

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This is a stunning piece of film, now in the PBS collection, about a scandal involving a prominant Englishman who signs up for the first ever solo race around the world. No matter how many times you think you’ve figured this one out, the film always proves you wrong. This is a documentary that anyone should be able to love and be impressed by. Even if you don’t like documentaries… PLEASE sub my personal channel for my highly acclaimed and very popular original series The All Mixed Up Symphony Of Images as well as my favorite clips trailers and my own vlogs and reviews. This channel is a proud member of the TruthJunkieMikael network of channels. Devoted to promoting peace and changing hearts and minds through art and literature… Inside, we are all the same…

M2: Complete Works / MY LIFE IN GAMING

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M2: Complete Works dives deep into the history of Japanese game developer M2, who are well known for elaborately porting retro games to modern platforms. From their humble beginnings porting Gauntlet to the Sega Genesis by eye and memory to their releases on the Nintendo Switch, M2 has been involved with some of the most iconic game series of all time.

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My Life in Gaming makes documentaries, deep dives into retro console hardware, and more.

[ VO ] The 1980s and 1990s are considered by many to be
the golden age of Japanese video game development. Two decades filled with unforgettable
experiences such as Super Metroid, Sonic The Hedgehog, Final Fantasy,
and Resident Evil. The average western video game fan
may imagine Japan as a mythical place. A mecca of arcades filled with endless rows of
machines playing every game you could ever think of. Living rooms decorated with games and
consoles that you’ve never heard of. The streets of Akihabara littered with video
game paraphernalia as far as the eye could see. Take any given all-time classic from decades
past, and chances are high it was made in Japan. As the years waned on, and the industry changed,
many of the most influential Japanese game designers belonging to developers like Compile, Treasure, and SNK have found a
new home at a company called M2. Their unique passion and understanding of classic video
games have positioned M2 one of the industry’s top players when it comes to keeping gaming history
alive and playable for the gamers of today. [ VO ] By the early 90s, the 16-bit home
console generation was in full swing. Arcade games the world could now be played at home, and
Japanese game development continued to rise to new heights. [ HORII ] Breakout made a
huge impression on me, and when Space Invaders
came out, seeing those games there at the game
center, even when I didn’t have any money and
was just standing there watching… it was then
that the whole concept of a “video game,” this interactive entertainment
with a monitor, really hit me. It made an impact on me that
has lasted my whole life. When I turned 20, I was asking myself
what I should do with my life, and I realized I wanted to live a
life that was surrounded by video games. When I asked myself what
work would allow for that, the answer was obvious: making games.
And so I started my own company. [ VO ] In an apartment far outside
the bustling streets of Tokyo in the Chiba Prefecture city of Abiko, Horii, pulled together
a small team of programmers interested in making video games. They called themselves M2. [ HORII ] There’s not really a special message behind it, but I just thought it was cool to have
two words with “M” together in the title, that could stand for
whatever you wanted, like “Million Message”
or something like that. [ VO ] For their first project, they decided to build a
version of Atari’s 1985 arcade dungeon crawler "Gauntlet" for the Sharp X68000 home computer. One of the most powerful game platforms
available to Japanese consumers at the time. [ ABE ] Initially Horii-San was
a friend of a friend of mine from high school. We became closer friends
through Gauntlet. I was still a student back then, and Horii
asked me to join him in the game industry, and so I officially joined M2 in
1996, where I’ve worked ever since. [ VO ] Whether it was for a lack of proper
programming knowledge or sheer determination, they proceeded to build
the game by eye and memory [ ABE ] At first it wasn’t intended to be made
for the Mega Drive, but for the X-Sharp computer. At the time I was friends with
Horii, the CEO of M2, and he said to me,
“If you’re making it, why not sell it? And if we’re selling it, probably the
Mega Drive is the best bet, right?” [ HORII ] The Genesis is very nice hardware. It took us about two weeks to
port the Gauntlet code from the X68000 to the Mega Drive and get
everything working properly. The big impetus for the development was
that, with the Mega Drive and the Genesis, we’d now be able to release
our games to a global audience. However, because a lot of the M2
developers then were still students, the attitude was, how should I put it… well, we all had this drive
to keep going and going on the development until it met
everyone’s personal standards. So it was supposed to come
out in the middle of 1991, but for some reason, it didn’t end
up releasing until the fall of 1993. When we finally finished, I can
clearly remember being told, “Wow, you guys really take
your time, don’t you?” [ VO ] Tengen was Atari’s console publishing
division, which held the rights to Gauntlet. While they were impressed with the initial version of the game,
simply bringing an older arcade title home in 1992 was a tough sell and M2’s version of the game
was bare-bones and had no audio. It was close,
but it had a ways to go. A game engineer and product analysts
at Tengen by the name of Chris Tang had made a practice of drafting up ideas for game
features that could increase value for arcade ports, making them more marketable…
and simply better. [ TANG ] To us in the US, Tengen Japan
was a mysterious, nebulous entity and often didn’t know who
was doing the developing. [ VO ] Tang was impressed with the build of Gauntlet,
but he knew that it would need something more. He proposed an original mode, which would turn it
into a fully featured action role playing adventure with concepts inspired by games he
loved such as Ys and Phantasy Star. [ TANG ] But even then,
the proposal was a long shot. As I was learning by experience in the industry that developers don’t
like doing extra work, so I didn’t expect any results from this. But a few months after we sent off our reports,
BOOM, from out of nowhere, we got a new version. I couldn’t believe my eyes when I saw that
quest mode had actually been implemented. But it wasn’t til I read a translated
interview I realized that that they, M2, were the ones that saw my crazy
proposal, took the ball and ran with it. Going the extra mile to make
a game better than it is. [ VO ]This willingness to add new
features and deliver above and beyond expectations would become a
key principle for their business. [ HORII ] There were four
people on the Gauntlet team. Two people outside of M2 also worked
on sound; they were from Quest, and had worked on Tactics Ogre, Ogre Battle, and
Magical Chase, so the music was really good. Then there was another non-M2
person who helped with the graphics, so I guess in total,
it was about 7 people who made it. [ VO ] Additional features
such as a four player mode, a password save system,
multiple endings and a remarkable soundtrack bolstered the overall
package, making it anything but a simple arcade port. When Gauntlet IV released in the Fall of 1993, it
drew significant praise from gaming publications. M2 began to draw the attention of some
of the biggest names in the business. [ HORII ] Gauntlet was released
the same time as Gunstar Heroes. There was a magazine for the Mega Drive
then called “Beep Mega Drive”, and they ran a feature which ranked all
the games according to reader’s votes. Gunstar Heroes was #1 and Gauntlet was right
behind it at #2, and this went on for many months. We were mad that we couldn’t dethrone
Gunstar Heroes, but thanks to all that, I spent a lot of time playing
Gunstar Heroes. Later, recognizing our proven
track record with Gauntlet, Sega came to ask us if we’d
like to make a Game Gear game. We offered a few ideas, and actually, one of them was
for us to make R-Type Leo for Mega Drive instead, but that was rejected by Sega.
If we were going to make a game for Game Gear, then,
we said we’d like to port Gunstar Heroes. [ VO ] On the Mega Drive, Gunstar Heroes
was the second game released by Treasure, a new studio comprised of many programmers and artists who’d left
famed Contra and Castlevania developer, Konami, just a year earlier. This run and gun shooter was a seminal
title for Sega’s 16-bit hardware, Bringing this game to Sega’s portable Game
Gear console wouldn’t be easy for M2. [ HORII ] I was a huge fan
of Sega’s Master System, and I knew that
system inside and out, so I also knew what you’d
need to do to re-create a reasonable facsimile of
Gunstar Heroes on the Game Gear. I knew it was just a matter of
conveying that to the programmers. Thankfully for us, the Game Gear
LCD has a huge amount of ghosting, so even though the sprite limit was very
low, if you used the ghosting right, you could make it
look pretty good. We originally thought we’d
finish Gunstar Heroes in less than 6 months, but it ended up taking about 14 months. At the very end, we had to rent a
weekly apartment and all cram in there. By the way, I don’t know
whether this is funny or sad, but in front of this
apartment was a Mos Burger… I love their hamburgers, but after eating
them every single day I got so sick of them. [ VO ] Despite the longer than expected development
time, M2 delivered a miracle for the 8-bit hardware. Although certain levels and effects simply could not be replicated, a
number of new levels and alterations were implemented as a replacement. Sega’s next task for M2 was to port the first entry of the popular
Sakura Taisen series from the Sega Saturn to Windows PC… and later assisting with
the Sega Dreamcast version. Because of M2’s willingness to go above and beyond in every aspect
of development, Sega knew the company was something special… and this would be the beginning of
a long and fruitful relationship. [ HORII ] If there is a difference
between M2 and other companies, it’s that our developers, while of course
they are making games because it’s their job — ultimately they’re all making games
because it’s what they want to do. It’s like their passion for games came first, and
the job was just something that came along the way. We have a lot of people like that at M2, who
had always wanted to have a life in games. [ VO ] Over the course of the next several years,
M2 would take to creating original games, designing programming tools
to assist other developers, and accepting a number of projects from
Japanese publishers on consoles like the Sony PlayStation
and Game Boy Advance. [ ABE ] Probably the game I had the
most fun with was Digi-Communications for the Game Boy Advance, because I
was given a lot of freedom to make it. [ VO ] By the early 2000s, Sega had pulled out of the video game
hardware business and PlayStation 2 was king of the consoles. The ever-growing team at M2 began to experiment with
new ways to use their expertise in classic games to bring their favorite arcade
titles to the home market. Up to this point, M2 had been rebuilding
existing games for new platforms, such as they had done with Gauntlet and
Gunstar Heroes – a process called “porting.” Ports from the early decades of
gaming tend to look, sound, and play rather differently from their original
versions, having been tuned to play to the target hardware’s
strengths and weaknesses. But with systems such as the PlayStation 2
being much more powerful than the consoles and arcade machines of years past,
a new option was now viable. By programming a software environment to mimic
the functionality of the original hardware, M2 could take a digital copy of the original game’s
ROM chip and run it on a sort of virtual system – a method commonly known
as software emulation. [ CHUNG ] I think in Japan, a lot of people look to
M2 for doing very accurate ports of these old games. And so a lot of these old fans, who can’t afford to buy the arcade board
or maybe don’t have an arcade near them anymore will look to M2 like, “Make a quality port for us that
we can play on a modern console.” And M2 will go out of their
way to add something extra. They’re very, very dedicated to it. I mean,
it's very anal actually how dedicated they are. So I think they have the right
mindset and right approach. They’re definitely taking the time to do it, and
working with original creators to get it right. [ VO ] Coaxing a system to act as a totally
different console through software is no easy task, requiring not only a deep understanding of how the
software interacts with its original hardware, but also clever programming to minimize
side-effects such as input latency. [ NAITO ] The programmers who
created the emulation at M2 are… geniuses. They’re super-geniuses you could say, on a
level that’s honestly hard to even believe sometimes. I know about 5 of them personally at
M2, and there may be more. It’s kind of like, there are geniuses
dotted all over Japan, but when they all come together in one place like at M2,
it’s an astonishing sight to behold. [ VO ] The idea of using emulation for
official re-releases was nothing new. California-based developer, Digital Eclipse, had
made a name for themselves by bringing several Midway games to PC and consoles
via emulation throughout the 90s. [ MIKA ] Like M2, to me is…when we talk about
what we want to do and what we try to do, M2 is a high bar for us because we have
tremendous amount of respect for those guys. You know, they always find some way to have the older games to
have some point of interest beyond just being games in a menu. And so you’d have like, dip switch settings or you’d have
all these kinds of things where you’re like, “That’s awesome that they’re putting that in there.” They’re
representing it in a way that’s authentic to the games. [ VO ] While ports often have a unique look and feel
due to having often been designed by different teams, the intent with emulation is to instead run the
original game code as authentically as possible. Yet the games M2 has touched have
an undeniable character of their own – epitomized by both a dogged commitment to presenting
the original game as accurately as possible, while hooking in surprising
new features wherever they can. [ CIFALDI ] These guys are kinda the gold standard
in emulating older games onto modern platforms. Stuff like the GIGA DRIVE, you
know, that stuff is brilliant. It's one of those things where I think
“oh, I wish we’d done that first!” But the emulation chops they have…the level
of weird detail is something we aspire to. But I dunno if we’re ever
gonna hit the level where we’re porting a Master System game
to vintage arcade hardware. [ NAITO ] Sometimes we
patch the ROM itself, sometimes we add functions and features
that weren’t there in the original game, and sometimes we create our own overlays to
be displayed over the original game screen. It really depends on the situation, and we
pick and choose the best approach as we go. [ VO ] From pure emulation, to rebuilding games
by eye, or a blending various techniques, M2 tailors their approach to
suit the goals of each project rather than simply plugging a ROM
into a “one size fits all” emulator. M2 has added widescreen support, stereoscopic 3D,
easy modes, challenge modes, special powers, – all while ensuring that the games behave
just like longtime fans know they should. [ KUBOTA ] Our company has a lot
of truly passionate enthusiasts. Even when they get vacation time,
they'll spend the entire time working on the disassembly of
some other old game. Then, when the vacation is over, I get back to
the office and see these new games running. That really surprised me
the first time I saw it. It was like, did you guys
even take a vacation at all!? So yeah, that kind of stuff happens at
M2, because we have so many people for whom this is
both their job and their hobby. [ HORII ] I don’t remember
exactly when it was, but the modern ports we’re
doing now for Sega first came up during their development
of Altered Beast for the PS2. They mentioned to us they were
wanting to add the original version of Altered Beast to the
disc, as a bonus. Hearing that,
we went ahead on our own and created a port for the original Altered
Beast that ran on the PS2 and when Sega saw that,
it was like, “hey, there’s these guys here who can
do stuff like this. ” That got us the work for Sega’s
Model 2 arcade game Sega Rally, and really began our history
of working on Sega ports. [ VO ] Bringing an accurate and faithful version of
the Model 2 arcade game to the PlayStation 2 was several degrees more challenging than anticipated, and
M2 extensively rebuilt the game to run on the console. [ HORII ] It was quite
difficult, as you’d imagine, working on the Model 2, but there was an
amazing programmer at Sega, Toru Kujirai,who I believe had worked
on Virtua Fighter 2 before. He had done the conversion from the model 2 to
the console for that game, so we took advantage of his knowledge and expertise, and thanks
to him, we got a quick handle on things. [ VO ] Sega Rally Championship
1995 on PlayStation 2 turned out to be an extremely faithful
version, with a number of tweaks enhancing the experience such as screen sizes and a
hidden expert mode for the hardcore fans. However this version would not see a release
until quite some time after it was finished. Meanwhile, Japanese publisher HAMSTER
contracted M2 to bring the classic Konami one on one arcade fighting
game, Yie Ar Kung Fu to the PlayStation 2 as part of
their Oretachi Arcade series… …at last putting M2’s emulation
to use in a released product. [ HORII ] There’s two
things that motivate me: first is that I’m working on a game I
really love and want to make myself. Next — and this comes much later — after all the
struggle and hardship and the game is released, and I’m seeing the players getting hyped
and enjoying themselves… I love that. It’s these two pleasures,
one at the beginning, and one at the end, that we work for, and also what we
raise our beers to when it’s all over! [ VO ] In 2003, Sega announced they would
be remaking a number of iconic arcade and console titles for the PlayStation
2, to celebrate the company’s history. This series was called
“Sega Ages 2500.” After the completion of Sega Rally, Sega
brought M2 onto the Sega Ages 2500 series, which had now transitioned from the remake
concept to collections and remasters. Work began on two initial compilations.
The first, The System-16 Collection, consisted of two relatively obscure
Sega arcade titles: SDI and Quartet. And Space Harrier II: Space
Harrier Complete Collection, which finally brought home a faithful version
of one of Sega’s all-time arcade greats. Even though Space Harrier was nearly 20 years old, emulating
the game on PlayStation 2 proved to be a bit tricky. [ HORII ] When we were porting
old arcade games for the PS2, the PS2 turned out to have insufficient
processing speed for the task. So we went beyond the main CPU
of the PS2 for the emulation, and we ended up using
the PS1 subprocessor for all the
sound and music. [ NAITO ] We
do too much. Probably the reason why
publishers want to work with us is because when
publishers ask us to do something, they’ll ask us to do “X” amount. We always deliver a better project.
X plus alpha. Even from there we polish
and give them better. Publishers want to work
with us because we very much exceed their expectations
of what we can do. [ VO ] Following these successes,
M2 was given the green light to develop additional entries, with each turning out more
robust and refined than the one before it. M2’s approach was clear: treat every title with
respect and stay true to the original experience. Comprehensive options for screen resolution, customizable
controls, and archival materials are just the beginning. Some packages even include both
arcade and home console versions. M2’s above-and-beyond delivery
for their Sega Ages 2500 projects has made these versions endure as arguably the best
releases for collectors to seek out to this day. [ NAITO ] I think it varies by director, and
this is from my own personal experience but, I focus a lot on recreating that nostalgia I
had when I played games when I was younger. Like even if there is something in a game that
is a mistake or obviously broken or wrong, I will do my best to include
that in the game as-is. For the projects I head up,
I really want the emulation to re-create the nostalgic
experiences of that time, just as players
remember it. [ HORII ] They were all difficult
developments in their own way, and I may only be remembering this one because
a new game in the series just came out, but Virtua On was
especially challenging. Getting the Model 2 emulation
working on the PS2 was tough, then we had to add the system link versus battles,
and there was also the split-screen functionality. And ultimately, we resolved
to get that all working so you could do split-screen battles
with just a single PS2 system… However, we had complete liberty with
that project, and those were all things we elected to add ourselves, so in
reality there probably was an easier way. [ VO ] The 33rd and final
Sega Ages 2500 entry, The Fantasy Zone Complete Collection, was
made to be the ultimate homage to Opa-Opa, who was one of Sega’s
most endearing mascots. Not only did this release include every game in the
Fantasy Zone series, including Sega’s home console ports, but M2 also created something
very special for this release. [ HORII ] I really loved Fantasy Zone, and I was looking forward
to see more sequels, but I thought it was weird
when the Fantasy Zone 2 came out for the Sega Master
System instead of the arcade. I played that SMS port a lot
too, but in my heart of hearts, I really wanted to see it
recreated on arcade hardware. [ VO ] Fantasy Zone II DX:
The Tears of Opa-Opa is the crowning achievement of
the Sega Ages 2500 series, and serves as a testament to M2’s complete
understanding of System-16 arcade hardware. [ HORII ] Well,
I should probably say something here about the System-16
board, since it’s related. When we first talked about porting
Fantasy Zone II to the System-16, the programmers said
that the System-16 didn’t have enough memory,
and we couldn’t do it. So my reaction was, well,
then let’s increase the memory! So I brought in a friend of mine who
knew a lot about arcade hardware, and we managed to add more
RAM to the System-16 board. Then I said, well, if we made a real board
it would be easier to program the game. The programmers were
shocked… they had been telling the truth about
the memory limitations, but they never thought we’d
go this far to solve it. But seeing as we had,
it was like–now they have no choice! And that’s how we ended up making Fantasy
Zone II on the real System-16 hardware. Normally, a developer
would simply re-create the System-16 sound, graphics,
and style in modern code, but we started out by making the PCB itself, and a
Fantasy Zone game that could run on that hardware. Unfortunately, we didn’t exactly have the budget
to create a single brand new System-16 game, so I ended up paying out of my
own pocket to make it happen, about the price
of a new car. [ VO ] By 2006, both Microsoft and
Sony’s latest consoles were focused on stepping into the high definition
era with Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. Nintendo on the other hand, focused on changing
the way we interact with games with the Wii. All three major platform holders
were now offering digital storefronts to sell and transfer games from the internet
to the console’s local system storage. Longtime gamers and curious young players alike
were enticed to connect to the Wii Shop Channel to download the games of yesteryear
from Nintendo’s Virtual Console service. Not only could players choose
Nintendo’s Classics but companies that no longer had skin in the console wars could now revive
their own classic game libraries for a new audience. As each publisher was responsible for handling
their own games on the Virtual Console, Sega reached out to M2 to bring their
iconic 16-Bit titles to the service. Because each individual game download
includes its own emulator package, releases could be tailored
to ensure maximum accuracy. Altered Beast and Sonic the Hedgehog were
the first in a virtual Sega Genesis library that would come to
exceed over 90 titles. Over the course of the next six years, M2 would
help bring additional emulators to the service. Sega Master System. Arcade. and the Japanese
exclusive computer, the MSX. [ HORII ] Of course if you had a perfect
emulator that could play every title, that would be the best! But that level of perfect emulation is very
difficult to achieve on today’s hardware. For now, then, being able to adjust
things per title is the best approach. Especially during the Wii Virtual Console
era, that was the right way to do it. [ VO ] M2’s attention to detail with classic titles
caught the eye of prolific Japanese publishers Namco, SNK and Konami,
who all wanted to bring a number of their classic arcade titles to the Nintendo DS
and the upcoming PlayStation Portable. [ HORII ] When porting
arcade games to the DS, the screen resolutions are
different, so to compensate, we have to figure out how to adjust the frame rate —that
is, how much time each 1/60th frame should account for. It’s very difficult, and there are many other
hard-to-describe screen adjustments we have to make. [ MIKA ] I’m a big fan of
Galaga, the classic game Galaga. I’ve played various versions of it and there
is one thing if you know the game really well, you know that the star field should never stutter. And
almost every version of Galaga, the star field will stutter occasionally because it uses two
processors to kind of deal with it. M2 on the DS produced Galaga
without star field stutter. I knew when I saw that, they’re doing something
because they know the intricacies of that game and they know that that should never happen.
And they’re doing it on a platform that has way less horsepower than all the other platforms it's on that do it.
They figured it out and they knew they couldn’t ship it without that. [ HORII ] For our PSP
projects, in the beginning, we didn’t have a chance to try
out the hardware ourselves. Instead we were relying on the
catalog specs that Sony announced —how powerful the CPU is,
how powerful the sub-CPU is, and so on. That was all we knew when
we talked with Konami, so we promised a game to them
based on those catalog specs… but when got our hands an actual PSP, we
realized that yes, the CPU can go at this speed —but then it destroys the battery life,
so you actually have to run it slower… and yes, there is a sub-CPU,
but we couldn’t use it… it was completely different from
what we talked about with Konami. We had to deliver that game
with only half of the hardware power we thought we’d
have, and it was very hard. [ VO ] In addition to being accurate
emulations, these releases include various enhancements such as extra
modes, toggleable bug fixes, and expanded video options. M2 even included
dip switches on a virtual representation of the arcade PCB for changing
various aspects of gameplay, letting the player take control in a way that
previously only arcade operators could. [ HORII ] It didn’t come out in the US, but working
on Otomedius G was a really great project. It was our first Hi Def project. The original
game was a little lackluster, graphically —that is, the original graphic
assets were created somewhat cheaply. I wasn’t sure whether we’d be able to
get it running at 60 FPS on the Xbox 360, but I really wanted to,
and I remember feeling very satisfied that we were able to achieve that with
the original graphics assets. [ VO ] Around a year and a half following the
launch of the Wii and its Virtual Console service, Nintendo began to add original
titles to their digital storefront, which were branded as “WiiWare.” Contra…. Gradius… Castlevania. These iconic series rose to popularity
throughout the 8 and 16-bit generations. As their graphical and gameplay style
has evolved in the intervening years, fans often look back at the
early entries with fondness. Konami was interested in crafting new
titles that paid tribute to the early games of these franchises for
the WiiWare service. The name ReBirth was given to signal a return
to each series’ classical style of gameplay. [ HORII ] Konami came to us
for those WiiWare titles, but everyone at M2 loves
all those Konami games. I mean,
we’re talking Gradius… Contra… we love those! And we REALLY
love Castlevania. From the moment that project came in, everyone
was super excited and motivated to work on it. I remember we were really nervous when
we made Contra and those Konami games. But WayForward had worked on Contra
Spirits, and that was a great game. We all worked really hard to try and make something
that would rival, or hopefully surpass, that game. [ VO ]Each of the three titles hit the
WiiWare service through 2008 and 2009 and were met with nearly universal praise, being
considered among the absolute best games on the service. Gradius ReBirth
incorporates level themes and iconic boss characters from
the series’ 25 year history. Contra ReBirth is heavily influenced by
the over-the-top action of Contra III and Contra Hard Corps. While Castlevania: The Adventure
ReBirth fits right in as a successor to the earliest action
platformer entries in the series – a real treat for longtime series fans who hadn’t
seen an original game in this style since the 90s. [ MATSUOKA ] I thought it was really fun to be able to work
with these really famous titles and while that was really cool, and this is a very
personal opinion, but I really we hoped that
we could make something was completely original that
nobody had ever played before. [ CHUNG ] I think for me,
Contra was the big one. You know, having a brand new Contra like this in
such a long time… I mean WayForward’s game is great, but having a Japanese Contra and
M2 being a really big fan of them… I think they were really really good.
It was great to see these titles again but I think it was really the hardcore guys
who really looked at and played those games. [ VO ] Shooting games had long been one of
the most popular genres in Japanese arcades and on home consoles.
Often termed as “shoot-em-ups” or simply “shumups” in the English-speaking
world, a typical shooting game puts the player in control of some sort of spaceship,
airplane, or flying character in an endurance run against enemies while the screen
scrolls horizontally or vertically. In 1993, Toaplan, a developer responsible for a number
of the most hardcore shooting games, closed down. Many of the company’s most prolific programmers
and artists then formed their own studio: CAVE. Thanks to a friendship forged between Horii
and members of Toaplan in the early 90s, CAVE hired M2 to bring the
tough-as-nails arcade shooting game Mushihimesama Futari
to the Xbox 360. [ HORII ] There are a lot of
differences between CRTs and LCDs. For one, the color output is completely
different. We do our best to get the games looking as close as possible
to their original CRT appearance, but ultimately, you can’t create the same exact
experience, only a relative approximation. But even before the screen issue,
a bigger problem with LCDs is input lag. I feel like figuring out how to reduce
that lag occupied all our attention. Compared with graphical
issues like moving from 4:3 to 16:9 resolution,
or mimicking the CRT look… those weren’t huge problems, and as long as
it looks “close enough”, that’s basically OK. But there’s no such lenience
with input lag: it’s either there, or it’s not.
It’s a never-ending struggle for us. [ MATSUOKA ] We have done a lot of
things where there’s tons of freedom, where you can basically change everything and you
can move the layout around however you want it. But we feel like all that ended up yielding
was a lot of weird and ugly layouts, so now we’re trying to make sure the
aspect ratio always stays the same, and that way things
will always look nice. [ MATSUSHITA ] In the CRT
era, lag wasn’t an issue. But with LCDs today you always have
at least a couple frames of lag. That lag is fatal for shooting
games, so we try to reduce it, or find some way to make it so players don’t notice it, and
in that regard I think M2 is top class in the industry, if I do say so myself. It’s one of the biggest differences
between the CRT era and today, and something we pay
special attention to. It’s one of the things I
most want players to see. [ MATSUOKA ] It takes a ton of
CPU power to reduce the input lag. And if you try to go too far, it causes
all sorts of weird bugs and mistakes. Right now 1-2 frames of lag is
the limit of what we can reduce. [ VO ] Having successfully porting
Mushihimesama Futari to the Xbox 360, M2 was hired to create the NEOGEO
Station, a label released in 2010 with more than 15 games available
for individual digital purchase. [ MATSUSHITA ] When I was there (at
SNK), I actually talked a lot with M2, and I was involved with
speaking with Horii-San with M2 for the PSP release of Orochi
and also NEOGEO Station. Everyone here just loves games,
I would consider myself a Japanese otaku. I’m a person who just loves these
games, especially from the 80s and 90s. When I came into M2,
I was kind of surprised! if you look at the entire
list of people at M2, I thought I was a huge otaku,
but I’m way down the list. Everyone knows way more and
they’re more obsessed than I am. So just talking to people here
is very interesting as I get to hear all these cool opinions
and bits of information. [ VO ] The NEOGEO Station releases have a
number of different screen size options, from stretching the image to fill out the entire width
of the screen to a perfect scale of the original. These releases play well and were just the beginning of a
string of similar digital releases for other publishers. The Sega Vintage Collection brought a
selection of titles as digital downloads for both the Xbox 360
and PlayStation 3. Although it turned out that this time, it would
be necessary to make a few small alterations. [ MATSUOKA ] See Joe Musashi
there, in Revenge of Shinobi? We used my eyes! [ VO ] In addition to visual tweaks, these
releases also have exclusive challenge scenarios for each game, in which players
can share high scores and replays online. [ CIFALDI ] When we did Mega Man Legacy Collection,
I designed a feature called Challenge Mode where we remixed different parts of different mega man
games. It was kinda cool, like you’d be playing Mega Man 2 and you’d hit a warp door and
suddenly warp into Mega Man 5. That was directly inspired by M2.
It was inspired by me playing Monster World IV on the PS3,
where you’d play chunks of levels… and in some cases, you’d have power-ups that
you couldn’t get through normal gameplay. [ MATSUSHITA ] One thing that I
thought was really unique about M2 – mostly in the game industry
there’s a budget, and you’re always working within that budget
and about taking things away. “We have this much time,
we have this much money. We need to remove these features from
our ideas and just do this.” But for M2, it’s “Let’s do more! Let’s add
this, let’s add versus play,” and on and on. Amazingly, they actually manage
to finish all those extras, and it just makes me happy there’s
a company like M2 out there. It does make deadlines really hard to
meet, but it always comes together in the end
as a really nice product. In the game industry out here, a company
with this much technical skill and this much motivation to create things is really rare. I
really wanted to be a part of this company. [ VO ] The Spelunker Collection from
Tozai Games brought various entries in Timothy Martin’s influential
series to the PlayStation 3. [ MATSUOKA ] I also made a vintage screen
option which made the colors run a little bit, and look a little smudgy, to replicate
the experience of playing on a CRT. I had a CRT here with the original, while I
made coloring adjustments to the PS3 version. I think the red is still a
little too strong, though! [ VO ] The Capcom Arcade Cabinet compiled
several of the publisher’s earliest titles, complete with a casual mode for new players not
accustomed to the punishing arcade difficulty. [ HORII ] This one was a no-brainer: we
played all those games when we were young, and have a lot of memories with them.
Our first goal is to re-create the original game
as faithfully as possible. Also, some of these games were just too
hard for us, and impossible to clear… and of course, now that we’re all getting
older, it would be even more impossible! So yeah, nowadays we try to think of extra
game modes that are more fun and casual, that allow people to clear the game
with a reasonable amount of effort. We also like to add arrange modes that
will help players clear the original game, by deepening their knowledge and experience
with various aspects of the gameplay. It’s a nice way of offering
a suggestion to players, “why don’t you try doing this.” [ VO ] In 2012, M2 released the
E-Mote middleware for developers. E-Mote stands for
“Emotion Technology.” With this tool, game designers could
pose and animate a 2-dimensional character’s facial and body expressions
much more easily and efficiently. [ HORII ] The E-mote middleware
came about from some tools we had created for UI development…
it was an evolution on those tools. We used them on Contra ReBirth
and Castlevania ReBirth, and the good animation for those characters
is all thanks to those tools. [ VO ] M2 was highly sought after by
nearly every major publisher for bringing classic games to the HD era, while E-Mote’s
use in the industry continued to spread. But following the rise of the Nintendo
3DS, they would soon be headed back to familiar territory…but this time,
it was from a whole new perspective… [ VO ] Since the release of the Game Boy
in 1989, Nintendo had an unbreakable grip over the handheld video game market.
Despite a shaky launch in 2011, the Nintendo 3DS went on to
become yet another success. The dual screen portable makes use
of a clever stereoscopic 3D technique to allow the player to see an image’s
depth without the use of 3D glasses. Early in the system’s life, Nintendo released a handful
of “3D Classics” on their eShop download service. These classic titles were rebuilt to take advantage
of the depth effect that the 3DS hardware afforded. Sega was impressed…and
inspired. Deciding that they should have their
own line of similar 3D classics, Sega once again reached out to M2
to bring this idea to fruition. [ HORII ] The 3DS is definitely
more powerful hardware than the DS, but most of that power comes from
the improved 3D functionality. On the other hand, though,
the 3DS actually lost some of the 2D hardware
functions that the DS had. For our projects,
those were really important functions, so we have had to emulate them
entirely in software for the 3DS. Honestly, when we first began
the 3D Classics project, we were unsure we’d even be able to get
these games working on the 3DS. It was very challenging. When choosing the
titles for this collection, this was our first time with the 3DS hardware, so it helped to
choose games that we were already familiar with. For example, with Space Harrier, we already
had experience porting It once before, and we’d always thought it would look cool in
3D, so the development went very smoothly. [ MATSUOKA ] For these old ports,
obviously the first task is creating an emulator. And that
emulator has to be extremely accurate. For the most part, it’s all emulation. But
when it comes to Sega’s taikan arcade games, there’s not enough power to fully emulate them,
so we use a method called “code conversion.” We take the original assembly
code and convert it entirely to C. It’s not really re-compiling the code,
it’s a process more akin to translation. If it’s necessary, we’ll do whatever
it takes to get it running. Besides, I think we tend to get bored if we
just do things the same way over and over. We like challenging ourselves,
like in Space Harrier when we reverse ported Haya Oh (the SMS final
boss) into the arcade version. Or in Outrun, when we added the whole Tuning system
that allows you to customize the car’s handling. I hope we can keep doing
stuff like that in the future! [ CHUNG ] M2, so I’ve supported them in
the past on their retro Sega releases. So, in some cases they didn’t have the data
for some of the games, so I provided it. So you’ll actually see my name in one of
the Sega Ages, right next to Yuji Naka. [ VO ] Then…
there were the Mega Drive games. One might assume that these would be easier to convert
for the 3DS compared to Sega’s arcade hardware, but this was not the case. Because
of the perspective used in games like Sonic the Hedgehog, there were additional considerations
such as the numerous layers of scrolling and depth of field. After experimenting with various approaches, M2 settled
on building a Mega Drive emulator that incorporates a number of special capabilities
– one being Stereoscopic 3D and the ability to give each
background layer a depth value. M2 dubbed this emulator the “Giga
Drive”, a play on words to suggest that it could have been a real
evolution of the Mega Drive hardware. [ HORII ] What comes after Mega? Giga! [ MATSUOKA ] In Japan the Genesis
is known as the Mega Drive, and we took that and added
3D functionality to it, so we somewhat jokingly call this
next-level Mega Drive the Giga Drive. If you went one step further I
guess you’d have the Tera Drive, but that’s an actual computer,
so we’ll just stop at Giga Drive! [ VO ] Thus, instead of porting the
Mega Drive titles directly to 3DS, M2 made tweaks to the games so that they would
work within the Giga Drive environment, which would in turn runs
on the 3DS hardware. Reminiscent of M2’s earlier work in creating
an arcade version of Fantasy Zone II, this roundabout yet resourceful
approach worked…but bringing each game to the Giga Drive came
with its own set of challenges. From Ecco the Dolphin’s
immense map size… to Shinobi 3’s vertically
scrolling background… the capabilities of the Giga Drive
expanded and evolved with each new release. [ MATSUOKA ] The other 3D classics
games were all difficult, but Gunstar Heroes, in particular,
has so many different stages and scenes, all with unique graphical assets, that all had
to be handled individually for 3D conversion. Volume-wise, it was a crazy
amount of work. So we had Mr. Sawai, our best Giga Drive
programmer, work on it… and it took him 14 months to port it,
and to convert all those assets into 3D. Streets of Rage was especially
challenging — we wanted to represent the back wall, the floor,
and the foreground objects with individual 3D layers,
but there’s only one background layer, so we had to draw a line and manually
configure everything for 3D. It was a colossal headache
for the programmer. Sound is one of the biggest challenges.
It’s probably the thing we pour the most energy into getting right.
For example, in Sonic the Hedgehog,
you know how there’s that whirring sound the spinning goal makes
at the end of the level? In the emulator we built, that sound didn’t work. It took us nearly
a month to figure out how to reproduce that sound in the emulator! We also spent a lot of time adjusting the sound parameters to
reproduce the higher frequencies of the Mega Drive correctly —it’s some pretty arcane stuff and I don’t
understand all the technical details, but they would remove the
low-frequency parts of the sound to emphasize the volume
of the higher frequencies. [ VO ] From 2012 to 2016,
M2 would bring more than 25 games to the Nintendo 3DS, with each one
arguably being the new best way to play these classic titles. Although the 3D
Classics were originally only available for download, they were later compiled into physical retail releases,
preserving these landmark versions for the future. [ MATSUOKA ] We kind of did
everything that we set out to do. There weren’t any games that we wanted
to do but couldn’t, at this point anyway. [ VO ] Throughout the production of the 3D classics,
M2 also took on a number of other projects. Most notably, creating the
Game Boy Advance emulator for the virtual console releases
on the Nintendo Wii U. In addition,
the playable classic Sega arcade games in the popular Yakuza series
were also handled by M2. [ HORII ] The staff
behind the Yakuza games… when do they take a break?
When do they sleep? They’re always, always working.
Those guys have my respect. [ VO ] With the final Sega 3D Classics
physical release on store shelves in Japan, M2 had a passion project that they
finally had a chance to pursue. [ VO ] Although niche, the Shooting
Game genre continued to endure in Japan. Hardcore players love them,
while others may appreciate their art and style, but find them
to be too difficult to play. M2 assembled a small core team
to create Shot Triggers, a series of games that would celebrate the
best of the shooting game genre. Updating games that had never seen
release outside of arcades, or had simply become too rare and expensive
for the average fan to have access to. [ FUKUI ] STG is a
somewhat primitive, or–how should I put
it–abstract genre. And I think that gives these games a
special appeal you can't find elsewhere, which we hope to convey to players
through the Shot Triggers project. [ VO ] The first title to appear in Shot
Triggers line up, was Battle Garegga, a vertically scrolling shooter from Raizing which
appeared in arcades and on the Sega Saturn in 1996. Each game included the typical
M2 flair: Additional modes… Scaling Options… Difficulty Levels… And art supplements to create the ultimate versions,
much like the Criterion Collection in the film world. [ FUYUNO ] The origin,
or you could say the "roots" of Battle Garegga
lie in an old game company called Compile,
who made Zanac and Power Strike. They were a famous STG developer. That's a big part of its lineage, and Garegga
merged that with another type of STG… you could say it was kind of like
a mixture of those two lineages, and it produced something very special. [ VO ] As Shot Triggers expanded
with titles like Dangun Feveron, Sorcer Striker and Ketsui, a core philosophy was to make these games accessible for
players who might not see themselves as top players. [ HORII ] STG games, basically,
are about using your reflexes to dodge, shoot,
and continually testing your limits. When you're there, pushed to the
limits of your abilities, your brain starts pumping out the
endorphins and it's a great feeling. However, there's a huge difference in the experience
that depends on the difficulty of the game, and basically, our goal with Shot Triggers is
to create something new that allows everyone, regardless of their current skill,
to experience that ecstasy of STG. [ VO ] Of course,
recreating an authentic arcade shooter experience for home consoles
comes with own challenges. But now, with over 25 years of expertise on the subject,
M2 is well equipped to handle the situation. [ KUBOTA ] Well,
we try to make the games as accurate as possible on the new
hardware, within reason. One thing we do a lot, for example,
is to measure the input delay frames on the original arcade
PCB before porting it to the PS4. But yeah, we always research those
things first as a matter of course. Then, if there is input lag
or it feels sluggish, our approach is to try and remove
it as much as possible. We aim for a final
product with no input lag. [ FUKUI ] For me,
I see games as culture. And I think preserving and passing on that culture
to the future is extremely important work. As to what that preservation
entails, I think it means recreating the functionality
of the original PCB perfectly, which thereby preserves the culture
that the original developers created. I think it's very important,
and it's one of the reasons we're doing the
Shot Triggers project. [ HORII ] Thanks to work like
this, here at M2 we're developing a real stable of
z80 and 68k assembly experts… and I have no idea whether this is a
good idea or not, but it sure is fun! I mean, it's 2018, and here we are training this group of
professionals on processors that are now 30 years old, so I do really wonder sometimes
if this is a smart business move. [ VO ] In 2019 and beyond, M2 will continue to deliver the kinds
of experiences game fans have come to expect from them… Whether it be creating enhanced ports
of some of Sega’s most famous titles… Compilations of some of the most
influential games ever released… Or perhaps, an original titles that only an
experienced team like this could accomplish… [ HORII ] Right now we're hard at
work on projects like Shot Triggers, which are games *we*
really want to play again and see brought to life
for modern audiences. But–and I touched on this
in a question earlier– in the future we hope people will
come to us with games that they feel equally passionate about, and that we
can work on those projects for them. [ VO ] Since their humble beginnings
in that apartment working on Gauntlet, the team at M2 have become an inspiration
to those looking to keep the memories, the nostalgia… and the spirit of the
golden age of Japanese video gaming alive.

DNA Genesis: The Children of Adam (National Geographic History Science Documentary)

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New studies on the genetic markers contained within the Y-chromosome have helped bring to light the story of human origins and humanities dispersion across the planet. This documentary, as part of the National Geographic Society’s Genographic Project, follows project director Dr Spencer Wells as he retraces that incredible journey.

4:1 O MANKIND! Be conscious of your Sustainer, who has created you out of one living entity, and out of it created its mate, and out of the two spread abroad a multitude of men and women.

Out of the many meanings attributed to the term “nafs” — living entity, human being, humankind, etc — most of the classical commentators choose “human being” unwarrantably tying it to the literal biblical account of the creation of Adam and Eve. The rendering of nafs as “living entity” in the above translation is based upon the interpretation of the great Islamic scholar Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905) — who preferred the term “humankind”. Its rendering as “one living entity” not only stresses the common origin and fellowship of the human race, which, undoubtedly, is the purport of the above verse, but also remains consistent with the Quranic descriptions of creation.

21:30 ARE, THEN, they who are bent on denying the truth not aware that the heavens and the earth were [once] one single entity, which We then parted asunder? — and [that] We made out of water every living thing?

As regards the expression zawjaha (“its mate”) it is to be noted that, with reference to animate beings, the term zawj (“a pair”, “one of a pair” or “a mate”) applies to both the male and female components of a pair or couple. The literal translation of minha as “out of it” clearly alludes, in conformity with the text, to the fact that male and female multicellular life has originated from a single primal organism, i.e. a eukaryotic cell or “one living entity”.

15:28 And lo! Thy Sustainer said unto the angels: “Behold, I am about to create mortal man out of sounding clay, out of dark slime transmuted; (29) and when I have formed him fully and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down before him in prostration!”

There are many references in the Quran to humanities having been created out of turab (“dust”) or out of tin (“clay”): both terms signifying the lowly biological origin of human life as well as the fact that the human body is composed of various organic and inorganic substances found within the earth. The term salsal (“dried clay that emits a sound”, i.e. when struck) is used in the Quran with sole reference to the creation of humanity: seemingly alluding to the distinctly human ability to articulate conceptual thought. This salsal is stated to have evolved out of hama (“dark fetid mud” or “dark slime”) while the participial adjective masnun, which qualifies this noun, signifies both “altered” (i.e. in its composition) and “brought into shape”: the term being rendered in the verse as “transmuted”. What we have here is a description of the primeval biological environment out of which the “sounding clay” — the matrix of the human body — has evolved in accordance with God’s plan of creation. The breathing of God’s spirit into the “fully formed” human body is clearly a metaphor for the divine endowment of human consciousness and, hence, of a human soul.

7:22 But as soon as the two had tasted [the fruit] of the tree, they became conscious of their nakedness; and they began to cover themselves with pieced-together leaves from the garden.

The change from the dual to the plural form of address in verses 7:24 and 20:123 (“saying: ‘Down with you all …'”) makes it clear that the story of Adam and Eve is, fundamentally, an allegory of human destiny. In their earlier state of existence human beings were unaware of good and evil and, therefore, of the ever-present possibility of making a choice between the two. In other words, they lived, like all other animal species on earth, in the light of their instincts alone.

Around the flickering fire, hominids danced and clapped and voiced distinctive sounds in imitation of bird song, animal calls and warnings. Voiced repeatedly, the ritual noises began to acquire symbolic meaning. The ritual followed the hunt and the new sounds were used for identification, coordination and preplanning. For gatherers, the sounds became objects, quantities, qualities and were worked into nursery rhymes. The intellectual was superimposed with the metric in ever greater ordered complexity until, about 200,000 years ago, “Y-chromosomal Adam” and “Mitochondrial Eve” were born with an advanced set of genes and awoke to the nature of the Spirit via the “forbidden fruit” of language. Designated in the Bible as “the tree of life” and “the tree of knowledge of good and evil” Genesis 2:9, contemplative thought and faith allowed modern humans to know and worship God marking a revolutionary new stage of evolution.

DNA Genesis: Children of Adam National Geographic History Science Documentaries

Naked Science – Comets

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Harbingers of doom or givers of life?

Comets, distant travellers from the outer reaches of our solar system, have captured the imagination of man and have long been shrouded in mystery. Now through Earth based observations and an increasing number of space probes, their origins and nature are becoming unveiled. Naked Science explores behind the legend to reveal what a comet actually is, what secrets they hold for our understanding of how the solar system was formed; shed light on the theory that they brought the building blocks of life to earth and their potential for wiping out life as we know it.

we share our solar system with debris leftover from the dawn of time thousands have comes hurtle around us at over 20,000 miles an hour they are almost impossible to detect until they are heated by the Sun they are blacker than coal scientists are racing to unlock their secrets comets hold the key to understanding the birth of our solar sea but they may also be the death of us throughout history these celestial bodies have scarred the surfaces of all the planets the power of their impact is terrifying they are capable of wiping out life as we know and right now there is nothing we can do to stop it the solar system eight planets circling a central star our life-giving Sun once thought to be a place of order from time to time the natural harmony of the heavens is disturbed when a strange light streaks across the skies an evil star a harbinger of doom a comet but the facts behind these erratic objects are far stranger than fiction comets have been flying around our solar system since its creation 4.6 billion years ago they may have helped shape our planets destiny and incredibly without them we might not even be here comets contain some of the most primitive material in the solar system material that has been there for 4.6 billion years it captures a record of what the solar system was like comets are important for helping us to understand our place in the universe comets givethe and comets taketh away they're both the creators and the Destroyers of life that's an astonishing claim but there's evidence that it could be true one thing is certain any object one mile wide crashing into Earth and over 20,000 miles an hour is going to cause major problems we only have to look at the dinosaurs to see the devastation a comet strike can cause 180 million years ago dinosaurs ruled the earth their reign lasted for more than 140 million years and then suddenly they died out most scientists believe their extinction was the result of a major impact 65 million years ago a six mile wide comet or asteroid hit Earth at over 20,000 miles per hour the initial impact at the force of one trillion tons of TNT it killed everything in an area of 300 miles enormous tidal wave swept around the world the impact triggered viral earthquakes and volcanic eruptions savage fires swept fast a trillion tons of debris is thrown into the atmosphere blocking out the Sun earth temperature plummeted in with light large herbivores and carnivores died followed by plankton and marine reptiles the Comets impact was devastating it's a process that intrigues planetary scientists Kari list dinosaurs were dominating the planet for 100 per 100 20 million years ago 265 million years ago to put that in context we've only been as a hint of the human race for three million years without an impact 65 million years ago reptiles would probably still be dominating the earth and mammals would be secondary or just small little creatures the death of the dinosaurs paved the way for mammals to flourish they were highly adaptable and soon became the dominant force on earth there was a sudden evolutionary boom as whole new species emerged one of these eventually was us in 65 million years is the last mass extinction impact scientists believe that one day earth will be struck again we don't worry about that tomorrow but in the next million years this sounds almost like science fiction but we do need to worry about it as a species if we don't want to have the problem the dinosaurs did luckily we have an advantage the dinosaurs never had we're smart smart enough to study our enemy and uncover scientific secrets that have lain hidden since the birth of our solar system today we have the technology to send fleets of satellites out into deep space to intercept comments smash into them even to land on them but some of the earliest and most revolutionary research into a comet was done using a simple wooden telescope in the 17th century a British astronomer Edmund Halley track the movement of these celestial bodies he correctly calculated that a comet observed in 1682 traveled around the Sun in a highly elliptical orbit returning every 76 years Hallie's research revolutionized comet science but he still had no idea where these mysterious bodies came from to understand this we will travel back in time 4.6 billion years to the very birth of our solar system we now think that in the beginning the solar system was just a thick molecular cloud of dust ice and debris spinning in space as it spins it collapses to form the Sun the leftover particles stick together in clumps which in turn form comets and asteroids over the next 100 million years gravity causes many of these to come together they grow to form over 100 proto planets then the most violent stage begins a fight for survival as whole worlds collide at the end of only eight planets remain one of them is the embryonic earth any comets that don't merge into a planet are cast out by the gravitational force of the new planets to the very outskirts of our solar system an area billions of miles from Earth we can't see this region directly but by studying the orbits of thousands of comets and recording how they enter and leave inner space from every direction scientists think comics must come from an enormous spherical cloud completely surrounding our solar system they call it the Oort cloud our best understanding of the Oort cloud is that it contains about a million comets and if you're standing on one comment your nearest neighbor would be 10 to 100 million miles away it's a strange existence these bodies have floated alone through outer space for four billion years in orbit so vast and slow that it takes them 30 million years to circle the Sun for this reason scientists call them long period comets a year comets are as black as coal and nothing like the bright tailed bodies we see from Earth but occasionally something happens that transforms their appearance for good comets in the Oort cloud are unstable the pull of a passing star can upset their equilibrium and send them plunging toward the inner solar system accelerating as they go for centuries man's observation of colors was confined to ground-based telescopes but in 1985 that all changed the European Space Agency launched the Johno satellite jatos mission was to fly 90 million miles into space and rendezvous with Halley's Comet scientists hoped to capture the first ever close-up color images of a comet the nucleus rather than the tail and unlock the secrets of its composition and of planetary missions and the European Space Agency is Gerhard Schrempf children was really an exciting mission was also important for the European Space Agency was the first planet television so to say and it was really a risky mission because nobody knew about it environment of the nucleus would the space got be destroyed in March 1986 djaro flew by the nucleus at a distance of almost 400 miles traveling at 150,000 miles an hour excitement grew in Mission Control as the first pictures of the nucleus streamed in it was ennum gated or 10 miles long four miles across showed a lot of structure and it also showed that the activity was really local this activity was gas and dust boiling off the surface of the comet jonno showed for the first time that gas production is confined to less than 10% of the total surface area the rest is as black as coal so what causes a comet to transform from an almost invisible lump into a whirling ball of bright white gas the answer is our Sun as a comet looms closer in size he cracks the surface and solid ice buried deep in the heart turns to gas in a process called sublimation the cloud of gas known as the coma surrounds the comet then powerful solar winds blast the gas and dust into an enormous tail millions of miles long there are so few particles in it that they could all easily fit into your average suitcase and still leave room for a change of clothes the solar wind is so strong that no matter which way a comet is traveling the tale always flows away from the Sun these tales can be very very long longer than the distance between the Earth and the Sun so a comic can be at the same time a very small thing on a smallest value the solar Sam in the very same time also very large thing throughout human history the appearance of a comet in our skies has struck terror people have seen them as evil omens the bringers of death man's fear of comics fascinates astronomer Don Yeomans fear of comets probably came from the fact that unlike the planet comets would appear suddenly they would look very different from anything else in the sky and they were disappearing this unpredictability has even caused war in 1066 William the Conqueror saw the appearance of Halley's Comet as a sign from God to invade the British Isles even in modern times comets have resulted in very bizarre behavior there was the incident back in March of 1997 when Hale Bopp a very bright comet appeared in the sky and these cult the so called Heaven's Gate cult thought that a spaceship was following Hale Bopp in the skies and was meant to receive their vessels or their bodies so 39 of them took a cocktail of phenobarbital and vodka and killed themselves we'll never know if the cult members bodies made it to the mother ship they didn't leave a forwarding address for most of us science has dispelled the myths surrounding cults and replaced them with a new kind of wonder our technology is now so powerful that we can probe these ancient bodies and through them read the entire history of our solar system what they tell us is how the earth first came to be comets are the most distant bodies in our solar system but astonishingly their story sheds light on our own comets formed in the earliest days of the solar system they carry vital clues to the origin of our planet to unlock the secret of a comet's composition scientists analyze them with a spectroscope a spectroscope works by breaking down the light given off by an object into its constituent colors each color is unique to a particular element by analyzing these colors scientists are able to infer that a comet is a dark organic compound of carbon hydrogen minerals and most importantly about 50% ice water a dirty snowball now we know the recipe Kari lists can build one in the lab these ingredients are clearly coming very common found on the earth and yet we see them also in comments and that's not surprising because comments made up the material that we see on earth so we're going to start with dry ice which is solid carbon dioxide this is dirt representing the rock forming elements we see in comets this is water which is about half of all the material in comets and the no cleaner which has methanol and ammonia in it minor icy species that we find a comet fun important and finally chocolate sauce chocolate is not finding comets but it represents the complex organics we see all kinds of amorphous carbon and pause and Tarim is like materials and our chocolate sauce is going to represent that because it's easy to work with just to start with a dry ice what's that in here dry ice is the same stuff that is used in movies in order to make them fog and you're going to see some of that come off it's cold next we're going to put in our rock for maleness represented by our dirt and we're going to put a good fracture then because they're about half of all the material we see in columns next we're going to put in our complex organics we're going to put in a dash of them because they're only about 5 or 10% window cleaner and finally we're going to put in our water which is a majority component there do have all the material in common with all the ingredients combined this gives gravity a hand and packs them together which is here is a common sea it's smoking or what looks like smoking that's actually the carbon dioxide subliming there's a little gas jet right there and comets do that as well and it is very much what we think is happening on comets and even got little patches of ice it loses about 200 pounds a second in fact when it comes in an early around the Sun and typical comet spends a few months near the Sun this is why they're still around after four and a half million years after being formed in the early solar system they just don't spend that much time bubbling fizzing most the time they're in deep freeze it's incredible to think that we can deduce the composition of bodies that are millions of miles away but we also know that from time to time comets come close to earth sometimes too close in fact in our planets early history it was bombarded by billions of tons of space debris including comets this is called the late heavy bombardment but 200 million years billions of tons of comets and asteroids traveling at over 23,000 miles an hour crashed into the earth the planet was a scalding cauldron of molten rock temperatures were almost 2,000 degrees no life could survive in such an inhospitable place a person were to step onto the surface they would instantly roast alive the impacts of objects coming into the earth made the surface so hot that life couldn't possibly form and water wasn't resident on the surface either so there is a mystery some scientists believe life began immediately after this period but you can't have life without water so how did water arrived on arid earth the answer may lie with comets in 1985 NASA discovered water for the first time inside a comet how we've led the investigation water is necessary for life as we know it and we know for certain that comets are predominantly composed of water plain old water which is a life-giver and this is one of the main ingredients of a comet nucleus but why didn't all the water evaporate there is one theory as the heavy bombardment slowed down the earth's temperature dropped and molten rock and the surface began to solidify any later comics impacting the earth would have ejected their water into the atmosphere all the time this rained back down onto the cooling earth eventually pools of water developed on the surface some scientists argued that not enough comics could have left the Oort cloud and found their way to earth to provide all our water American astronomer Gerard Kuiper theorized that there must be another source of comets in our solar system the area was named the Kuiper belt and the hunt began for over 40 years scientists scoured space then in 1992 astronomers made an amazing discovery beyond Neptune in an area thought to be empty they found the first Kuiper belt object discovery of the Kuiper belt revolutionized our view of the solar system no longer to the solar system and at Neptune and Pluto but there's a whole array a whole new region that contains you know hundreds of thousands of what we could what we're calling icy dwarf objects these icy dwarf objects are comets and they are billions of miles closer to the inner solar system than those in the Oort cloud scientists named them short period comets and think there are as many as a hundred thousand in the Kuiper belt some are as large as six hundred miles across that's bigger than New York City calculations show that the modern-day Kuiper belt is a shadow of its former self the number of objects originally present was 100 times larger than it is now making it a likely source of water carrying comet what is astonishing is that Kuiper belt comets are still delivering materials to the earth today it's no longer a bombardment but Comet dust rings down on us all the time and this dust is key to understanding our whole solar system formed as our planet moves around the solar system we sweep through the particle tails of comets the large chunks burn upon entry into our atmosphere some smaller pieces float to earth intact as space dust this dust is fascinating to science because it contains detailed information but how the Sun earth and all the planets in our solar system form but there is a problem when comet dust comes into contact with the Earth's atmosphere it changes chemically the record of the early solar system is damaged scientists began to search for a way to collect uncontaminated samples directly from a comment NASA's Stardust mission was born one of the two scientists behind the project was Mike szalinski actually be able to go to a known comet and grab a sample and bring it back to earth and have it survived all those processes was just a fantastic prospect the Stardust satellites target was comet ville – a Kuiper belt comet over three miles wide and traveling at over 13,000 miles an hour to harvest the speeding dust NASA developed a glass aerogel to catch the particles without destroying them they mounted the aerogel inside a matrix that extended from the satellite on a tennis racket like paddle the mission launched in February 1999 J the launch are out there watching this rocket and hoping that doesn't blow up at to the front I'm some nose in the wrong class second we have main engine start zero and liftoff of the Stardust spacecraft returning a time capsule with the elements the formation of our solar system so it's time to watch it fun to go I know that you know reach out your hands now got solid motor jettison all for solids came off once in orbit the satellite began its three billion mile journey to the comet to make the rendezvous Stardust had to orbit the Sun three times then slingshot past the earth after thirty years in development and five years in flight the moment of truth arrived as comet built to appeared in its sights tension and Mission Control was at an all-time high he didn't know how close to pass to the comet he passed too close and the green to so large they destroyed the spacecraft count too far away or concerning that in January 2004 Stardust blue 150 miles behind the nucleus of comet built to the paddle extended and a steady stream of particles smashed into the aerogel collector with its objective complete stardust began the long journey home two years later a capsule carrying the dust samples broke through the Earth's atmosphere three in the morning the very cold night and went outside and wash it reenter it was this huge fireball coming in 70 degrees and rapid brightening school NASA kept a very close eye on the capsule as it re-entered they could not afford to lose it quite a trail this is tremendously exciting to watch that to know that know there is our sample coming back and we just go get it now it's ours forever with the capsule safely back in the lab scientists slowly peeled the lid open this was the moment of truth at the mission worked here looked at it it was so clean looking our first thought was it didn't work we're in trouble you know it's for a screwed it didn't work and then only gradually begin to see these impacts covering the front of the aerogel know that it did work at the Johnson Space Center the job of analyzing the comet dust inside powerful electron microscopes began everyone's fascinated by these prime TV shows where the scientists look carefully at tiny little clues try to figure out who murdered this person that's exactly we're doing here we're looking at tiny little clues very carefully with a giant magnifying glasses essentially to understand exactly how the plants were born and how the Sun was born and what was there before that and just like being a detective , detectives olenski and his team have found grains that have been superheated they must have formed very close to the Sun in the earliest days of our solar system and then been pushed out to the farthest reaches of space look and here you see the particle entered here and then crashed into here basically expand it out either exploded or send it out and grains are trapped all along this bulk surface actually probably sign to be able to go in the lab see in there suspended in the air gel grains that are four and a half billion years old and basically our distant ancestors the Stardust mission shows that comets aren't just remote objects hurtling through space they are intimately bound up with Earth's own story in fact some scientists even argue that if it wasn't for comics life on our planet might not exist the earth it's unique in our solar system because it's covered with life but where did the organic material that makes life possible originated scientists thought these vital chemicals formed in warm tones on the planet's surface or they were hurled out from hot springs on the seabed but a growing band of researchers are looking at an altogether different source space in 2002 scientists discovered organics like simple sugars and traces of amino acids inside a molecular cloud in space these clouds are where comets form were the essential ingredients for life delivered to the earth inside a comet chief planetary scientist at NASA is Mike Mumma amazing thing about comets is that they could have delivered the basic chemicals necessary for the emergence of life and they delivered them in chip form this is still a theory but if a kit of organics arrived on the early earth via our comet then comets could have started life on Earth one of the most important factors in the survival of these molecules is the angle that comet strikes earth so if a comet comes in vertically all of its energy is deposited quickly and we can see this by just dropping a rock into the water click makes a nice big splash the comet hits the surface at high velocity and much of it is destroyed but on the other hand the comet comes in at a shallow angle it can actually skip in the atmosphere and some of the energy will be deposited on each skip and so it will slow down the comet and more of it can then survive when the final body strikes the surface this photograph seems to backup Mama's theory where these craters made by an object bouncing along the surface before finally coming to rest some science believe that only a small percentage of comets crashed into Earth at a shallow angle but the bombardment was heavy enough to deliver a significant amount of organic material every element in your body carbon nitrogen oxygen was formed inside a star it later was ejected from the star collected in an interstellar cloud and ultimately entered into a comet it was delivered to a growing planet in the form of water and organics and played a role in the emergence of life and that makes us a part of the comet the cosmos in turn if the secrets of our solar system's formation and the story of the creation and evolution of life on Earth were locked inside the frozen heart of a comet then scientists at NASA were about to find out in 1999 NASA approved the most daring mission to a comet yet this is the stuff of a Hollywood blockbuster it's named Deep Impact the principal investigator on the mission was Mike Ahern comets are a preserved record of what happened four-and-a-half billion years ago unfortunately that record has been disturbed on the surface layers of comets and you have to get down to the interior to understand what the data really are in the time capsule deep impacts target was comet 9 P temple1 a short period comet about nine miles wide the mission was to shoot a one-ton copper chrome from the spacecraft into the heart of the comet producing a crater over 400 feet wide and 40 feet deep scientists hoped that the crater would reveal for the first time the pristine organic material very deep insides of frozen nucleus of the comet deep impact hitting common 9p temple one was quite a feat of navigation not only do we have to get to the comet's orbit we had to get to the comet orbit when the comet was there like somebody on one side of the earth shooting a bullet and so many other side of birth also shooting a bullet and having them hit in the middle in January 2005 Deep Impact blasted off from Cape Canaveral scientists in Mission Control waited anxiously as Deep Impact approached the comet on July 4 2005 the probe hit temple 1 at 23,000 miles an hour the team erupted in celebration first thrilled was scared 6 years of my life for any reason gone wrong but it worked just beautifully everything was fine and it's a crowning achievement it really makes you feel wonderful the probes onboard camera gave scientists a ringside view of the comet right up to the moment of impact the blast threw thousands of tons of fine dust particles into the atmosphere much more than anyone expected the thick cloud of dust was a real problem it totally obscured the crater preventing them from seeing the pristine nucleus biggest disappointment with the material came out in such fine particles that we couldn't see through it if the material had come out with a lot of big chunks it would have been relatively transparent despite this Deep Impact did finally reveal the consistency of a comet if you were staying on this body that's gravity is so weak that you'd weigh about a gram you could easily jump off it you could walk into orbit off of this comet and it is so weak that you could actually burrow into it and burrow through it it's like the strength of lemon-meringue modern technology has revolutionized our understanding of comets they are no longer mystical objects of fear they are echoes of our solar system's earliest moments but these objects are still active today they may even hold the key to our future because comets are one of the very few things that could wipe human beings from the face of the earth human beings are the most successful species on the planet and some scientists argue we owe it all to the effects of comets striking the earth but what may have helped create life could also wipe it out completely every year the threat appears to grow as more and more comets are observed in our inner solar system eventually something is going to hit the earth we don't know when or how big the object is going to be but the energy dumped into these big explosive events could wipe out you know hundreds of thousands of people in fact if a comet just one mile wide struck earth it would trigger a global catastrophe the comet would rip through our atmosphere in seconds and crash at over 100,000 miles an hour the impact would kill millions of people but the chain reaction of natural disasters that follow would be far more devastating earthquakes would tear through the planet monster tsunamis would strike deep inland fire would destroy whole city a huge cloud of dust would obscure the Sun weeks after the impact the death toll would reach hundreds of millions with little clean water or food and our electricity network crippled the earth would fall into a nuclear winter in less than a year much of the Earth's population would be wiped out one day this could become a reality luckily Earth has a protector Jupiter Jupiter is the king of the planets it's 320 times more massive than the earth and so it's gravity is one of the dominant forces that interacts with comet Jupiter just basically can swallow them up either capture them into orbit around itself or perturb their orbits of a day they really don't come directly in towards the Earth in 1992 we got our first glimpse of Jupiter's awesome power as a Torah come called shoemaker-levy 9 into 21 pieces they came in at roughly 35 miles per second this is incredibly fast they went plunging drilling a hole into the atmosphere of Jupiter and then exploding and a whole bunch of material from Jupiter then was shooting out through that same same tunnel that was drilled into Jupiter's atmosphere and rained back on to Jupiter creating these huge impact scars the size of the earth the real showstopper was a two-mile wide fragment that struck with the energy equivalent to 6 million megatons of TNT around 600 times the world's entire nuclear arsenal witnessing an event like this really made us understand how tenuous our existence is if we get hit they could really threaten life as we as we know it impact events are now rare on earth but they do happen this whole movie taken in the Rockies in 1972 shows a small object bouncing along on the Earth's atmosphere before shooting back into space if it had broken through it could have destroyed a city this time we were very lucky but the people of Tunguska Siberia were not so lucky at 7:17 on the morning of June 30th 1908 a mysterious object exploded overhead the earth shook with the force of an explosion equivalent to 1,000 Hiroshima bombs the blast destroyed over 60 million trees across an area 12 times larger than Washington DC scientists now believe the blast came from either a comet or asteroid exploding three miles above the ground amazingly only a small number of people were killed if a Tunguska like event happened over a large metropolitan area instead of in the middle of Siberia it would have caused widespread devastation if Jupiter fails to protect us from an extinction-level comet is there anything we can do to protect ourselves Don Yeomans is the manager of NASA's near-earth object program the frontline of Earth's defense NASA has started a near-earth object program they started back in 1998 in an effort to discover and catalog and trace the motions of all the near-earth objects that could cause global disasters should they hit five observatories around the world and an army of astronomers searched the skies 24 hours a day hunting for comets and asteroids it's what we call a low probability high consequence event so well they don't happen very often thank heavens when they do happen they're catastrophic and so it makes sense to have some insurance against them to find them astronomers take multiple photographs of space over a period of time computer then scans the images and identify anything that moves against the background of stars once it finds a moving object the team can calculate its orbit to see if it threatens earth if one of these bodies is on a collision course there are a number of proposals to deal with it one popular method is to destroy it with a massive nuclear weapon but if this fails it could have disastrous consequences if the debris is not completely pushed away from the earth not only do we have then the same amount of mass and energy falling on the earth but it's now radioactive in addition so a very large nuclear explosion near one of these asteroids could conceivably make the problem worse not better another idea is to build a spacecraft that can intercept the comet and use powerful extendable arms to steer it into a safer orbit or we could attach solar sails to accommodate and harness the power of the Sun to gently pull it away from a collision course in the desert of Arizona Jay Melosh has an even more ingenious idea we should find ourselves threatened by a comet and if we know the orbit of the comet long enough ahead of time all it takes is just a gentle push to keep it from colliding with the earth I'm going to demonstrate how this might be done on this object a potato that is about the same shape as a comet Tempel 1 or Borelli and I'm going to use a solar collector this hand lens to concentrate the Desert Sun onto the surface of this in reality we wouldn't use a lens we use a mirror but this will work out here in the desert as I concentrate the sunlight onto my model comet you can see that we evaporate material from the surface of the comet the material burning off the comet by the solar collector creates a small jet of gas the jet produces thrust and over time this pushes the comet away from its collision course scientists are developing solar collectors but as yet none are big enough to push a comment away from Earth every year the near-earth object program finds hundreds of new bodies the good news is none of them pose a threat to earth in the next century the bad news is comets are almost impossible to spot until it's too late the problem with detecting a comet is that they're very black blacker than charcoal so they don't begin to show their cometary form until they're inside the orbit of Jupiter well inside the orbit of Jupiter and that's just a few months from the orbit of the earth would earth be ready to defend itself against the planet killing comet in just three months the answer so far is no yet the irony is that if it hadn't been for comets there might not be life on Earth to defend over the last 20 years missions like Giotto Stardust and deep impact have increased our understanding of the solar system and our place in it but there are still so many questions left unanswered how did our solar system begin and what was there before is the earth unique or are there other planets in other solar systems that could support life and what is the fate of the earth and the future of mankind scientists at the European Space Agency hope their latest mission Rosetta will provide those answers the mission takes its name from the Rosetta Stone a tablet found by the French in Egypt that allowed historians to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics the satellite is halfway through its 12-year 4.4 billion mile journey to comet churyumov-gerasimenko when it finally arrives in 2014 it will release a small probe onto its surface the probe will stay on the comet for a week taking photographs and performing a chemical analysis of the ice and dust relaying the information back to the main body of the satellite Rosetta is now millions of miles from home in the cold dark recesses of space scientists anxiously await the outcome of its mission it's not just flying by it's not just observing from a distance it's like a geologist a geologist doesn't go out into the field and just look at a rock he takes out a hammer looks at the inside see how tough it is there are a few experiments in once they're proposed to the ideas out there you go why didn't I think of that it's simple but it won't we learn do it the end result will be profound and if Rosetta can land on a comet could we one day mine them and use their resources to propel mankind deeper and deeper into space we go into space and try and build habitats we're going to need water comets have water we're going to need rocket fuel and if you break the water down into hydrogen and oxygen that's the most efficient type of rocket fuel so in the future comets may be the watering holes and fueling stations for interplanetary exploration one day we may need to leave Earth and go in search of a new home because somewhere on the edge of our solar system is a vast comet that they smash into our planet and wipe mankind off the face of the earth you