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Restoration Home: Cassillis House (Before and After) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

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Six centuries of history drew Kate Armstrong to Cassillis House in Ayrshire. Originally from Australia, Kate has always had the dream of owning a castle, and she picked one that was in a desperate condition. Years of problems with the roof led to rotting rooms and damage to ornate interiors.

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History of Israel Documentary

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There are just so many of those things that #history is holding inside and whenever one tries to look over for the facts which are left behind, there is that amazing and astounded feeling of getting overwhelmed. So is the case with the history of #Israel which talks about so many of those things that happened with the existence of this country.

As you go for the deep
research on something, it is important to know
about the basics on same so that which can help in better
understanding of whole of the concept and same is the case
here is going to be repeated. Before going over to study the
history of Israel it is important that you get to know about
this country, Israel itself. So, starting over with
this Israel, which is also popularly known by the
name of State of Israel, is a country situated in Middle
East which can be found over on those southeastern and
northern shores of Mediterranean and Red Sea respectively touching
those borders of Lebanon by the north, Syria by
northeast, Jordan by east, Egypt by southwest and
also to the Palestinian territories and GazaStrip
by east and the west. Capital of this state is Jerusalem, the
one which is declared by the government though there is not any kind of authority
recognized from the state yet, along with that is the financial
capital which can also be called as the technology center
and is named as Tel Aviv. Moving forward, if we
talk about the population in here, according to
Israel Central bureau of statistics in 2016
the total number of people in Israel is been
counted as 8,541,000. This country is been considered as the one
having Jewish people in majority counting 6,388,800 or one can say 74.8% of total
population there is being designated as Jewish. Next to that, the second
group of people in majority is those of Arabs
counting 1,775,400 people which include Druze and those
of east Jerusalem Arabs among which most of those Israeli Arabs
are actually Sunni Muslims also including those semi-settled
Negev Bedouins and the remaining ones are been counted
as Christians and Druze. Also there are many of those other minorities
which includes Samaritans, Armenians, Arameans, Assyrians, Circassians, Maronites,
Dom people and also the Vietnamese. This doesn’t really end here as there
are more of the people which Israel is holding such as those who are
seeking asylums from Africa and Asia or the one who works in foreign country
but do not have any citizenship which also includes illegitimate refugees from
Eritrea, Sudan or Sub Saharan Africans. According to those rudimentary
laws, government of Israel call themselves as that Jewish and democratic
state which is highly developed and also a member of OECD with that
35th largest economy in the world. In addition to that this country
has that highly skilled workforce which is always there to get them
benefitted in different fields. Talking about education,
this country is also been counted as one of
those highly educated countries having maximum of those people
holding tertiary education degree in hands. Well, when it is about Israel one should
definitely know that there is nothing less in success and development they
are going to learn about this country. So, moving over to the
next this country is the one which in Middle
east is been counted as that highest ranking having best standard
of living and third highest in Asia. There are those larger number
of expectancies from this part of the world and reason
is no far a secret by no. Or is it? Well, there are so many of those
secrets that this country is holding within and obviously
an interest to read about which at major tells people about
how this country actually cameinto existence and what are those
many of the different happenings that it is been following
since 1948 (year of independence) over to reach
this peak of success today. No doubt, this is not easy
to be counted among those highest ones when it is about
education and lifestyle. What is the History related to Israel? Now, this is the thing which
holds over that concept of Jewish and modern history
in the state of Israel. Modern Israel and west bank
are said to be situated at the site of ancient
kingdoms of Israel and Judah, also it is considered as that place which
gave birth to Hebrew language and Abrahamic religions including the sites linked to
Christianity, Islam, Judaism and many others. Israel was ruled by many of
those different territories and also has been home to
varieties of community groups, which made whole of this
community go primarily Jewish until that 3rd
century, moving forward which changed to become mostly
Christian and then Muslim in 7th century which
lasted till the 20th era. In the year of 1096 and 1291 this area
was concluded as a focal point where there was a frequent conflict between
Christian and Muslim community, at the end of which it became
the part of Syrian authority. There was one national movement
named as Zionism which at first came into existence
in late 19th century. As soon as the British took over
theOttoman Empire there were those more of the happenings
which took place in continuity including the Balfour
declaration in World War I and also the increment in formation
of Mandate of Palestine which in other words can
be said as the Jewish action of coming to the
land of Israel permanently, which as a result lead to the
increase in many of those problems between Arab and Jewish causing
collision in there national movements. In 1948 as Israel finally got their
independence, there were those huge number of Jews who migrated
from many of the countries like Europe and Muslim countries and
also there were huge migrations of Arab people from Israel which also
lead to the conflicts between them. So, all in all one can
say that there are total of world’s 43% Jews
who resides in Israel today making it one of
those, no actually the top and largest Jewish
community in the world. Moving forward to more of the details
on same, in 1970, United States for Israel became the supporter in
military and many other purposes. And then in the year of 1979 an agreement
on Egypt-Israel peace treaty based on Camp David Accords was signed so as to
maintain peace between the two nations. Similar to which there were so many
of those other agreements that were signed between Israel and
different nations such as in 1993, Oslo I Accord was signed with Palestine
Liberation organization, which then led to the discovery and establishment
of Palestinian National authority and then in following year
of 1994, an agreement named Israel-Jordan peace
treaty was signed. Though, there were agreements
signed between Israel and different nations so as to
maintain that peace within but there were those so many conflicts
that can be seen between Israel and national and international countries
related to politics or economy. History from Ancient Times Now, as you know the
highlighted points from the history of Israel, this
is the time when you should look up for the
happenings from ancient times about what all
took place in there. It is about 2.6 and 0.9 million
years ago when there were many of those happenings about people
shifting from Africa to Levant, everyone having those
different cultures within, flint artifacts of whom
were found in the territory of Israel and also following
those many of those oldest stone tools which
were found at Yiron. In addition to this there are many
of those other groups that were found around 1.4 billion years
old such as Acheulean Industry, the Bizat Ruhama group
and Gesher Bnot Yaakav. Also, following this in carmel
mountain range there were those early human remains found with the
skeleton of Neanderthmal female, also known as Tabun I that
is regarded as one of the most important human
fossils in the world. This process of digging the
earth up in el-tabun produced that longest record in the
field of Stratigraphy coming up with the report of
having 600,000 or more hears if human activity in that region
from those Lower Paleolithic to the present day
activity, indicating that millions of years of human
evolution in that area. Now, talking over the times when this
name Israel came into existence is in Merneptah stele founded for Ruler of
Egypt “Merneptah, son of Ramses II”. According to William G. Dever, Israel is
nothing more than a cultural and political entity in central highlands which can
also be said as that ethnic group at most and not some kind of state with
proper organization and maintenance. People who belong to Israel included
Semites to Canaan and Sea peoples too, on which McNutt says that it would be good
here to assume that during Iron age, most of the population began themselves
to get identified as the one in Israel departing oneself from Canaanites through
those marks of prohibiting intermarriages and focusing over the family history
and also the religions which they belong to so as to go for the
same and doesn’t get out of track. The very first use of grapheme
based writing came into existence by the area having Canaanite
people resided in Egypt; one can call this writing as that base
to many of those modern writing styles. Evidence of this writing which is
also known as Classical Hebrew is known from about those 1000 BCE,
written using Paleo – Hebrew alphabet. Villages at that time were having
that population of 300 to 400 people which used to have their
own source of making living including farming and herding,
making them self-sufficient with no chance of having
economy related problems. So, one can say that writing at that
time was just used for the recording purpose no matter if it is been used in
some large sites or the smaller ones, indicating that any
kind of archaeological evidence can be assumed
as some kind of society having small villages with not so many
numbers of those resources and population. Among these old times of
Iron Age there were also some of the links between
Israel and Judah kingdoms. By theperiod of 10th century there was
that special importance given to kingdom of Israel indicating about how important
role it was playing in everyone’s life there and this was all
before falling of this power into the hands of Neo-Assyrian
Empire in late 722 BCE. And in mid of all this was the
kingdom of Judah, neighbor of Israel from south which came into existence
in 8th or 9th century BCE and enjoyed their success as a
client state, at first with Assyria and moving forward
which got good with Babylon and all of this got good before
that war against Neo-Babylonian empire that completely
devastated it in 586 BCE. And this destruction of
Babylon to Persian made many of those people basically
Judeans return to Jerusalem, initiating the formative
period in the growth of a unique Judahite identity in
the Persian domain of Yehud. Now, Yehud was the one which
was already overtaken by Hellenistic Kingdoms following
the downfalls of Alexander but all of this continued till
that 2nd Century BCE when the judaeans finally fought against
Seleucid empire of Hellenist and thus succeeded in creating
that Hasmonenan Kingdom on their own which was considered as that
last independent Judean kingdom. This kingdom finally came to end
at 63 BCE with its breakdown by Pompey of Rome, there were
those huge number of disturbances caused at the kingdom of Israel as
a result of installing of client kingdoms in Herodian dynasty
including destruction of temple, first war between Jewish and
roman people, and also the appearance of Rabbinic Judaism
and early Christianity. There were those many of ages that
this Israel and Judah territory has been through which includes
Iron Age I ranging from 1200-1000, Iron Age II ranging from 1000-586, Neo
Babylonian ranging from 586-539, Persian period from 539 to 332 and also the
Hellenistic period from 332 to 53. Iron Age I – According to McNutt, as already
discussed above, it was during this age only when most of the population began
identifying themselves as Israel people, in other words which is also known as
‘Israelite’ differentiating themselves from those another people in terms of their
religion or many other decision making ideas. Also, along with that it is believed
that at the end of Iron age I there was that huge increment in number of
villages and also the population there which was at the time of late bronze age
was just 25 villages and at the end of iron age was 300, also the population
doubled in numbers from 20,000 to 40,000. More of those villagers were on the
northern side who left none of their remains to be traced as whether
they were Israelites or not. As this iron age approached
to the end there was more of the Israel being
spreaded all over the area. Iron Age II – For two long centuries
of Iron Age II there were those not so much favorable climatic conditions which
lead to the growth in population, settlements and trade all over
the area that resulted into the alliance in this territory with
city of Samaria as its capital and all of this happened by the mid of 10th
century when a legend of Egyptian pharaoh Shishak is believed to
be recording a number of campaigns that were
focused to the area. Then moving over to the period of 9th
century BCE, this was the time when Israel got appeared with proper clarity and
also this very time Shalmaneser III, the Assyrian king named through his
enemies at the battle of Qarqar. Also this time , Israel got engaged
in many of those competitions including one with Damascus and Tyre
for the control of Jezreel valley, second with Galilee in north
direction and also the third one with Moab, Amman and damasus so
as to get control over Gilead. Moving along in the 7th century there
were those people of Jerusalem who grew up to really big with
great number of population in comparison to what it
was earlier making that clear authorityamong its
neighbor countries. And all this happened at the time
when Assyria was destroying over the Israel so as to have that
control over whole of that place and get Judah established on there, already
controlling the valuable olive industry. Within some time there was that Judah
already working out as an Assyrian state but it doesn’t settled there for so
much long as in the mid of 7th century Assyrian at sudden
collapsed and the conflict between Egyptian and
neo-Babylonian empire for getting the control over land
made Judah get destroyed at whole between the
period of 597 and 582. Babylonian period – This was the period
during which there was that huge failure in terms of both of economy and population in
comparison to those other previous periods which also made them loose the
negev, the shephelah, and also the part of Judean hill
country including hebron. Also during this period there was that
huge effect on Jerusalem that made it much smaller that it was in previous time which
made the town of Mizpah in Benjamin to become the capital of new
Babylonian authority, Yehud. Also while all this was going on
there was that strong expectation that the temple of bethel in Benjamin
substituted the one in Jerusalem so as to upsurge those number of bethel’s
priests in comparison to that of Jerusalem. This ruling of Babylon not only destroyed
the Jerusalem and its temple but also the whole organization which made
Judah to remain there for centuries. Following all this there was also
that strong belief, known as ‘Zeon Theology’, according to which Jerusalem
had been chosen by the God of Israel and also that Davidic dynasty would
rule this place like forever. And now as the Babylon was
taking over whole of the kingdom and making city fall with no
further kingship from Davidic, all of the exile community
including king, priests and prophets started looking forward
to the new concept community, faith and politics which would be all
according to the new ruling power which make them get belief in Hebrew bible
along with all of the exile community. One can say that exiles in
Babylon were all responsible for making people learn their
individual responsibility and also the concept of
universalism according to which it is believed that
god controls the world. Persian period – Now, as the Babylon
fell to Cyrus in 539 BCE, it made Judah become that executive
partition within the Persian empire. Cyrus was the one who succeeded in getting
that leadership of Cambyses who at first added Egypt to their authoritywhich transformed
Yehud to that important boundary plain. Moving forward to his death in 522
after which the empire was followed by turmoil after which in 521 finally Darius
detained all of the powers and throne and introduced a modification in those
arrangements in administrationof the empire which also comprised the collection,
organization and management of local law codes. And then after 404, Persia at sudden
lost their control over Egypt which made Egypt become their main competition
at the outer borders of Europe and then this caused them
to stiffen up their control over other authorities
including Yehud and others. Though, all of these made Egypt get
conquered but the after that Persia lost its control over every other authority
as it got a huge fell to Alexander. Now yehud’s population
in this entire period or Persian was not more than
30,000 and following that of Jerusalem it was no more than 1500
which were connected by the means of temple. It is also believed that cyrus, the Persian
conqueror of babylonmade Jewish people return to Jerusalem and also get their temple
built again, which was completed by 515. After all of this in mid of next century
Jerusalem finally got that chance to become the capital of Judah, during all
of this it is also believed that Persian even experimented their ruling with Yehud
but by the middle of 5th century BCE, Yehud become the theocracy which was ruled and
controlled by hereditary high priests. According to the history it is
believed that Ezra and Nehemiah made a visit in Jerusalem, somewhere
in the mid of 5th century BCE o as to restore those walls
of Jerusalem getting through the Persian king and
the status of governor. There were those lots of tensions
between the people already residing in Yehud and those who returned over
from those other places to their own, and this is all because the returnees
had that demand to rebuild their temple which can make them feel like they actually
returned to their own native place. In 5th century , ezra and Nehemia made a try
to make this place from rivalry to the one with unity and purity which was inspired by
the theories of Ezekiel and his followers. So, basically all in all during this
Persian era or one can say that during the period of 538 and 400 BCE
there was that huge number of changes such as foundation for Judaic religion
and also the beginning of biblicalnorm. Along with that there was those
another changes such as Hebrew was considered as that everyday language
for the Judah people and many others. Hellenistic period – After the death
of Alexander in 322 BCE, its generals decided over to divide whole of the
empire among themselves and Ptolemy I who was ruling the Egypt
seized for Yehud Medinata, but it was already losen up by the
succesors in 198 to Syria. Though at first the relation between
Seleucids of Syria and Jews but later on there was that huge conflict between
them as a result of which Seleucids lost and there was that independent
kingdom of Jewish people, which is also been considered as a civil war
by many of those modern critics. Now, the hasomonean kings were trying hard
to make the Judah as it was described in the bible, such as which included the
ruling of Jewish monarchy from Jerusalem and also which included
all of the territories that were once ruled
by David and Solomon. And so to make this project work, there
was that huge conversion of Moabites, Edomites and Ammonites to the Judaism and
also that kingdom of Israel which was lost. Then moving over in 63 BCE, Jeruslaem was
finally fought over by the major general of Roman, named as Pompey and thus which made
this Jewish kingdom a client state of Rome. Rule of Romans As by now you are already
been knowing about many if the concepts related to the
history of Israel and jews and now here you are going to get read
about its history by the roman rule where interaction of romans and Jews during the
time of roman empire has been traced. Though, there was also that huge
correspondence between their different cultures but all this was carried
out before the Christian period. People who belonged to jewish
migreated to the rome and roman Europe from land of Israel,
Babylon, Alexandria and Asia minor as there were those huge number
of conflicts going on between Ptolemaic and Seleucid territories
in the land of Israel itself. Now, as they moved over there in Rome were
those best of the privileges that jewish people enjoyed and thus which made them become
the part of community in proper manner. There was that roman authority of Syria
established in 64 BC by the major general of Roman, known by the name of Pompey
who also defeated Jerusalem in 63 BC. Moving forward in 45 BC, pompey was
defeated by Julius Caesar who at first conquered Alexander in 47 BC, now as
the whole empire was under Julius there were those many of the
changes and alterations that were brought up
during this period such as Judaism was now a legal
religion in there as followed by the very first roman
ruler named as Augustus. Similar to this there are many of those
happenings in following eras such as in 40 BC Herod was considered as
the king of Jews by roman people, in 30 BC Roman authority for Egypt
was developed, in 6 AD Samaria and ldumea were converted into
roman authority of Ldumea. There were also many of those
tensions between jewish and roman people which lead to many of those
wars between them, under 6-135 AD there was that huge loss
occurred for Jerusalem which also destroyed
that second temple, not ending here institution of Jewish tax and
roman colony (named as Aelia Capitolina) which was attempted to be made by
Hadrian was completely destroyed. Around this whole of the time period,
Christianity seemed to enter and spread around all over the region
making other religions get neglected. It in about 313 when Constantine and Licinus
allotted the order about proclamation of Milan giving that official credit
to the Christianity being accepted as that legal religion among all
of the people living there. Now, following this the roman capital was
also moved from rome to Constantinople, and all this is done by Constantine
and then all this finally lead to the Christianity church
in roman empire and also the rights that
were being introduced by the roman emperors so as to make every
other person their respect the religion. Now, this was the brief knowledge
about whole of the period when roman empire actually came into existence,
walking over those deep discussions, according to the encyclopedia
of jewish people it is believed that jews
people lived in Rome for around 2000 years which is obviously very
much longer than any other European city. Also it is being said that these people
went there direct from Alexandria and this is all been done by the dynamicviable
interaction between these two cities. Two of the civil wars are properly been
explained in the jewish encyclopedia connecting bith of them with each other
where the one of them took place in Judea between Hasmonean brothers including
Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II and the other one took place in Roman republic
between Pompey and Julius Caesar and in mid of all this was getting
over the evolution of Jewish people in Rome, it actually grew very
rapidly as many of the jewish people who were taken to the rome as
prisoners were set free by them and thus which made whole of the
population get incremented. Along with all this, rome also got
involved in eastern Mediterranean, with the end of Third Mithridatic War when
Syria was made that head by Rome. After that when Mithridate got
defeated, there was this Pompey the great who had a control in its hands
to all of the area over there which also included that
visit to the temple which was built up in
there in Jerusalem. Moving forward, during the first
century the kingdom named as Herodian was discovered as roman
client kingdom and then in 6 AD, these remains became the domain of roman,
also known by the name of laudea province. Julius Caesar formed over a
policy by which jews people were permitted to follow their religious
and spiritual practices, which was at first maintained by the first
emperor of rome that is augustus and thus maintained by the people having
the control after that to the region. Now, this policy by Caesar
made Judaism the unique status by which they
have now that permitted religion throughout the
empire which was obviously more than enough to have
proper status in that city. Talking over the problem between rome
and jews, this thing actually first came in light when there were those
financial crisis occurred under Caligula. Now, the first war between these two
was caused in 66 AD, though which was been kept down by two of the roman
emperors named as Vespasian and Titus. Following which in 70 AD there was again a
conflict in which romans ruined much of the temple in Jerusalem
among which many of the artifacts such as Menoroh
were highly destroyed. As all of this was
happening, jews people just continue to live in their
lands, though there were many of those other wars
taking place too such as the kitos war which took
place from 115 to 117. This was the war which destroyed many of the
villages, actually 985 in number and also most of the population from Judaea was
killed or forced to get out of that place. Now as people were vanishing out
of the Jerusalem which was renamed as Aelia Capitolina, people were
now gathering into Galilee. As the wars between Jewish and roman
people continued for like long long years from 66 to 135, after this the
name of Laudea province and Jerulaem was changed to Syria
Palaestina and Aelia Capitolinarespectively by
Hadrian and all this was done to remove any of the
historical connections of Jewish people from
that particular region. Also the more of the jews and jewish
people were now only been taught to practice their religion and then they were
banded out from the Jerusalem region. While all of this ended, the
Roman Empire now brought over the Christianity as their state
religion on 27 February 380. As many of the judaean people were
sent into the slavery there were those many of the people who joined the
citizenship of many other roman empires, data of which can be looked over in
the scripts of acts in new testament. Though, they were happy
on being relocated to the safe place but there was
also that negative affect which was making them feel
like homelessness and also about getting away
from their own religion. Also the policy which was passed
over to make jewish people get into the part of accepting those
religion practices of Judaism was now not so much in
action and seem to get ended up with the end
of wars against Roman. Now, there were many of those
Jews people who even after the failure of Bar Kokhba revolt
stayed there in the land of Israel and went through many of
the different experiences which obviously
include many of those conflicts against people
and territories who visited there to have that
control over the area. At this time there were
many of those Jewish texts that were composed in
these Israeli cities such as Jerusalem Talmud,
completion of Mishnah are the examples clearly
indicating the same. Tannaim and Amoraim are considered as one
of those most active rabbis also known as Jewish scholars who were well known for
organizing and debating the law of Jerusalem. One can look for Tannaim decisions
in many of those compilations such as of Mishnah, Beraita,
Tosefta and many other are there, among which Mishnah was the one that completed
shortly after 200 AD by Judan Hanasi and following this, the
commentaries under Amoraim was completed around 400
AD in Jerusalem Talmud. After this in the year of 351,
most of the jewish population in Sepphoris started a conflict against
the ruling of Constantius Gallus, that was the brother-in-law of Constatius
II, the emperor and that too is performed under the leadership of Patricius which was
later restrained by the general of Gallus. There was that tradition followed
according to which in 359 a Hebrew calendar was created which was
actually the lunisolar calendar and was based on math and calculations
rather than any kind of observations. Before this discovery, there was that
huge dependency of the jewish community which was outside the land of Israel
only on the observational calendar that was authorized by Sanhedrin, as
obviously it is necessary to have a calendar for noticing up those dates which can
make one know about the holy days. There was that huge danger
for those who any how tried to communicate or share their
thoughts with each other, as all of this continued, Hillel finally
determined to provide that authorized calendar which was not at all dependent on
any kind of observation from Jerusalem. Now, as most of the people were
made convinced to get towards the Christianity there was that
one emperor named as Julian who rejected the offer to become
Christian and also made many of the Jews community to get back
to their Jerusalem community so as to live with their own
religion, also who made people to get that temple
rebuilt for third time though. Julian also worked over the
campaign against Sassanid Empire which experienced a failure
later on and nothing else and also which made Julian get
killed in the battle on 26 June 363, which as a result lead to the failure
of any rebuilding of temple. Due to the great revolt in 1st century
and also the Bob kokhba revolt in 2nd century, there was that huge
amount of destruction in Judea which lead to that huge influence upon the
jewish people throughout the world and that is because the center of worship got
altered from temple to that rabbinic power. Among those so many jews,
there were some sent as slaves while some of them got
transported as prisoners, some of them linked with the current
dispersion and also there were some who continued to live there in Judea itself
and started working for Jerusalem Talmud. Though, the jews who joined the current
diaspora got that chance to get into the Roman empire which was later restricted
because of the rise in Christianity. Later on there were those
many of the jews which were taken out of the
Judea and then sent to those many of the roman countries such
as in middle east, Europe and north Africa. War for Independence (1948-present) There were those may of the
declarations been noticed by the superpower leaders such as Harry S.
Truman and Joseph Stalin so as to have that confirmation
of having new state settled up and also get all
of the conflicts get aside. But the league members of Arab
including Egypt, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq declined
on this partition plan by UN and announced for the right of
self-determination which can allow them to have that own planning of how
they are going to make it happen. And this declaration made Arab
states march a force against Israel which gave a start out
that first Arab-Israeli war, adding to the fact that there
were those huge number of military equipment already
available to the Arab states which basically means that
they were on that top of their offense making the competitor
fall over the knees. Moving over on 29th of May,
1948 British people finally introduced United Nations
security council resolution according to which many of those
equipment were sent across to the jewish state so that which can match the needs
to which the Arab is already having. During this war of independence,
haganah became that Israel defense of forces which was being
joined by many of those states who wanted to have independence
from all of those difficulties and battles over the religion and
region, Palmach, Etzel and Lehi were also three of such states which were
fighting over for their independence. As the battle was on the stake, etzel
decided over to bring on the private equipments by the way of water through
ship which was named as “Atalena”. But as the ship approached over tha area
the government decided to not to fulfill their demand and thus Ben Gurion gave
an order to let the ship get sunk. There were many of those etzel
members which were killed in the battle, after which
many of those Jewish members among which most of them was World
war II migrants began coming back to the new state of Israel
and thus joining over the IDF so as to fight the battle
against those who are looking over to have control over
the land and the area. Now, as the people of Jewish suffered
that huge amount of loss in their territory and also their occupation
was destroyed by the Arab people, there was a time when condition actually
turned in the favour of Jewish people and thus gave them a chance to push
arable people out of their territory and have control over the land which
was at first under arab people.

The Space Shuttle's Last Flight (Atlantis) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

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As Atlantis completes its 135th and final mission, this definitive documentary charts the rise and fall of the most ambitious space programme ever undertaken, the space shuttle. For the past three decades since it first launch in 1981, the shuttle has become an iconic symbol of America’s technological dominance while at the same time rewriting the rules of space travel. Here is reusable vehicle that could lift off like a rocket, carry people and cargo into Earth’s orbit, then land on a runway like a plane and do it time after time. But two disasters, in 1986 and 2003, and the tragic loss of 14 astronauts shocked the World, and signalled the end of the programme, and the end of an era. However, its legacy has been extraordinary. In 30 years of service, the shuttle has flown more miles, completed more missions and put more men and women in orbit than any other spacecraft in history. It has transformed our understanding of the universe, aided technological advancement, and enabled us to study the environmental consequences we have had on our planet. After this July, when the shuttle takes its last flight, the USA will no longer be able to put a man in space for the first time in over half a century.

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Royal Deaths & Diseases: Living By The Sword | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

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Extraordinary royal war injuries, including Richard the Lionheart, hit by a crossbow bolt, and Henry V, critically wounded by an arrow to his skull.

Series investigating how royal doctors and medicine have changed the course of British history – from madness to war wounds, decadence to the struggles to conceive an heir. The series recounts the fates of Richard the Lionheart and Henry V on the battlefield; examines Britain’s most famously mad king, George III, and investigates the stories of Queen Victoria’s clinical depression and Henry VI’s acute schizophrenia. The film also examines how Royal misbehaviour changed the image of the monarchy – from Henry VIII’s overeating and lack of exercise to Charles II’s death at the hands of his own doctors and George IV’s opium-fuelled reign.

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Ancient Plastic Surgery: Episode 2 (Ancient History) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

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British plastic surgeon Natasha Hidvegi was astounded to learn that an operation she was working on, in restoring the nose of a cancer patient, was developed 3,000 years ago, in India. So begins her journey around the world and back in time to investigate what the ancient civilisations of Egypt, India and Rome might have known about cosmetic and restorative surgery. In Varanasi, home of Aruyvedic medicine, Natasha starts her quest observing a rhinoplasty (nose job) being carried out according to techniques devised by the Ayurvedic medic Sushruta way back in the 5th Century BC. Back in London, she assists at the very same operation carried out by Harley Street specialists. Sushruta’s operation and the principles it underlines has remained the bedrock for plastic surgery right up to today, becoming the most popular and successful form of restorative rhinoplasty available in the world at this time. Natasha discovers that plastic surgery dates back to the earliest records we have – and probably, beyond that time. Queen Nefertiti was one of the greatest beauties ever known. Plastic surgeons reveal that the dimensions of her face still provide the model for their work. But was her remarkable face entirely natural? Ancient Plastic Surgery reveals how ancient surgeons carried out the most delicate cosmetic work from nose jobs to breast reduction, eye-lid lifts, foreskin restoration, clitoris reduction as well as the concealment of scars and wounds. And all of this work completed without anything to equal the anaesthesia of today.

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Restoration Home: One Year On (Episode 1) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

Restoration Home documented the stories of six historic buildings at risk of being lost forever. Six new owners made a commitment to transform them into their dream homes. But there was more to rescuing these buildings than anyone imagined.

Kieran Long revisits Sandford House and Abbey Lane for an update on their ongoing restoration and to reveal new stories that have come to light since the programmes were first broadcast. He meets the talented craftspeople who helped save them and explores the art of craft, how skills passed down from generation to generation make it possible for these properties to be authentically restored.

Ralph and Evelyn sunk every penny they had into trying to save Sandford House near Dundee, a rare arts and crafts home built in 1902. One of the key features of the house was the dramatic sunken hall and its enormous bay window containing more than seven hundred individual panes of glass, most of which needed repairing by expert glass restorer Liz Rowley. Kieran returns to witness first-hand the meticulous work that Liz and her fellow conservators have carried out. Meanwhile, Ralph and Evelyn receive a very special visitor, the granddaughter of Sandford House’s original creator, but what will she make of the 21st-century restoration?

The successful completion of Abbey Lane in Southam, Warwickshire, owes as much to the determination of Sally and Stuart as it does to carpenter Brendan White. He managed to restore the shockingly frail 16th-century timber skeleton but hasn’t returned since the house was complete. After the hundreds of hours he dedicated to saving it, how will Brendan react now that it’s finally a home? And, after all they went through, is it everything Sally and Stuart dreamt it would be?

Crumbling, ancient houses are brought back to life by passionate owners as they restore and convert them into striking 21st century homes, unravelling the properties’ extraordinary past lives through their architectural and social history.

Grand Designs meets Who Do You Think You Are? Presented by Caroline Quentin, Restoration Home follows private owners of crumbling historic buildings as they save them from ruin and restore them into wonderful 21st century homes. With the help of architectural expert, Kieran Long, and social historian, Dr. Kate Williams, Restoration Home turns detective to unravel the properties’ astonishing lives. As the new owners transform the buildings into their homes, the family trees of these crumbling ruins start to emerge. Tales of Kings and Queens, murder, civil unrest, moments that shocked and shaped Britain are revealed as these buildings are brought back to life.

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Unbelievable Animals That Saved People's Lives

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Top 10 real stories of wild animals and pets saving human’s lives
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The relationship between humans and animals is both complicated and beautiful. Humans eat animals, but also take care of them as pets. We depend on animals for food as we eat the meat, milk, and eggs. We keep cats, dogs, fish, birds, reptiles, and more as pets. We try to preserve dying species and help save them through reproduction, all while other members of the human race are causing the extinction of some of the world’s most beautiful animals. It’s truly a love-hate relationship, and while we think animals may be dumb and unaware of their human heroes, we are quickly learning that they are paying attention.
In this video are some of the most remarkable stories of animals who have saved the lives of humans. From pigs to horses to dolphins, these animals sensed that there was danger and sprang into action before the victim even knew what was going on. Take Lulu the pig as an example. Her owner, JoAnn Altsman had a heart attack and collapsed in her home. Lulu ran to the road and tried to flag someone down. A driver eventually stopped, and followed the pig where they found Altsman unconscious and were able to call for help, saving the pig owner’s life. If it wasn’t for Lulu’s bravery and intelligence, there’s a good chance that Altsman would not have survived the heart attack.
They say that animals sense something more than what humans can perceive around them. Perhaps it is due to animals having different brain function and being able to see more than we can ever imagine. Whatever the reason, it has truly become a major benefit for humans everywhere because not only can we protect each other, we also have the support of the animal kingdom on our side, which is a beautiful relationship to have. Feats such as these are also motivators for people to no longer eat meat and start organizations such as PETA. People such as these also see animals as equal partners in life, and don’t perceive humans as being above any other animal in this world or on the food chain.
Another remarkable story is that of surfer Todd Endris. He was enjoying his time on his surfboard when he was viciously attacked by a passing shark. Endris gripped his surfboard to his stomach and chest to protect his intestines while the shark tore apart his back. Just as he felt all hope was lost, a pod of dolphins began to attack the shark and circle Endris so he could get to safety. While his back was forever scarred from the attack, he survived thanks to the mysterious heroic dolphins.
Finally, in 2004, Amber Mason was vacationing with her family in Thailand when the infamous tsunami hit. Mason was on a guided excursion with an elephant named Ningnong when the wave hit, and the elephant took Mason on its back and turned away from the water, shielding the eight year old girl from sudden peril and death by drowning.

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Dolphin Heroes
Ningnong the Elephant
Jambo the Gorilla
Tang the Dog
Winnie the Cat
Mandy the Goat
Lulu the Pig
Willie the Parrot
Beluga Whale
Kerry the Horse

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TheRichest is the world’s leading source of shocking and intriguing content surrounding celebrities, money, global events, society, pop culture, sports and much more. We create high quality top 10 and top 5 list based videos filled with mind blowing interesting and entertaining facts you are going to love and enjoy. Currently updating every day!

amazing animals that saved people's lives dolphin heroes 24 year old surfer Todd endris was sitting on his surfboard when he was attacked by a shark the shark was biting and attacking in from the back which luckily protected the front of endris where a certain death was imminent if his intestines were attacked as Anders began to lose hope a pod of dolphins began to hit the shark and circle around the surfer as he frantically swam to shore with his back peeling like a banana from the shark attack Andrus survived thanks to his mysterious dolphin heroes Ming Jung the elephant during the devastating tsunami in Thailand that took place in 2004 the life of eight year old amber Mason was saved by an unlikely hero as the wave hit the land Amber was riding namyong during her vacation the elephant took mason onto her back and turned away from the water creating a shield to the little girl and got her away from the beach in time Jambo the gorillas in 1986 Jambo was hailed as a hero and gentle giant after a five-year-old boy fell into the gorilla enclosure at the Jersey Zoo the boy fractured his skull and broke other bones Jambo stood next to the boy even rubbed his back and protected him until rescuers could come get him Winnie the cat on a dark night in 2007 Catholic Keasling was awakened by her cat Winnie who was nudging her and meowing loudly when Keasling tried to get up she knew something was wrong as she was extremely dizzy and nauseous seeing that her husband and son were unconscious and realizing that there were carbon monoxide fumes filling the house with toxic fumes he's linked all nine one morning got help just in time thanks to Winnie Mandy the goat no laws born is a farmer who owns several animals one day he was accidentally knocked into a pile of manure and shattered his hip he couldn't move and he was too far away for anyone to hear him call for help for five days his goat Mandy kept him warm and even let him drink her milk for sustenance Lulu the pig Lulu is a pig owned by Joanne Altman one day Lulu's beloved owner had a heart attack and collapsed to the ground Lulu immediately rushed outside trying to stop traffic and running back in to check on Altman a car eventually stopped for Lulu who followed the pig and found ultimen on the floor and got help immediately saving the pig owner's life Willie the parrot in 2008 a quaker parrot by the name of Willie made national headlines after saving the life of a two year old girl named Hannah coos Hannah was having breakfast at the house of Megan Howard her babysitter Megan stepped out of the kitchen to go to the bathroom while Willie started shouting mama baby Megan ran back into the room to find that a piece of Pop Tart had lodged itself into Hannah's mouth and that she was turning blue Megan was able to perform the Heimlich maneuver and save the toddler's life thanks to her parrot Willie beluga whale in China a diver by the name of Yang Hyun was participating in a competition to see how long she could hold her breath in a pool of beluga whales when Yun was ready to breathe she realized she couldn't move her legs and started drowning one of the beluga whales sense her panic and grabbed her by the leg and pulled her to the surface saving her life Carrie the horse Fiona Boyd is a rancher in Scotland who found herself an unlikely hero she was leading a calf in distress into a shed when the mother became enraged and started attacking her the cow was trying to trample boy to death when Carrie the horse got in front of Boyd and started kicking at the cow moving it in the other direction and saving Boyd's life we hope you enjoyed this list of truly amazing animal heroes here's some other videos that we think you might like and don't forget to click Subscribe thanks you

King penguins and their young – David Attenborough – BBC wildlife

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Antarctica’s king penguin colonys. Watch the giant chic creches and there unique methods of communication. From the BBC.

throughout the winter adults come and go from their traditional breeding colonies antarctica is home to two million kings in this one colony alone there are six hundred thousand of them these engaging chicks are so inquisitive but you only have to sit down to their own level for them all to gather around you to try and discover what sort of creature you are they went hatched that last summer and like the albatross chicks they're just coming to the end of their first winter during that period their parents were out at sea cutting food for them but each tick was only fared about once every three weeks less for themselves for so long they've all gathered together to form immense crushes this one contains about fifty thousand chicks you might think that this huge congregation would make it almost impossible for a parent returning a clue to find its own chick but not so the fact is the parent and chick can recognize one another's voice a returning adult may spend hours looking for its chick among such a crowd for the young are a time to wonder the chick will respond to its parents call and the parent to the chicks whistle eventually babies but instead of feeding the chicks straight away the adult leads it through the Rookery as if to test the bond between them at last in response to its chicks plaintive entreaties the parent regurgitates a meal and squid [Applause] a king penguin click takes more than 12 months to rear that means that the adults can't breed annually at best they raise two chicks every three years because of this the breeding cycle of any one pair slides out of phase with the seasons so now late in winter there are chicks both young and old and adults at different stages in their cycle some of the adults are going through their pre breeding month before going to see you to fatten up for courtship others are already courting parading back and forth with a special ritualized walk the male usually leaves if the female is sufficiently impressed the pair seal their relationship with a vocal duet Oh

Forensic Investigators: Darryl Lewis | Forensic Science Documentary | Reel Truth Science

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On the 25th November 1996, a series of anonymous emergency calls led police to discover the body of Darryl Lewis at the Beenleigh Ambulance Station. They would be faced with a wall of silence and a climate of fear that would put their patience and skills to the test.

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10 Historical Predictions That Came True

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The internet, organ transplants, atomic bombs… these all seem like very modern phenomena. But could it be possible that they were prophesied decades, if not centuries before?

Alltime 10s brings you 10 individuals who looked beyond their own time and accurately predicted a surprising array of key historical events and inventions.

What did you think of 10 Historical Prophecies That Came True? Let us know in the comments.

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Music: Honour by Chris Blackwell, Red Planet by Terry Devine-King, Devout by David Toblin, Jeff Meegan and Julian Gallant, Heritage Rag by Robert Bruce, Memorial by Patrick Hawes, Flight of Fantasy by Dan Skinner and Adam Skinner, Upward Curve by Paul Mottram, Voice of Reason by Amie Doherty

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10 Bizarre Wars History Completely Forgot

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You’ve no doubt heard of WW2, the American Revolution, and Iraq, but how about the war between Canada and Croatia? The Northern Crusades? The 38 minute war?

Today on AllTime10s, we’re showcasing 10 bizarre wars that history completely forgot.

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"Knowledge" – The Enemy of the Scientific Method (Quiet intro)

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What is knowledge, how is it quantified, and is it even possible to do so? In this video, I will attempt to detail the importance of taking nothing as absolute.

ये INDIAN Scientist आज Einstein को टक्कर दे रहा है Genius Scientists Today Since Albert Einstein

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ये INDIAN Scientist आज Einstein को टक्कर दे रहा है Genius Scientists Today Since Albert Einstein Hello friends, when it comes to science and especially…

Engineering Connections – Burj Al Arab Hotel | Science Documentary | Reel Truth Science

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Richard Hammond checks out the world’s tallest and most distinctively shaped hotel, the 320-metre-high Burj Al Arab, or Arabian Tower. Rising from its own …

The Man With Hundreds of Lumps – Lipomas | Medical Documentary | Reel Truth Science

Views:1549|Rating:4.32|View Time:42:51Minutes|Likes:19|Dislikes:3
Airforce Sergeant Jake Tate is at his physical peak but starts to develop painful fatty lumps called lipomas all over his body. At first he thinks that they are being caused by stress but doctors reveal that these lumps are being caused because of an extremely rare disorder called Dercum’s disease. Plus, Jesica Blaszczak suddenly starts to get chills, fevers and headaches. Doctors believe that she just has a minor infection but it is later on revealed that she is actually suffering with a life-threatening infection of the heart called endocarditis from sepsis.

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The Man Who Killed Richard III (British History) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

This is a story of conspiracy and betrayal, of a lust for power and a lost allegiance; the story of the man who killed King Richard III.

In this documentary we set out to prove that the Welshman Sir Rhys ap Thomas, master of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, killed King Richard III, changing the course of British history.

Sir Rhys ap Thomas had sworn allegiance to King Richard III. He had accumulated lands and status in Wales that were dependent, in part, on his loyalty to Richard. But at the Battle of Bosworth he betrayed him, fighting on the side of Henry Tudor. He dealt the fatal blow to Richard III.

We uncover what drove him Rhys ap Thomas to betray not only his master but a King – and we reveal his remarkable story; from a childhood embroiled in the War of the Roses and exile to the continent, to a determined and ambitious man who brought an abrupt end to the Plantagenet line, carving the way for his own rise to power at the heart of the Tudor dynasty.

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Amazing Darwin's Bark spider spins a massive web – The Hunt: Episode 1 preview – BBC One

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SUBSCRIBE to the OFFICIAL BBC YouTube channel LAUNCH BBC iPlayer to watch full BBC programmes online now …

Britain's Slave Trade: The Gold & Silver Trade | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

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The Gold & Silver Trade looks at how the business of slavery was a case of slave-trading by complicit Africans, fuelled by the greed of African kings.

Britain’s Slave Trade reveals the shameful truth behind this liberal facade, showing how the economic, social and cultural life of Britain would have been unrecognisable without slavery. Britain’s Slave Trade explains how a middling European power transformed itself into the ruler of the waves, tracing the impact this had on the British way of life and taking in the Industrial Revolution, the beginnings of Empire and the birth of modern racism along the way. It also unearths startling evidence showing how many families that think of themselves as ‘pure’ English stock are in fact descended from slave ancestors.

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Forensic Investigators: Samantha Bodsworth | Forensic Documentary | Reel Truth Science

Police found Samantha Bodsworth’s body in a Noosa car park one hour from her hometown of Gympie. The killer thought he’d committed the perfect murder, but a little-known area of forensic science would be his undoing.

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Some Very Compelling Evidence the Tower of Babel Was Real

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Biblical scholars have long debated whether the Tower of Babel really existed. Now, a remarkable stone tablet never before shown on film appears to settle that question.

From the Series: Secrets: Tower of Babel

World War II: 1942 & Hitlers Soft Underbelly (Part 1) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

The British fought the Second World War to defeat Hitler. This film asks why, then, did they spend so much of the conflict battling through North Africa and Italy? Historian David Reynolds reassesses Winston Churchill’s conviction that the Mediterranean was the ‘soft underbelly’ of Hitler’s Europe. Travelling to Egypt and Italian battlefields like Cassino, scene of some of the worst carnage in Western Europe, he shows how, in reality, the ‘soft underbelly’ became a dark and dangerous obsession for Churchill. David Reynolds reveals a Prime Minister very different from the jaw-jutting bulldog of Britain’s ‘finest hour’ in 1940. A leader who was politically vulnerable at home, desperate to shore up a crumbling British empire abroad, losing faith in his army and even ready to deceive his American allies if it might delay fighting head to head against the Germans in northern France. The film marks the seventieth anniversary of the Battle of El Alamein in 1942.

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The Fate of Soviet Prisoners of War #WW2 #History

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Somewhere near 3.3 million Soviet Prisoners of Wars were captured by the Germans in 1941. And around 5.7 million total Soviet POWs were captured in the …

AMAZING Recently Discovered Species

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From ridesharing beetles and swimming centipedes … to prehistoric beasts and horror-movie wasps … Here are 15 of the Craziest Recently Discovered …

Mystery Of The Cocaine Mummies (Ancient Egypt) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

Views:6300|Rating:4.91|View Time:50:32Minutes|Likes:212|Dislikes:4
Equinox brings us this investigation of a mystery that is baffling Egyptologists. The case calls into question whole areas of accepted scientific fact from botany, through chemistry to archaeology. In 1992, routine tests on a mummy in a Munich museum revealed high body levels of cocaine and nicotine. But such substances were not available in ancient Egypt, coming as they do from the Americas – not, apparently, to be “discovered” for thousands of years after the passing of the Egyptian dynasties. Are the mummies fakes; were the substances from plants that have since disappeared or were there, in fact, trade routes between Egypt and South America that predate accepted chronology?

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Shocking Reason Why China Is Building Islands In South China Sea

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Shocking Reason Why China Is Building Islands In South China Sea Subscribe Who doesn’t dream of basking in the morning sun while …

Rescuers Discover The Heartbreaking Reason This Cat Only Accepts Food In Bags

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Scientists and NASA Don't Understand What's Happening in Antarctica

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BRAIN TIME ▻ Surely, you know that the most mysterious continent on our planet is Antarctica. At first glance, it may seem there’s nothing …

This Chicken Lived for Two Years Without a Head | History

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In the 1940s, a chicken lived for two years without his head.

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Museums are Filled with Dead Animals. How Are They So Lifelike?

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Museums are chock full of animal specimens in exhibits in collections even hanging from the CEILING, but how do they keep these formerly living things from rotting away? Why don’t they decay? I traveled all over the country learning about #taxidermy, #museums, and the difficulties of keeping these collections safe from destruction.

This is the first episode in a new segment I’m calling ‘Hello Science!’ – where I actually go outside () and meet scientists, researchers, engineers, technologists, physicists and futurists to learn about the science in their work and daily lives. If you have ideas for who I should talk to send them to me directly here:

There will be more of these #helloscience videos coming, hopefully about once a month, in the meantime you’ll still get the regular #UnoDosofTrace videos too!

Quick note: My goal in every video is to make you *feel* something, *think* something, or *talk to a friend* about what you learned. If any of those apply to you, please consider subscribing to the channel, or sharing the video with your friends on social media! A few seconds of effort on your end really goes a long way, and thanks for even reading this paragraph, it means a lot. 

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Write up by the Audubon Society that explores the feathers of bird specimens to determine air quality over time:

And… here’s a link to the paper itself (SO COOL, and recognized as an especially novel way of using specimens)

– Fascinating bit that I didn’t get to add: birds molt, so the feathers they have when they died aren’t more than a year old. Meaning the air quality was so bad that the birds would turn those dark grey colors in a very short time. How horrifying!

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===  SPECIAL THANKS  ===
To these amazing nerds for letting me take their time to ask all sorts of questions and video all their toys and specimens.
⭐️ Divya Anantharaman, Taxidermist, Gotham Taxidermy
— Find her here:
⭐️ Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
—- Allison Shultz, Assistant Curator of Ornithology
—- Kimball Garrett, Ornithology Collections Manager
—- Tim Bovard, In-House Taxidermist
—- Marina Gibbons, Assistant Conservator
⭐️California Academy of Sciences
—- Moe Flannery, Collections Manager for Birds and Mammals
For helping me hide in the shadows to shoot the introduction on the sunniest day we’ve had in a while, thanks to Dave Goldberg, and for early advice on this piece thanks to Emily Graslie o’ the Brain Scoop.

… And of course to all the nerdfam patrons who helped make this happen, and *you* for actually watching it!

Hello Science opening music by Twin Musicom

P.S – Interestingly, museums themselves didn’t really exist in the West (in the way we think of them now) until reletively recent history. For example, there was Renaissance Art featuring wildlife and such, but there weren’t museums people could visit to SEE the wildlife. And some of the Renaissance art featured animals that were fake! LOL.

Love you, #nerdfam! Stay #curious!

I love going to museums,
but sometimes you get there and there's an animal. This lion looks like it
might have walked out of Africa recently. They've actually been in
this museum for a while, like longer than
I've been alive. Museums have been educating
humans with stories of nature forever, and what
better way to tell a story than with the
real thing, right, a real lion or a real elephant? But in the 1700s, if you
wanted to study animals from history or from
another continent, you had to go out and get one. But that wasn't
always easy, right? You couldn't just fund an
expedition to grab an animal. So commonly, you would use
sculptures or paintings or drawings or whatever. Not the best. Real is better. So scientists need
to figure out how they could save real animals
and bring them home with them. They just preserved their skin. Historians borrowed tanning
from the fashion industry and from indigenous cultures,
and they created tanned hides. Tanning is how we turn furs
into hats and water skins and coats and pelts and things. It's thousands of years
old, but museums only started using this technology
a few hundred years ago. That means that this lion
is actually really old. These cubs are from the 1930s. I can't even keep food fresh in
my house for more than a week, and somehow that century old
animal, I mean, look at it. It looks amazing. So this question put
me on a long journey to find out how do we keep
these stuffed animals looking so fresh? Why don't they decay? Hey everybody. Welcome back to
Uno Dos of Trace. This is the very first segment. Hello science, I am
super, super excited. I really hope you are too. It's finally
happening, oh my god. OK, so when you see an animal
in an exhibit, at one point it was out in the wild. So to understand
this whole journey, first we need an animal. Often, they're donated
or it's killed by a car or a scientist is collecting
it for a specimen. Whatever happened,
it's dead now, and we want to
freeze it in time. And for that we
need a taxidermist. So I went to Brooklyn,
and I met Divya. I got into taxidermy
because I was always fascinated with biology and
natural history and art too, and I feel like
taxidermy combines the best of both worlds. So it has all of the
curiosity and wonder of the sciences but the joy
of creation that art has. Taxidermy, it means moving
skin or arranging skin, so the only thing real
in taxidermy is the skin. Everything else like the eyes,
the whole inner structure, all of the anatomy,
all of that is rebuilt, all that is made
by the taxidermist. Divya's job is
to take raw animals with the bones and the guts
and everything in there and just turn that into either
a study skin or a mount. I'll explain the
differences later. She's the first person
that I have ever met who gets roadkill in the
mail and is cool with it. When I receive a specimen,
it's usually whole and frozen. If it's not frozen, I'll freeze
it just for like a week or two. Let's really just to
kill any bugs that might be on it, any
kind of parasites and little creepy crawly
things that could be on it. Freezing doesn't
kill everything, but it gets it safe. So that skin, once a taxidermist
removes it from the specimen, it's cleaned, all the
material that could decay is removed, so all the
fat, all that visceral, all that gooey stuff, all
that is removed from the skin. So the only layer of the
skin left is in leather work, they call it the corneum layer,
but it's like the lowest layer, like the only layer of the
skin that will absorb the tan and that won't decay. And the tan is
basically the chemical that you put on the skin
to keep it from decaying. Oh my god. I had no idea. I mean, from the Midwest, right? I've been around deer
heads and bears that are mountain and whatever in
restaurants my whole life, and I had no idea
that that was just skin mounted on wood or
wire or paper mache or foam. That's like a work of art. And from there, we
bring in the science and get to the
battle against decay. Tanning has been around
for thousands of years. You need lots of water,
and you need something to scrape the skin with to
get the inner layers off. You also need to replace the
globular fats in the skin. You can do that with
ethyl alcohol or alum or acetone or formalin,
which is a diluted formaldehyde or Borax, which
is a preservative and also an insecticide an
anti fungal compound. There are lots of
different ways to do it. Once the skin is
preserved, though, Divya can take it and stretch
it around the form she built, like you're seeing
with this California quail. I'm basically having
a very clean skin and using the proper tanning
method or proper preservation method is what keeps
it from decaying. I'm going to ask
a silly question. That's OK. I like to break it up. Aren't these things gross? Like, isn't it kind of gross? I guess a part of
it is a little gross, but I don't know if I like– I guess to me, I kind
of think of that part as like it's just
another part of it. It's one step in the process. So thanks to tanning, we've
now frozen the animal in time. But at this point, Divya hands
it off to somebody at a museum, and they have to take over
the battle against decay. Once I prepare the
specimen, it's ready and it's handed off, the biggest
fear is that they maintain, because taxidermy
isn't maintenance free. So to that end, I drove down
to the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles
County to find out what team is taking over next? I am the luckiest person
you're going to meet today. I'm a taxidermist working in
a museum that's still active, still doing diorama work. We've continued to do diorama
work from the '20s all the way through to the
present, so we're almost up to 100 years of diorama
work with all kinds of different very
talented people. Hopefully in 100 years from
now, they're going to be there. I love this guy and
his love of dioramas. Which, by the way, are the
name for these things which I have now just learned do
not have to be in a shoe box. Although they can be. As soon as I put a
skin over a sculpture, it becomes a stuffed animal. But it's not. It's a sculpted animal that
the skin is then glued to. I actually knew
that one now, and it's Tim's job to take over
from Divya to make sure that the animals last as long as
possible, because that does not happen naturally. It takes a lot of work. Even if there's not
a taxidermist on staff, there's somebody, often on
a conservator type person, who's trying to
make things last. Number one is probably
why things last is care. I'm weekly multiple times
I'm doing a walk through and I'm checking
how are we doing? Sometimes I'm
carrying binoculars. We've got moth traps out so
that if we get moths, which is one of the
invertebrate pests, we've got climate
control, and we also have sort of an integrated
pest management. We're keeping our eyes out
for invertebrate pests, vertebrate pests, things
that might do damage. They're also often in a
protected environment, so it might be in
a diorama, or they might be in a case or
something where they're rarely going to be touched. And if they are
going to be touched, hopefully they're
going to be touched by somebody who's knowledgeable
about how to touch that animal or clean it. OK, so Tim doesn't
want you to touch his things because of arsenic. Arsenic used to be dusted into
the skins or on the feathers to keep insects away,
because you know, arsenic. The thing is, that
makes them super dangerous for the average
person to just go in and touch, which is why conservators
and taxidermists sometimes wear gloves when they do it. Also why night at the
museum is not a fun, fanciful childhood tale but like
the prequel to a horror film. There's arsenic
on those animals. What are you guys
doing, Ben Stiller? A lot of our older mounts
here are treated with arsenic, so something goes to eat it,
it's going to get killed. It's interesting and
sometimes in old bird mouths, you see they've been chewed
right down to the skin, because they painted
the arsenic soap on the inside and the outside. It's just the feathers. Oh my god, I love this guy. So they clean, they
tan, they keep watch, they use insecticides
and they trap, they also want these
things to look good, which is where the
art comes back in. Hands and faces, for example. They aren't real. They're made of injectable
resins of molds, commonly, but because of how skin
dries out over time, it doesn't look right. Which is why Tim has all
of these animal death masks behind him. Have you noticed that? Holy crap, that's so cool and
weird and gross and awesome. So taxidermists clean
things, they vacuum things, they soap them up and they wash
them off, they degrease them, and they paint them,
they add makeup and whatever they need
to do so specimens don't attract bugs, and that
way they can fight decay. But cleaning a specimen, like
an actual scientific specimen, that's actually bad. Remember a little bit
ago when I mentioned mounts versus study skins? Mounts are for the public. That's what you see when
you go look at the exhibits. The study skins are
for the scientists. They are behind the scenes. The Natural History Museum
in Los Angeles, for example, has over 35 million specimens. And when you go there, you
only get to see just a few. It's the tip of the iceberg. So if these are all mounts,
these are study skins. They almost don't
even look real, right? They're protected in a
completely different way, too. So here in San Francisco, I
went to the California Academy of Sciences to talk to Moe
Flannery to learn more. So study skins
and mounts differ in a couple of different ways. So a study skin is prepared for
scientific study, primarily, and they're prepared in a
way that optimizes storage. So a live mount is prepared
to display the animal as it would be seen in life,
which often means wings flapping or standing
upright, but a steady skin is a bird laying on a tray
with its wings folded and its legs crossed, and that
minimizes the amount of space that that specimen
requires for storage. So this is what a typical
tray of in this case finches from the Galapagos look like. So these also were
collected in 1905 and 1906, so back then they would collect
a large series of individuals for the museum, prepare
them on site at the island, and then bring them back here. So study skins, they aren't
cleaned, they aren't painted, they aren't tanned, they
aren't mounted in a way that makes them look alive. They're just stuffed with
cotton and left in a drawer to give them a bit of shape. Because these things have
been prepared and stored the same way for
hundreds of years, you can learn so
much from these. You can learn about changes
to species, changes to foods and forest, changes
to diseases that attacked those species, even
changes to the environment. For example, since
they're not cleaned, the bird feathers were
analyzed in some species, and it was revealed that air
pollution got worse and worse and worse from coal until
the impact of legislation made the air literally
cleaner, and you can see it in the bird feathers. And we are just seeing a peak of
all of the different specimens available. Every door in this room
has dozens of trays, and every tray has
dozens of specimens. All of these need to be checked
and protected and preserved, but they also have
lots and lots of data. And often, we have no idea
how they're going to be used. So back in 1905 and 1906
when Rollo Beck and his team were collecting
these specimens, they had no idea that in 2004
almost 100 years later, a scientist, a female
scientist would be cutting into the
feet of the birds they were collecting to
study DNA of a virus in the foot of the bird. It's my job to make sure that
these specimens are still here 100 years from now or 200
years from now or 500 years from now so that researchers
can do whatever studies they come up with at that time. OK, but it's not all
sunshine and coal soot, y'all. They're still fighting decay
and pests back here, too. So we check our
specimens regularly, and you're looking for
basically insect poop, so if an insect is chewing on
a bird maybe from the inside, they would be
inside the bird, you would see a little droppings
so like a little pile of what looks like dust under the bird. Or if it's a really
bad infestation, you would see damage
to the specimen. So we have to be very
diligent and make sure that that doesn't happen. If we do find insects
in the specimens, then we will freeze the
specimens for a period of time to kill all the
insects and hopefully to keep any eggs from hatching. Funny thing,
though, Moe is not a fan of mounting specimens. Generally, we do not put
data specimens on display unless they are in
climate controlled cases with strict humidity controls
and very low light levels. That's why museums
are sometimes so dim. They're protecting the
feathers and the furs from fading under the lights. OK, check out this cormorant
that was left in a window. It's so faded. OK, one more time,
Campbell Kimball. That's Kimball. He does collections at
the Natural History Museum down in LA. For museum
collections, a specimen is not valuable to
science unless you know where it was
collected and when, and then that puts
that animal at that place at that period
of time in history. One of the problems
with mounted specimens that have been on display,
traditionally people did not put tags on them. Every one of our
specimens has a data tag that's always associated
with it, sometimes two or three or four tags. OK, so the list is getting
really long here, y'all. We've got decay, we've got
light, we've got humidity, we've got pests, we've
got climate control, we've got all sorts
of different things. We've got even just being
handled and being touched contribute to decay. There are so many
different little things that need to happen to make sure
that these specimens are here for you and for me
and for the future. So to answer my own question,
lots of different people do lots of different
things to make sure these specimens
look fresh and clean and are ready to go for
whatever we need them for. In this whole
battle against decay, it's sort of like, it's
a battle against decay but it's a battle for keeping
these historic pieces alive. Someone can say, oh yeah,
that's a 100 year old head. And you're like,
wow, that's cool. When you see the materials,
it's so nice to see, and it becomes so
much more real. It's like, these are the
stories, like it really, really tells a story when
you see it like that. Just thinking about it
now, if you love animals, this could be a career for you. Zoos are one arm of
animal preservation and museums are another. It's really
everything here still is a custom mount for a
particular story we're trying to tell. People when you say, well, it's
a replica, they're like oh. But when you see a lot
of musculature and stuff, things popping, I can
point at those and say, those aren't stuffed animals. These people
fight off the decay so they can tell you a
story about a species or a specimen or a
whole evolutionary path, whether that story is in
the front of the house and it's how lions
are socializing or if it's in the
back of the house and it's how
environments have changed over hundreds or millions of
years, both of those stories take a lot of
effort, even if it's just to inspire people
to make science videos when they grow up. Whatever. Who knows what people are
going to study in 500 years. Yeah, and that's what
you're trying to do with all of these specimens. We're just making
sure they're here for whatever ideas, whatever
research ideas people come up with in the future
beyond our imagination. Next time you're at
a museum and you're looking at all the different
species and specimens on display, take
a second and think about all the different people
that it took to get it there. The person who
decided to arrange it in that way, the
person who tanned the hide, the person who
captured the specimen in the wild. That animal didn't just
happen to be there. Some amazing and
passionate humans made sure that it
was there for you. And now you know. Thank you so much for
watching this video. I hope it made you
feel something. If it did, consider
subscribing and joining us here on Uno dos of Trace. I'll be back with
more videos next week, so I'll see you in the future. Should be a list
which we have to redo, because I had some
work study students– Pelicans, cricket birds,
look like it, so a bunch of sea birds, mostly.


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Research Question: The research question is the single most important part of the scientific method. Every part of your project is done to answer this question.

Restoration Home: Abbey Lane (Before and After) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

Views:16943|Rating:4.78|View Time:58:38Minutes|Likes:264|Dislikes:12
Historic houses, both humble and grand, have all played their part in the story of Britain. Today many are at risk and some in danger of being lost forever. Caroline Quentin returns to follow the fortunes of six more properties, all facing their own struggle for survival, all with committed new owners wanting to turn them into their dream homes.

In Tudor times, the majority of houses were timber-framed, but only a few survive. Abbey Lane in Warwickshire is a forgotten gem. Believed to date from the early 16th century, this house is not formally protected as a listed building and when it was put on the market it was clear it needed a lot of work. Professional couple Sally and Stuart, who had been searching for their ideal family home, saw past the decay and bought it.

The puzzle surrounding Abbey Lane is that its timber frame is unusually elm and not oak while other architectural features indicate that it was more than a family house. One thing is for certain, the condition of the timber skeleton is shockingly frail and half of the rear frame needs rebuilding. Costs slip and work stops. Will Sally and Stuart manage to turn Abbey Lane into their dream home?

Crumbling, ancient houses are brought back to life by passionate owners as they restore and convert them into striking 21st century homes, unravelling the properties’ extraordinary past lives through their architectural and social history.

Grand Designs meets Who Do You Think You Are? Presented by Caroline Quentin, Restoration Home follows private owners of crumbling historic buildings as they save them from ruin and restore them into wonderful 21st century homes. With the help of architectural expert, Kieran Long, and social historian, Dr. Kate Williams, Restoration Home turns detective to unravel the properties’ astonishing lives. As the new owners transform the buildings into their homes, the family trees of these crumbling ruins start to emerge. Tales of Kings and Queens, murder, civil unrest, moments that shocked and shaped Britain are revealed as these buildings are brought back to life.

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After suffering a 70/30 vote defeat, Brian and Caitlin look for last resorts to try and put up a final fight in order to keep Breckenridge Cannabis Club downtown.

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#highprofits #legalmarijuana #reeltruthscience

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Lord Bath has handed control of the £190 million estate to his son, Ceawlin, but the handover isn’t going smoothly. Ceawlin upset his father when he moved back in, and the pair are no longer on speaking terms. In the village on the estate, there’s further unrest after Ceawlin puts up the villagers’ rents. Meanwhile, Ceawlin’s wife Emma is settling into life as Lady Weymouth. She now has her own servants and the run of the 130-room historic house – but she must get used to sharing her home with a daily stream of visitors. In the safari park, the animal keepers watch …

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Movie Logic! (These Make No Sense)

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In this episode I looked at some hilarious moments of movie logic with my friend. We discussed the funniest moment in Hollywood movies that made no sense.

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Movie logic horror movies in A nutshell you got safety in debt. We all know those horror movies. death safety uh Ahhhh!, you actually sound like the guy like in the Jason movie's that for some reason survives in the end But always dies, what! oh wow what would you do to my head bro? I don't know bro. But that bad acting made me nauseous This is relatable every single horror movie is literally like this You know when they're running away from that scary Monster or that killer but are going so slow or you know they could go to the police station verse the woods but some reason They like go to the woods my favorite part is where they all run away and for some reason some guy said let's split up yeah let's split up, and then they all just scatter around you want us to split up alright now They don't have any protection with each other boom Amazing and you all know the hottest girl in his life And that's what we're looking at today. guys. We're looking at some amazing movie logic. Let's do this movie Logic. alright you-you stop ruining the handshake That's not a handshake. It's called a high five please get educated Let's go, only in the movies parents actually knock before coming into your room That is so true dude literally when I film my dad just walks in my dad you guys don't see it cuz it's cut out But you know he were just walking and be like hey. Hey We're filming your dad dad dad get out dad there is food. Do you want some food dad? I'm making a move here Yeah, he's like you have a girl. There's no girls here. What are you doing? You're here And the movies if a woman is alone and hears the noise She will go and check it out in her most revealing under wear, the hot girl. That is so true Can you just imagine like every time they're either? They're either showering just took a bath They're in the bathroom, and they're always half naked coming out It's like really like if like if anything, why are you going to the noise in the first place? Yeah? Go away from it. Hey, 911? Yeah, there was a noise, and yeah like someone broke in y'know What's worse is that when they try calling someone picks up and it's just like uh I see you and like and then they hang up like boy. I'm star sixty-nining that Finding out were calling that person back what you you wouldn't call them back Well, this is awkward aliens usually don't invade Earth, but when they do they start with United States of America It's not even the biggest Country in the world I actually just think like obviously it's not gonna be like that in real life like if aliens come Knock on wood are you an Alien? Well? They've come here illegaly toys Come on. 10/10 let's go amazing. Yeah, but what they do they start with the U.S.A Settings because Hollywood is the one I'm making more they're making the movies or they know who? Runs this this Earth using U.S.A runs the earth. Yeah, we all know who owns the button Donald trump. Oh my God movie logic movie logic was that a horse This is why you will never make any movies. This is why you don't have a girlfriend, you got any better ones come on? Exactly bye alright next. Finally he's gone movie logic no matter how fast you run Michael Meyers can walk Faster that's true no they don't even run fast that's a problem. They just show up out of nowhere they run they have teleportation, and then they trip every time I ever sight like is this realistic you can run faster than that You know it's actually realistic. I've seen someone that got scared There's a scare prank and she was running an actually trip and I was like I thought I was only in the movies But no, it didn't realize that's how Michael Meyers always gets you, so sad. He's scary, you know He looks like maybe you guys should have actually showed up for gym class. He looks like I look like a burger No, you look like a killer. Oh Your fake bologna. But I love that So true read it, okay 110 minutes up Stop bro im trying to read When hundreds of innocent people get killed in a movie okay. That's the face you make just eating popcorn here You know I seen it somewhere before will the ward you know just wore it You know it happens all the time, but what a dog gets killed in the movie. Oh no [this] is you. I'll try to rewrite it. You'll pay for this you horrible monster who would kill a dog Slapping me by sight kind [of] hon. You see me like a man hit me hit me daddy. Hit me oh Wait would you go? Movie logic and this one's horror movies those are the best ones you know So you're saying that there is a crazy serial killer trying to kill us Yes, you can easily pop out the lower and kill him why you get your next fight [alright]. Let me know It's not russian, but like all right let me just I'm [just] trying to do a deep accent like [meshes] voice okay. Oh Yes, you can easily pop out of nowhere and kill us if [we] are alone well in that case We should totally split up. You said that before [yeah] pull it up. The movie. Lot is not voice you be ab Naylor I've been made fun in school. Good. Can you stop yeah? I make fun of you, and you're supposed to be my friend be supported from the one that bullied you mips wow That's actually that's why we became friends. Don't do that. Don't [advertise]. Here's another instance of Face movie logic movie logic here's another instance of [make] movie logic you have no launch [evidences] of movie logic I know you sleep in my even when talking to each other Foreigners will still speak English that's so true true, but in the very bad English yeah, they would do bad [English] But they were still talking with it's like hello my friend hit me daddy [solution] finally first a killer oh Jenna Monster [I] love Justin Bieber It wasn't me does. He love Justin are both always Justin Bieber could be just not really I love Justin Bieber oh my God, but you survived right so do you know what you need now a Therapy I've kind of like pTSd right now and all the monster chasing me All you need to supply all your need is a blanket Oh my God, I get it and they're in Hollywood amazing putting commercials and movies And I think that might be the end to say movies in love Bro, just please things I want to [robot] gene they know how you would say [it] you can see the [original] article first thing is Going [to] be down below. There's gonna be more moments of movie Logic. Don't touch me [groans] come on come on You know I don't like being touched out especially by you Oh who could touch you hope you guys go click on another video you can also check him out But I know you want you can say whoa Do you click that's I don't subscribe to the channel. I really appreciate it I'll see you guys soon with another episode of [reaction] time. This was a good video. Good job high five confidence and I Will see you some more movie logic Maybe you could tweet some more on me, and yeah, have a good one guys does. What do you tweet?

Birds You Won't BELIEVE Exist

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From critters with blue and red feet … to Hornbills and Shoebill storks … Here are 18 Birds You Won’t Believe Exist! Subscribe to Epic Wildlife …

Penguins, humpback whales and seals feeding in the ocean – David Attenborough – BBC wildlife

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Want more natural history and wildlife videos? Visit the official BBC Earth channel: BBC Earth The BBC Earth YouTube channel is …

10 Ancient Inventions Science Can't Explain!

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– And you thought that
your computer was advanced. We live in age where we are
more technologically advanced than ever before, or are we? As it turns out, our ancient ancestors were much smarter than we thought, and in fact, some of their
inventions were so advanced that they baffle modern day scientists. Here are 10 ancient inventions
that science can't explain. Number one is the Antikythera mechanism. Divers discovered the
Antikythera mechanism in 1900 at the bottom of the Aegean
Sea in a Roman shipwreck. The bronze device was
found in a small wooden box and is made up of complex mechanical gears with mysterious engravings. It's believed that it was created some time between 250 and 100 BC. However, the technology is so advanced that anything even remotely similar wasn't discovered until
over 1,000 years later, when astronomical clocks were invented during the 14th century. Scientists believe that it was basically an ancient analog computer, but no one knows what it was used for. The best guess is that it
tracked astrological positions, like the lunar calender
and predicted events, such as the seasons. The only problem is that
it would have been hundreds of years before there was
any scientific understanding of the planets or even gravity. Its true origin or how
it even really worked is still a mystery to this day. Number two are the Stone
Balls of Costa Rica. Spread across the Osa region
in southern Costa Rica over 300 stone balls, known as Las Bolas, have mystified archeologists for decades. They were created between 600 and 1000 AD and vary from only a couple inches to over six feet in diameter
and weigh up to 15 tons. Each one of them is made from gabbro, limestone, or sandstone. They're nearly perfectly round and would've been carefully sculpted and sanded into a shape
from much larger boulders. The Diquis people, who
are native to the area, are likely the ones who made them. However, nobody knows why or how they were able to accomplish this. One theory is that they were put into lines leading to the chief's home, but by the time the spheres
were discovered in the 1930s, they may have been moved. Some believe that the balls were relics left from the lost city of Atlantis, while others tried blowing them up in order to see if they
contained hidden gold treasure, but to this day, nobody has any answer for why they even exist. Number three is Greek fire. Between the seventh and 12th century, the Byzantine Empire
was still in full swing defending the remaining borders of the once massive Roman Empire, which often involved large Naval battles. The Byzantines would use a
system of tubes and siphons to create a type of
flamethrower capable of shooting a flammable liquid
chemical at their enemies. There are numerous records, including detailed
drawings, of it being used. The only problem is, no one
knows what it was made from. It's believed that it was
a secret Byzantine formula that only a few select
very important people knew, and it was so well hidden
that it eventually died out along with the rest of the Roman Empire. The mystery chemical was
said to cling to flesh and could engulf a ship within minutes. What made it especially deadly was that it could burn in water. Scientists have not been able to replicate the effects of this mystery chemical and to this day, it remains unsolved. Number four is the universal antidote. Scientists have dedicated their
lives to creating antidotes for some of the most
deadly poisons on earth, but what if there was one
antidote to rule them all? Mithridates VI was the king
of Pontus from 120 to 63 BC, and it was during this
time that he developed the mythical Antidotum Mithridaticum. After his father was assassinated,
Mithridates went rogue and lived in the forest for seven years. During that time, he experimented
with different formulas that would give him immunity from poisons. He went as far as to ingest small amounts of lethal venoms to
test out his medicines. The result was made from
54 different ingredients, including chopped vipers, opium, and small amounts of lethal
poison and known antidotes, which were mixed together in a flask and left for two months. History tells us that this
liquid was incredibly valuable. However, because it
was so closely guarded, the secret formula was never passed on. Number five is Damascus Steel. Damascus Steel was first
discovered around 300 BC, but all remaining traces
of how the steel was forged were lost by the 18th century. The steel was named for the capital city of Damascus in Syria where it was founded and made into some of the
world's deadliest swords, including Viking swords. The steel was known for
its beautiful wave patterns and was said to be able to bend 90 degrees and bend back into place without breaking. The indestructible material
was made from wootz, which is a combination of iron and steel that would have been imported from Asia and then melted with a
mix of raw plant matter to make a crucible steel. It was an extremely advanced
nanotechnology alchemy. It's only thanks to modern
scanning electron microscopes that scientists even have an understanding of what made the steel so strong, but exactly how the swords
smiths did this is still unknown. Number six is Zhang Heng's seismoscope. It may just look like a
badass piece of ancient art, but when Chinese inventor and astronomer, Zhang Heng, created the
seismoscope around 130 AD, he actually invented the first
known earthquake detector. The bronze urn-shaped device
was incredibly decorated, with eight dragons attached to its sides representing the eight basic directions facing eight open-mouthed
frogs which sat below them. When it detected an earthquake, the dragon representing
the direction of the quake would drop a ball into the frog's mouth. It was amazingly accurate
and could detect a quake from hundreds of miles away,
but what's truly incredible is that this was done
despite tectonic plates not even being discovered yet. Scientists have been trying
to replicate this seismoscope for centuries, even as recently
as 2005, all unsuccessfully. Even the mechanisms inside the vessel and how the ball dropped
are still unknown. Number seven is the Great Pyramid of Giza. One of the biggest mysteries
of the ancient Egyptians is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The pyramid would have been
finished around 2560 BC and would have taken tens
of thousands of workers 10 to 20 years to build. It's the oldest and largest
of the three Giza pyramids and amazingly it's still largely
intact, and for centuries, it was the largest
manmade object on earth. It's made from 5.5
million tons of limestone, 8,000 tons of granite, and
500,000 tons of mortar. Its base is 756 feet and
when it was first built, it would have been 481 feet tall, but it's not the why it was
built that remains a mystery. In fact, researchers believe
that it was actually a tomb for the Fourth Dynasty pharaoh, Khufu, but instead how it was built. Now, there are numerous theories, from using scaffolding,
pulleys, ropes, or ramps all the way to alien intervention, but despite years of investigation, no one can agree on how it was planned or even how the blocks were put in place. Number eight is the Baigong Pipes. The Baigong Pipes are a
series of ancient pipes that run through Mt. Baigong in China. It's believed that a team
of American researchers who were looking for dinosaur fossils were the first to discover
the series of pipes before reporting them to officials. The pipes range up to
16 inches in diameter and run through the mountain
and three of its caves. Some of them run all
the way to Tuosu Lake, which is about 260 feet away
from the foot of the mountain. They're believed to be
very, very old and made from oxidized iron, silicon
dioxide, and calcium oxide, but not only is the purpose
of these pipes a mystery, but scientists are
still completely baffled by how they could have gotten there. For context, Mt. Baigong is
completely uninhabitable, so an ancient civilization would've had to make their way there and had the technology developed enough to make the pipes and
drill through the rock. It's extremely unlikely
for them to be there, but there they are. Number nine is flexible glass. Between 14 and 37 AD, during the reign of Roman emperor Tiberius Caesar, a glass maker invented vitrum flexible, or unbreakable glass,
that was so advanced, we still don't understand it. From the glass, he made a drinking bowl, which he gave to the emperor. Tiberius tested the bowl by
throwing it on the ground and amazingly, the glass didn't break and only had a small dent. He told the emperor
that he was the only one who knew the formula and
technique for making the glass, but like a lot of inventors
ahead of their time, instead of being praised
and given heaps of cash, things went in a very different direction. Despite it being a
groundbreaking discovery, Tiberius was less than
impressed because he was worried that it would bring down the
value of silver and gold, so like any other reasonable
dictator would do, he had the glass maker
beheaded and with his death went the secret of the
glass and its properties. And number 10 is Saksaywaman. Located on the outskirts of Cusco, Germany is an ancient walled city
known as Saksaywaman. It was built on a hilltop
between 900 and 1000 AD by the Killke culture
before it was expanded during the 13th century
under the Inca Empire. But it's not what lies behind the walls that's so interesting, but
instead, the walls themselves. The walls are made from massive
carved limestone boulders over 27 feet tall and
weighing over 100 tons. They would've been transported from a quarry nearly two miles away, and they are some of the
strongest walls ever built. That's because the stones
fit together so perfectly that not even a blade of
grass can wedge between them. Even more impressive is that mortar wasn't even used to keep them together. Some people have theorized that the stones were carved all together, but they're so oddly
shaped and yet so precise that scientists still have no idea what technology would have been used to calculate the angles, just one of many mysteries
that remain unsolved. I really appreciate
you guys watching this. Thank you very much,
and if you enjoyed it, remember to hit that like button and subscribe if you have not yet. I'll have a brand new
video for you tomorrow at 12 west coast time,
3 eastern standard time, so make sure you come by then. Have a great day.

Emperor penguins unite for survival in Antarctica – David Attenborough – BBC wildlife

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Want more natural history and wildlife videos? Visit the official BBC Earth channel: BBC Earth The BBC Earth YouTube channel is …