Why The Romans Were So Effective In Battle – Full Documentary



Subscribe to my Trivia channel to test your knowledge!
General Knowledge History Quiz:

The Roman Army was a highly effective war machine that constantly adapted and evolved in order to defeat new rivals and conquer new territories, ensuring Rome remained the dominant superpower for many centuries.

it may have been the greatest army of all time conquering and controlling an empire that stretched across the ancient Western world it was ruthless disciplined and feared by all not just by his enemies who died in their millions but by its own Empress who often paid the price of the Army's wrath and yet these soldiers were builders as well as destroyers helping to spread a culture that became the bedrock of Western civilization what was it that made this army so dominant how was it able to rule reshape the classical world and why did it eventually fall this is the story of the Roman warship the glory that was Rome was built largely upon the power of its army until it discovered how to wage war Rome was just another small Italian farming settlement but there was something different about the Romans they had a unique ability to turn themselves into a political and military power without equal the city that would dominate the ancient world for centuries began as early as 1000 BC archaeologists have found the remains of dwellings from that period on Rome's Palatine Hill for many centuries later the Roman emperors built their palaces early Rome was dominated by a neighbor the Etruscans from what is now Tuscany to the north Etruscan Kings took control of Rome around 600 BC and ruled it for a century before the Romans expelled Rome then began creating the political and military system we recognized today Rome became a republic with the Senate and two chief executives the consuls who were elected for one-year terms to handle important matters including the military Rome had to learn how to fight because it occupied an important trading crossroads on the Tiber River and it was always skirmishing with envious neighbors as early as 500 BC Rome had an army of 6,000 been called a legion from the Latin word meaning conscription but this was a far cry from the professional Roman army that would later dominate the world they are citizen soldiers they are part-time soldiers they get recruited for the campaigning season they leave their fields their work to go off and fight in the army at the end of the campaign they're back bringing the harvest bringing in the vintage buying the fields every year able-bodied Roman men were summoned by trumpet to report for enlistment but not all men only landowners were trusted to fight for Rome because they had something to protect service was regarded as a duty and an honor and a must for any Roman seeking political power the Roman people are reluctant to vote for people who cannot show their war rooms them many stories of people standing for politics in the forum ripping their clothes to show their wounds to demonstrate that they have fought for Rome in battle Romans had to provide their own armor and weapons so the wealthiest the officers had a helmet armor a spear a sword and a shield while the poorest the front ranks had no owner and had only slings and stones for weapons the early Roman army was modeled on the Greeks especially the basic tactical formation the Greek army used the so called phalanx a tight-knit rolling infantry formation which came at the enemy like a forest of Spears your whole army lined up facing forward in lines and then the first few ranks would hold out their spears and their shields and the army would move forward and mass the object was to simply push aside the enemy and in in the course of it kill as many as possible Roma's first major victory was against his old nemesis the Etruscan a Rome conquered the nearby city of AE in 396 BC but the Romans didn't have long to celebrate six years later they met an entirely new kind of enemy when Celtic warriors on the north swept down upon Rome the Celts were people linked by language culture and style of warfare and Celtic tribes were spread across Europe from Ireland to France and Switzerland and 390 BC a Celtic army thrashed the Roman legion and over an ro [Applause] the Celtic method of fighting was very disturbing to them the Celts simply ran at you with hundreds and thousands of men yelling shouting banging on metal objects blowing their horns they really terrified the Romans the Celts left the city only after the Romans bribed them with gold this was Rome's wake-up call it needed to rethink its whole military strategy if it was to survive that one way was through training Roman soldiers had to go through the toughest training in the ancient world there were four long hard months of basic training and anyone who couldn't stand the pace was either discharged or put on rations of foul-tasting barley until they got it right basic training began with marching and plodding up soldiers had to be able to march more than 20 miles in five hours carrying a full pack in weapons training recruits were given dummy swords shields and javelins that weigh twice as much as the real thing is to build muscles the Romans I think in this early period should really be seen as the the zulus of the Mediterranean world they are highly militarized society and like the Zulus they don't let no warriors have sex so when they come into battle they're very tough as the army gruel Armour became standardized for all soldiers and provided by the state I'm wearing a male shirts for body protection and you can see it's made of small individual pieces of metal which are fashioned into rings and then linked together it's biggest advantage of course is to take slashing blows across because the male links all sit together if an enemy hit me with a sword in a slashing way it would actually take the blow the disadvantage of male was that it doesn't in fact take a stabbing at all if you stab through the male the point of the sword will actually pierce the rings beginning in the 1st century AD the Romans also used segments and plate armor held together by leather straps it was so much more complicated than male armor that soldiers needed help to put it on you can see all the protections on the top rather than round the legs and things and the reason for that is that when you've got D the counts fight in you their long slashing swords needed all that protection up on the top rather than bottom they also give you a chance to run the Roman helmet gradually redesigned over the centuries aim to give maximum protection without blocking the sensors you can see it's a round bowl protecting the top of my head round because it's got very good glancing blow action a square helmet would take the blow words a round helmet the blow would glance off large cheek pieces to protect the side of my face and a small neck guard at the back to actually take an over hand below protecting the back of my neck now obviously you can see there's no covering on my face or on my ears in fact and the Romans decided that it was a lot better for a soldier to be able to see around him and hear orders very vital in back further protection came from the Roman shield smaller and round and early times developing later into a bigger rectangular one it was made of layers of wood glued together bound and covered with leather and but think about the Roman shield is it is curved not flat like most shields at the time this gives me protection all around my body and if I coming at you in battle it's not only a defensive weapon it's an offensive weapon I can smash you in the face and then while you're off pilots draw the sword and pin under your ribs when it came to offensive weapons the first one the Roman soldier would use in battle was the javelin the great thing about the Roman javelin is when you threw it the enemy couldn't throw it back these are delivered in volleys of hundreds as they rain down the hard iron tent will punch through the armor the weight of the handle will bend this soft metal shank it'll be useless and can't throw it back the shield is useless you probably hurt you're in big trouble but the weapon that won the Empire and cabinet was the Roman sword once the Germans have been expended the Roman legion would then move in with probably the most vicious of his weapons the short sword or Gladius in Latin very much a close quarter weapon it's much shorter than you will envisage a sort of a medieval broadsword today because it actually is much shorter it's designed with a very broad base tapering to a very very sharp point and the idea of this weapon was purely to stab the soldier was trained to actually stab into an enemy soldier mainly in the stomach area because of course there's no bone for it to actually get jammed in and of course a quick stab when withdrawls put him out of action one way or the other now the soldier was trying not to use an overhand blow but purely a stabbing action in the modern wire sole use the bayonet really the thing about this Roman swords is shortened to the point that issues for stabbing rather than slashing barbarians this or don't like hours and long and broad and it's all an ego trip on the battlefield sloshing around above their heads all style that's all it is and while they're doing that it's up and under stabbed into the ribs remember so we make them into me to the barbarians the Roman army was ready to use their weapons and training to build an empire and the first victims were their fellow Italians the basic unit of the Roman army was the Legion and over time it became highly structured eventually the Legion evolved into a unit of 4,800 soldiers it was divided into ten cohorts of 480 men each which in turn contains six centuries not 100 men that he won't expect but 80 soldiers each century had ten groups of eight men who shared a tent a legionary commanders were usually political appointments Roman nobleman doing service as they climbed the political ladder their military ability varied greatly and so much of the real running of the army felled the officers beneath them the most famous of these was the Centurion and charge of a century of soldiers as Rome's Empire rule Centurions became career soldiers working their way up through the ranks Centurions usually had at least 15 years experience it was their job to train the men discipline them and lead them in battle because they'd seen so many campaigns they understood the traditions of the army they knew how the army could actually solve particular problems which he might encounter in future campaigns so they were very much the living essence of the Roman legions I mean the equipment of a Roman centurion you can always immediately tell the Centurion because his crest goes across his helmet in this case the crest is made of horsehair although sometimes they were made of feathers and if he'd been given military awards you can see they're worn on a harness on the chest Centurions were career officers who took the term literally Centurions Demma had to retire we find some cases people over 80 is still serving so this of course helps to secure uniformity of standards and training and so on throughout throughout the empire you see careers of the Centurions who've been all over the place in their very long lifetime Centurions could make a soldier's life hell they demanded bribes to excuse soldiers from the less popular duties and used their vine staffs to deliver punishment one Centurion Luke Ilyas was nicknamed give me another for his practice of breaking his staff over soldiers backs it was later murdered by his own men after its early defeat by Celtic warriors in 390 BC the Roman army changed its battle tactics they did away with the rigid phalanx formation it had borrowed from the Greeks and used smaller fighting units called men apples or handfuls highly maneuverable groups of less than 150 men this allowed the the Roman army to operate more effectively perhaps on on rather rougher ground but also it allowed them to move groups of soldiers around to the flanks and to the rear of enemy armies well the basis of the Roman army was its infantry the foot soldier each Legion also had an attachment of up to 300 cavalry the Romans were not natural horses so they adapted tactics and gear from their enemies including the Celts one example was the military saddle saddle on top of it is a very odd-looking Beast to most people now it doesn't look like a modern saddle at all the most obvious feature other four horns on it and the four horns are there because of the thing that is obviously missing there are no stirrups at all the Romans didn't ride with stirrups the saddle that developed after they'd fought with the Celts had this these horns as a very significant feature if you've got no stirrups as I said you can't lean out sideways very safely on a flat saddle these horns in Abele to do that the saddle looks sure compared to a modern saddle because the back horns press against your backside the front horns go under your thigh and you can lean out probably to about 45 degrees with relative safety part of the Cavalry's job was to harass the enemy and the riders carry special light javelins for that purpose as you pass that enemy you can lob several of them at them they're not going to do a huge amount of damage but your purpose isn't necessarily to do a lot of damage it's to make the formation break up so the infantry can get in and win in battle the cavalry lined up on the wings of the legions the infantry formed three horizontal lines so they could take turns at being the frontline until the battle was won as the Romans formed up to start the pathway they bang their swords against their shields now frightening drumroll until the order came to charge as the two sides closed in on each other the Roman foot lions would launch their javelins disrupting the enemy formation the infantry would form wedges to break up the enemy lines and allow close-in fighting that was when the short Romans stabbing sword would come into its own the fighting itself might be only twenty minutes or so sometimes it was a lot longer but it was very difficult to fight for a great length of time and this massive weight of armor that Roman soldiers and often their enemies wore part of the reason for Roman success in in battle was undoubtedly to do with training once an enemy cracked the Romans did not surround them instead and usually left an easy escape route so that the cavalry could come in and cut them down as they fled by 270 BC Rome controlled much of the Italian peninsula but unlike many ancient powers it did not simply pillages defeated neighbors it turned them into allies sometimes offering them Roman citizenship that way as Rome expands the people human conquerors are integrated all part of the Roman army and become the troops for the next wave of conquest out so it's a cumulative process and then I think key to the success and the growth of this Empire Rome's expansion made a clash inevitable with Carthage another Mediterranean superpower and when that clash came it would produce the most horrendous war the ancient world had ever seen Rome's expansion in the 200s BC brought it into conflict with another empire across the Mediterranean the city of Carthage in baden-baden easier commanded an empire stretching across northern Africa in 264 BC Rome and Carthage began fighting over control of Sicily / Carthage had colonies and Rome found itself at a disadvantage Carthage had a great Navy and Rome had almost none Rome began building one the most of its soldiers had never sailed so they practiced on dry land pretending to row in unison to get a feel for it and when it came time for the real sea battles Rome had a trick up its sleeve it developed a kind of gangplank called a Corvis that hooked onto Carthaginian ships so that the Roman soldiers could board them turning naval battles into more familiar land battles and that way Rome routed the Carthaginian fleet Rome won Sicily Corsica and Sardinia but Carthage did not accept the defeat in 218 BC Carthage hit back under one of the most feared warriors Rome would ever face Hannibal and this time the target was Rome itself Hannibal was a man clearly with tremendous determination a great personal hatred of Rome which he'd inherited from his family who'd fought the Romans before and it's also very clear that he had great personal magnetism Hannibal marched his army through Spain and France and across the Alps into Italy accompanied by three dozen elephants most of Hannibal's elephants died on journey over the Alps in fact his elephants played absolutely no role in the subsequent campaign I nevertheless they represent the skill and boldness that Hannibal portrayed in coming over the Alps so early in the campaigning season and surprising the Romans but the help of Celtic warriors who joined him on the way Hannibal won early victories against Roman legions said to meet him then in 216 BC came a major showdown at Cana in southern Italy Hannibal had about 40,000 troops while the Romans and their allies had nearly twice that number but Hannibal was a master tactician when the Roman legions made the usual thrust towards his Center Hannibal let them advance then encircle them it was a disaster for the Roman army some fifty thousand Romans and allies were killed there was panic and Rome but cries of Hannibal is at the gates but Hannibal was never able to capture role because Rome's ingenious policy of creating allies paid off once again what defeats had over the fact that the Romans have got eight nine ten times as many men able to be impressed into the army as Hannibal has got they can lose fifty thousand men in a day and they keep on fighting because they've got the manpower and no other state in the ancient world could ever achieve anything like that Rome practice total war against Hannibal as an emergency measure they called up every available man even slaves and set legions to Carthage held Spain to stop supplies and reinforcements from reaching Hannibal the wars on on this scale are fights for survival literally for survival if you lose these kind of wars in the early period your city is destroyed your women and children are dispersed across the Mediterranean world that's the end of it all societies are destroyed if battles are lost it took fifteen years of fighting before Hannibal was forced out of Italy he returned to Carthage to defend it against the counter-attack by the Romans who finally defeated Hannibal in 202 BC but despite the victory rome maintained a paranoid fear of Carthage and provoked a third war in 149 BC it took the Roman legions three years to breach Carthage's huge city walls and then the Romans slaughtered unknown thousands of Carthaginians and so of 50,000 survivors into slavery finally the Romans leveled the city crowded into the ground and according to legend sowed it with salt so that nothing would ever grow there again any Roman army was capable of extreme brutality particularly in the sack of a city which had resisted them which they then managed to break into under those circumstances it seems to have been normal Roman practice almost policy to slaughter absolutely everybody in everything including animals everybody was just chopped to pieces absolute carnage after defeating Carthage Rome also added Greece as a province after destroying the city of Corinth many other conquests followed so that by 100 BC Rome was undisputed master of the Mediterranean the Romans justified their expansion in a way that many modern-day politicians would understand they always convinced themselves that they fight defensive Wars no Roman war no matter how offensive or imperialist it might look to us to the Romans it was always a matter of defense always fending off an attack so in a sense that's how they justified a Mediterranean conquest as rulers of a rapidly expanding Empire the legions had to get used to a lot of travel and that meant travel on foot when Roman soldiers marched they carried up to 50 pounds of equipment on their backs including weapons armor cooking utensils rations and tools for building a temporary camp most armies relied on natural defenses if the Romans carried the tools to build a new camp wherever they were a new one each day if necessary they dug a defensive ditch around the whole camp five feet wide and three feet deep then built a palisade with the snakes they carried with them it was as though the Romans had their own fortified city wherever they went the primary purpose of a Roman marching camp is psychological rather than military it's the idea that in enemy territory every night you make a small city in what is not your territory and the enemy look on seeing their territory pockmarked by the advance of Roman armies the camps were a classic example of the Romans passion for order every camp had an identical plan each leather tent was put up in the same position each time so that the soldiers knew exactly where they were the soldiers had a great sense of security during the night they knew exactly where their officers were and the fact that their comrades work were guarding them as well the Roman obsession with order extended to the discipline of the troops cab sentries who fell asleep to be stoned to death for having endangered the whole regiment it wasn't as exceptional as it might sound given the general background of what Roman society was like people were used to flogging they were used to fairly frequent public executions so the Roman army was indeed pretty draconian but not as different from the rest of society as badly I think one infamous form of harsh discipline was decimation the killing of one men in 10 of regiments that showed cowardice in battle the men were selected by luck and clubbed to death by their comrades roman obedience was based on fear if a Roman soldier was faced by a crisis in battle that Roman soldier that unit of soldiers would stand their ground because they were more likely to survive a desperate fight in battle than to survive if they ran away one famous case of decimation came when Roman legions suffered several defeats during a revolt led by an escaped gladiator a warrior called Spartacus the Roma Norway was so busy conquering and building an empire on foreign soil that it had no standing army back home in Italy and that left it open to surprise attack that's just what happened in 73 BC in a revolt led by a foreign slave named Spartacus who had been forced to become a gladiator conditions for all slaves were relatively cruel and brutal and particularly for gladiators who were kept chained in barracks and were brutally treated Spartacus led a revolt by fellow gladiators against their conditions and was soon joined in the uprising by slaves in the countryside millions of slaves were brought back into Italy a lot of them were prisoners of war a lot of them were ex warriors and therefore although many of them were kept in barracks and many of them are trained to be gladiators they were a potential security risk because there were no legions stationed in Italy at the time new legions had to be quickly raised and trained but Spartacus said his men using guerilla tactics defeated each Legion centimetres and his band remained at large in Italy for three years the roman senate finally gave the nobleman marcus crassus the power to quell the revolt the show he was serious he began by decimating two of the legions that had lost the Spartacus then raised six new legions and met the Spartans in open warfare their tactics were so unconventional they refused to give battle until the very end in a conventional way they confounded the expectations of the generals and the army is sent against them in a sense their mistake and what lost them their final battle was to behave like Roman soldier the fighter conventional pitch battle had they stuck to guerrilla warfare their revolt might have been even more effective than it was the legions defeated the rebel army and killed Spartacus and then Crassus lined the Appian Way outside Rome with 6000 crucified sparticles a lesson to anyone who opposed Rome and her army in the early days of the Roman army soldiers were called away for only a few months at a time between spring and harvest but the expanding Empire that long campaigns overseas and for property owners he only been eligible for the legions military service became an ever-increasing hardship by 100 BC Rome had about 130,000 men in uniform one Roman man and eight was a soldier and he was required to do up to six years of service in one stretch and a maximum of 16 years over his lifetime the legions needed a bigger pool of manpower to draw on and the man who made it possible was the Consul Marius himself a great general twice he had saved Rome from invasion with victories over German tribes in the fields near XR Palace and southern France and 102 BC Marius army killed so many Germans one hundred thousand by one account that farmers had bumper crops for years afterwards because of the blood and bones in the soil as console marius decided to throw the ranks open to all Roman citizens whether they owned land or not this meant poor Romans could volunteer for a secure and prestigious job with good pay and trap they could become career soldiers the Roman army was now on its way to becoming a full-time professional force but volunteers still had to meet strict requirements they had to be tall preferably literate and have good character references certain professions were preferred including blacksmiths and hunters those incident not suitable included Weaver's and tavern keepers new recruits had to pass an interview and a medical exam and then had to take an oath to perform whatever they were commanded for the Roman state and to not shrink from death they were then given three gold pieces and sent to the provinces for training but many of these new Torah soldiers were already looking beyond three gold pieces as the army kept adding new conquests soldiers were increasingly focused on the spoils of war the amount of booty are over to bring back from cities like Corinth in 1 4 6 BC so enormous that I think it did encourage massive greed and an increasing level of brutality among Roman soldiers increasingly soldiers turn their loyalty from the Roman state to their own generals who could make them rich and the generals being Roman aristocrats saw their legions as tickets to wealth and power intimately related as the general and his army the general promises his army land booty settlement after the war has finished and the army promises the general not only success in conquest but votes back in Rome afterwards this led to a new class of super generals all the political ambitions there was Maria's himself a consul for many years his rival sulla who won victories in the eastern Mediterranean and became dictator of Rome for a time Pompey the great for conquered Syria and Palestine and the most famous general of all Julius Caesar Julius Caesar represents as close as I think you can get to naked ambition in the first century BC there's a famous story of Julius Caesar age 31 in further Spain coming across a statue of that great Conqueror Alexander the Great and suddenly bursting into tears and his entourage say why Caesar are you crying and he says this man by my age had conquered most of the world and I have done nothing within a few years the world would know that Caesar had done a great deal of all Rome's great generals none created more fame bloodshed loyalty and hatred than Julius Caesar he was a nobleman who worked his way up the political ladder and used his military command in Spain to pillage enough booty to buy votes in Rome he was made a consul and formed a political alliance the triumvirate of the rival general Pompey and Marcus Crassus the richest man in Rome Cesar then had himself made governor of northern Italy and southern France which made him commander of several legions he was anxious for more conquests and his chance soon came in 58 BC a Celtic people the helvetii II asked Caesars permission to migrate from Switzerland to western France across Roman Allies territory in what was then called goal instead of agreed Caesar decided to attack the Caesar of course is a cynic he needs a war he needs the booty derived from that to finance his political campaigns before he goes on campaign in Gaul he is deeply in debt Gaul will provide the booty for repaying his creditors Caesar said six legions against the Helvetii is three hundred and sixty thousand men women and children more than half the haveli was slaughtered and the survivors forced to return to their homelands it was a part of the political struggle at Rome in the late Republic Pompey his great rival was Rome's best general so Caesar competing against Pompey he has to be a better general after dispatching the Helvetii he Cesar said after a German tribe that had crossed the Rhine and marched his troops 120 miles in five days to the Alsace region again the Romans slaughtered thousands Caesar then turned west towards Belgium and repeated the dos against the tribe there ceases political foes in Rome decried his actions but both Romans cheered him on because he was defeating goals the very same Celtic people who'd sacked Rome in 390 BC the Romans fear of Celtic people's like the goals was more than historical it was also physically partly the sheer size of the Celts the Italians were fairly small people and compared them the goals for example were haps enormous you know some of six-footers that the Italians weren't used to for example we're told that Julius Caesar was tall for a room when he was only 5 foot 6 to the Romans anyone who didn't speak Latin or Greek such as the Celts was looked down upon as a barbarian because the language sounded like sheep baa baa the Romans have a very particular view of themselves and that is to see themselves as people who've developed the powers of the mind to control the body barbarians on the other hand are people who are led by physical desire sex and drugs and rock and roll they don't have a proper education so they go for the nearest thrill but the Celts that Caesar was fighting at gold but far from barbarians as we know the Germans they lived in organized towns like this reconstruction in France and there were master iron workers who probably invented the chainmail armor that the Romans adopted and the Celts artwork was anything but barbaric it still regarded as one of the great artistic traditions of Europe as warriors the so-called barbarians were no match for seas as well-trained legions Celtic warriors did not fight as a unit they fought for individual glory the big men like to show up dressed in fancy shiny armor stand at the front and engage in warfare that was no doubt fairly brutal but was fairly small scale they couldn't plan total war in the way that the Romans could plan they didn't have fully trained legions they didn't have logistic backup also the Celts were up against a brilliant commander and Julius Caesar he was ambitious hungry for victories and used daring and original tactics he was noted for the speed and surprise of his movements and he really brought those techniques to perfection in using his legions on the other hand he was a little reckless part of his daring and he often got himself in terrible scrapes but he was so quick and so perceptive of the enemy's intentions that he was always able to get himself out from the word go he was prepared to adapt I mean coming up against the Germans for the first time in his first campaign enormous sums of cavalry he had virtually none no problem he simply gets in horses and tells one Legion right boys your organ recovery suddenly has 5,000 calories Cesar knew he asked a lot of his soldiers and so he went out of his way to cultivate an intense loyalty from he didn't ask them to do anything that he didn't do and he often dismissed his bodyguard and had his horse led away and actually stood in the ranks with the troops and his troops were very loyal to him not surprisingly these loyal soldiers were also becoming wealthy soldiers throw booty and slaves the spoils of war were often won through great brutality Caesar himself boasted that his campaigns in Gaul left a million dead and a million enslaved Cesar just carried out what I've called actually a big-game hunt he took his legions back and forth across call slaughtering troops pillaging towns killing women children the Romans were terribly cruel on the Celts defeated enemies were often made into slaves slavery was tremendously important to Rome 40% of the Italian population were slaves the same percentage as the American South before the Civil War slaves are fundamental to Rome's war effort essentially slaves free this Roman citizen to fight in the army without slavery it would have been impossible for Rome so effectively to initiate these wars of conquest caesar's wars of conquest went on for nine years he was the ultimate example of everything the Roman army had become in its first 500 years dedicated ambitious ruthless and caesar would not stop with foreign conquests with his army behind him he would conquer his enemies in Rome and take the title of dictator for life

Hidden Killers of the Victorian Home – Full Documentary



Millions trust Grammarly’s free writing app to make their messages, documents, and posts clear, mistake-free, and effective. Sign up today. It’s free!

Watch Hidden Killers of the Post-War Home Here:

While the Victorians confronted the challenges of ruling an empire, perhaps the most dangerous environment they faced was in their own homes. Householders lapped up the latest products, gadgets and conveniences, but in an era with no health and safety standards they were unwittingly turning their homes into hazardous death traps.

In a genuine horror story, Dr Suzannah Lipscomb reveals the killers that lurked in every room of the Victorian home and shows how they were unmasked. What new innovation killed thousands of babies? And what turned the domestic haven into a ticking time bomb?

it was the Victorians who cherished the idea of home as a domestic Haven they coined the phrase safe as houses and in this age of invention homes were bursting at the seams with new gadgets products and conveniences in the bedroom with the latest beauty products and manufactured clothes while in the nursery the toys were brand new and factory produced and for the first time the stove warmed the entire house the original home sweet home but there was a problem many of the exciting products and appealing innovations they welcomed into their homes were not just health hazards they were killers and with the aid of science our seek out these domestic assassins their houses were disgusting I'll be revealing what the Victorians couldn't see inside their homes these things undoubtedly would have killed many children and showing the terrible injuries that went inflicted in the name of progress what you need to do is move your bust up occasion just and I'll feel the strain of chasing the Victorian ideal welcome to the perilous world of the real Victorian home in the second half of the 19th century cities exploded to house the booming middle classes in just over 50 years their number grew from two and a half million to over nine and these new urban middle classes took immense pride in their homes they had money and they wanted to spend it on making their houses cozy havens of domesticity and comfort not for these people the grim perils a Victorian factory life or the gritty reality of the overcrowded streets the sort of family who lived here enjoyed a level of comfort and luxury previously unknown to ordinary people the cost of necessities fell dramatically and new mass production techniques made Goods available and affordable this meant a level of conspicuous consumption never witnessed before they filled their rooms with things that made the house a home they've been inspired by the Great Exhibition of 1851 which showcased the latest and the best in gadgets and consumer goods what had been happening now for the best part of a hundred years suddenly crystallized in this extraordinary exhibition it wasn't so much that he was new as it was just suddenly boom in bulk as the century went on and consumerism began to increase one of the fascinating things is that the phrase standard of living first appeared for the first time in history you measured how good your life was by how many objects you possessed when you think about it that's actually a very strange idea you couldn't just buy anything what was and what wasn't tasteful was discussed at length in the many and various new household guides and magazines John Ruskin the leading art critic and social theorist impressed on Victorian consumers the importance of making the right choices good taste is essentially a moral quality what we like determines what we are and to teach taste is inevitably to form character yet while the Victorians fretted about abstract notions of morality they were oblivious to the real dangers that came from things they had welcomed into their houses every room in the Victorian home was filled with hidden killers and one of the most dangerous places was the drawing-room the Victorians were really rejecting the idea of the eighteenth-century classicism the restraint the delicacy the white walls that was all over they wanted clutter they wanted color they wanted accessory they really furnished to show that for them color and clutter and objects that was wealth and that was that was importance and that was riches one thing that particularly indicated both good taste and status was wallpaper the richer the pattern and the darker more vivid the color the better why because with the introduction of gas lighting for the first time in history there was enough light in the house for ordinary people to have and enjoy intense color on their walls as a result there was something of a wallpaper craze manuals like castles household guide which told the Victorians how to do everything outlined principles of good taste and told them which patterns of wallpaper to buy they were influencing a massive market wallpaper sales had shot up from around 1 million pieces a year in 1834 to 32 million by 1874 castles even gifts what its cause its theory of color it describes his rules for the artistic appreciation in dress in furniture and it recommends green it calls it a color of repose says the eye experiences a healthy and peculiarly grateful impression from this color as opposed to something like yellowish red which it says is the preference of impetuous robust men and savage Nations a particularly brilliant green known as Sheila's green was all the rage she'll was the swedish scientist who first mixed the pigment to produce an intensely vivid color that didn't fade its incredible popularity meant that it was used in everything from carpets BrahMos candles and children's toys but most of all it was used in industrial quantities in wallpaper there was one strange coincidence as wallpaper sales escalated so did reports of unexplained deaths and illnesses in the home but there was nothing mysterious about it the magic ingredient that was giving the wallpaper its rich green hue was arsenic these were samples of what would be considered as tearful wallpapers to have in a Victorian home this on the walls would have been loaded with arsenic actually in the printing of the book it's also used are cynical dyes so this book that you've shown me now has asked the confused mosquitoes there's quite a lot of or stick in that it's not lie don't believe what you're saying but could you prove it it's phase you do if I use this instrument which is a portable XRF it tells us what contaminants metallic contaminants are present and items basically consistory straight off has got large amounts of copper in it we've got large amounts of arsenic in it oh yes the actual salts used in this pigment or copper arsenic in this book fugitive probably hey I wash my hands afterwards modern science can prove the Victorian wallpaper contained arsenic but this danger wasn't fully understood at the time to confuse matters further the symptoms of arsenic poisoning were very similar to cholera which had been rampant in Britain in living memory the immediate effects would be of pain swelling of the esophagus very dry throat and difficulty in swallowing and then what's described is agonizing abdominal pains as the whole digestive tract is affected by the arsenic vomiting diarrhea and sounds terribly unpleasant and then people would die which was said to be quite a relief because it's a Tran agonizing way to die newspaper headlines continue to report mysterious illnesses and deaths and links were made with arsenic in the second half of the 19th century the newspapers are full of cases like this one six-month-old child dies as a result of chewing on a piece of emerald green wallpaper but even if you hadn't eaten the wallpaper you weren't safe in fact the wallpaper was endangering the health of the nation in another hidden and much more insidious way thanks to a chemical reaction poisonous fumes are thought to have infiltrated the very air they were breathing there's a lot to be it about the production of arsenic gases from the wallpaper the actual surface of the wallpaper particular flock wallpapers can come off and your house would be covered in arsenical dust but also in Victorian houses which weren't centrally heated the relatively damp you put damp together with wallpaper paste and cellulose which is in the wallpaper itself and you get fungal growth and as many fungi can actually roll out lies those arsenic assaults in the volatile form of arsenic and they're highly toxic these things were billowing out arsenic in the home in which obviously the windows were hardly ever opened because of the smog they sat there in this lovely ferg of arsenic thinking they're in this perfect virtuous healthy home it doesn't actually matter how the arsenic is absorbed into the body whether you breathe it in whether it comes in through the skin or the other membranes or whether you actually eat it it actually has a very similar effect because it's effective via the blood stream so the arsenic gets into the bloodstream and travels around the body but one of the problems with the slower arsenic poisoning of a small amount over a longer time is that it could cause very vague symptoms and obviously if you're being poisoned by something in a particular room of the house and when you left that room you got a bit better it would could come and go and so it was much harder to differentiate it from other illnesses thought around at the time some doctors began to question the use of arsenic in wallpaper as more and more mystery deaths were reported in the home The Lancet too took up the cause there appears good reason for believing that a very large amount of sickness and mortality among all classes is attributable to this cause and that it may probably account for many of the mysterious diseases of the present day which so continually baffle all medical skill in 1856 a couple in Birmingham reported to their doctor dr. Heinz that they were suffering from inflamed eyes headaches and sore throats even their pet parrot was drooping they decided to go on holiday to the seaside and their symptoms disappeared they suspected something in their house and they had recently applied bright green wallpaper to two rooms at home dr. Heinz wondered if that alone could be responsible for their ailments people went to the seaside and took the waters and took the spa what effectively they were doing is moving out of a toxic environment into a healthy diluted environment where you had fresh air water that came from a known source not relying on what was in a concentrated area within the property they moved away from a toxic environment what's really astounding is how much arsenic there was in a Victorian drawing-room when you add up all the materials that contained arsenic pigment certainly we know that it was a huge amount of arsenic in say Victorian living room which had a hundred square meters surface area could contain up to 2.5 kilograms of arsenic that's a lot of Awesome arsenic yes if you went to Boston dr. Heinz along with some other medical practitioners became an outspoken critic of the use of arsenic pigment in Germany arsenical war papers had been banned but not in the UK the war people manufacturers didn't want people to think there's anything wrong with their products and say The Lancet and the British Medical Journal for a long campaign to bring this in the public for so there was quite a lot of speed to what's going on some doctors and newspapers called on the British government to ban the poisonous paper but others were quick to belittle the claims of the killer wallpaper some manufacturers even offered to eat it to prove how safe it was one of Britain's most celebrated wallpaper designers was William Morris a leading light of the Arts and Crafts movement he was also one of the fiercest critics of the heartless industrialists of this period but what is not well known about this champion of handicraft is that he was a director of the biggest arsenic producing mine in the world Devin great consoles William Morris was making with his money from arsenic that's quite a surprise isn't it because of course we associate William Morris as being you know this leader of the Arts and Crafts movement as someone who's you know go back to place it's going to be back to natural things but he's got this mind that potentially is certainly selling arsenic whether he's using it as wallpapers or not sometimes as I said there was enough arsenic produced from that mine to kill the entire planet and every creature on it some of the people who came out with the processes had vested interests in other locations that they would own arsenic mines they would own areas where it was in their interest to include arsenic into payments dyes whatever they don't really Morris ever accept that he was doing this or did he continue to deny it well there's a interesting letter there was a customer complaining that the wallpaper was poisoning him and his family and basically William Morris said there was witch fever so that was this war so Lawrence we have it was witch fever in other words he thought he was being accused of something that just wasn't true well he was just saying it was these doctors were saying the new obstacle war peppers were killing people and damaging people's health needs her saying you it's it's mumbo-jumbo basically what he was saying contrary to Morris's claims the evidence building up became impossible to deny but it would take intervention from the very top before things started to change one of the the key tipping points of that recognition was when Queen Victoria herself had had wallpaper of shield green and she had a diplomat like she came to stay with her who fell ill overnight and she was I think the record show that she was quite put out to be perfectly honest it she'd been stood up early in the morning and he hadn't turned up but axes the poor chap had acted killed over overnight he was actually effectively poisoned by the arsenic in the wallpaper she was a little skeptical about it but then when it actually came out in the papers and there were actually quite a lot of publications around that time as acting that she'd done that it was then that step changing maybe we need to think and he'll regulate this unbelievably the use of arsenic and wallpaper was never officially banned but as consumers understood its danger they stopped buying these wallpapers and forced commercial practice to change Morris wallpapers and other astute manufacturers started to advertise their product as arsenic-free certainly by 1872 even the star guides had switched to safer printing but we'll never know how many died a slow death through the prevalence of arsenic in Victorian products I cannot see the hardness amount of arsenic dust for the around Victorian home wouldn't lead to chronic health problems its it as a class 1 carcinogen is a human carcinogen so years of exposure to this would have led the cancerous basically the Victorian ideal or perhaps fantasy of domesticity was that the lady of the house should be as Charles Dickens describes it in the Mystery of Edwin Drood the ministering angel of domestic bliss Victorian women were encouraged to make their home a reassuring sanctuary for their husbands away from the jealousies cares and dangers of working life the idea of the angel of the house was obviously a literary creation but it tapped in completely to what the Victorians essentially wanted it was a movement away from the fact that in the 18th century usually father and mother had pitched in together in the business with a professionalization the growth of factories the home was away from the place of work so the home became this ideal place of perfection and taste this this bubble enclosed bubble of purity as the home became an ideal it needed to be protected and nurtured and therefore buying things for the home creating things for the home came to be seen as the woman's occupation the men went out there conquering the Empire the women stayed at home and kept them as pure women were expected not only to create the perfect home the lady of the house had to measure up as well our next danger in this house is in the bedroom the pursuit of this feminine ideal wasn't entirely safe lurking in many beautifying products were harmful toxins part of being the ideal Victorian woman was looking just right whatever your physique one of these came in handy in fact this was essential corsets kept everything under control and they meant selfi serve and that was vital to the Victorian woman because the opposite was just excess and freedom and flesh flying everywhere and wanted to that what the world might fall down that's quite tight already we're actually squeezing all the air out Sara Nicole looks after one of the biggest corset collections in the country so tell me about all the different layers we can see here what's going on first of all we've got the chemise underneath so you would never avoid your core sit next to your skin the corset predates the bra its function was to support the chest and help take the weight of up to 14 pounds of clothing in occasion then over the top of this you would have had a petticoat as well that's sort of five garments before yeah you even got to outer where it is yes the Symington factory manufactured corsets that were affordable for everybody they did all of their own artwork and printing for all their box tops for their corsets it's just beautiful it may look beautiful but women were unwittingly paying a terrible price in the 1860s and 70s corset tree became increasingly extreme by the mid 19th century the ideal female form the corseted female form was everywhere in newspapers magazines journals aimed at women and this celebrity the actresses had it the dancers had it but particularly in fashion plates had it this impossible figure I mean they were drawn simply because no woman would look like that what kind of courses and how restrictive they were depended on your age your class your occupation and her fashionable you were it was recommended that a corset was to be worn at all times and there was no escape not even in the colonies Symons made this to market directly at ladies that were going to tropical regions so they were either going with their man or to get their man it's called the ventilated corset for obvious reasons it has the center section removed they're all women wearing this in all parts of the British Empire yeah whatever the weather yes and you were regarded as a loose woman and if you didn't wear your corset it demonstrated their character and it demonstrated that they were fine and upright citizens and you know fit for the British Empire these robust cages of whalebone and steel were turned into potential killers by one surprisingly small technological advance the metal eyelet what difference does that make it allows people if they want to to tight lace their course it without the fabric pulling away the metal eyelet made it easier to get the look because it was possible to lace tightly without the material tearing as it previously would have done there was a fashion for wearing very very very tight bodices I mean it's fascinating you see in photographs the fabric pulls in a way that we would think means it doesn't fit a tight lacing is something that a minority of people did and that is to get your waist as small as you possibly can and they used to do this by lightly lacing their ties of course it tighter and tighter some women would keep their corsets on day and night to train their bodies so what are the effects of a corset on the body in the long term well if I could just show you here the position of the normal organs so the liver for example our largest internal organ sits underneath the ribs on the right and so it's a large wedge-shaped organ that sits here under the ribs and so in a corset which brings the ribs in very tightly to give the typical small waisted outline the liver gets squat upwards and it presses against the ribs and in fact there are specimens of livers taken from women who have died who've worn tight corsets actually have ridges on them where the ribs have made indentations in the surface of the liver because it's been so tight and another organ that may be affected by a tight corset is a stomach that sits here and it underneath the ribcage and so if the ribcage was pulled in by the corset the stomach is pushed downwards into the abdominal cavity and that would then have an effect on the rest of the abdominal organs which would be pushed down this is a pregnancy corset from 1885 some women even wore corsets when pregnant a particular choice came for women about the corset is what when they fell pregnant because many husbands complain they didn't want their their baby's head shaped and molded but there were women who continued to wear corsets through pregnancy which you know there's no no way at all that is possibly good for the baby one of the problems with corsets after pregnancy particularly women had a lot of babies was that of prolapse of the uterus the pelvic floor muscles haven't been weakened during childbirth and then a very tight corset that increases the pressure in the abdomen forcing all the organs down so that would have been a very unwanted side effect of wearing tight corsets now it's my turn I was a little bit tighter and it whether you can feel that I've got any yeah I can feel it yep yeah I confess I felt delighted to have a smaller waist a result hey I can see why they did it now 24 inches look 24 3/4 the Victorian household guides even advised on suitable exercises for a lady I'm just exhausted after day just that I'm not really that unfit honestly or am i we're going to use sport science equipment with Matt Ferber to measure the effect of the corset on my body yep I'm happy you happy yeah first I have to give him a baseline of fitness without the corset I exercise for six minutes now Matt monitors my vital signs with the corset on first how it affects me at rest and three two one go and I repeat the same exercise with Matt measuring my heart rate and airflow 16 m15 lovely good two minutes ago halfway through and maps already seeing the changes stop okay we just won again take a seat yeah I feel close to fainting and it takes two minutes for my head to clear and I'm not even tight laced breathing okay yeah okay last ten seconds excellent Laura you're free so what happened that right now let's get this off you as well what can science reveal about the effects of a corset so in terms of the rate in which you're breathing so even at rest you can see so you got that the red line is when you're wearing a corset in the blue lines not wearing it when you're not when your corset so you see even at rest when you're sitting down you're breathing in the corset around about you know twenty-three twenty-four breaths per minute whereas when you didn't have the corset on you're down about fourteen breasts a minute so it shows that even at rest of course it's really restricting and then when it actually comes to wash right when you do any exercise and we can see where your figures you know with the corset on your tidal volume so matter veil getting every breath is a lot lower so you're breathing approximately 200 to 300 meals less every single breath with the corset on gosh yeah so that's why at the end I felt like I was really fighting to yet to get in there absolutely you know really with these figures you can really see the impact the causes of restriction of course is having you're basically hyperventilating within the corset that's kind of what's happening because you'll be breathing an awful lot faster you know ten over ten breaths per minute it's an extra 25% faster wearing a corset you I've proved it's damaging but could it be a killer that chronic under perfusion not getting enough air down into the bottom of the lungs could cause problems it predisposes to infections like pneumonia and that was something that a very tight corset worn for many hours a day could cause problems with Foreman had an underlying problem it could exacerbate it so for example if a young girl had rickets from vitamin D deficiency to have soft bones that were still developing and they could be distorted very much by wearing a tight corset there are stories of the ribs breaking and piercing the lung underneath which could be fatal as the century wore on the corset became the focus of a huge debate women's possibilities for activity became much larger over the 19th century by the end of the 19th century it was there was nothing unvirtuous in going around on your bicycle in walking freely and so this vide wasn't very practical for them to be wearing corsets I mean simply didn't work and increasingly women began to say these are pointless that is getting in the way you know I spending hours in the morning getting myself into the corset when I could be doing something far more useful it really also coincided with the growth of the votes for women the idea that women were equal citizens so if they're equal citizens demanding the vote they shouldn't be treated as some kind of excessive ornament that are there to be looked at and they're to be admired and are ruining the health just so they look white for men the campaign for change was spearheaded by the rational dress Society established in 1881 Constance wild wife rasca edited the rational dress Gazette the rational dress Society protests against the introduction of any fashion in dress that either deforms the figure impedes the movement of the body or in any way tends to injure health by the 1890s some manufacturers had started to respond to demands for looser clothing yet one thing will probably never disappear the temptation to conform to an ideal of beauty whatever the cost why did women care and wearing corsets well for exactly the same reason as I was delighted to have a 24 inch waist it was psychologically rewarding even if physically it could take its toll the idea of that s-shaped figure we are completely in thrall to it even now so I don't think that we can really look back on the Victorians and say oh my goodness weren't they silly fainting when they sang falling all over the place because they will cause it I don't think we can say with that necessarily that far away I'm on the trail of the next household danger I'm heading to the kitchen courses weren't just worn by middle class when they were also worn by their servants as they carried out household tasks it almost beggars belief but at least those servants benefited from the proliferation of new gadgets designed to make their lives easier and safer well sort of this was a brave new world where the ingenious Victorian inventor felt he had the answers to any domestic problem but many of these inventions were difficult to use and proved to be dangerous and people were untrained in how to use them by the mid 1870s the Victorians were bringing services into the home piping in water and trying out new gas appliances and gadgets and of all the new inventions available what could be more desirable in these dark damp houses than something that offered heat and light gas was to open a whole new chapter of Victorian household catastrophes what we had in the past was everybody would be congregated around a single lamp and it would be either oil or a candle or something else and then all of a sudden people didn't want to live on top of each other all the time we wanted to find better ways of doing it and it was towards the end of the Victorian area that they started bringing gas lighting lighting that was actually capable of light in a whole room it was a massive step forward it was a four greatest innovation you could have a room that was completely lit they had coal gas said something it was called wood gas and they had another material called a water gas now these were highly poisonous there's no control there was no Scot it was just gas the worst killer was cos you couldn't actually smell it she'd have no idea until it was too late to basically you were just keel over and that would be the be the end of you in the second half of the 19th century the papers everything from the Worcester Evening News to the Western Gazette a full of stories of people dying horribly these aren't headline cases they're just little snippets that give the facts and figures so for example in the Manchester Evening News in 1886 there's a story of five boys suffocating in a loft or the this one from the Sheffield independent 1872 the lady was found confined in a bedroom with her infant and its nose and it says she must have unconsciously deranged the joint of the gas stove thus permitting an escape of gas all three were found apparently lifeless but why was such cases so widespread it may seem obvious to us now but at the time the dangers of gas were not known to the man in the street and the gas company's adverts didn't help matters some of the major gas companies coming out with misnomers that gas was actually good for people that you could actually have a room full of gas and walk in there with a naked light and it would be perfectly safe gas companies were popping up all over the place you couldn't walk a block inland and without seeing a gas company the rivalry was just huge but of course with rivalry comes cost-cutting what you also had at the time was unscrupulous activities going on between gas suppliers where they would actually sabotage their their opponents or their competitors by actually dropping the pressure to save money companies would reduce their own gas supply to customers at night the gas lamp would actually just flicker away and then blow out in the middle of the night and then the gas adjust seep into your home and you wouldn't be waking up in the morning it was the heart of the industrial period they wanted everything new manufactured to be the scene to be at the cutting edge of what was going on and that was then how they drove innovation through making something engineering something if it wasn't engineered it wasn't bid the speed of change was breathtaking but there was neither the time nor the will to test these products that would be sold to millions of consumers one of the most brilliant contraptions in this age of scientific progress was a system that could provide warmth throughout the whole house a massive improvement on open coal fires and drafty chimneys gasps central heating was a huge thing in 1800 they came up with the idea of a ceiling system ovid if it heat water exactly same as a steam train basically in a huge cylinder it was very volatile the pressure inside these boilers was just absolutely phenomenal they were running them all around houses you could have 10 12 15 16 radiators on each system but of course you could be sitting down a veneer in your lunch and this steam about doesn't open you could be tucking into your turtle soup and the next thing is a huge explosion and you'll be leaving the building without opening the door the pressure was just huge so it was only ever gonna end up in in one story really it was going to be an accident and people will die the main problem was that they didn't understand the dangers of what they were doing gas and cast iron hadn't been used in this way in the home before when they were actually doing the casting it was at the very forefront of that technology of understanding that that witnesses and flaws in that car in that casting could actually cause problems further down the line the inventive Victorian engineer having tackled heat and light now turned his attention to cooking stoves what could be so dangerous about a stove like this with an open system when you add the coal and massive flew with a smoke pouring up the chimney ventilation was superb because the air would run through the kitchen straight the chimney take all the smoke away but when they sort of encompassed it into a sealed container that problems were pressure and that problems were getting rid of the smoke because this the the actual ventilation and the draught there wasn't one to go through the system to take the smoke away so inevitably the kitchens become really smoky and of course this could lead to anything to suffocation if you avoided suffocating in the smoky kitchen you still had a potential problem they made sealer unit so important to them and use them sort of that like the modern-day kettle and of course this was a boil as a violin part because there's no release valves or anything like that of course these stoves were just exploding it was like a small time bomb just totally sealed unit they didn't understand the pressures and what happened when you introduced oxygen and he had these huge huge catastrophic explosions in kitchens towards the end of the Victorian era a new power source gradually came into play they were starting to turn away from gas because it was so volatile and go towards electricity basically but now electricity was a killer as well it wasn't under percent safe when they were you know first coming up with these ideas of light bulbs and because you mix electricity with gas so you bring your electric lights in we've sold a gas cooker and these gas cookers were left on you know the giant still corroded broke down and let gas escape of course you'd come down in the morning into any wonderful new electric light done and it's the first thing that explodes his is your gas cooker so the two of them that they weren't to go together it it was a recipe for disaster again it wasn't until 1923 that any safety regulations were brought in but the benefits of a warm cozy home meant that most were willing to risk the consequences invention was running a hundred miles lower and we just weren't quick enough to keep up with all the fitters over your Bruins skilled enough to keep up with it but the amount of deaths happen through negligence

India: Crash Course History of Science #4



Views:|Rating:|View Time:Minutes|Likes:[vid_likes]|Dislikes:[vid_dislikes]
Re-uploaded because there was an error with a map ** You might have recognized the names of some of the Greek natural philosophers. They were individuals …

Ancient Persian Empire – A Baffling Legacy that is Still Debated by Historians



Views:4638|Rating:4.73|View Time:1:41:34Minutes|Likes:157|Dislikes:9
The Achaemenid Empire also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, … The empire also set the tone for the politics, heritage and history of Iran .
FULL DOCUMENTARY ARCHIVE @

Other Channel – Viper TV Documentaries

Viper TV Film Production. COPYRIGHT RESERVED.

LIKE – COMMENT – SHARE
Subscribe to Viper TV – Films

students of ancient history are well aware of the Persians a still present cultural and linguistic group the Persians are the founders of today's modern day nation of Iran they trace their roots back to the Aryans of northern Europe but over the course of time they managed to assert a distinct identity that led to the formation of some of the world's most powerful empires one of the most shocking things about the Persians is how quickly they went from an obscure powerless and nomadic tribe to an immense empire that spanned across Western Asia Africa and parts of Europe the rise of series the great considered the father of Persia in the 7th century BCE filled the power vacuum caused by the fall of the Assyrians and it led to the formation of one of the most powerful empires of the ancient world this first Empire known as the a committed Empire controlled one of the biggest empires by land area ever recorded Persian troops made it as far west as Libya and Greece and Persian governments controlled the territories in the modern-day nations of Afghanistan Uzbekistan and Tajikistan as well as India their constant wars with the Greeks played a pivotal role in the development of this culture by forcing the Greek city-states to unite leading to a Greek Golden Age which has had a tremendous influence on the world we live in today had the Greeks been unable to stop the Persian advance there's no telling how different the world would be however like all empires of the ancient world the Inca minutes would not last forever constant war depleted their resources and the rise of the Greeks and Macedon under Alexander the Great eventually pushed the great Persian Empire into the background of history but the Persians were not to disappear forever successive dynasties starting in the 3rd century BCE and continuing until the 7th century CE II helped re-establish Persia as a dominant force in the region and they played a major role in the creation and propagation of a Persian cultural and ethnic identity that would last throughout the nearly 900 years of Islamic rule and continue up until the present day the Persians have made significant contributions to world culture ranging from their ability to raise and train one of the ancient world's most formidable fighting forces the Persian immortals to their new and effective ways of organizing and administering government and Persian art heavily influenced their Muslim invaders helping to usher in the Islamic Golden Age that helped spread Islam throughout the Middle East and Africa some aspects of Persian culture would disappear through time but many would remain even if only in small pockets Xaro astra anism for example one of the world's oldest monotheistic religions played an important role in Persian culture and identity until the Islamic invasion but it is still around today and practiced by thousands of people across Iran and India so while the glory of the Persian Empire is very much a thing of the past its influence on the world is not as such understanding how the Persians rose to power and how they exerted their influence on the many different cultural groups in Western Asia helps us better understand both the history of the Middle East as well as the entire world nowadays Persia is a household name people eat Persian food enjoy Persian goods and millions of people speak the Persian language and it has become nearly synonymous with the modern country of Iran but this was not always the case in fact when examining history using a broad perspective the Iranians are relatively new to the Middle Eastern scene but a combination of chance cultural development and military might would quickly change this and turn Persia and the Persian people into one of the world's most famous civilizations however before looking at how the Persian Empire rose to power it's important to understand the origins of the Persian people and also the land they would eventually call home the arrival of the Iranians and the Persians the civilization eventually understood as Persia and gets its name from the region of Perseus which is located in northwestern Iran in the modern region of farce it is here where the Iranian tribe the paisay argh a day sometimes refer to as the parse hua decided to settle in the seventh century BCE after a long and slow migration from the north and west the city they built also named Pei say our gate a would become the cultural and political center of the early Persian Empire however while the modern conception of Persian civilization did not officially begin into the last millennium BCE the story of the Persian people starts much earlier in the timeline of human history evidence of human populations in Iran dates all the way back to the late glacial age as well as the late Stone Age however archaeological evidence suggests humans did not start abandoning their nomadic lifestyle in favor of a sedentary one based on agriculture until the fifth or perhaps even sixth century BCE and as people began to give up their nomadic ways in favor of sedentary agricultural civilizations mass migrations took place as was common for ancient civilizations upon the settlement of Persis the tribes named a leader or king however this king would have had power only over the tribes that had granted him the right to rule and he would have had virtually no influence over surrounding territories this would change rather rapidly when placed within the context of ancient history Persia would begin flexing its Imperial muscle less than two hundred years after the founding of pace air gay day but in the beginning the Persians would have been vassals to other more powerful groups of the region specifically the Metis the Metis were an ethnic group and eventual Kingdom and perhaps Empire depending on how one defines the term who were contemporaries of the late Assyrian Empire circa 1000 BCE to 600 BCE they are believed to have arrived onto the scene as early as the second or possibly even the third century BCE and they would eventually control large parts of northwestern Iran southeastern Turkey and western Iraq unfortunately no meaty site has ever been excavated and most of what is known about the civilization has been learned by studying the records of surrounding civilizations so while they were certainly influential in the region the extent of their political control in the region is unknown and it's believed they generally speaking held a loose grip on power that was largely dependent on the wills and whims of their more powerful neighbors specifically the Ella mites and the Assyrians however the role of the Metis in shaping Persian history cannot be understated while the Persians would have been subjects to this neighboring kingdom similarities and language and religion helped bring these two peoples closer together specifically the Metis and the Persians both spoke an Iranian language and are part of an Iranian ethnic group neither would have been able to fully understand the other but the similarity in the structure of these two languages would have made it easier for the two groups to communicate and form networks of trade and political power distinct from these Semitic languages spoken throughout much of Mesopotamia and Western Asia at the time the Iranians are an ethanol and WestEd group comprised of many different other ethnic groups such as the bactrian Sumerians Metis Karthi ins Persians and Scythian x' among others with the unifying characteristic of this ethno-linguistic group being the iranian language iranian is a part of the broader indo-iranian language group which is a branch of the much wider indo-european classification that includes some 445 living languages including Spanish Hindi English Portuguese Punjab German French Italian and Persian among others furthermore at the time of Persian arrival into Iran they were practicing a religion that would have been familiar to the Metis for both shared their roots in the anti demonic law traditions known to have been a prominent part of Aryan culture the peoples originating from Russia and other parts of northeastern Europe this religion had no gods instead life on earth was understood to be controlled by a series of unnamed demons that were responsible for all the terrible things that can define existence and they were essentially a fire cult worshipping sacred fire as their primary deity however as the Persians settled and became more influential in the region they would begin to adapt some of the religious practices of the Metis and other Iranian cultures in the region eventually giving birth to Zoroastrianism the largest religion to come out of Iran with the exception of Islam however the Persians with their Iranian language and Iranian Arian religious customs would have been dramatically different from the other cultures already living there when they arrived in the Fertile Crescent the area including Mesopotamia the large fertile valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq as well as the surrounding territories in modern-day Israel and the Persian Gulf they would have been considered northerners and because of their distinct language they would have also been considered foreigners at the time most of the people in the region spoke a semitic language such as Assyrian Akkadian Babylonian etc this classification would play an important role in shaping the geopolitical landscape of Iran and the surrounding territory apart from cultural religious and linguistic differences that existed in the ancient Middle East the geography of the region also played a critical role in shaping the course of the region's history the best word to describe the Iranian plateau and the surrounding territories is harsh mountains surround nearly the entire region in the north bordering the Caspian Sea are the Alborz mountains and the western borders of modern Iraq which run alongside the borders with Iraq and Turkey are protected by the Zagros Mountains deserts dominate the topography in both central and southern Iran with the plateau slowly rising toward the east to eventually form part of the great Himalayas because of this climate locations for human settlement were scarce most fertile land existed in between mountain tops and rainfall in the region was and still is minimal the majority of the territory must rely on snow melts in the spring for their water supply and securing this precious resource was and still is frequently at the top of the priority list for any leader in the region yet despite these difficulties people were able to find ways to install and grow civilizations but traditional agriculture was not common with people making use of animal husbandry as their primary source of food and income however because of their cultural and linguistic differences and also because of the geopolitical situation at the time of their arrival in Iran Persian history is very much defined by how they interacted with their more powerful and more influential neighbors with the founding of peace a rja in the 7th century BCE Assyria which had been the dominant power in the region for much of the last 300 years was on the brink of collapse but it was still the most powerful empire in Mesopotamia and abroad their sphere of influence extended as far west as Egypt and as far east as the Zagros Mountains Assyrian records indicate that the first Persian kings who held loose hegemony over the region of Persis were vassals to the Assyrian Kings sending tribute to them as a sign of their fealty however by the end of the 7th century BCE Assyria would fall and all but disappear from the annals of history but when this happened new powers specifically babylon alam shall daya lydia egypt and to a lesser extent greece were all flexing their muscles in western asia meaning right from the beginning the persians would need to fight to maintain control over the territory they were to call home that the Persian Empire would go down in history as one of the most militarily advanced should come as no surprise to students of history yet this transition would not occur overnight after the fall of Assyria the Persians would become vassals to the Metis who were gaining influence in the region and who helped the Babylonians elamite sand Egyptians topple the Assyrian Empire but Persia was growing in both size and influence it had begun to establish its own monarchic tradition with one royal family the committed assuming complete control over the Persian throne this family slowly grew in power and in circa 550 BCE Cirus ii also known as cirrus the great rose to power and succeeded in overthrowing modeun rule effectively giving Persia political autonomy and birthing the first Persian Empire and dynasty which would play an important role in shaping the region's history conclusion overall the Persians can be considered late comers to the scene of ancient Mesopotamia Iran and the Middle East but this is not to discount their influence using the lens of historical hindsight the Persians arrived at a particularly fortuitous time in history the fall of the Assyrians meant political turmoil in the region and although the neo-babylonian empire would take control over much of Mesopotamia Iran and the surrounding region was up for the taking the succession of Kings in the a committed dynasty would bring great glory to the Persian people and they would help cement the Persians as one of the most formidable powerful and influential civilizations in all of human history by the middle of the sixth century BCE the political landscape in Mesopotamia and the surrounding area had changed considerably Assyria was no more and the alliance formed by two of its enemies babylon and media had thinned their relationship was tenuous and after the spoils of the assyrian empire had been conquered tensions began to rise once again at this time different Persian tribes scattered throughout the region of Persis were beginning to unify and exert some form of national identity this surge in nationalism came at the right time for the Persians for political turmoil in the region meant the conditions for asserting their independence were rather favorable establishing a nation the unification of Persia in 559 BCE the first real momentous event in Persian history would take place the crowning of Cirus ii who would later be known as Cirus ii the this moniker was likely given in recognition of his tremendous accomplishment uniting the Persian tribes and expanding the Persian Empire to be the largest in the region at the time serous the seconds capital was they say our gate a and it was occupied largely by members of the Paseo Gate a tribe which was ruled by serous the second family the a committed but at this moment in history he would have been a vassal to the median kings yet he was not satisfied with being relegated to the rule of a secondary King so he began to plot a revolt that would help the Persian people claim some degree of political autonomy he started by gathering the support of other Persian tribes that had settled throughout the Iranian Plateau namely the Mara Phi the mass PI the Panthea lie the do CI and the German I but serious ii knew he would be unable to overthrow median rule completely on his own so after succeeding and unifying many of the different persian tribes he began seeking out an ally to support him in his revolution as mentioned earlier the warmness that defined babylonian median affairs during their joint attempt to remove the Assyrians from their position of dominance had cooled considerably and although the two powers were not in open conflict they were also not good friends as a result Babylon would be serous the second top choice as an ally and considering Babylon was Persia as next closest neighbor not counting media this decision made logical sense at the time series ii was plotting his revolt against his median rulers Babylonia was going through a transition the Chaldeans an ethnic group that made up a large part of the Babylonian Empire were always creating controversy regarding the Babylonian throne for they were often not welcomed as leaders by other powers in the region Assyria Alam and media would frequently support revolts inside Babylon that came about as a result of a child e'en rising to the throne when cirrus ii was gathering support for his rebellion babylon did not have anyone with a clear claim to the throne eventually an anti childen leader Nabu nayad was made King and he made an alliance with Cirrus ii to help him retake lands lost to the medians during the wars with assyria just the century before specifically the region surrounding the city of Herat which was the last city to fall in the assyrian empire removing them from power in the region cirrus ii began his war against the medians in 555 BCE and the Babylonians did their part by expelling medians from contested territories near the Persian Gulf this occupied median forces from both fronts which made it easier for Cirrus ii and his armies to move into median territory and conquered cities including its capital Hecht putana efforts by the medians to retaliate were thwarted by mutiny their troops likely recognizing their imminent doom and this meant that by 550 BCE sears ii had succeeded in conquering media Persia was now officially an independent nation but its power and influence would in part derive from the close connections it had with the former median Empire Cirrus ii essentially assumed control over what the medians had already built and he and his successors would expand upon that to firmly place the persians at the center of this powerful iranian civilization this is understandably a glorious moment in Persian history but it would also set in motion a period of considerable uncertainty that the Persians would need to deal with to be able to maintain their newfound autonomy specifically the conquest of the median tribes meant that series ii now felt he had the right to rule over territories once claimed by median kings which were spread out across mesopotamia assyria syria armenia and cappadocia a region in modern-day turkey however the Babylonians also felt they had legitimate claims to these lands which put Persia immediately into conflict with a culture that had been its ally just several years before as a result these beginning stages of Persian history are closely tied to what the Babylonians were doing and how these two powerful kingdoms negotiated the absence of media which had previously served as a buffer between Babylon and other more powerful nations to the east but before serous ii would set to work on conquering the Babylonians and bringing southern Mesopotamia under his control he would spend time in the north of the Fertile Crescent which helped him extend Persian influence further westward the remarkable thing about Cyrus the second is that he went from being king of a powerful yet small city in the Iranian plateau to the Emperor of a vast civilization stretching from his homeland to all the way west to Egypt in less than a lifetime and his successors would go even further by reaching and engaging in battle with the outlying Greek city-states because of this in just one generation Persia went from being a collection of scattered tribes identifying with the same origins and speaking the same language to the largest empire ever seen in the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean in fact it would become the largest empire in the world at the time except for China when series came to power he would have been called the king of a Shan the name of the village from which he came the one that would have given him his title and the right to rule little mention was made of the term king of Persia until much later in history and it may have come from the name used by cultures from afar to describe a territory populated by different Persian tribes the first mention of the king of Persia comes from Babylonian records who would have recognized the change in power coming from one of their closest and most powerful allies after Sears the second managed to conquer media he began to set his sights further afield specifically toward the kingdoms of Lydia and Babylon but it took him nearly three years to rally his troops and set out on campaign there would have been resistance to serious the second conquest meaning some former median subjects would have resisted giving fealty to serous the second which would have required military operation but once serious the second fealty had the situation sufficiently under control he would have reorganized and set out on campaign the Lydian Kingdom is located west of media in central Turkey while not very powerful the kingdom of Lydia was strategically located particularly for its more powerful Western neighbors ie Greece and Egypt both saw Lydia as a useful buffer between themselves and the more powerful kingdoms that tended to come out of Mesopotamia they likely would not have fully understood the extent of Persian power at this time but after three centuries of Assyrian rulers the leaders of Egyptian and Greek kingdoms knew to keep their distance as a result they were willing to offer support to the Lydians when they needed help defending themselves from Eastern invaders around 30 years before the rise of Cirrus ii Lydia and media had signed a treaty to establish the boundary of halas which would divide Asia Minor modern day Turkey among the Lydians and the medians however when Cyrus conquered the medians in 550 BCE the leaders of Lydia feared Cyrus the second would not honor the terms of this treaty as a result the ledian king at the time Cruces sent to the Babylonians Egyptians and Greeks for help and in the meantime he launched an attack against Cirrus the second effectively negating the treaty between the two nations and going on the offensive as a way to protect his own people and territory records indicate that Cirrus the seconds first response was to try and incite a rebellion inside Lydian territory by appealing to the Ionians the terms used to describe the Greeks living in Asia Minor but this must have been unsuccessful for in 547 BCE series ii rallied his troops and entered Lydian territory advancing all the way to its capital Sardis which led to the death of Crowe –ss and the elimination of the Lydian Kingdom as an independent nation with this victory the Persian Empire now spanned across the entirety of northern Mesopotamia and Asia Minor as well as the Iranian plateau it was rapidly becoming the region's hegemon what's interesting to note about the conquest of Lydia is that this would have brought together two very different cultures when seers ii took control of media he was assuming power in a land full of people not exceptionally different from his own they both spoke Iranian languages they would have looked relatively similar for both groups could trace their origins back to the Aryans of the north and they practiced the same religion however when Cyrus conquered the Lydians he brought people under his control who had been heavily influenced by Greek culture and Greek thinking this would have made it a challenge for him to maintain control over the region and it also helps show why series ii would have been inclined to treat Greek customs or beliefs as something less than his own the Persians and Greeks have a long history together defined by conflict and rivalry and it's possible this came from the initial cultural shock series ii would have experienced upon riding into asia minor and claiming the lands of lydia as part of the persian empire after managing to secure control of the Lydians Cirrus ii had managed to grow the size of the persian empire considerably its sphere of influence in 547 BCE would have included the iranian plateau and its surrounding territories including the lands previously controlled by the medians as well as the Lydian kingdom at this point in the story though Neel Babylonia and Egypt remain independent but they would soon have to face advances from Cirrus the second powerful army Egypt would likely have felt more secure since an invasion into their territory would have required Cirrus ii and his army to cross through Syria and Phoenicia territories still loyal to the Babylonian throne yet the Babylonian king would have recognized his peril however he would have to wait nearly 7 years for the fighting to begin it's unclear what Cirrus ii was doing during these years it would have made sense to simply continue his advance southward from Lydia into Babylon but something took his attention away there is some speculation that he had to attend to matters in the farthest eastern parts of the newly formed Empire but these facts have not been confirmed nevertheless when Circe ii did finally organize an attack into Babylon in 540 BCE it seemed the time spent in between the two campaigns had given him the chance to properly prepare for the invasion Cirrus ii would march into babylon and be able to call himself King within the year meaning that by 539 BCE the neo-babylonian empire had fallen part of the reason series ii was able to be so successful in his invasion is because of internal strife that existed among the different rulers within babylon a long time source of conflict within babylonian affairs was the Chaldeans this ethnic group claimed to be the true Babylonians and they used these assertions to grant themselves power over the land however other groups did not see things this way and there were constant struggles between Chaldeans and other ethnic groups throughout Babylonian history series ii incited anti Chaldeans sentiment upon his invasion and was able to win the support of many Babylonian citizens making his invasion much easier but serous the second must have recognized that although he was now the king of Babylon maintaining that title would require close control over this once very powerful group of people as a result he installed himself in the palace of Babylonian royalty added the title king of Babylon to his and also appointed his son cam DC's governor of Babylon so as to give him tighter control over the region conclusion the death of Cirrus ii after his successful conquest of babylon the next logical target would have been egypt to the west control of babylon gave serious ii acclaim to both Syrian and Phoenician lands and it seemed as though he would face little resistance in solidifying control in these regions but this westward expansion would not occur while Cirrus ii would be alive his last 10 years as king were spent building up his new empire and consolidating power and when he died in 529 BCE his son can be seized took over as the new king of persia and he would be the one to enter Egypt as a conqueror it's important to put Cirrus the seconds achievements in perspective in the course of just 30 years series ii took loosely connected persian tribes and unified them in an effort to assert autonomy over their median rulers but once he did this he immediately embarked on a campaign of expansion that rivals any other in history by the time of his death the median Lydian and Babylonian empires some of the most powerful in the ancient world had been wiped off the face of the earth through good and they were now closely controlled by Cirrus and his newfound Persian Empire this remarkable expansion makes it easy to understand why Persian historians look back and call their first true leader Sirius the Great Cirrus the second or Cirrus the great unified Persia and then set out on military conquests that would make it Western Asia's largest Empire at the time however as any student of ancient history knows successful conquest does not mean a successful Empire once lands and kingdoms have been subjugated there is a period of consolidation in which Kings establish themselves as the true ruler of a territory however this oftentimes is not the job of the king who does the conquering instead it's typically his successors who manage to fortify the gains made by the Conqueror and their success and do this determines whether these conquests result in the formation of an empire capable of lasting more than a generation or if they will disappear into the annals of history as a mere detour in some other civilizations path to power the two kings who came after Cyrus the second his son can be seized the second and Darius the first a potential pretender who managed to win the Persian crown despite facing frequent insurrections were able to follow up on the first persian emperors successes can be seized the second managed to expand the Empire even further and then Darius the first who ruled for much longer fortified these gains and set up an imperial administration that would put Persia in a position for sustained hegemony the inka minute dynasty started as nothing more than a few kings who ruled over one Persian tribe but by the end of dar is the first rule it would be one of the most powerful dynasties in the history of both Persia and the entire ancient world the reign of Campisi's ii when Cyrus the second son can be seized took the throne in 529 BCE the obvious next step for the Persian Empire was to continue West Egypt had long been a prized possession for the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Iran the kings of both Assyria and Babylonia sought to bring Egyptian territory under their control and while both managed to do this neither could maintain power for very long so with Campisi's now at the head of Western Asia's most powerful empire it only makes sense that he would have turned to Egypt as his next target of conquest however like his father he did not start this campaign until three years after he assumed control of the Empire it's unclear what he was doing but it's believed tensions on the eastern borders of the Persian Empire kept his attention elsewhere using Palestine and Syria as a path into Egypt can be seized and his army took the Gaza road west into Egypt to begin their invasion in 525 BCE their first target was the city of pollution which was housing an Egyptian army a decisive victory sent Egyptian forces running to nearby Memphis which was the Egyptian capital at the time the Persians would lay siege to the city which eventually ended in its demise the Egyptian king Samet ankus the third was captured and can be seized was officially recognized as the king of Egypt on the heel of this victory can be seized continued his campaigning into Egypt and other parts of Africa the kingdoms of Libya and Cyrene submitted to can be seized pushing the his circle of influence further west and employing thebes as a base he dispatched a massive force to follow the nile river south into ethiopia most historians think he was looking to extend persian control as far west as carthage modern-day tunisia as well as into Ethiopia and to the oases of amman known today as the sea wa while the submission of Libya and Cyrene got Campisi's closer to Carthage and Siva he did not make it there the force he sent will stopped with most records indicating they succumbed to disaster which was most likely a sandstorm Camby sees himself would stall in his invasion of Ethiopia despite a large force of 50,000 men can be seized never managed to reach the Ethiopian capital of Moreau which would have been necessary if can be seized had wanted to claim control over the territory it's unclear exactly why Campisi's could not make it all the way but the belief is that a combination of the hot humid Nile River climate and the lack of adequate supplies would have put considerable strain on can be seized and his soldiers nevertheless can be seized had made significant additions to the Persian Empire with its influence now extending throughout Egypt and towards its next two most powerful neighbors Carthage and Ethiopia although these powers continue to enjoy their independence the rise of Darius Campisi's died in 522 BCE just seven years after he assumed the throne but in this short time he had managed to expand the Persian Empire to its largest point meaning his successor would be taking over a growing Empire however his death created significant turmoil within the Empire that would have a lasting effect on its history to understand this turmoil one must place camp ECC's death in a larger context specifically one must understand the rights to govern in ancient Persia as well as the family tree of the ruling family as this plays a big part in the stability of the Empire to begin remember that can be seized and serious the second are part of the a committed dynasty which gets its name from the a committed clan the most powerful clan and leader of the Paseo Gaede a tribe which is credited with the founding of the city of Passaic a day and also the unification of the different Persian tribes scattered throughout the Iranian plateau the name a committed likely comes from a committees who would have been serious the seconds great-great-great great-grandfather as a result the legitimacy of any persians claim to the throne depended on his stability to trace his lineage back through the a committed family tree all the way to a committees himself Cirus ii had three children can be seized the second who would succeed serious the second and expand upon his imperial achievements Bardia and Atossa who was a woman and therefore disqualified from being able to take over for her father Bardia died in 522 BCE the same year can be seized died and darius the first took over as king but the circumstances surrounding his death are unclear some legends say can be seized the second lost his mind and killed his brother and then died from a battle wound whereas other accounts differ suggesting he died of natural causes however no matter what happened the main point is that Campisi's ii died without any clear air which naturally sprung the empire into turmoil as different people attempted to assert their right to rule two different men would lay claim to the throne dar is the first and a man named Gautama who is presumed to be a member of the Persian nobility but who had no real connection to the a commanded line both men would accuse the other of being a pretender Gautama claimed he was in fact Bardia and therefore the true heir of Cyrus the second and the Persian throne however darius the first claim Guatemala's pretending to be Bardia since Bardia was dead and that he was using persian ignorant of his death as a way of legitimizing his claim to the throne since darius the first was the oldest living king of a committees he believed this was enough to justify his claim to the throne but while darius the first was adamant the man claiming to be Bardia was an impostor he was initially unable to convince many of the different regions under Persian control that this was the case several different kingdoms such as babylon lydia and media all pledged fealty to Guatemala are dia at first yet in 522 BCE darius along with the help of several persian nobles raided guamazo and killed him wiping away his claim to the throne and giving darius the first the opportunity to assert himself as the persian sovereign but because so many different kingdoms within the persian empire had declared fealty to guatemala this event triggered a series of revolts that would come to define the early stages of darius the firsts rule however while brief the reign of Gotama was quite peculiar largely because even though darius considered guatemala be a pretender he simultaneously recognized him as king of the land writing after the death of Gautama Darius mentioned how he took his kingdom making no reference to restoring himself to a kingdom he thought rightfully his some scholars have speculated that this is proof that Darius the first was the Pretender and that Gautama was indeed Bardia and therefore a legitimate King but no one has ever been able to confirm this theory with any degree of certainty it's likely though that Darius the first took this approach as a response to go Tamas popularity as an attempt to ingratiate himself with the people of the Persian Empire a move he hoped would help convince them to pledge allegiance to him and to accept his rule Mitama granted considerable freedoms to the Persian nobility and populace for example he granted all the people in conquered territories freedom from military service and tribute for three years something that would have been welcomed by all he also set out building temples according to the various religions in the region and he worked with Nobles and other powerful families from around the Empire who had fallen in stature since conquest but who were interested in regaining their position of prominence all of these moves meant that what Amma although a false ruler and that he had not direct relation to Cyrus became quite popular as a result when dar is the first managed to kill Gotama and place himself atop the Persian throne he found himself in a position where he desperately needed to consolidate his own power a process that would dominate much of the early part of his rule many leaders such as those in Babylon saw this as their moment to break free from Persian rule and to obtain their own independence so starting in 522 BCE and continuing for the next three years Darius the first would be primarily occupied with defeating the various rebellions that were breaking out across the Empire and confirming his position as the one and only Persian king later on once he had managed to bring the different parts of his Empire back under his control he would marry etosha the daughter of Cyrus and the children they bore together would continue the Eco minute line Darrius the conqueror unlike his two predecessors Darius the first was not concerned with expanding the Empire the circumstances of his ascension meant he needed to spend considerable time campaigning throughout the interior of the Empire so as to consolidate the monarchy but once he managed to secure his grip on power he began looking to stretch the limits of Persian influence in the region however his gains were significantly more modest than either of the two Kings who came before him as well as the more prominent ones who came after him upon taking the throne Darius the first immediately had to deal with rebellion his contingent claim meant not all provinces of the Empire supported him as a result his first order of business was tending to unrest in susiana the name given to the territory that had previously been the kingdom of LOM which was an open rebellion however this revolt would not last long and Darius was able to quell it by sending an army to the city he entrusted this campaign to his generals and did not accompany them suggesting he did not consider the chances of defeat to be very high the next revolt he had to deal with though did a much better job at capturing the attention of Darius the first Babylon which had declared fealty to Gautama had hoped to use this climate of political instability to their favor and when their independence back from the Persians and since Babylon was a powerful city in the region that any Emperor looking to expand needed to control Darius the first would have considered this rebellion far more important Darras the first gathered and led an army into Babylon to quell the rebellion and establish himself as the true ruler of the land and while the Babylonians put up a stronger resistance compared to the susi ins their revolt did not last long and by 521 BCE they had surrendered their claims to independence and declared loyalty to dice the first which once again made Babylon a province of the Persian Empire for the next year or so darius the first would be consumed by his attempts to consolidate his power and bring the kingdom's conquered by Cyrus and can be seized more firmly under his control besides susiana and babylon darius faced rebellions in media armenia and within persia itself the families who had aligned themselves with Gautama were also using this moment in history as a chance to try and gain more power and autonomy within the Empire because of the constant breakout of rebellions during the first few years of Darius the firsts rule it was almost as though as soon as he turned to one corner of the Empire to put down a rebellion another one broke out somewhere else this meant that most of his time as King was spent criss-crossing the Empire attempting to put down the various rebellions that started as a result of a coup Tamas attempt to claim power however darius the first efforts proved largely successful as he was able to secure the territory under his control and firmly establish himself as the king of persia and to make things even more clear he married a tossa the daughter of Cyrus the second meaning their children would be able to claim they were direct descendants of this famous King and therefore legitimate rulers of Persia the other major concern of Darius the firsts rule was Egypt after having recently been conquered by Campisi's it was up to Derry's the first to hold power over Egypt in any way possible and because Egypt was considered to be a conquered territory the main tactic for maintaining political control was force dari as the first himself did not spend much time in Egypt he was far too busy working to maintain control of other Imperial lands but he did dedicate quite a bit of military energy to the region he appointed a general and an admiral to control the army and naval fleet that was stationed in Memphis giving them the task of upholding Persian rule while Darius was occupied elsewhere however despite force being the primary tactic for consolidating power in Egypt Darius undertook a number of other policies that demonstrated his understanding of just how difficult it would be to keep this great power subjugated to Persian rule for example he practiced a rather high level of religious tolerance giving the Egyptians free rein to practice their religion which would have come as a welcome respite from the rather intolerant policies of Campisi's DARS the first also invested considerably in the economic welfare of Egypt primarily by building canals and dams the most prominent being a canal which connected the Nile to the Red Sea something that would have opened up trade considerably for the Egyptians darius also limited the tribute demands he made on egyptian kings which would have reduced the burden of living under Persian rule and kept people from attempting rebellion these policies in Egypt helped Darius the first keep Egypt relatively subdued while his attention was drawn elsewhere in the Empire but because Darius had to spend so much of his time dealing with rebellions within the Empire he spent little time expanding its borders this is a common theme when studying major empires throughout history the Empire is expanded by one or two kings and the next few successors are left with the task of consolidating those gains and strengthening control over newly conquered territories however Dyess the first did manage to slightly expand the borders of the Persian Empire although it's best to think of these conquests more as Rhee conquests of territory that either Cyrus or Campisi's had managed to take over but that had wriggled free of Persian control when Campisi's died he was able to push Persian influence closer to Carthage although he did not quite get all the way there and he was able to expand west through Turkey leaving the Persians at the northern borders of Greek territory this move would define Persian history in many ways the next King Xerxes spent most of his time attempting to conquer Greece and the greco-persian wars were a major influence in Persian and world history but perhaps Darius's significant achievements as a conqueror took place on the Eastern Front ears of the Empire his armies reached as far east as the Indus River and Darius was able to extract tribute from the Kings ruling in those territories bringing the Persians as far east as they would ever manage to go the greco-persian Wars as the two most powerful kingdoms in Western Asia and the Fertile Crescent Greek and Persian history especially during the amended dynasty are closely intertwined Greece was always a target for the Persian conquerors of the a committed dynasty largely because it along with Egypt was the most culturally advanced in the region the successes of Cyrus the second and can be seized the second and invading both gave Darius the first hope for being able to finally conquer the Greek city-states and bring them under the control of the Persian Empire however the Greeks had other plans and the series of battles and revolts that took place during the first half of the fifth century BCE are known as the greco-persian Wars various cities and kingdoms aligned themselves with each side turning this conflict into a bloody long-lasting war that would dramatically reshape the power structures in the region and subsequently the history of both civilizations to understand this war which is best understood as a series of heightened military conflicts between Greece and Persia we could look at it as a series of wars but in historical context they all belong to one conflict it's important to remember the nature of Greece at this time while the Greeks would soon form one of the largest empires in the history of the world at this point in time there was no unified Greece instead Greece was best understood as a combination of city-states that shared a language Commerce was a defining characteristic of early Greek civilization with these large influential city-states engaging in considerable trade amongst themselves because of this several of these city-states became rather wealthy and powerful on their own making it difficult for the Persians to effectively exert control over them the year 499 BCE is generally regarded as the beginning of the greco-persian Wars this was the year when Aristagoras the tyrant king of the Greek city-state Meletis which is on the western coast of Anatolia combined forces with Darius the first to invade and conquer the island of Naxos however this failed and Aristagoras knew that darkness the first would likely punish him and maybe even remove him from power as a result of his failed military campaign so in an attempt to retain his own power Aristagoras turned on Diaries the first and encouraged all the peoples of Hellenic Greek Asia Minor to revolt against the Persians he was largely successful and this started a period known as the Ionian revolts which lasted until 493 BCE but these revolts would not end without first causing serious harm to Persian power in the region Aristagoras was able to secure military support for his actions from both athens and eretria and together they managed to sack and burn the persian capital in Asia Minor Sardis this move obviously sparked a good deal of anger from Darius the first and he set out to avenge his lost territory because athens and eretria had joined with erestrum Oris in the attack this set the Persian kings sights firmly on mainland Greece the first target in darkness the first campaign was my Letus itself the center of arrest aghoris is power and after several years of stalemate Darius the first was able to beat the Ionian the term used for the Greeks settle along the western coast of Asia Minor at the decisive battle of leyte determined to fully punish those who had been responsible for the political upheaval in Ionia and Asia Minor Darius the first began to plan a full-scale invasion of Greece with the goal of conquering those who lent support terrorists aghoris athens and eretria dari as the first gave leadership of the greek campaign to general Mardonius who succeeded in bringing the cities of Thrace and Macedonia and control he was then beaten back in his attempts to advance bringing his progress to a halt in 490 BCE the Persians sent to the seas and sailed across the Aegean and during this campaign they were able to conquer sike ladies and they were even able to capture Eritrea burning it to the ground having succeeded in entering deep into Greek territory in less than 10 years after the beginning of the Ionian revolts the Persians continued their march towards Athens yet they were met by the Athenians and fought the Battle of Marathon which the Greeks won effectively stopping the Persians in their tracks after his defeat at the Battle of Marathon Darius the first began to regather his forces for a second attempt at an invasion but he died in 486 BCE leaving the responsibility of Greek conquest to his son Xerxes but these events would end up having a significant impact on the future of both the Greeks and the Persians for one it helps solidify anti Persian sentiment among the Greeks for example Sparta which had remained relatively neutral during the conflicts now came out and declared a desire to free the Greek people from Persian bother they would join forces with Athens and other Greek city-states to form the Delian League which would play a crucial role in attempting to undermine Persian power throughout its entire empire by inciting rebellion and waging war the Delian League would be active for the next 30 or so years and their part of the story ends when the league failed to incite an effective coup in Egypt by 450 BCE the greco-persian Wars slowly cooled and eventually ended but not before both cultures had dramatically influenced each other's history the reign of Xerxes would be almost entirely defined by his campaigns against Greece but this period of Persian history is best understood within the entire context of Xerxes rule something that is discussed in detail in the next chapter Darius the first the King while Darius the first accomplishment as a conqueror are not nearly as impressive as those of his predecessors this was not the most important thing to come out of his reign possibly due to the struggles he faced in consolidating and establishing his power Darice the first was particularly concerned with the organization of the Empire and in establishing systems and institutions that would make it easier for both him and future Kings to hold dominion over their territory what Darius the first came up with ended up being a rather advanced form of political organization that would continue to be used even after the fall of the a committed dynasty to Alexander the Great and the Greeks in the fourth century BCE the first decision Darius the first made is King in terms of the Empire's organization was which type of government to use Darius the first gathered his closest advisors to discuss what would be the best way for establishing and maintaining control over what had now become a vast expansive Empire Darius the first was in favor of a monarchy where as some of his advisors advocated for a republic and some even came out in support of an oligarchy in the end Darius the first was able to convince his council and the Persian government officially became an absolute monarchy with Darius the first as its sovereign this monarchy would be hereditary something that would have been important to Persians at the time as evidenced by both Diaries the first and were Tamas attempt to establish their a committed lineage the next decision he needed to make was where to place his capital pace a ERG a day had been the capital of Cirus the second but shortly after ascending to the throne Darius the first began constructing palaces and temples in Persepolis in 521 BCE which was not too far to the north of pace air gate a part of the reason both of these Kings chose to build their capitals in this region is that this was considered the Persian core territory choosing these locations as the center of the Empire would have been a source of great pride for the Persians living in that territory and since the Persian kings depended on the Persians themselves to form their vast armies and conduct their extensive military campaigns pleasing these people would have been a top priority for both series ii and dyrus the first but while it made symbolic and cultural sense to build the Persian capital deep in the heart of Persis it did not make much sense in terms of the administration of the Empire both cities were hidden away among the mountainous terrain of the Iranian plateau which would have made them difficult to connect to the rest of the Empire as a result Darius the first began constructing another capital at the same time Persepolis was being built this city suza located in northwestern Iran was much closer to the large political and cultural centres of the Persian Empire Babylon and echt putana the former capital the median Empire and an important city for the administration of the Empire and the lands formerly controlled by the Metis it would have been much easier to connect souza to the network of roads that had been built throughout Western Asia making it much easier for the monarch to communicate with his generals and governors who would have been spread throughout Persian controlled territory however Persepolis would remain the cultural center of the Empire and while Darius the first chose to be buried there he would have spent almost no time in the city the other major thing darius the first did was organized the Empire and his satrapies which were essentially provinces most records indicate Darius created 20 different satrapies throughout the empire the most prominent being centered in Egypt Memphis Babylon Arabia Asia Minor modern day Turkey act putana and media and bat RIA which is the territory to the northeast of Persia in modern-day Afghanistan during the time of darkness the first the a committed dynasty controlled Persia was at its largest point in history while the division of his administration in two provinces was nothing new Darice the first two did two things that set him apart and helped him secure a stronger grip on power first he gave satraps the leaders of the satrapies rather significant freedom in the management of their provinces while the King's word was law in all the land the satraps were capable of speaking on behalf of the king serving as the High judge in the region furthermore sat traps were independently responsible for securing their territory revolts or rebellions were dealt with directly by the satraps and this may have allowed for more effective responses previous empires in the region namely Assyria launched military campaigns and deported large numbers of people whenever there was a rebellion but the Persians favored a more localized response which would have helped quiet hostilities toward the king in Persia the second thing darius the first did in setting up his satrapies and government was to enact a policy of religious tolerance the Persian Empire at the time of Darius the first stretched as far west as Asia Minor and even parts of mainland Greece down to Egypt Libya and Sudan across Arabia and Mesopotamia and all the way east to the Indus River as a result there was a great deal of diversity in terms of cultural and religious traditions and instead of attempting to crush these and replace them with Persian customs Darice the first left people's cultures intact and even contributed to their growth by assisting in the building of temples and other buildings that would have facilitated worship these two features of the Persian government decentralization and tolerance were not nearly as prominent in other Western Asian governments and it's likely this helped contribute to the rise of Persian dominance previous empires in the region such as Assyria or Babylon struggled to maintain political stability largely because of the vast regional diversity however Diaries the first was able to set up a system that left regional customs intact but that also allowed for Darius the first to easily and effectively assert his power over the various dominions of the Empire conclusion the significance of the rules of Campisi's ii and Darius the first cannot be overlooked while can be seized the second only ruled for seven years he was successful in following his father Sirius the great in expanding the reaches of the Empire further west into Africa and parts of southeastern Europe Darius the First's much longer yet somewhat less eventful rule helped to consolidate these gains and set up a system of government that would allow the Persian Empire to flourish as Western Asia's greatest power at the time of Darius the first death and the ascension of his son Xerxes the Empire was at its largest point and poised for further growth yet the Eco minute dynasty's power was rapidly reaching its apex and before too long it would begin to fall apart until it eventually fell in the fourth century BCE to the Greeks however this would not happen till after the Persians managed to cement themselves as a regional power that would stand the test of time and also contribute significantly to the cultural development of not only the region but the entire ancient world perhaps the most famous of all of the Persian kings Xerxes the great rose to the throne after his father two generations of rule starting with Cyrus the second and continuing through to Darius the first had expanded the Persian Empire to its largest point it was undoubtedly the most powerful civilization in Western Asia and the greco-persian Wars indicated that Europe was not safe either however Xerxes would depart from some of the policies enacted by his father this would help to amplify his power and importance but it also increased the chances of regional revolt and dissension a common and thorn in the side of nearly all ancient rulers as a result of this policy change that was designed to help consolidate power the power of the Persians or more specifically the a comminute was beginning to slip ever so slightly even though Xerxes inherited an empire at its peak he would not lose considerable territory but he would not make large gains either and his famed failure in invading Greece and Europe would dramatically alter the course of Persian history but despite his eccentricities and only modest successes Xerxes was still the most powerful man in all of Western Asia and he would go down as one of the most formidable kings in the history of humanity Xerxes ascends to the throne and secures his empire it was Persian tradition that the king named a successor before embarking on a long military campaign and so the decision to name Xerxes Crown Prince came when Darius the first son was still just a boy the decision to name Xerxes as his heir was somewhat surprising considering Xerxes was not Darius the first oldest son since Persian tradition called for appointing the eldest son as the heir to a father's wealth and titles this was because darkness the firsts oldest son was not born into royalty instead he came about from a relationship Darius the first had with a commoner before he himself became King but shortly after winning the throne from Guatemala Pretender Darius the first married Cyrus the second daughter Atossa and their first child Xerxes was considered to be darkness the first eldest royal son making him the ideal choice to take over the kingdom as Crown Prince Xerxes would leave the satrapy of Babylon he was given the title king of Babylon and this was used as his training for when he would eventually become king of the entire Empire some of the behavior of Xerxes such as repurposing religious buildings and Persepolis to become harems suggests that the Persian kingdom was beginning to mature three straight Kings had been able to conquer and hold large swaths of territory and this allowed the royalty to become quite rich they spent these riches on their cities and palaces attempting to build them up to befitting of the splendor of the larger Empire but just because the Persian Empire had grown significantly in power and size since the time of Cirrus ii it did not mean that Derk season heritage a unified country at peace with itself his father's campaigns and de Greece had been stalled after his defeat at the Battle of Marathon and while he was regrouping for a second invasion revolt broke out in Egypt and to the east the bactrian named for the province of Batra a region located to the east of Persia in the modern-day nations of Afghanistan Uzbekistan and Tajikistan was also creating unrest and threatening to try and break free from Persian rule because of their close proximity revolt in Egypt was also usually followed by revolt in Jerusalem and this was also the case in 485 BCE when Xerxes was ascending to the Persian throne as a result his first act as king would be to move against Palestine and Egypt to quell their rebellion and bring both regions back under firm control by 484 BCE Xerxes and his armies marched across Palestine and through Gaza to Egypt and they were able to quickly and effectively put down the revolt that had broken out however despite how quickly this campaign began and ended SERPs eases actions in Egypt would have a lasting effect on the Empire and its ability to control the region's it's Kings had conquered this starts with Xerxes response to this Egyptian revolt as it shows a departure from the ruling style of his father Darius the first Darice the first showed great respect for Egyptian religion and customs and he went out of his way to make sure they had the chance to practice their culture he recognized and even honored some of the Egyptian gods and he even went so far as to take an Egyptian god King name for himself so as to keep in line with Egyptian understanding of monarchical rule however Xerxes was not nearly as tolerant choosing instead to reject the religious practices of the Egyptians and to try and get them to adjust to Persian customs these efforts were largely unsuccessful and would make it difficult for Xerxes to maintain tight control over the Egyptians the other major issues Xerxes had to deal with upon gaining power was Babylon since he had served as Viceroy in this ancient capital while his father was King Xerxes initially had no trouble in securing support for his claim to be the sovereign in Babylon however a curious decision to change the titles associated with the Persian King helped stir some doubt about the legitimacy of Xerxes his claim to power because of its historical significance in the region the Persian kings before Xerxes would refer to themselves especially and perhaps only when addressing the Babylonian people as king of Babylon king of lands this was in part to try and pay respect to this ancient power but it was also a strategic move all empires in Mesopotamia and Western Asia needed a plan for how they would appease the Kings and citizens of Babylon and since Babylon was at its lowest point in terms of regional power when Persia rose to prominence these small formalities were enough to keep the Babylonians content however when Xerxes became King he would quickly do an about-face and this would have a major effect on the beginning of his rule as Viceroy he had managed to gain considerable support and there was no contest to his claim to the throne at first but when addressing the Babylonians in the early days of his kingship he referred to himself as Dirk C's king of Parsa Persia and Matta media choosing to relegate king of Babylon king of lands to the end of his title something that would have been greatly insulting to the Babylonian people especially their rulers some scholars speculate that this move is not folly but rather an intentional move to try and strip Babylon of some of its independence after what had just happened in Egypt Xerxes was likely beginning to doubt the effectiveness of his father's hands-off policies and this humiliation of the babylons may have had the intended effect of reasserting himself as the one and only sovereign in Babylon no matter the intention the effect of Xerxes s decision was initially chaos seeing a break in the people's fealty to Xerxes a powerful member of the Babylonian nobility Velshi money grows up and attempted to claim independence for babylon and its people he addressed himself as king of babylon king of lands a clear attempt to ingratiate himself with the babylonian people in a way Dirk C's had refused to do belch Imani started by storming the Persian installations in Babylon and he managed to reach and kill the satrap that had been appointed by Xerxes to manage Babylon and its surrounding territories fortunately for Xerxes and unfortunately for Belgium ani the Persian king who was an act putana at the time had access to his best general his brother-in-law megabases under command of Xerxes he took an army to Babylon and quickly destroyed belshi money and his rebellion he moved swiftly and decisively taking Babylon back in just a matter of days and then he said about to punish the Babylonians for their insurrection he destroyed the city wall tore down temples and other religious buildings and he also melted down the 18-foot gold statue of bel Marduk one of the Babylonians most important gods into bullion killing all the priests and other people who attempted to protest it this prompt change in policy regarding how the different sat traps would be managed began to reshape the direction of Persian history as one might expect it began to sow the seeds for rebellion throughout the empire which any student of ancient history knows is the beginning of the end and with Xerxes about to mount a massive invasion of Greece and Europe the destiny of the incremented dynasty is slowly beginning to come into question but for those living contemporaneously it would not have seemed this way the Persian army was still as strong as ever and Xerxes harsh response to insurrection would have struck fear in people across the Empire discouraging dissent and strengthening Xerxes as control over Western Asia Xerxes moves on Greece what's interesting about Xerxes and something that separates him quite a bit from his father Darius the first and his uncle can be seized is that he was not particularly interested in conquest Xerxes would have been the first Persian King to be born into the tremendous splendor that came from the Imperial gains made by his forefathers so it's only natural he concerned himself with other interests namely the fortification of his power and the glorification of his wealth within the empire for example once Xerxes took over as king he immediately began overseeing the massive construction projects started by his father he put finishing touches on the palaces that had been started by Darius the first in Babylon and souza and he also went to work completing the splendid terraces surrounding his father's principal palace in Persepolis but despite his aversion to conquest and war Xerxes would be unable to avoid a military campaign and the obvious location for Xerxes his primary campaign was Greece and Europe darkness the first had intensified the greco-persian Wars by retaliating to the Ionian revolt with a full-scale invasion of Greece he managed to make it onto the Greek mainland and was headed for Athens when he was stopped and driven back across the Aegean Sea to Anatolia and Asia Minor however it would take some convincing to get Xerxes to commit to a full-scale invasion of Greece and also a little trickery Persian diplomats who had been living in Athens had been exiled after Darius the First's failed invasion desiring revenge they hired an already discredited Oracle to come and speak to Xerxes about the need to invade the Greeks again and Xerxes his cousin Mardonius who was eager to get himself named satrap egg deserves he's on four newly conquered territory would have meant a need for a new satraps as a result dirk seizes destiny was altered and he began to turn his attention away from his personal enrichment and toward the expansion of the empire knowing how difficult it would be to successfully invade Greece and learning from his father's mistakes Xerxes began planning a gradual advance that would take time and resources but that would also greatly increase his chances of success for the invasion he summoned the naval fleets of Egypt Benicia and the conquered Greeks in Asia Minor yes the Greeks would have fought the Greeks punishment for denying military service was severe and it would have helped create this somewhat unnatural situation and Xerxes also called upon half of his standing army three of the six Army Corps were deployed each being made up of around 60,000 men so in total Xerxes had an army of around 180,000 men at his command for the invasion of Greece the other things irk seized did to help increase his chances of success during his invasion was to construct a vast supply line for his armies markets and trade posts were set up along the Thracian Coast to store grain and facilitate the movement of supplies needed to move such a large group of people around the Aegean Sea and down into Greece this moved showed Turks ease prowess as a military commander for he was willing to spend the time needed to make a proper invasion of Greece instead of rushing into conflict and risking a swift and humiliating defeat his movement through Asia Minor and over into Greece was slow and gradual and therefore not hidden from the Greeks word spread quickly of a massive force led by a man more powerful than Zeus heading their way to conquer them obviously fearful of this impending threat to their independence the Greeks began to scramble to put together a defence since most of the Greeks who had settled in Asia Minor and Africa had already been conquered by the Persians and were in fact fighting in their armies and navies against their kinsmen often by the Persian use of the lash the remaining independent city-states had few if any allies willing to contribute to their defense the northern parts of greece south of macedonia and west of delphi and Athens were able to remain neutral and since they had no part in the original cause of the greco-persian Wars the Ionian revolts they were not a primary concern of Xerxes and the Persians but all of this meant the Greeks were hopelessly alone threatened city states such as Sparta Athens Delphi and Eretria attempted to form an alliance but this was stunted by the unwillingness of the Oracles to permit war against the Persians nearly all records of soothsayers at the time indicate that Greek priests wanted the Greek armies and leaders to abandon their land and surrender to the Persians even if one doesn't believe in Oracle's it is no surprise this was the recommendation the Greeks were standing alone against perhaps the largest army ever assembled by 480 BCE Xerxes and his troops were marching along the Thracian coast with his large enable fleet accompanying them and helping them cross difficult terrain wherever necessary they moved into Macedonia and headed south towards Greece Greek Scouts who were captured were usually taken in and shown the immensity of the Persian army so that they could return to their leaders and report on what they saw and attempt to solicit Greek submission before the invasion however this did not work and it appeared the Greeks were going to stand up and fight for their independence although all indications showed that they were setting up for a quick and conclusive defeat by the end of 480 BCE Xerxes and his armies and fleets had made it to Salamis an island just off the coast of Athens he appeared to be in an ideal position to force the surrounding city-states to accept surrender terms which would have left Athens all but defeated however Xerxes listened to his advisors and instead launched an offensive in the streets of Salamis ground troops were approaching from the north and they were met by a small contingent of Greek soldiers at the pass of Thermopylae here the Greeks were essentially slaughtered although references to the battle in pop culture the movie 300 suggests otherwise the Greeks were also defeated at Artemisium despite being reinforced by those fleeing the Battle of Thermopylae these Persian victories led to the conquest of Greek city-states such as focus via Tia Attica and obeah which gave Persia a significant stronghold into Greece threatening Athens the Greek response was to engage the Persian naval fleet at the streets of Salamis a narrow stretch of water just off the coast of Athens this took the Greeks out of Athens and put them on an offensive against the Persians who were at the island of Salamis likely preparing for an invasion of Athens this move by the Greeks gave them greater control over the conditions of engagement which put them at an advantage the Persians greet lis outnumbered the Greeks but attacking instead of waiting to be attacked paid off the small space within which they had to operate proved to be a great hindrance to their success Persian troops had trouble staying organized and keeping formation and this meant the much smaller Athenian fleet was able to mount an attack that resulted in a decisive victory for the Greeks dramatically reshaping the course of the war however the impact of the Battle of Salamis was not felt so much in terms of the Persian military overall the Persians had suffered modest defeats and after their victories at Thermopylae and Artemisium the army was still intact and in good position to continue its advance southward towards Athens but what did change as a result of the Battle of Salamis was Xerxes it was he who ordered the attack on the Athenians meaning he had no one to blame for the loss but immediately after the defeat he had his Phoenician naval captain's executed on grounds of cowardice horrified by this cruel and irrational response to what was nothing more than a normal naval defeat the Phoenicians and Egyptians both abandoned Xerxes and returned home drastically reducing the size of the fleet he had at his disposal and opening the door for the allied Greek city-states to launch a counter-offensive the next year which would effectively in the persian advance into Greece and marked the beginning of the Greek offensive into Persia the other major development that came from defeat at Salamis was that Xerxes who we must remember was not particularly warlike from the beginning left the battlefield and retreated to Sardis the capital of Persia as Asia Minor satrap he left Mardonius to control the army which in other circumstances would have been a smart move given Mardonius his record as a proven military general more adept than serb seas leaving him in command would have increased persian chances for success largely because Dirk sees as a military leader was more of a liability than an advantage the following year 479 BCE the Persians were still in a good position to finish their conquest half of the Greek city-states were under Persian control and the Allied forces did not have the numbers to beat the Persians but there was still resistance to their rule Greek advisors to Mardonius suggested he forgo military campaigns in favor of diplomacy suggesting he used bribery as a means of winning the support of the Greek political elite which would have made it much easier to win the favor of the Greek people however Mardonius ignored this advice and instead chose to attack at both plataea and mycale a but before doing this Mardonius had taken steps to consolidate the army instead of relying on a massive force of conscripts taken from various parts of the empire he sent all that one Army Corps home and his remaining force was made up of only Iranians ie Persians Metis battery ins and Indians as well as Persian immortals a special class of professional Persian soldier which will be discussed further in Chapter six he believed Iranians to be stronger and more effective soldiers and therefore felt success was more likely if he reduced the size of his force and made use of only the best soldiers and he would have liked his chances even more considering he thought the Greek soldiers to be weak and ineffective a sign of Persian military ignorance but the decision to attack instead of using diplomacy along with the disregard for the ability of Greek soldiers led to defeat and both plataea and mycale a meaning that by the end of 479 BCE the Persians had effectively been defeated in Greece and as discontent began to break out in Western Asia the Persian army needed to leave Europe and attend to other matters in the Empire there is a general consensus among historians that the Persians should have won this war they vastly outnumbered the Greeks and the alliance formed between the Greek city-states was a weak and disorganized Xerxes started out in the right direction by supplying his army and moving gradually into Greek territory making sure the Navy supported the army the whole way however some fluke defeats followed by Xerxes descent into madness and then a series of military blunders by his chief commander meant the European campaign ended in defeat this marks an important turning point in Persian history the Persian retreat gave the Greeks the chance to reorganize and over the course of the next century they would slowly come together and strengthen this period of fortification reached a climax when the Greeks led by Alexander the Great eventually rode into Persia and conquered it resulting in the fall of the a commanded dynasty and the Persian Empire they controlled however the implications of the Persian defeat extend much further though Greeks would go on after this to make significant contributions to world culture in fields ranging from science and math to philosophy and the arts however have the Persians succeeded in wiping them off the map in the 5th century BCE then much of this may have never happened which would have made today's world a much different place the decline of xerxes and Persian power although once considered a promising crown prince and also a hopeful military commander Xerxes returned from Greece a changed man he was no longer as interested in expanding the empire or even building upon his palace instead he felt deep into harem life leaving much of the management of his empire to his advisers and satraps a particularly low moment for Xerxes came when he was in Sardis after retreating from Greece he fell in love with his brother's wife and when she rejected his advances he decided to marry his son to her daughter hoping this would help him win over her favor however soon after Xerxes changed his focus from his brother's wife to his sons and these actions were pulsed most of the court on top of this Xerxes embarked on an aggressive taxation campaign that would have put considerable stress on the entire empire while Persia had long since been exempt from paying taxes the rest of the Empire was not and seeking to consolidate his power even further he raised the tribute expectations for kingdoms across the lands he controlled this quickly drained much of the gold and silver from the Empire which Xerxes had melted down and stored in his palace at Persepolis and it also hoped to sow discontent throughout the Empire which the Greeks eager to continue their resistance to Egyptian rule as well as push their influence further into Asia were willing to fund and support through the Delian League the last 15 years of Xerxes his rule was relatively uneventful and his increasing incompetence as a ruler led to his assassination in 465 BCE he would be succeeded by his son artaxerxes the first who would promptly need to deal with the effects of his father's failures which were manifesting mainly as a widespread revolt in Egypt the Egyptians were being supported in their attempt to rebel by the Athenians and in an effort to try and diminish their influence in the conflict artaxerxes at the first began funding the Athenians enemies in Greece a move that prompted them to move their treasury and once again focus on their efforts against the Persians however all of this proved unsuccessful our desert cease was able to quell the rebellion in Egypt effectively ending Athenian and Delian League support of the insurrection there the persians continued to fight the athenians led by their leader saman throughout asia minor until the Battle of Cyprus in 450 BC II which provided little gains to either side seeing that this constant war was going nowhere salmon and artaxerxes the first agreed to what is known as the Peace of Callias which effectively ended the greco-persian Wars artaxerxes the first would reign in relative peace until his death in 4 24 BCE at which point the monarchy would enter a period of extreme instability our desert seas had only one legitimate son Xerxes the second and he was promptly named king after the death of his father however days after being named King he was killed by his illegitimate half brother sag deonna's who days later was killed by his half-brother aqus in an attempt to establish himself as the rightful heir to the monarchy aqus took the royal name darius the second his claim was contested and he spent most of his time putting down rebellions throughout the empire his death just twelve years later again created a chaotic situation at the head of the Persian Empire Darius the second wife Queen Paras Attis begged her husband to name not their eldest son artaxerxes the second to the throne but rather their next oldest Cyrus the younger she failed an artist Circe's ii assumed the throne he had his brother Cyrus the younger arrested and he had scheduled for his execution although hari sadhus intervened and prevented it from happening artaxerxes the second and artaxerxes the third the final glory of the a committed Empire the ascension of artaxerxes ii in 412 bc put an end to the turmoil that had defined the persian empire since the death of Xerxes in 467 BCE he would rule for the next forty five years and help restore peace and stability to the Empire but this did not mean his reign was uneventful in fact it was defined once again by insurrection and revolt and most of his military campaigns were dedicated to reestablishing his grip on power the first issue he had to deal with was the revolt of Egypt this was hardly the first time the Egyptians seized the opportunity presented by a change in monarch to try and win their independence but it was one of the first times they succeeded in doing so our desert seas spent time gathering a force to try and recon quarry BCE but this failed and he was forced to accept that Egypt would no longer be a part of the Persian Empire but once again the Greeks were beginning to antagonize the Persians this time however it wasn't the Athenians but rather the Spartans who were in opposition to Persia they had invaded Asia Minor the beginning point for most greco-persian conflicts yet artaxerxes did not want to engage them directly choosing instead to fund the spartans main enemy the athenians who lost the century earlier had been in direct conflict with the persians this tied to the two greek city-states up in conflict with each other but artaxerxes would shake things up by turning on his athenian allies and making a treaty with sparta that gave control over the cities of Ionia and Aeolus on the Anatolian coast back to the Persians another revolt broke out in 372 which is known as the revolt of the satraps in which provincial governors from Armenia Cappadocia region and Turkey and Phrygia also in Turkey join together to try an overthrow artaxerxes ii this resulted in a war that ended with the satrap PSA's defeat in 362 BCE artaxerxes ii was not an expansionist while he attempted to regain control of territories lost to revolt he was not interested in extending persian power and when he lost egypt he seemed willing to accept this defeat however his effectiveness in putting down the various revolts that broke out during his time as king helped bring stability and economic prosperity to the Empire he spent a good deal of energy building up Persian cities and expanding the palaces in Susa as well as moving his capital back to Persepolis and dedicating resources to its development furthermore and this might be artaxerxes the second most significant cultural achievement he oversaw the expansion of Zoroastrianism the religion that had become the official Persian religion under artaxerxes the first the shrines he built to the Zoroastrian gods and prophets are some of the more remarkable architectural accomplishments of the Persian Empire because of his lack of conquest and expansion artaxerxes ii is not considered to be one of the more glorious Persian rulers but it's clear he had a significant effect on Persian cultural development the dynasty that came after the a committed the Parthian z' trace their lineage back to artaxerxes ii to establish their legitimacy suggesting artaxerxes ii is an important figure in the collective understanding of persian identity part of this also comes from artaxerxes ii immense family records indicate he had some 115 sons and as many as 350 wives however artaxerxes the seconds reign would eventually come to an end and this would once again thrust the Persian Empire into a period of dramatic instability but this time it would be unable to recover his one final push would fail to reestablish Persian dominance and the glory of the a commence would be relegated to the annals of history his son artaxerxes the third took over his king and as one might expect his tenures King started with the need to suppress the various satrapies and kingdoms who were contesting his claim to the throne Asia Minor had been difficult to reliably control since the iris ii first conquered lydia back in the seventh century BCE and this trend would continue even after 300 years of persian influence in the region and repeated attempts to conquer and control it attempting to avoid a long costly and likely unproductive campaign into asia minor artaxerxes the third was looking for a different way to bring long-lasting peace to the region he began diplomatically arranging a peace agreement with the Athenians who were constantly meddling in Asia Minor due to the large presence of Greeks in the region this treaty forced the Persians to recognize the independence of the Greek city-states in Asia Minor next he moved to disband the armies of the various satrapies throughout Asia Minor a play he hoped would help disarm the rebellious leaders in the region and prevent them from making it a serious threat to Persian power but none of this worked and artaxerxes the third was forced to revert to the tactics of his predecessors Athens betrayed artaxerxes the third and sent forces to help the rebels win back Sardis which they did but then in 353 BCE artaxerxes the third launched a full-scale campaign through Asia Minor which was successful in disbanding the rebellious armies and securing Persian control in the region shortly after his success in Asia Minor artaxerxes the third began to set his sights on Egypt the territory his father had lost and failed to regain but almost as soon as artaxerxes the third entered Egypt and engaged the Egyptians rebellion broke out again in Asia Minor which this time the Egyptians supported yet artaxerxes the third contained into Egypt until he was defeated and by the time this happened Venetia Asia Minor and now Cyprus were in full-scale revolt and attempt to quell the rebellion in Cyprus failed and the Persians were soon driven out of Phoenicia bringing the Persian Empire to its smallest area since Cyrus the second and Campisi's first established Persia dominance throughout Western Asia in 343 BCE artaxerxes the third once again turned his attention back to Egypt and this time he was successful in bringing the Egyptian King into submission afterward he installed a reign of terror that involved the burning of religious and cultural buildings and anyone caught practicing Egyptian religions was persecuted and often executed the idea was to try and discourage the Egyptians from ever revolting again and it had the additional effect of stopping other regions in the Persian Empire from revolting victory over Egypt seemed to be enough for these rebellious groups to see that artaxerxes the third still commanded a powerful army that should not be challenged however Macedon led by Philip the 3rd of Macedon was gaining considerable power on the other side of the Aegean Sea and their rise meant purges days as Western Asia's superpower were limited during these final stages of campaigning artaxerxes the third appointed a man named Bo Gois to be one of his highest-ranking advisors but this move would prove to be ill-fated as BOGO has had his own ambitions and ended up poisoning artaxerxes the third with the help of a physician artaxerxes the third died in 338 BCE the end of the a commanded dynasty artaxerxes the fourth succeeded artaxerxes the third but before he was able to do anything he too was poisoned by vocalist who then moved to place artaxerxes the fourths nephew darius the third on the throne shortly after this happened darius the third aware of bou valises actions forced him to take poison egypt once again revolted and darius the third had to send troops to quell the rebellion but at this point it did not really matter who was king of persia or if the egyptians had been subdued Alexander the third of Macedon who is known to the rest of the world as Alexander the Great had taken his large battle-hardened army into Asia Minor during 334 BCE he quickly defeated the Persian armies at Granicus in 334 assassin 333 and Gaugamela in 331 he then followed up these victories by attacking Susa and the Persian capital Persepolis both of which surrendered in 330 BC II Darrius the third had run to ekta putana and then continued on to Bactria where he was murdered by the bactrian satrap thesis who then declared himself artaxerxes the fifth king of Persia but this lasted for almost no time at all Alexander and his armies marched into Batra found B SACEUR artaxerxes v and put him on trial in Persian court where he was sentenced to be executed some scholars consider Alexander the Great to be the last of the a comminute s– largely because he kept most of the Persian political apparatus intact after his conquest however he was not Persian and had no claim to the Persian throne yet his willingness to leave administration of the Empire the way it was can in part be attributed to his relatively successful rule over Western Asia when Alexander the Great died in 323 BCE his now massive Empire which extended from Greece all the way to the Indus River was divided among his generals with the largest territory the one in which the Iranian plateau was located being given to Seleucus the first nikka tour who would govern over the territory once known as the Persian Empire but that was now understood as the Seleucid Empire conclusion as is the case with most ancient empires the demise of the Persian Empire under the a commanded dynasty seems to have occurred quickly however when looking more closely at the events that led up to its downfall it's easy to see how precarious Persia's grip on power really was and it's also easy to see how the complex geopolitical situation of Mesopotamia and abroad made it difficult to maintain an empire of that size for too long but this is not meant to discount the accomplishments of the a commanded dynasty at a matter of just three hundred years it went from being the leader of an obscure Persian tribe on the Iranian plateau to being one of the largest and most formidable empires in the history of the ancient world however the region Persia controlled was simply too large too diverse and subjected to too many influences for them to hope to hold on to power forever so even though the Persian military at the time was one of the strongest seen to date the competing political powers within the state combined with the frequent revolts from conquered territories and overly ambitious attempts at expansion into Europe started by Darius the first and continued by Xerxes all contributed to the eventual downfall of the Persian Empire under the Eco minute dynasty but this would not be the end of Persian history within a few hundred years of Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia a new dynasty which would trace its roots back to the a comminute but that would be known as the Parthian x' would emerge and restore iranian to power in persia and across western asia you

Top 10 Greatest Ancient Armies



Views:72002|Rating:4.61|View Time:7:41Minutes|Likes:2462|Dislikes:207
Top 10 Greatest Ancient Armies
Subscribe

Want more incredible content from Getty Images? Be sure to check out their Instagram page here:

To quote Sun Tzu: “The art of war is of vital importance to the State.” For this list we’ll be looking at the mightiest armies of Antiquity, up until the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD. WatchMojo counts down the Top 10 Greatest Ancient Armies.

Check out our other videos of the Top 10 Incredible Ancient Ruins: the Top 10 Civilizations That Mysteriously Faded Away: and the Top 10 Coolest Ancient Warrior Weapons:

10. NeoAssyrian Empire
9. The Gauls
8. Babylonia
7. The Huns
6. Carthage
5. Egypt
4. Kingdom of Macedonia
3,2,1!??!

Watch on WatchMojo:

Special thanks to our user DutchSkyGamerz for suggesting this idea! Check out the voting page at

Subscribe: and also Ring the Bell to get notified // Have a Top 10 idea? Submit it to us here!

Check our our other channels!

WatchMojo’s Social Media Pages

Get WatchMojo merchandise at shop.watchmojo.com

WatchMojo’s ten thousand videos on Top 10 lists, Origins, Biographies, Tips, How To’s, Reviews, Commentary and more on Pop Culture, Celebrity, Movies, Music, TV, Film, Video Games, Politics, News, Comics, Superheroes. Your trusted authority on ranking Pop Culture.

to quote sunsoo the art of war is of vital importance to the state welcome to watchmojo.com and today we're counting down our picks for the top ten greatest ancient armies before we begin we publish new content every day so be sure to subscribe to our channel and ring the bell to get notified about our latest videos for this list we're looking at the mightiest armies of antiquity up until the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 ad number 10 the neo-assyrian empire for three centuries the neo-assyrian z' ruled mesopotamia constituting the largest empire in the world it's kings conquered a vast amount of territory stretching from Egypt to the Persian Gulf in part it's military success was due to the reforms of ruler TIG laughs police are the third who in the 8th century BC created a serious first standing army he increased its size by incorporating thousands of foreigners from vassal states but the Empire's most formidable forces words contingents of horse-drawn chariots with their superior numbers iron swords and thundering chariots the neo-assyrian 's were truly a force to be reckoned with number nine the Gauls spread out across Western Europe the Gauls lacked a central government but that didn't stop them from banding together to fight in large scale military campaigns in raids and to repel invaders they famously faced off against the Romans who described them as fierce passionate warriors who fought with long swords in loose formations and sometimes charged into battle naked led by the chieftain Brennus they even invaded Italy and in 387 BC sacked Rome itself a feat that would remain unmatched until the Visigoths attacked the city 800 years later number 8 Babylonia under the leadership of Hammurabi 6th king of the first Babylonian dynasty this humble city-state became an empire that conquered almost all of Mesopotamia the king is best remembered for the eponymous Code of Hammurabi preserved on a stone steel which established the laws of the land but he was also a conqueror who led a well-disciplined army and defeated many of the surrounding city-states before marching against other major powers in the region including the old Assyrian Empire one of his favorite stratagems was to dam up local water supplies forcing his enemies to capitulate number 7 the Huns these nomads from the Eurasian steppes smashed through forces in Central Asia and Western Europe and under the leadership of the infamous Attila fought and pillaged their way deep into the Western Roman Empire devious tactician and master Horseman they fought with bows and long swords and javelins from horseback overwhelming their enemies with rapid charges while also keeping forces in reserve for reinforcements sweeping through Europe they seemed unstoppable and only after atilla's death weakened by internal struggles was the tide of war gradually turned against them number 6 Carthage while the Huns became Rome's sworn enemies in the Empire's later years Carthage owned the role first battling them in the Punic Wars from 264 BC to 146 BC the Carthaginian Empire is best remembered for its genius commander Hannibal whose brilliant and influential military tactics are still studied today over 2,000 years later his execution of the pincer movement to surround and defeat a much larger Roman force at the Battle of cannae is considered one of the greatest maneuvers in military history but Hannibal's crowning achievement might be leading his army war elephants and all right through the Alps and into Italy number 5 Egypt ancient Egypt didn't survive for 3,000 years without developing an incredibly robust military one of the first major civilizations in history unified in around 3100 BC it had to defend its considerable borders against numerous foreign powers it also learned from its enemies from Hyksos invaders who took control of Egypt between the middle and new kingdoms Egypt took the composite bow and horse-drawn chariot and also adopted the brutal sickle shaped hoe bish these technologies and the creation of a professional standing army helped the Egyptians revolutionize their military and set about conquering many of their old enemies number four the kingdom of Macedonia for much of classical antiquity the kingdom Macedonia was seen as backwards by its rivals that all changed when philip ii came to the throne his innovative military tactics and state-of-the-art armor and weapons turned a small part-time fighting force into one of the most advanced well disciplined standing armies the world has ever seen crushing all who stood against them with phalanxes of pike wielding infantrymen in a remarkably short time Philip it conquered Hellenistic Greece but it was his son Alexander the Great who led the army to achieve the unthinkable defeating Persia Asia Minor and Egypt all without losing a battle number three the Han Dynasty ancient China has some impressive armies but that of the han dynasty stands out in the late 3rd century BC the collapse of the Ching dynasty plunged China into chaos until rebel leader Leo ba of Han reunified the Empire under hand rule mail commoners were conscripted into two years of military service swelling the military's ranks while a professional standing army was used to guard the vulnerable northern frontier popular weapons included the crossbow and the gin a straight double-edged sword with these forces the Han Dynasty was able to expand its borders and endure for four centuries before conflicts and internal corruption brought about its collapse number two the Roman Empire ancient Rome's place in history as one of the most powerful and influential civilizations in the world is in no small part thanks to its military might the Republic's incredibly well trained well disciplined and well-equipped army conquered a massive swath of territory from England to Egypt crushing many of our prior entries in the process it became even more powerful when the Republic became an empire during which time it transitioned from a system of short-term conscription to the formation of a permanent standing army thanks to their organization training and superior arms Rome's iconic legionaries were among the most formidable soldiers in history before we unveil our number one pick here are some honorable mentions [Applause] number one the Achaemenid Empire also known as the Persian Empire the Achaemenid Empire was the largest the world had ever seen and boasted the first army to ever number half a million soldiers such a massive army wouldn't be seen again in the Western world until the time of Napoleon 2,300 years later this incredible military force was made up of armies from all over the world but it wasn't just sheer numbers that made it so intimidating it included elite specialized troops such as the Immortals a heavily armed infantry remembered today as one of the most legendary fighting forces of all time do you agree with our picks check out these other great clips from WatchMojo and be sure to subscribe and ring the bell to be notified about our latest videos you

Japan : History of Japan's Ancient and Modern Empire (Full Documentary)



Views:554163|Rating:4.65|View Time:2:45:51Minutes|Likes:3426|Dislikes:256
Japan : History of Japan’s Ancient and Modern Empire (Full Documentary) . 2013 This documentary as well as all of the rest of these documentaries shown here .

İnteresting make salad video:

Japan History of Japan’s Ancient and Modern Empire Full Documentary.

Japan : History of Japan’s Ancient and Modern Empire (Full Documentary) . 2013 This documentary as well as all of the rest of these documentaries shown here .

The Edo period (江戸時代 Edo jidai), or Tokugawa period (徳川時代 Tokugawa jidai), is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society.

the Japanese have rites and ceremonies so different from those of all other nations the things they do are beyond imagining and it may be truly said that Japan is a world the reverse of Europe to the first Westerners in Japan it was a mysterious world it was the fabled Isle of zipangu that Marco Polo had only heard about the land of riches that Christopher Columbus set out to find when the Portuguese arrived in Japan in 1543 they encountered a country embroiled in civil war out of this chaos one samurai warrior would emerge he would create a regime so strong it endured for over 250 years witnesses to this world both Western observers and Japanese wrote at these changing times theirs is a story of flowering culture of poetic ritual and of rigid power struggles it is the saga of opening trade with Europe and then closing its doors to the west these are the memoirs of Japan's secret Empire [Applause] on the 25th day of the eighth month of the year of the water and the hair there appeared off our western shore a big ship no one knew whence it had come as a Buddhist monk later recounted samurai guards were quickly dispatched to warn their master there were strangers on board these ships unlike anyone the Japanese had ever seen the local warlord called a daimyo summoned these strangers the first Europeans to ever set foot on Japanese Shores it was the year 15 43 when these Portuguese merchants arrived the daimyo was intrigued by their peculiar unknown weapons the Japanese always liked novel things new things are fed so to speak and so they were very very interested in the Europeans after he watched the Portuguese shoot down a duck the daimyo purchased two guns and put his swordsmith to work making copies then he asked for shooting lessons these first Europeans their guns and their religion would have unforeseeable consequences in this same year a boy was born to a daimyo family he would be known as Tokugawa Ieyasu his destiny would be to change Japan forever as an elite member of the samurai class the boy inherited a world of tradition a feudal realm of samurai warriors who ruled by birthright and soared the son of a daimyo Lord Ieyasu would soon have to give up children's games for the politics of war when Yasir was still a child the ruling daimyo demanded that EI osos father send the young boy to him as a hostage insurance that all orders would be obeyed when children were taken as hostages it did not mean prisoners this was all part of the political negotiation in which alliances had to be formed because no one trusted no one else so there had to be guarantee and therefore that hostage was used as a hostage the young samurai boy traveled in the style befitting his daimyo rank he could not know his destiny nor could he know that he would never see his father again he would grow up a hostage his life captive to the turmoil of civil war the whole of Japan was involved in wars treachery was rampant and nobody trusted his neighbor they would enter into league with one faction and then deserted for another as the winds of Fortune blew you are rodriguez and eyewitness to these perilous times was one of the first Portuguese to arrive in Japan he came as a cabin boy of 15 and would soon become a Jesuit missionary as Portuguese merchants traversed the oceans in search of new ports for trade Jesuit missionaries accompanied them searching for souls to save the Jesuits were young and dedicated braving the hardships of the dangerous two-year voyage to reach Japan a country which they considered ripe for conversion they sent home tantalizing reports of an alien world everything is so different an opposite that they are like us and practically nothing now all this would not be surprising if they were like so many barbarians but what astonishes made is that they behaved as very prudent and cultured people in all these matters this is something which I would not dare to affirm if I had not had so much experience among them the missionaries thought that the Japanese were such a remarkable race their culture was so developed that it was worth while writing back to Europe about the culture which they found the language the Japanese spoke and a very complex political system without any influence from Christianity without any influence from Europe and so I think this is a thing which one should bear in mind that this was the first time Europeans dealt with Asians on equal terms and not as conquerors and conquered people their way of writing is very different from ours because they write from the top of the page down to the bottom I asked a Japanese why they did not write in our way and he asked me why we did not write in their way he explained that as a head of a man is at the top and his feet are at the bottom so – a man should write from top to bottom during his more than 30 years in Japan dois Rodrigues became so fluent in Japanese he became known as the interpreter his work allowed him to observe all levels of society from the highest daimyo warlords to the lowest Japanese farmer every class of person Noble or humble uses a fan throughout the whole kingdom people who have business matters and other things which they wish to remember write them down on their fans they are always carrying these fans about in their hands opening them shutting them and looking at them nobody would go out into the street without one the Japanese schwa Rodriguez observed regarded the Europeans with equal fascination they greatly wondered that our big and long noses big beards and red or fair hair and considered all these things as so many defects they called them the southern barbarians which is not a very flattering term their eating habits were rather different the Japanese were so polite eating with chopsticks etc whereas in those days Europeans normally yet with just a knife and with your fingers and then of course the Japanese mostly Japanese take a bath every day whereas Europeans I'm afraid in those days when for months and months and months without taking a bath and to some extent they deserved the epithet of barbarians but however they were regarded the missionaries were determined to stay in Japan our only desire was to preach and proclaim the law of the Creator even if there were only one Japanese Christian in the whole country any missionary would spend all his life here just for the sake of that one person these men were very very zealous and the conditions were rather good for the conversion of people to Christianity when you have bloodshed revolutions fighting battles death in large numbers obviously people's thoughts do tend to go to the next life in little more than 50 years these missionaries established over 200 Catholic churches primarily in southern Japan and converted up to a quarter million Japanese when a Japanese Lord or Japanese daimyo changed his religion he would bring pressure on his people because he had absolute power of life and death on the people below him and so you got in a relatively short short period of time a large-scale conversions but there was another factor that some of the daimyo when they became Christian they had certain considerations of Commerce in the back of their mind because where the missionaries went the Portuguese merchants went and the Portuguese merchants offered very profitable trade Pisa V Japanese Commerce and religion intertwined some Japanese profited while others watched with growing concern convinced of Christianity's threat to their power merchants and missionaries these early Europeans had set a course which would eventually run into unexpected consequences to endure the rigors of never-ending training to remain clear minded in the face of grave danger to face death matter-of-factly this is the art of kendo the way of the sword master swordsmen taught young samurai the skills of sword fighting and the traditions of a samurai code of honor this was the education the young eyassa would receive even as a hostage when you took a hostage in a certain place they were usually treated very cordially and they were given education just as they would be given at home he probably had a very stoic Spartan kind of education toward military skills martial arts and Chinese classics Japanese classics the entire life of yes was that of patience and forbearance people say the young hostage Tokugawa Ieyasu would learn what it meant to be a samurai adopter stands with the head erect either hanging down nor looking up nor twisted do not roll your eyes nor allow them to blink but slightly narrow them brace your abdomen so that you do not bend at the hips a legendary swordsman Miyamoto Musashi would preserve the way of the samurai in a classic book the Five Rings it was a guide to strategy its philosophy embraced in Japan even to this day in all forms of strategy it is necessary to maintain the combat stance in everyday life and to make your everyday stance your combat stance at age 15 Ieyasu entered manhood and earned the right to carry the two swords of a samurai Hinata you know we don't even know shoujo the sword was a symbol of the samurai class only in the samurai were authorized to carry two swords a large one and a small one a samurai with these two swords ruled over the farmer in the merchant you're born into being a sama diets a responsibility amongst the responsibilities of being a song I was always carrying one sword to use to enact justice if somebody were rude to you it was your duty to kill them but still no sama Knight would walk around outside without a sword and if they were caught without a sword they could be punished for not upholding their duty while the samurai class comprised less than 10% of the population their presents loomed larger than life even the missionaries wrote as if the samurai were the whole of society they carry a sword and dagger both inside and outside the house and lay them at their pillows when they sleep never in my life have I met people who rely so much on their arms they are very warlike and are always involved in wars and the sleepless man becomes their greatest Lord it was not only the men who swore to uphold this ideal samurai women were also trained to protect their family the most important thing about samurais daughters or wives was never to forget the honor and the pride as samurais daughter in crisis there had to be prepared to kill themselves rather than being shamed disgraced by the enemies the samurai defended his home and family but his true glory came on the battlefield defending his lord against enemies the samurai dressed carefully for combat the finely stitched fabric and leather appeared elegant even fragile unseen were the tightly woven plates of Steel much like his protective armor a warrior's refined appearance concealed his impenetrable inner core this ethic preserved in writings of the samurai would prepare the warrior to meet life and death with honor our samurai would wash himself with cold water every morning sent the shaven top of his head in hair with incense to make himself presentable he was ready to be killed in battle at any moment cherry blossoms are often compared to the samurai they're a beautiful sight like the warrior in his shiny armor but it takes only one big storm for happens to fall to the ground just like the warrior in battle for Samurai as important as knowing how to kill was knowing how and when to die in the battlefield especially your last moment of life you have to show your control the controlling your body controlling your destiny fate is the vindication indication of your internal strength so it's a last moment that you have to stage your death seppuku or harakiri is the ritual of suicide as practiced by samurai samurai warrior carried two swords on his head a long one and a short one the short sword was for cutting open his abdomen why would a son would I could open his abdomen well Japanese especially somewhat I believed that the heart was in the belly they believed that whether their heart was pure or impure would be revealed when they disemboweled themselves from the death poem to the final thrust of the dagger seppuku is a ceremonial ritual of suicide ensuring an honorable death jawoll Rodriguez wrote of a man who committed the ritual of seppuku the samurai dressed in the customary white kimono solemnly and with great dignity mounted a raised platform then in a loud voice he told them to watch him carefully as he cut himself open he seated himself and wrote his will slowly and calmly asking his Lord to look after his son and family for he was going to die on account of his honor he bade farewell and then in front of them all he fearlessly cut his belly and so he died the sort of thing often happens there is timing in everything timing in strategy cannot be mastered without a great deal of practice there is timing in the whole life of the warrior in his thriving and declining in his harmony and Accord these are the enduring principles which guided the life of the samurai warrior for Tokugawa Ieyasu patience strategizing would become his most powerful weapon he was now of age 18 years old and married with two children but he was still a hostage of the ruling daimyo warlord as time passed yaaaas has strengthened his skills as a warrior fighting alongside his daimyo master when his master was killed in battle he a ASSA was finally free to determine his own destiny yes was put in a position to have to make a decision at some point whether to go along with the hostess family but at all times he never forgot his ambition to go back to his original castle and to regain all the territory that his father's family had and to expand and to go back to his retainers who were faithfully waiting for Ieyasu reclaimed his title as an independent Lord a daimyo he returned to his family estate he could now fight on his own terms for his own people I fought against my enemies solely in order that I might take my revenge on my father's adversaries because I was convinced of the rightness of my intention to help the people and bring peace to the land the years of captivity had honed his discipline according to his samurai training he now carefully plotted his strategy in a crucial move he is ooh allied himself with the man who killed his daimyo Master Oda Nobunaga Nobunaga had become the most powerful warlord in Japan feared and ruthless the missionaries owal Rodriguez documented Nobunaga's campaign to unify Japan Nobunaga was the first to begin cutting through the thick forest of wars and discord in Japan he subdued about half the country and fear of him made the remaining parts ready to obey Him in anything in the Battle of Naga Shino Nobunaga armed 3,000 of his foot soldiers three ranks deep [Applause] as 10,000 enemy warriors charged Nobunaga's Musketeers fired in succession decimating the opposing army Nobunaga's innovations in the use of firearms completely changes the face of samurai Warford the old idea was where you would have two samurai meet on the field of battle they would shout out their names and their lineages where they were from sometimes one would ride out in front of all these troops and and challenge someone to come and defeat him so it was it was very manly it was imbued with the ideal of valor now you have faceless ranks of samurai shooting other faceless ranks of samurai Nobunaga continued to amass power until one night treachery within his inner circle caught him off guard a missionary was near by some Christians came just as I was vesting to say an early mass and told me to wait because there was a commotion in front of the palace with once began to hear musket shots and see flames we learned that it had not been a brawl but that one of his generals had turned traitor some say he cut his belly while others believe that he set fire to the palace and perished into flames what we do know however is that of this man who made everyone trembled not only at the sound of his voice but at the mention of his name they did not remain even a small hair which was not reduced to dust and ashes as the flames burned Nobunaga's loyal general Toyotomi Hideyoshi seized the moment Hideyoshi immediately springs into action murdering the murderer of his own lord which then gives him the right in essence to claim leadership of Nobunaga's vast coalition of armies ei arson watched from a distance would he subordinate himself to Hideo she's command or was it time to fight for control Nobunaga Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu these were the men who would bring an end to the brutal civil wars they would go down in history as the unifiers there's a story in Japanese that explains the character of the three unifiers and Nobunaga Hideyoshi and das who are watching a cuckoo bird waiting for it to sing but the bird doesn't sing and Nobunaga says little bird if you don't sing I will kill you and Hideo she says little bird if you don't sing I'll make you sing and he has to says little bird if you don't sing I'll wait for you to sing an da ah so is a patient strategist who will wait for things to go his way and then he'll act after Nobunaga's death Ieyasu and Hideyoshi faced off in a measured game of strategy each in his own way trying to outsmart the other birds in pastino da da da silva nice Okara simple taught as a military leader yes it was a courageous man who never hesitated in battle however though he was brave he was also cautious one famous story yes it was known as an excellent Horseman one day he and his troops had to cross a very narrow bridge over a raging river everyone was watching to see how the great house it would ride his horse over this dangerous bridge to his men surprise he also dismounted took the horses reins in his hands and carefully led the horse over the bridge to the other side of the river that's how vigilant he was I believe this kind of caution helped him to be victorious in battle while ei are sooo practiced restraint and careful strategizing Hideyoshi acted quickly and decisively Hideyoshi was from peasant stock the son of a lowly foot soldier he worked his way up through the ranks Hideyoshi became known as a brilliant general and he held the same grand vision of himself when my mother conceived me she was given a miraculous omen on the very night that I was born the room was suddenly aglow with sunlight thus changing night today finally they divined the child whose birth was attended by these miracles was destined to become a man of unusual attainments this prediction is fulfilled in me shortly after Hideyoshi took control Ieyasu challenged him but a US who soon realized there was more to be gained as Hideyoshi zalae than as his enemy Hideyoshi rewarded EI r su for his loyalty with a vast domain of land and ordered him to make his headquarters in the remote fishing village of Edo 300 miles east of Hideyoshi's castle in osaka some might have thought the gift an insult but in Edo the village that would later become Tokyo ea also busied his troops building a massive five-story castle fortification within the walls of the city of Osaka Hideyoshi was consumed with fortifying his own castle reputed to be the most impregnable fortress of its time it was also one of the most ostentatious osaka castle had a strategic location close to the emperor's palace in nearby kyoto for centuries the emperor had remained a ruler in name only ignored by those who truly held power he whiled away his days with court gossip calligraphy and poetry by EI ah sirs time the court is still powerless but it is only the court which can appoint the children so in the ultimate symbolic sense the court is still the arbiter of final resort that's why all the Warlord's are aiming for Kyoto you have to get the Emperor to recognize that you're the most powerful of all of the combatants on the field of battle Hideyoshi curried the Emperor's favor inviting him to no plays and musical performances but the Emperor would not grant this warrior of peasant stock the title of Shogun Yasu never relinquished his desire for power he offered the emperor more than invitations he arranged the marriage of one of his granddaughter's to the Emperor's son all of the lords in Japan used family to cement political alliances you would marry off daughters or myriad of sons what he a ass who did in particular was have an abundance of sons that he could use he could set them up to support his nascent government he could set them up as independent military lords that he could then call upon for help in contrast EAS is rival Hideyoshi failed to produce a male heir finally he adopted a nephew and groomed him as his successor then at sixty years of age Hideyoshi finally fathered a son of his own he called him Heda Yuri and he was the jewel of his life hideo she's thoughts now turned to the safety and survival of his young son I cannot describe the endless tedium as if I were guarding an empty house when he day Ori is not here with me I say again strictly order that all be vigilant against fire each night have someone make the rounds of the rooms two or three times as Hideyoshi obsessed over his own son his adopted son now an adult was in peril it's clear that by the end of his life he Theo she was acting more and more erratically he became increasingly cruel if not sadistic then when he finally in his final years produced an air of his own he ordered this adult male who had been his heir to commit suicide Hideyoshi then ordered his adopted sons entire family put to death a missionary recanted they were drawn along the streets in a carts the open view of the world 31 ladies and gentlewomen with the two sons and one daughter of his adopted son the oldest of whom was not more than five years old all their bodies were thrown into a pit before which was built a little chapel with a two-minute wood this inscription the tomb of the traitors soon after he died oh she's health began to fail he wrote his death poem as the do I fall has the zhuhai vanish even osaka fortress is a dream within a dream Hideyoshi then called Yasu and four of the most powerful daimyo to his deathbed he appointed them legal protectors of his five-year-old son he died Orie his heir and the future ruler of Japan var su pledged to protect the boy with his own life a pledge that would become very difficult to keep it is said that war is a curse it is resorted to only when it is inevitable however in time of peace do not forget the possibility of disturbances Ieyasu was on guard those daimyo who feared his growing power began to plot against him [Applause] ei arses territory now extended throughout most of Japan he was determined to maintain his holdings and expand his base of power one of the asses nicknames is the old badger and it reflects his craftiness as well as his famed ability to wait and he waits until after Hideo she is dead until he has a clear preponderance of power and then makes his move to become the dominant military leader in Japan ei oz who mobilized his troops he sent one division to ogaki castle where his enemies were gathering when the battle began women and children rushed to safety EAS is sent a large force to lay siege to the castle and they fought day and night one of the young girls at the castle later told her family of the terrifying experience mother's concubines and daughters all stayed in the tower and cast bullets there was panic a bullet struck my younger brother choosing him on the spot it was a cruel sight indeed it was we felt as if we should die there was nothing but fear and horror left as the battle wore on heads of slain warriors were brought to the castle to be prepared for the ritual presentation to the victor it was believed that even in death the samurai should be viewed as a worthy opponent those people who are in the castle would watch the heads and they'll put some cosmetics on the face of the dead corpses because they were proof of having killed someone important that was part of them there is no part of what they did which is inconceivable to you know as modern people know more than women all the decapitated heads were brought into the tower we weren't a bit afraid of the heads and used to sleep in the midst of the nasty smell of bloody heads Victoria said ogaki Castle ei haces troops now pursued the rebellious daimyo and their armies they faced off in a narrow Valley just west of the village of Sekigahara this would be the battle that changed the course of Japanese history yay us who set up his command post atop a hill overlooking the valley waiting through the night for the rest of his armies to arrive at dawn ei haces attendant physician hastily noted in his journal slight rain dense fog in the mountain valley can't see barely made out enemy banners on horseback Lord Ieyasu made out their positions estimate distance at two and a half miles ei ah su was outnumbered with only 50,000 troops challenging his enemies 80,000 he waited for his son to arrive with reinforcements but at 8:00 in the morning the fog suddenly lifted and the two opposing armies found themselves within striking distance Yasu could wait no more rallying his troops it was said he sent them forward with his famous battle cry there are only two ways to come back from the battlefield with the head of an enemy or without your own ei arson watched as his troops faced what seemed insurmountable odds then suddenly the tide turned several enemy daimyo and their armies convinced of he asses Altman victory defected and joined ei haces forces by 2 p.m. ei us whose troops had defeated the rebellious army just it sticking out hi Nico Gravas victory at Sega Hara brought an end to the warring States and signaled the beginning of a new era that's the significance of the Battle of Sekigahara in recognition of Ieyasu's power the Emperor awarded him the title of Shogun the barbarians are doing Generalissimo Tokugawa Ieyasu now had the authority to rule Japan in all military matters he ruled unchallenged but always there was the specter of Hideyoshi's young son he died ori growing up in osaka castle Ieyasu had sworn with his life to protect the boy the boy who could someday lay claim to all Ieyasu had won as the young boy he died or II approached manhood a daimyo warned although he is neither Yoshi's heir yesil will never let him go Japan sooner or later some ambitious character well foment rebellion in his name and even if he already knows nothing about it he will be blamed have forced to commit suicide to the grief of Hideyoshi's ghost now the topic oz had no divine right to rule Japan they ruled Japan because they were the most powerful they had the most money they had them as soldiers but they had no divine right and there were many other powerful daimyo especially in the West the Christian daimyo and so if there were any philosophy any political movement that would bring these Dino together as a coalition against the Tokugawa family that was really dangerous Tokugawa Ieyasu tolerated no dissent he expelled many of the foreign missionaries including Joie Rodriguez yes who wanted to clear the board of all these foreign influences which were just muddying the waters making life more complicated he even ordered all Christian activity among the Japanese halted but still he faced the only true threat to his power the young-hee diary by the time he reaches adulthood he D or e can no longer be ignored by Ieyasu he's a threat simply because he exists he is the legitimate heir of Hideyoshi yay ah su is supposed to be supporting him until he until he becomes an adult and he poses an intrinsic threat to the legitimacy of the Tokugawa Shogun Ieyasu came to but one conclusion he could no longer honor his pledge to a dead ally to protect his son he I also decided to go into battle once more it was obviously going to be another showdown and the many many many samurai in their thousands and these were hard bitten warriors they still owed loyalty to Hideyoshi's family and of course they owed justice my sorority to his son so they gathered in Osaka Castle and also Casa was a very very very strong Casa it was considered impregnable in the winter of 1614 ei ah so accused he de re of subversion and ordered his troops to advance against Osaka Castle he D re supporters nearly 100,000 held strong Parc retaliated with a devious plan he sent a woman samurai to negotiate a truce with Edie Ari's mother Ieyasu offered a safe haven for Hideo Ruiz garrison if in return he agreed not to mount further rebellion against EA haces rule to prove his intentions yay us who signed the pledge in blood he de orys mother convinced her son to accept the offer EA haces ploy had worked as soon as the fighting stopped Ieyasu began to fill in the mooks or obstacle course of the deep notes and the people in the Osaka Castle protested a lot that was not in the agreement but that didn't matter they filled in the moats and once the moats were filled in then ieyasu's troops would storm into the castle and there was a dreadful slaughter thousands of defeated soldiers women and children fled the casstle compound [Applause] a European merchants recorded the event in his journal we had used today that da Yasu has taken the fortress of Osaka and overthrown the forces of Hideyori they say the taking of this fortress have cost about 100,000 lives and that no dead man of account is found with his head on but all cut off yay ah sues army set the castle on fire as the flames raged around him he de ré refused to surrender and was left with no other option he committed seppuku there's one big problem with killing udre however and that's that eyassa was supposed to be his supporter it's a very realistic cold-blooded strategy but he wanted to establish a dynasty that would last through the ages there is reason to believe that yay ah so genuinely regretted having to kill the son of his former lord yah so is said to have paid penance by writing the name of the Buddha 10,000 times on Scrolls of parchment tokugawa ieyasu had wiped out the last threats to his power or so it seemed but not everyone was under his control there were the Western traders who he valued but mistrusted and the Christians who he considered a threat Tokugawa Ieyasu had won the wars his struggle to control the future of Japan had just begun [Applause] in the early 17th century the ruler of Japan the Shogun was told this story one day the king of the Portuguese said to his council far to the east lies a country called Japan and it abounds in gold and silver why should not that land be added to my domains the best way to make ourselves masters of the land is by means of our religion and then send in the army the shogun tokugawa ieyasu and his legions of samurai warriors were undaunted by stories of foreign invaders he was a strong leader and had brought peace to the war-torn nation yet foreign dangers and internal unrest remained a threat as Japan deferred to the will of the Shogun eyewitnesses wrote of these remarkable times these are their memoirs of Japan's secret Empire [Applause] afterward Vina in Japan five or six days came of Portugal Jesuit who reported that we were pirates we looked always that we should be set upon crosses which is the execution of this land I looked every day to die rescued from the sea and imprisoned William Adams the first Englishman in Japan had good reason for concern it was the year 1600 and Portuguese Catholics had long held a monopoly on trade in Japan at the time William Adams arrived they had been religious wars in Europe and the Catholic missionaries were not at all happy when they heard that an Englishman and an English Protestant had been washed up in Japan the most powerful warlord in Japan Tokugawa Ieyasu commanded Adams to his castle rather than ordering his execution he wanted to know more about this stranger the summons was highly unusual as only the highest-ranking officials were ever received by the great man himself the ruler demanded of me of what land I was and what moved us to come to his land being so far off I showed him the name of our country and that our land desired friendship it appeared that ei ah su was interested in more than friendship he asked whether our country has Wars I answered him yay with the Spaniards and Portugal's he asked me diverse questions of my religion in what way we came to the country from one thing to another I abode with him till midnight as the meeting came to an end Adams dared to make a parting request on behalf of his Dutch employers I decide that we might have trade with your country the same as the Portugal's and Spaniards 2ei ah sue this was welcome news ei oz who valued trade with the Portuguese and Spanish merchants but was wary of their Catholic missionaries who preached obedience to a God more powerful than he to avoid those he considered a threat to his own authority he I also wanted his own fleet of trading ships Adams had the skills he needed the English pilot had apprenticed as a ship right Ieyasu asked him to build two ships capable of navigating the open seas I answered that I was no carpenter and had no knowledge thereof well do your endeavor saith he if it be not good it is no matter you can't deny that william adams did have certain amount of influence when he was told to build these two ships they were the first foreign ships first european ships to be built in japan they were built with Japanese workers of course under his supervision and then afterwards they sailed to Mexico and they sailed back quite safely Ieyasu now had the leverage he desired when the Catholic missionaries continued to gain converts and create problems he expelled them life was complicated enough without these pesky foreigners interfering and sir that probably was the reason why he did not want a christine's in Japan Ieyasu replaced his Catholic interpreter with william adams who had been quick to learn Japanese he was Protestant of course he is who knew that he had no interest in helping the missionaries and so he is rather a valuable man to have around yay us who still wanted to trade with the West but on his own terms Adams convinced Ieyasu that the Protestants did not want to convert his people éä us who soon made him his commercial agent and Adams negotiated especially favorable terms for the growing Dutch East India Company the Holland has be now settled and I have got them trading privileges as the Spaniards and Portugal's could never get in their 50 years in Japan Adams married and settled down into Japanese life he adopted Japanese dress and was awarded the right to wear the two swords of the samurai and he was given an estate with about 70 or 80 servants which is pretty good good far better than his standard of living in England would have been of course and I think towards the end he lost his desire to go back to England because he knew he would just be a working-class man in England we're back in Japan he has 80 servants to wait on handle foot on him it was possible that Adams visited EARC at his tea house for intimate conversation away from the politics of the court the tea ceremony was much admired by a Western observer the guests opened the gate walk along the path through the wood up to the tea house quietly contemplating everything they see they remove their fans and daggers and deposit them in a kind of cupboard place their outside for that purpose if Adams and a us who had private political discussions the tea house was also a retreat where they could replenish their souls this gathering for tea and conversation is not intended for lengthy talk but rather to contemplate within their souls with all peace and modesty the things that they see there and thus through their own efforts to understand the mysteries locked therein for chaos ooh unsettling foreign influences could jeopardize the peace he worked so hard to forge but the biggest challenge would be to maintain control of the 260 fiercely independent warlords and their formidable samurai armies tokugawa ieyasu became shogun in 1603 and united japan after generations of civil war all of the great lords had been fighting for a century they were tired of fighting they wanted to secure their own positions but as a court chronicler documented the task ahead would not be easy although he had conquered the country on horseback being a man of wisdom he fully appreciated the impossibility of governing in the country on horseback he was interested only in discovering the key to government how to govern oneself the people and the country yes course me neither posted to Eton asyndeton what made you so superior as a leader was that he surrounded himself with capable people who believed in him there's a story about a low-ranking samurai who has to meet with him he a oz who listened attentively after the man left a higher-ranking Lord said to a Yasu what a waste of your time they also replied it took great courage for that man to approach me if I didn't listen he would never come again peace would not be secured by leadership alone Ieyasu had to curb the power of the daimyo the feudal lords these lords are building enormous territorial centralized domains what the feudal lords are trying to do is essentially control everything and everybody within their territories they control all the fighting men who control all the peasants they control all the resources Dao su allowed the daimyo to rule their own domains but he prohibited them from doing anything that might enhance their power or status relative to each other in Tokugawa Japan a daimyo was restricted to only one castle and to enlarge it he had to receive permission a new ship asked the Shogun arrange a new alliance through marriage only if the Shogun approved he a ASSA would maintain the peace through this ordered control and it extended through all levels of society the Japan that EARC fashion was built on the ancient teachings of Confucianism obey the traditions of hierarchy and respect Authority a Japan in keeping with the samurai traditions it was a rigid society with lots of rules and regulations everybody must know their place in society and stick to it that was the theory didn't always work out in practice of course but that at least was in the theory all samurai were members of the elite class whether he be a daimyo warlord or a lowly foot soldier next in line with the farmers then the artisans at the very bottom with the tradesmen considered the parasites of society the tokugawa shogunate would issue many rules to control and maintain the rigid class structure from what you could eat to what you must wear lords and vassals superiors and inferiors must observe what is proper within their position in life without authorization no retainer may wear fine white damask white watered silk garments purple silk kimonos purple silk linings and kimono sleeves which bear no family crest the rules and regulations kept everyone in their place but for the daimyo at least there were still ways to earn special privileges ei also decreed that the lords must help build his castle and the surrounding city of Edo the construction became a grand competition as each daimyo vied for the Shogun's favour soon they transformed the small castle and backwater village of Edo into a magnificent domain the city later known as Tokyo the streets are far broader longer and straighter than the streets of Spain they are kept so clean that you may will think that nobody ever walks among them the emerging splendors of Edo were recorded by rodrigo de bávaro a Velasco the governor of the philippines who had been shipwrecked off the coast of japan he spent several months in the capital as a guest of the Shogun what makes this man interesting is that he wrote a report about Japan after he left Japan and he was a very discerning man he saw various aspects of Japanese life which other people had not seen the people live in particular streets according to their trade and station one Street for example is reserved for carpenters in other strains there are cobblers blacksmiths tailors and traders the nobles and people of quality live in the streets and districts quite different from the rest of the town and no commoner or person of the lower classes mixes with them those daimyo who had gained most favored lived closest to the castle and were granted more audiences with the great ruler himself while Deborah Velasco was in the castle being receiving audience by Yazoo he saw a powerful daimyo come into the castle to pay homage to Ieyasu they're entered the one of the greatest Nobles of Japan his rank was evident from the gifts he brought bars of silver and gold silk robes all this was first placed on some tables but I do not believe the ruler even looked at it a hundred paces from the throne the daimyo prostrate himself bowing his head so low that it looked as if he wanted to kiss the ground nobody said a word to him nor did he raise his eyes towards the ruler and then finally somebody clapped and the end of audience not a word had been said and of audience and he goes out backwards on his knees and Rodrigo very very Velasco was very much impressed by what he had seen because he realized that power Ieyasu head here was a powerful daimyo who had power of life and death in his own region but when he comes to pay tribute to the Shogun what a lowly position he adopts the great ruler had realized his vision all of Japan was under his control at 72 he was still remarkably vigorous then on one of his regular Hawking expeditions he fell seriously ill as he lay dying he planned the details of his funeral it would be a simple ceremony his ashes taken to the top of a mountain overlooking the land where he so often went with his Hawks here he felt his spirit could soar over his beloved land holding the realm together Ieyasu had carefully forged his well-ordered society he would not leave the future of Japan to whim he called his family to his side he told his children and grandchildren who were gathered around because you are my descendants you will become Shogun as Shogun it is important that you rule the country for the benefit of the people or you will be punished by heaven as Shogun you must govern for the good of the country this world does not belong to the Tokugawa and cannot be ruled just to satisfy your whims among the family members was a young grandson destined to become Shogun the child omitsu would grow up determined to carry on in the footsteps of his famous grandfather omitsu the third Shogun would keep Japan under Tokugawa rule using any means necessary the third Tokugawa Shogun iemitsu worshipped his late grandfather that he had numerous mystical experiences that whenever he got sick Ieyasu would appear in his dream and he would wake up feeling better the next morning so his respect for EI Yasu transformed into worship eeehm it's always carried a charm containing a piece of paper saying to live according to the way his grandfather would have lived but though iemitsu tried to emulate his grandfather his tactics were much more severe it was reported after he became Shogun he omitsu summoned the daimyo to his palace the Lord's waited all day in the cold without food or shelter they began to fear for their lives until at last they were called in to hear Mitsu's inner sanctum where he delivered his ultimatum I have been in the position of a superior and a master from my birth I shall henceforth treat all Diamond has my subjects those of you who may disobey me may quickly return to your provinces repair your castles and prepare for arms I select accordingly omitsu is a fascinating Shogun is the first Shogun who doesn't lead troops in battle he had not proved himself on the battlefield he did not have his own men who came with him into office when he became children I omitsu inherited a nation at peace yet he would rule with an iron hand he listened to whew and spared no one he would not tolerate competition not even sibling rivalry he ordered his younger brother to commit suicide the tokugawa shogunate under his rule acts much more capriciously towards lords that disobey their orders or flout any of the rules and regulations which bound them a European merchants who once tutored iemitsu observed the Shogun's Court no one dares to attempt any opposition to the will of the Shogun whatever injustice the Shogun may commit or into whatever extravagance of excesses he may plunge they praise or approve of all but ruling by fear alone could also breed revolt omitsu had to keep the daimyo Lords allegiance all 260 of them in peacetime there was no common enemy no spoils of war to reward the daimyo for their loyalty he omitsu had to find some other way to control the daimyo lords they were commanded to appear at iya Mitsu's court in Edo and they did not journey alone as witnessed by a German traveller the bodyguards embarrass put almost swaggering gait when they pass with every step they kick up their heels needed to their backsides and at the same time thrust the opposite arm for us it looks as if they're swimming in the air these elaborate processions often numbered in the thousands they were part of a system known as alternate attendance the alternative attendance system had been evolving over the decades of tokugawa rule and primarily what it meant is that great lords had to spend part of the year in Edo and part of the year back in their domains they had to travel back and forth according to strictly set schedules while their wives and children had to spend all their time in Oedo this was the single greatest administrative control on the outer wards during the Tokugawa Shogun alternate attendance had another advantage for the Shogun it kept the daimyo Lords financially powerless it was reported that a daimyo could spend more than three quarters of his income maintaining the processions and supporting his army of samurai once they reached a toe what this also does by the way is cause endo to explode in size and in fact there grows up in Edo a class of samurai who only know eddo even though their domain may be in the farthest reach of Japan they're born in Oedo they work in a tow and they only know Edo for the samurai warrior life in peacetime Edo was the catalyst that changed the very nature of their existence prohibited from bringing their wives and families the samurai lived a bachelors life they were paid a small stipend to perform their official duties such as they were that's how much dick no community no they would get up in the morning and have their hair dressed by a fellow samurai then they would go to work on the grounds of the lords estate this they would do once every four or five days the samurai would work only in the morning and then go home for lunch at around two o'clock in the afternoon they would go out on the town it was a life that the once-proud warrior could never have imagined Edo was becoming a city of samurai whose job description was rapidly changing from soldier to bureaucrat the life of a samurai they aren't allowed to work they're given enough money to live on and mostly what they do is they spend every day at the house of a friend drinking and talking and studying and doing tea and reading books of old war tales and imagining what it would have been like to live in the 1500s life in 17th century Japan did not include the hazards of war yet peace brought its own perils rules and regulations were strict and the penalties could be severe for any who dared disobey cluttering our papers the spring winds blow went through the open barriers how gratefully we go other five government highways led to the Shogun's capital of edo all with inspection barriers to enforce air meets ins laws the Shogun had improved the road so his messengers could quickly reach any part of Japan these roads also made it easier for the daimyo and their samurai warriors to travel to Edo but for most Japanese travel was an arduous process a multitude of rules and regulations monitored who came in and who went out of the city of Edo almost everyone needed a passport the few exceptions included itinerant performers who proved their identity by showing off their talent or sumo wrestlers whose girl was ample proof of their profession farmers were routinely denied permission to travel from village to village the government preferred to keep them working in the fields those without the proper papers often try to avoid the inspection posts by slipping by on side roads if caught there were severe penalties a traditional japanese-style punishment meant crucifixion for a man for a woman enslavement or enforced servitude with so many laws and restrictions one never knew when the Shogun's edicts might actually be enforced sir like a theater of punishment to try to scare people into behaving some ruler might decide that morals are going to hell in a handbasket and suddenly grab one person and punish them severely despite the uncertainty against all odds Travel grew in popularity now that the roads were safer more and more Japanese began to journey from village to village the most traveled road was the Tokaido which ran for 300 miles from kyoto to Edo 53 rest stops dotted the highway and so these post towns along the five great roads of Japan grew up to be very substantial towns themselves they had inns they had brothels they had restaurants they had places that sold in medicine there essentially grew up a post town culture people in the Tokugawa period they were driven by a curiosity people were beginning to think about Japan as a nation Travel Diaries became bestsellers you know Atsuko was a young samurai woman writer who kept a diary as she traveled the Tokaido Road a mountain range rises above the clouds and splashing water gushes over the rocks making an ear-splitting noise on the way up we feel that we are being knocked down backwards and on the way down we feel that we are slipping all the way thus we are often fearful yNN's along the way offered welcome respite to travelers like to Joe she was on her way to eddo to serve in the residence of a high-ranking samurai although tzu Jo traveled on official business accompanied by her brother she still encountered disturbing difficulties all travelers faced strict regulations but women had an especially hard time it was very difficult for women to travel in the 17th century firstly because they had to get the permission of the household who usually thought there would be better cleaning and cooking and women's travel permits were much more elaborate many checkpoints wouldn't permit women to pass because women had to have a thorough inspection of a body searched and many checkpoints didn't have female officers to come back that body search officials were always on the lookout for women who disguised themselves as boys when SuJu arrived at the barrier station she was ordered to appear before an older woman guard a rough-looking woman examined me ran her hand through my hair and said something with a heavy accent it was very unpleasant but I had no choice I was afraid of what she might do at another post she experienced difficulties due to the wording of her permit when I presented my official document at the barrier they refused my passage because in the permit I was only identified as a woman rather than a young woman with long open sleeves I had to go back to the end I was heartbroken suja worried if she would be allowed to continue her journey it was a sleepless night as she wrote in her diary my tears darkened the light of a candle how restless I feel everything is depressing beyond description in the dawn around 4 o'clock I heard travelers gathering around and calling each other a horse neighing and the sounds of stirrups I feel envious I have spent days and nights brooding over the obstacles facing women to Joe's plight was not uncommon under Amit suzerain anybody who did not follow his rules could be punished but there was one group persecuted simply because of their beliefs the Christians the Shogun iemitsu offered rewards for the arrest of any Japanese who preached or practice the Christian faith any inform of revealing the whereabouts of the followers of priests must be rewarded accordingly if anyone reveals the whereabouts of a high-ranking priests he must be given 100 pieces of silver one has to bear in mind in this period of Japanese history that there was repression and that the Tokugawa authorities the Shogun wanted to keep Japanese society as it was and that did lead some people to believe that Christianity was subversive and was upsetting the social framework the social pattern of Japan ie amid Sue's time all foreign missionaries had been deported but the converts they left behind the Japanese Christians remained devout for many of the Japanese Christians the faith ran very very deep indeed especially in those areas where Christianity had really set down roots for three or four generations the Shogun is a great enemy to the name of Christians a European merchants observed the growing persecutions I saw 55 martyred because they would not forsake their Christian faith and amongst them there were little children of five or six years old burned in their mother's arms crying out Jesus receive their souls I would say the third Shogun omitsu I think became morbidly pathological pathologically fearful of Christianity they thought that this was a threat to our power they put out all the plugs so to speak to eradicate Christianity Christianity was said to be evil a wicked region subversive religion and so that is why they took such extreme steps to eliminate the religion despite the persecutions Christianity had struck a chord amongst many disaffected Japanese they grew defiant even willing to be martyred for their beliefs I am a Japanese and Jesuit brother I have now committed any crime but died only for having preached the religion of our Lord Jesus Christ I greatly rejoice to die for this cause for me this is a great blessing I guarantee and affirm that there is no other way to salvation except by the Christian path 'i'm Itza was increasingly disturbed by the Christian situation especially in the South where a large number lived even worse many of the Christians were former samurai now forced to work as laborers or farmers but they were Samurai in their hearts and well versed in the use of weapons for a omitsu this was unacceptable the Shogun's iron hand extended to every detail of a peasants life farmers must work in the fields from dawn to dusk wives and daughters must make meals three times a day put on red headbands and take the meals to the fields once men are home after dusk sisters-in-law and female cousins must put the chap feet of the man on the stomach of his wife and massage them if the Shogun's intolerable edicts weren't bad enough the farmers were also heavily taxed there were taxes on windows and shelves ahead tax on each newborn child and a whole tax to bury the dead the farmers were taxed in rice the currency of the day ironically farmers were not allowed to eat the rice they grew these taxes were collected by the daimyo to finance their elaborate processions to Edo and to pay the stipends which supported the samurai class the farmers were in dire straits as the Japanese writer lamented year by year the farmers grew more exhausted how could they sustain life itself under those circumstances in the Shimabara Peninsula in the far south of Japan drought and famine further depleted the meager harvest those who could not pay the taxes were punished severely in mid-december 1637 a single event ignited the long smoldering views the young daughter of a farmer who owed taxes was seized and tortured furious with grief the father and his friends killed the local governor and the whole village Samurai peasants and Christians rose in revolt soon the whole area was in the hands of the rebels nearly 40,000 so what began as a social upheaval as social revolt against the tremendously harsh taxation against the peasants leaving the peasants almost starving what began as that somehow developed into a Christian rebellion a European merchants reported on the rebellion a few days after the outbreak the Christians joined the farms they cry out throughout the whole country that the time had now come to revenge the innocent blood of so many Christians and priests and that they are prepared to die for their faith the rebels swarmed into an abandoned castle surrounded on three sides by the Sea feeling protected they brought in their wives and children and barricaded themselves inside this was very upsetting the peasants who are the nurse of the no they poor people they had no right to rebuild me and not only have they rebelled and revolted but they were doing Donwell militarily and so no wonder the Shogun was worried about this because this might set an example to other parts of the country that had become unsatisfied with the crushing taxes which the peasants were paid the Shogun didn't tolerate dissidents especially any who looked to Jesus for help he sent his troops to Shimabara to quell the rebellion but for for bloody months even as food ran out the rebels managed to hold off the government attacks the Shogun was so incensed at the continuing rebellion that he asked the Dutch to send a ship with cannons against the besieged castle the Dutch were reluctant to take part in this campaign but nevertheless they desperately want you to hold on to his toe hole which they had in trade with Japan and so if they didn't obey the order of the Shogun he might well say well okay you can pack up and go home the Shogun ordered the castles set ablaze still the rebels fought back but in the end their fate was sealed and the castle fell finally through starvation and then followed a dreadful slaughter and that was the last that was really in Jackie's history the Shimabara rebellion was the excuse the Shogun needed to finally eradicate Christianity from Japan the Shogun decided draconian measures we will cut off Japan from all Christian influence now how can you do that we will isolate Japan these foreigners have caused so much trouble I suppose he was thinking they are on an unnecessary complication to our life so why not try to preserve Japanese society as is now we don't want changes the third Shogun issued laws restricting travel outside of the country on penalty of death no Japanese could leave Japan and those who were already abroad could not return to ensure his edicts were obeyed he destroyed all ships of seagoing capacity then he forbade the entry of any ship of European origin only the Dutch were allowed to stay and trade but with severe restrictions the maritime restrictions are designed to prevent any unauthorized contact with the outside world they're designed to control trade and they're designed to prevent Christian missionaries from reaching Japan and being able to proselytize and and they form the bedrock of Tokugawa foreign policy for the life of the Shogunate which is sometimes called the beginning of the isolation of Japan two years later in defiance of the Shogun's ban an official Portuguese trade delegation arrived in Japan the Shogun showed no mercy and ordered the execution of 57 of those aboard ambassadors and their crew he ordered the ship burned the few survivors were sent back with this warning a similar penalty will be suffered by all who come to these shores from Portugal whether they be ambassadors or sailors whether they come by error or driven by storm and even more if the king of Portugal or even the god of the Christians were to come they would all pay the very same penalty the doors of Japan clangs shut and were not opened again to the West for 200 years the will of the Shogun had prevailed but many wondered how this isolated empire would survive in a rapidly changing world early on the morning of July 2nd 1853 a Japanese fisherman reported a strange sight I was told there were ships on fire I ran up the mountain to get a good look the ships came nearer and nearer until the Sheep of them showed us they were not Japanese ships but foreign and what we had taken for a conflagration or sea was really the black smoke rising out of their smokestacks steamships like most Western innovations were unknown in Japan now there were four in the harbor the American squadron armed with cannons and almost a thousand men was ready to force its way onto Japanese Shores Japan was a land shrouded in mystery a warrior society ruled by the powerful Tokugawa Shogunate they had successfully kept the West at bay for over 200 years but now the Western powers demanded entry could the samurai nation repel the Industrial might of a determined West these are the memoirs of Japan's secret Empire [Applause] while those who are in contact with us are bound by an oath and signed with their blood not to talk or entrust to us information about the situation of their country their relational and secrets of government so reported the German Doktor Engel Bert Kemper one of the few Europeans allowed in Japan it was the year 1690 and the Japanese viewed Westerners as barbarians who threatened their orderly society the Japanese were determined to keep their doors closed to the west for as long as they could there was one exception a small settlement of Dutch traders who agreed to live in confinement on an island in Nagasaki Harbor for over 200 years this sequestered trading post would be Europe's only window to this impenetrable land the Dutch East Indies companies sent dr. Kemper to provide medical care for the Dutch community he was also asked to gather information about the everyday life of the Japanese it would not be an easy task they are strictly and strongly guarded from the inside and the outside by various gods treating us not like honest man but like criminals traitors spies prisoners or to say the least hostages of the Shogun this jail goes by the name of Dejima the Dutch lived like prisoners on Mishima but kinfe was fascinated by the opportunity to write about something and nobody else could get access to the Jima was tiny Kemper counted two hundred and thirty six steps across and eighty-two wide there were never more than 19 men allowed on the island at a time and never any Western women far from home the men did what they could to transform the unfamiliar japanese-style buildings into a little touch of Holland they placed chairs and high tables on the woven grass mats replaced futons with poster beds and insisted on being served Dutch food rather than eating Japanese no Japanese except for prostitutes were allowed unsupervised contact with the Dutch yet in order to gather information for his reports Kemper managed to create a small group of inadvertent Japanese informants I serve them willingly and without charge in my profession with medicines while cordially serving them European occurs I question them about local matters nature and secular and spiritual topics with total freedom the Japanese were as inquisitive as Kemper the Dutch settlement was their window to the exotic world of the West but the trickle of information that arrived from overseas was carefully guarded every time he dodged ship arrived the Dutch ship would have the latest news from Europe and that news would be given to the Dutch authorities in Nagasaki and then that news would be translated into Japanese and rushed immediately to the headquarters of the Shogun the ruler of Japan the Shogun hungered for news of the outside world he commanded the Westerners to present themselves at his castle once a year the only time Kemper really saw Japan was when he traveled from Nagasaki to Adel which was the Shogun's capital the road trip to arrow gave Kemp for revealing glimpses into the world of the Japanese he recorded every detail of his month-long trip we receive many of the honors that are generally shown to the provincial Lords the roads are swept with boobs and water to keep the dust down in the houses bordering the road people kneel behind the blinds watching our procession in profound silence an incredible number of people daily used highways of Japan's provinces indeed at certain times of the year they are as crowded as the streets of a populous European city the reason for these crowds is party that the Japanese travel more often than other people Kemper would write about all of the travelers samurai and their lords called daimyo merchants and roadside performers Buddhist monks and a group of young women who dressed like nuns they cover their Shan heads for silk coats and are dogs themselves nicely each attaches herself to one particular traveller starts up a rustic tune and as long as it's to her advantage she accompanies and amuses him for several hours as the road traffic grew so did the number of merchants who catered to the travelers needs these are many fine stalls those of merchants and cloth dealers medicine dealers traders and idols booksellers glass blowers with pharmacists and people crying out their bears the countless humble Inns roadside food stalls sake or beer taverns and cake and sweet stores along our roads outside tables also have a variety of biscuits of different colors and shapes of display that are pretty to look at but are generally so tough that it is difficult to move on steep if one attempts to chew them tradesman once considered social parasites were beginning to improve their position in Japanese society successful Street peddlers became roadside merchants who would eventually build bigger stores and even move to the cities Kemper was witnessing a changing way of life in Japan that would soon shake the very foundations of this highly ordered society the samurai weren't allowed to engage in trade so the merchants standard of living was rising but that of the samurai was falling and that was just not appropriate for Tokugawa society where the samurai were the top class the samurai were the elite ruling class less than 10% of the population in Tokugawa Japan one was born a samurai and only a samurai had the right to carry two swords obligation and loyalty to one's daimyo Master formed the basis of their warrior code [Applause] but now in an era of peace the once privileged samurai faced an uncertain future there were no Wars to fight and many daimyo found it difficult to keep a full army on staff while higher-level samurai could find work as civil servants other samurai were not allowed to work in occupations considered beneath their class an increasing number of unemployed samurai called droning wandered the countryside looking for a new master the search for new opportunities led many to the cities and there was no more rapidly growing city than Edo later to be known as Tokyo Edda was the capital of the Tokugawa Shogunate and dr. Kempe his destination here he would finally come face-to-face with the Shogun the most powerful person in Japan when dr. Kemper arrived in eddo he was sequestered in guarded quarters for two weeks finally he was summoned to appear at the castle of the fifth shogun tokugawa Tsuyoshi the Shogun's residence is spacious with many long corridors and large rooms which can be closed off by sliding partitions according to the finest design of Japanese traditions the ceilings beams and pillars patterned by nature covered with lacquer or carved and gilded artistically into patterns of birds and foliage the important thing about the fifth Tokugawa Shogun soon a Yoshi was that he was a first shogun who was not educated as the samurai he was educated as scholar because he was never supposed to become Shogun and so he had a quite a different view of the world the Shogun's mother was a merchant's daughter she broke class barriers when she caught the eye of the reigning Shogun her son soon io she carried within him both samurai and merchant values he would preside over a new direction in Japanese society at his court scholarship rather than martial prowess was the fashion and daimyo Lords who wish to curry favor with him became patrons of the Arts and Letters it was a time of cultural flowering in Japan so now Yoshi changed samurais society he condemned violence which of course was part of the samurai ethic influenced by his childhood study of Buddhism and the Confucian classics the Shogun's laws of compassion were intended to protect all of nature's creatures sooner europe's laws of compassion protected those at the bottom of the social scale he had laws against infanticide and that is quite advanced children were abandoned when parents couldn't no longer feed them they were simply left to die but sooner Yoshi ordered that from now on officials had to take care of them feed them and find homes for them but soon aiyo she was also known for lavishing the National Treasury on his own pleasures and he began to pursue his reforms too harsh and unpopular extremes born in the year of the dog soon aiyo she issued strict laws protecting dogs the samurai kept large number of dogs in their mansions and those who were not wanted were let go and roamed the city and often attacked children nobody wanted to be responsible for dog but G of course could not order that these dogs be killed he ended up building dog pants and apparently they were eventually some 40,000 dogs which were fed in dog pants and of course the feudal lords are damned you had to pay for that soon io she would become known as the dog Shogun dr. Kemper observed with humor when dogs die they are carried up the mountains and buried known as carefully than people a certain farmer laborious Li carrying his dead dog up the hill complained to his neighbor about the year of the birth of the showroom the other replied my friend let us not complain if he was born in the year of the horse our Lord would be in much heavier it was the dog Shogun who dr. Kemper was finally summoned to meet after a month-long trip and two weeks of waiting Kemper was so impressed with the experience he drew sketches to illustrate his account of the command performance after we had been drilled for two hours he ordered us to take off our cloak from dance to jump to play the drunkard to speak broken Japanese to sing at the demand of the Shogun we had to put up with providing such amusements and performed innumerable other monkeys elaborate camphor and the fifth Shogun shared one thing and that was a great curiosity but at the audience a Shogun sat behind the bamboo screen and he asked em fer to come close to the bamboo screen even take his wig off and dance and sing for him and came for strained his eyes to be able to see what the Shogun looked like and his wife's behind the bamboo screen but they never were able to talk to each other directly the Shogun and the doctor would meet only three times but each provided a brief glimpse for the other into his world Kim first account of Japan became a best seller it first appeared in English then it was translated into Dutch French several translations even Russian and basically all knowledge until the 20th century was based on canvas so-called history of Japan Japan had no desire to open its doors to the west the country was at peace but the economy was in decline thousands of disenfranchised samurai warriors would keep the nation on edge by the beginning of the 18th century Edo was probably the largest city in the world with over a million people unlike the European capitals its citizens enjoyed a safe clean city with an advanced recycling program and it was prosperous beyond measure copper coins flow like currents of water while silver piles up like drifting snow every morning fish are sold in such quantities that one may well wonder whether or not the supply in the seas has been exhausted visible in the distance he is Mount Fuji rising in all its magnificence against the horizon at least half of Etta's population were Samurai Warriors who had come to the capital with their daimyo Lords since there were no Wars to fight the samurai had leisure time but not always the means to enjoy it the downside of the era of peace force amadai was that the somewhat I weren't allowed to engage in commerce and therefore gradually they see a lot of wealthy merchants more able to do all of the things that they want to do because they have more money than your common solid I ironically merchants who catered to the needs of the samurai were the ones who benefited they could now afford to get education developed their tastes cultural taste and emulate the high-class samurai whom these merchants always admired and envied the social barrier was breaking down since the beginning of the Tokugawa era a restrictive class structure had kept everyone in their place although the classes were not supposed to fraternize the rules began to bend michio taking y'know High Court's group in social situations such as the popular haiku clubs where both samurai and merchants were both active participants rather than addressing each other by their acknowledged family names each would create a pen name in this way they freed themselves from adhering to the rigid rules demanded by their social standing encouraged by peace and a prosperous economy the arts and entertainment flourished samurai interest in education had encouraged literacy among all social groups eighty-five percent of the male population of Edo were avid readers in 1800 there about 120 or more haiku poetry circles and also there about 500 bookstores and very active publishing activities the people demanded these books and information they want to read exciting fictions some of the bestselling novels of the day were written by a merchant turned author named ihara psychic ooh his book celebrated the eras emerging pop culture a totally new genre in Japanese fiction saga ku haunted the streets of Edo for his literary material he knew prostitutes and daimyo as well as beggars and merchants and he wrote about them all with unabashed candor and rippled humor especially the newly prosperous merchants who tried to emulate the refined samurai if you didn't know better you'd think they all came from fine families but let me tell you that one in a shiny coat he's a glue maker he deals in cattle bones and cow slobber but the way he dresses you think his own bones were the product of fine breeding he's had to put his house in hock his creditors have taken him to court if you ask me he's crazy to be out for a night on the town in Edo a night on the town often meant kabuki the most popular form of stage entertainment come kiyokawa to oedipal the kabuki actors were like Hollywood stars the fans would collect woodblock prints of their favorite actors not only for the fun of collecting them but also to see what fantastic costumes their favorite actors were wearing on stage if the fans really liked a certain style or design in a flash it would become the newest fashion trend the kabuki plays were romantic heroic tales one of the most famous tution Gura was based on a notorious real-life event a daimyo Lord had been humiliated in a confrontation with a court official the ruling Shogun had ordered the Lord to commit seppuku ceremonial suicide outraged by his death 47 of the Lord's samurai warriors avenged his honor by killing the official this presented the ruling Shogun with the dilemma the samurai had obeyed their code of honor yet they had challenged the Shogun's Authority the people's begged for clemency but the Shogun would not yield he ordered the samurai to commit suicide these samurai had lived and died by their own code of honor the incident captured the public's attention like no other soon these men were immortalized on the Kabuki stage a nostalgic tribute to a bygone era it represented for them the ideal that Saum and I were so selfless and devoted to honor and to their Lord that they would give up their lives and this was reassuring to them in a messy commercial istic world in which muslim and i spent their time drinking and partying and watching the theater and being selfish like us here their 47 samurai really act like warriors all raise a shout of acclaim well done well done and this praise will be echoed through ages to come for these loyal retainers we have recorded here their glory ever renewed like the leaves of the bamboo the honor of the samurai would live on in myth and legend but in Tokugawa Japan there were no wars no more quests for eternal glory in real life the samurai would have to find another outlet for their passion the courtesan arranges her clothing so that the red silk undergarment will flip open to reveal a flash of white skin when men witnessed such a sight they go insane and spend the money they are entrusted with even if it means literally losing their heads the next day but most men only gape envious of the men who can pay the courtesans price more than three thousand courtesans and geisha plied their trade in Yoshiwara the pleasure district of Edo Yoshiwara was government regulated an effective tool for keeping the restless male population under careful control like soldiers on perpetual leave the samurai often spent their idle hours and squandered their meager stipends on its seductive illusions Yoshiwara was a dreamland for edelman it gave them fantasy imagination and romance it was like a Hollywood where celebrity was so important gated walled and surrounded by a moat it was a city unto itself no Westerner was ever allowed to explore its pleasures there was a distinct difference between the Geisha and courtesans geisha were professional entertainers they did not rely on sex for entertaining men they had their music their singing playing musical instruments and dancing whereas the courtesans entertain the clients with a conversation and sexual gratification Yoshiwara courtesans were the elite of the prostitutes if they've just wanted to fulfill their sexual need all of our Edo there were plenty of illegal cheap prostitutes but they wanted to come to your Sue Ellen because it was such a prestigious and special place recruited at a young age from impoverished families both geishas and courtesans were schooled in fastidious etiquette and endowed with a magnificent sense of style and artistic refinement their ability to hold a conversation about the latest play or City scandal was as important as what came afterwards the courtesans and their clients gathered in neighboring tea houses they were stylish centres of elegance and wit much like the London coffee houses of the same period to properly partake of Yoshi Juarez delights was an art in itself and the courtesans were trained to think that they were better than their clients and if a man wanted to visit the osceola he had to prepare for it six months in prior he had to buy a fine set of sword he had to think about what to wear because he wouldn't just go there the courtesan had the right to turn them how client if she didn't like him even if he could afford to pay for her therefore he wanted to make a good impression on the cortisone and then once he's committed to her he has no right to see other women and if he on the sly went to see any other person the courtesans entourage had every right to punish him his hair would cut off he will be made to wear women's red kimono and he will be taunted by a woman Yoshiwara nurtured its own unique customs art fashion and language it was the world seemingly set adrift from the harsh realities of life living only for the moment leaving all our time to the pleasures of the moon a snow cherry blossoms and maple leaves singing songs drinking sake caressing each other just drifting drifting never give a care if we had no money refusing to be disheartened like a gourd floating along the river current this is what is called ukyo the floating world but the world ochio still retained its ballistics and so this transitory life it's in its impermanence this life's suffering was still there particularly for the courtesans and prostitutes all of whom had some kind of trouble they were very unhappy and yet they had to present a very brilliant gay external appearance to the general public it makes me think of the music of blues in jazz world this in definable indescribable pace of sadness and languid Ness this is very reminiscent of the world would kill to me for the samurai who frequented Yoshiwara times were changing they continued to train daily for battle but without a war to fight many became aimless today's warriors all they talk about is women eating and drinking actors and dramatic productions their fencing practice and Lance work are only for personal vendetta their study of archery and gunnery are solely for show their writing just for ceremonies katsu Kokichi was a mid-level Samurai drawn to Yoshiwara but without the income to fulfill his desires I was 21 and penniless I had no choice but to sell my everyday sword I had only the clothes on my back to take my mind off my woes I went to the Yoshiwara they are protesting youngsters that did not fit into the society wearing Oh besides kimonos with interesting hairstyle sometime skinhead as a way of protest many of these young men unemployed and desperate like katsu Kokichi lived on the edge of society often falling into debt theft and gangsterism when we enter the shrine proceed a couple of sharp looking characters sauntered at us humming a tune without warning my body spat in the face of one of the men we then noticed a group of about 20 men all armed with long hooked Spears outside the gates was a reinforcement of some 30 men with pipe bombs we were four against fifty-four katsu kokichi the samurai code of honor was all but gone by the middle of the 18th century the expensive delights of Yoshiwara were no longer affordable for most samurai the pleasure district took on an increasingly ugly edge and the brothel keepers lost their pride they had become slaves of money-making and they became much less compassionate some of them became very very cool and treated prostitutes miserably and there was some death toward the end of the period the sick of prostitutes were not given medication or care and when they died they were just thrown into a pit for nameless dead body never feeling alone just like floating weeds cut off at the root I may just follow where the water may take me the insular world of the samurai was in decay to find a cure for its ills some would begin to look in an unlikely direction the West now beckoned with new ideas and hope I couldn't read a word of course but drawings of the viscera bones and muscles were quite unlike anything I had previously seen physician sugita gen-pop who couldn't read Dutch but when he stumbled upon a Dutch anatomy book he was stunned by the drawings he had never seen anything like it in his Chinese medical books in the mid 18th century Western books first brought clandestinely from the Netherlands piqued the interest of many Japanese scientists and doctors muffled Monday I wanna open eyes Nakata sugita again Kaku received permission from the government to order the first sanction autopsy of a criminals corpse or scientific study the corpse of the criminal was that of an old woman of about 50 years the old butcher pointed to this and that giving them names but there were certain parts for which he had no names when we compared what we saw with the illustrations in the Dutch book it was exactly as depicted dr. su kita and his friends reflected on how shameful it was that they had tried to treat their patients without a true knowledge of the human body he bowed to learn more he taught himself Dutch so he could translate the book the next day we met and began gradually we got so we could decipher ten lines or more a day after two or three years of hard study everything became clear to us the joy of it was as the chewing of sweet sugarcane in 1774 the Shogun granted dr. sugita permission to publish the medical book so he could share his knowledge with other doctors this book became part of a growing interest in Dutch learning known as Ron Kaku rangiku or the snitch originally rangiku had to do with medical studies when physicians discovered they could heal ailments with the new Western medicine from Holland that they couldn't heal with the traditional Japanese medical practices they became very interested in the study of Rangga ku gradually as knowledge of the Dutch language became more widespread other aspects of Rangga ku such as astronomy science and chemistry were introduced to Japan almost a hundred years after dr. Engelbert Kemper the desire for Western knowledge would initiate the push to open the door to Japan from the inside and yet as attractive as Western knowledge was to some Japanese intellectuals there were others who believe that anything Western still threatened Japanese society one source of harm that has a period of late is Dutch studies these students have been taken in by the weakness of some for novel gadgets and rare medicines which delight the eye and enthrall the heart there's some day the treacherous foreigner should take advantage of the situation and lower ignorant people to his ways our people will adopt such practices as eating dogs and sheep and no one will be able to stop it it is like nurturing barbarians within our own country today the alien barbarians of the West the lowly organs of the legs and feet of the world are dashing across the seas tramping other countries underfoot and daring with their squinting eyes and limping feet to override the noble nations what manner of arrogance is this Japan had managed to keep the alien barbarians at bay for more than 200 years but now in the mid 19th century the West was poised to assert itself the Shogun is faced with a strategic threat on three fronts from the north the Russians are coming from the south the British are coming and ultimately from the east the Americans come the new country of the United States of America was on the move Japan was known to have large coal deposits and something else in abundance whales whale oil which literally greased the wheels of American industry was a multi-million dollar business whale hunters had depleted the North Atlantic oceans now America looked eastward to Japan if that double-bolted land Japan is ever to become hospitable it is the whale ship balloon tomb the credit will be due so rote Herman Melville in his classic tale of the great white whale that haunted the waters off Japan by the time Moby Dick was published in 1851 the United States was ready to assert its power Japan's leaders were aware of the growing push towards their Shores the Shogunate had been preparing for the arrival of the West for decades they had set up a special translation Bureau which was gathering information about the West translating atlases translating dictionaries developing a set of foreign affairs specialists key advisors warned of an imminent foreign threat they urged the Shogun to bolster his defenses we should build warships then if barbarians come to our sea we should shoot every single one of them others feared that Japan could not serve as a worthy opponent to the West their weaponry and ships had not changed since closing the doors to Europe 200 years before there was no resolution then early in the morning on July 2nd 1853 a local fisherman reported this strange sight I was told there were ships on fire I ran up to the mountain to get a good look the ships came nearer and nearer until the shape of them showed us they were not Japanese ships but foreign and what we had taken for a conflagration or sea was really the black smoke rising out of the smokestacks these steamships dwarfed any ship ever built in Japan to the Japanese they were the Kirov who named the black ships of evil appearance on board were some sixty cannons and almost one thousand Americans and they landed not in the foreigners port of Nagasaki but rather in the forbidden waters of Edo Bay the Shogun's own capital city upon hearing the news the Shogun immediately fell ill many said from the shock of hearing that a foreign naval squadron was at his doorstep his advisers tried to deal with the crisis fresh messages arrived one after the other the situation seemed so sudden so formal and so important orders were issued to the great clans to keep strict watch as if it were possible that these barbarian vessels might proceed to acts of violence in a desperate show of force the Shogun had sent a squadron of Guard boats to surround the American ships the Japanese officer ordered the ships to leave the commander Commodore Matthew C Perry ignored him I was well aware that the more exclusive I should make myself from the more exacting I might be the more respect to these people of forms and ceremonies would award me five thousand samurai warriors armed with swords and antiquated cannons lined the shores again their chief officer commanded parry leave at obey immediately the Commodore refused I endeavor to inculcate the idea that the government of the United States is superior in power and influence to Japan the honor of the nation calls for it and the interest of Commerce demands it the Japanese on shore watched as Perry's crews ready for action cannons were loaded guns were drawn Perry came ashore Perry presented his papers and delivered his ultimatum he would be back and he expected Japan to comply with America's demand to open the country for trade if not he was prepared to take Japan by force he would return in the spring for his answer then he and his squadron left at obey their deportment and manner of expressions were exceedingly arrogant and the resulting insult to our national dignity was not small those who heard could but gnash their teeth and suffer this insult in silence after the barbarians had retired a certain person drew his sword and slashed to bits a portrait of their leader Perry there was great fear of Perry there were the the portraits of Perry as a devil there were the portraits of his ships belching fire all of this served to to whip up you know near hysteria on the part of of portions of the Japanese populace at the same time there's fascination there's fascination with Perry there's fascination with these ships these enormous ships that hadn't been seen before there's fascination with the technological prowess of the Americans to complicate matters the Shogun had died and the new Shogun was mentally unfit his advisors took charge but they could not reach agreement the head of the Shogunate decides that he is going to pull all of the daimyo in Japan what should the Shogunate do this is a radical break with tradition the the authority of the Shogunate is to deal with foreign relations in the title of the Shogun of course is the great barbarian quelling Generalissimo and yet here is the head of the Shogunate asking the daimyo what he should do two positions are staked out one being known as the open the country argument the Americans do not understand the ethics of humanity and justice there will be no choice but to start trade with them the other side being Revere the Emperor and expelled the Barbarian the Americans have come to seize Japan therefore if we don't drive them away now the other foreign powers will follow we are in a dangerous situation while the debate raged the Shogunate remained indecisive the end of the year was filled with half-hearted compromises and inadequate attempts at coastal defense then in February Perry returned earlier than expected this time his show of force was even more ominous he arrived with double the ships and crew the honor of the Japanese had been challenged but they had no means to defend it their only hope lay in negotiation as soon as Perry came ashore the talks began they went on into the night and for the next 23 days in the end the Treaty was a compromise which served both countries interests Harry got what he wanted which was to establish a relationship between Japan and the United States the Shogunate got what it wanted in not surrendering its control over Foreign Relations and opening Japan up to unregulated trade I'm not sure that the Shogunate has been given enough credit for choosing peace over war and you can say that the that the Shogunate chose to open up relations with America and the West out of weakness but it didn't have to the Shogunate took the practical decision and they chose peace and thereby preserved the integrity and territorial sovereignty of their country before signing the treaty with Perry the Shogun arranged a social evening a prerequisite for conducting business in Japan that continues to this day sumo wrestlers displayed their strength the first one invited Perry to punch him in the stomach another wrestler hoisted two huge bags of rice over his head to show his strength Perry offered champagne and whiskey he gave the Japanese gifts among those a particular interest a telegraph a camera and a quarter scale steam railroad unlike anything the Japanese had ever seen Japanese engineers would quickly make plans to replicate them three days later the agreement was signed it was not long before Japan signed trade agreements with Russia England France and Holland despite its accommodation to the West the days of the Tokugawa Dynasty were numbered no longer was the warrior class to control the destiny of Japanese society within ten years the samurai were officially disbanded but the samurai ethic had been indelibly engraved into Japanese culture in 1868 the 15th shogun stepped down with his departure 265 years of rule by the Tokugawa family had come to an end the modern era of Japan had begun [Applause]

History of France Documentary



Views:91168|Rating:2.84|View Time:41:46Minutes|Likes:358|Dislikes:273
#History #France

The Kingdom of France of the medieval ages, emerged from the Western dominion of Europe. It was called as Charlemagne’s empire of Carolingians. During those days, the territory was prominently called as Western Francis. It was during the later years in and around 987, the prominence of this Western francias heightened with the formation of the Hugh Capet. The house of Capet is quite significant in the French history. Causes of French revolutions later on, the civil wars, the Vikings threat, and many other interesting aspects, makes the history of France a very interesting subject to know for anyone from any part of the world.

The Northwestern country of the continent
of Europe is République Française. It is one of the historically
and culturally signification nations of the world all
until now as France. République Française
played quite a key role in the international affairs
since centuries now. République Française, had
colonies all over the globe just like how the sun never setting
empire of the British had once. Pyrenees and Alps are
boundaries that fortify France. Atlantic Ocean and the
Mediterranean seas are the other boundaries for
République Française. It was the linguistic bridge
that connected the northern and the southern part of
the continent as a whole. Agricultural empire of France is
the backbone of world economy. France is a person. While England is an empire, and Germany
is regarded as a nation, people call France to be a person for its
importance given to the commons. Imposing unity out of the blues
is not possible in any nation. It has to be spontaneous just like
how it was and it is now in France. République Française, was engaged in
long term disputes with many other fellow nations of Europe and even
with the United States of America. Western end of the great Eurasian
landmass is République Française. Low lying plains, and massifs
with mountain blocks make up for most part of
République Française. Monarchy in crisis Prelude to the revolution in
France, the involvement of France in the American Revolution proved
to be a costlier indulgence. It was the extravagant spending
from King Louis XVI who ruled the country from 1754 till 1793
that triggered the outburst. The outburst was the French revolution. French revolution Modern European history and
the watershed moment of that, is the French revolution
that began in 1789. The revolution ended by 1790s later on. It was the ascent of
Napoleon that brought in massive changes to the
autocrats domination. Razing and redesigning of the landscape
of France was done by their politicians precisely to meet the interests of the
commons, as a democratic French republic. In alienable right, and the concept
of sovereignty were the basic beliefs of both the American revolutions and
the French revolutions eventually. Enlighten principle shed
light on the vitalities to fulfill the interests of the
commons, needy and insane. Even thought, the revolution did not
achieve its all goals, the chaotic blood bath has to come to an end and that
is how the revolution came to an end. This revolution played a pivotal
role in shaping up the modern nations today including
Iceland, Greenland and Ukraine. Beginning of the French nation
and French-Iceland connections Early settlers to the Iceland
were people from France. It was in 874 AD. They found it to be a preeminent option. The first settler at that
time was Ingólfur Arnarson. He got settled in Reykjavík. Most of the settlers from France at
that time were, the small rulers. Where is Iceland- land of
hot and cold surprises? One of the sparsely populated islands in
the northern Atlantic region of globe, which is so popular across the world for
many hot springs there, is Iceland. The number of volcanoes and the geysers
out here in Iceland makes it to be one significant landmark, for the explorers to
dig for more details about the locality. As there are massive amounts of molten
lava underneath the surface of earth here, it becomes easier for the locals to pump
hot water out to heat the buildings. Since 1944 Iceland has becomes one
independent nation on its own. As of today, Iceland is one of the most
prosperous economies of the world. Apart from that the
global warming threat because of the human
inhabitation will also add fuel to the fire to have a serious influence
on the weather conditions of the island. Some of these tourists
are regular enough too, to come and enjoy their
stay in Iceland where the cost of living is not as dearer as it is
in many other parts of Europe or Americas. Immigrants from Norway and Sweden are more
here compared to other parts of Europe. Yet, the population out
here is sparse to not to be competent enough in
the world wide rankings. Medieval Europe and timeline The affluence enjoyed by the
locals here earlier was just because of the prosperous
fishing industry out here. Later on, with the banking system
collapse by around 2008, economic model of the nation of Iceland
was proven to be vulnerable. The glaciers that anyone sees in Iceland
cannot be compared to something what anyone see in Tibet or China or
any other part of the world as such. It is one entirely different something
that can astound the tourists. Bitter cold water and the
frozen lakes in Iceland, make life difficult in the
winter seasons in special. It is why the population
in this part of the world is too meager compared to
the tropical countries. Adapting to live in this
environ can be a big challenge for those who are not used to
it, right from their birth. When anyone looks through
the global map to zero in on where is
Iceland most of the times anyone will not be able to strike any big
difference with the neighboring nations. Arctic and the Antarctic
zones of the globe mostly constitute ice lands of
much kind just like this. Inhabitation of human kind in these
zones is not possible completely yet. In fact, accessing to these dangerous
parts of the world is not yet completely possible in spite of the technological
advancements of the massive kind. Royals and the Jacobins End of the nobles, and the
royals was versioned earlier by the rebel leaders hiding in
Iceland on exile from France. Contours here, were not easy, though. Exploring earth is not easy though. Yet, a long way to go, when anyone
count on major part of the ocean and the land masses of the material
earth as such, for the human kind. At least Iceland is completely within our
reach, so make the most out of it, by paying a visit to this part of the world,
to enjoy your holidays completely. Interesting stats about
the population of Iceland From around hundred thousand
people in the 1060s, in all these five decades
and more time, the current population of
Iceland has come up to only four hundred thousand
people approximately. 328170 is the overall population
to be precise with the numbers. Interestingly, the male and female
ratio here is just about fifty-fifty. The point to note here is that this
number is just after the inclusion of the immigrants to Iceland in
all these fifty years’ time span. An activity rate that is reported
to be in the order of about 82.4% with just about half of the
population in the labour class, the country’s economic growth
could be at stake over a period of time if anything
materialistic is not done soon. The landscape has not come
to lot of changes since millions of years now to be
feared by anyone as such. Yet, the population growth is not quite
significant by any means though. Population of Iceland could be
something surprising to other major parts of the world, like
China and India in special. Yes, with such a big land mass
to rank eighteenth in the whole world, Iceland has some meager
amount of population of its own. In spite of the huge
land mass available here for natural vegetation
and other resources, no one comes forward to migrate to this part
of the world for safety reasons as yet. It is because of the too many volcanoes that
is still alive and expected to be alive for so many millions of years to come,
that are seen in action now in Iceland’s. It is why anyone can be able to
heat the commercial properties with just hot water pumped from beneath
the earth’s surface here in Iceland. Vikings in France Vikings attack was one of the major threats
to not only France but also for the major parts of north Western Europe for more than
400 years between 8th and the 12th century. They were hiding in Iceland in particular. They attacked coastal areas of France
in particular repeatedly but harshly. One of the most sparsely
populated countries of the world in spite of the very big land
mass out here is Iceland. Population here believes in elves still. They are a cosmopolitan race from
diverse parts of Europe in special. The early inhabitants to this part of
the world were from Norway and Ireland and hence anyone can see the descendants
from that origin in essential. Yet, if anyone digs
into the roots of the origin anyone will end
up finding nowhere as it is past so many generations
now since the find of the wonderland in
the 9th century B.C. Regardless of the sparse
population of Iceland one thing that anyone
should not forget about is nothing but the
glowing economy that the nation was enjoying all
until the recent 2008. It was just after that the
economic collapse has led to the downfall of
the nation big time. Otherwise, the major source of
income for the Iceland government was just the fishing industry and
the tourism industry in special. Tourists from all around the world are
interested in visiting Iceland for the so many natural attractions out
there and the wonderful monuments of the manmade
kind here as well. Anyone can get to know some of
the rarest cultures that are uncommon to the other traditions
of the world, here in Iceland. Rebuttal from French army Even though the Vikings attacks from
Iceland and Norway were surprising and speedy enough to be a real menace,
the rebuttal for steady and solid. Strong defense was there with the
Charlemagne armies at that point of time. They never went out of their
boundaries to attack, though. That eased of the Vikings to
rest and attack from Iceland. Iceland is located in the
eastern side of Greenland. Anyone can find it to be just next to
the southern tip of the Arctic Circle. It is one of the prominent
landmarks that are situated in the
confluence of two oceans. Yes, the arctic and the ant arctic
oceans surround the Iceland. It is just about 820 km from Scotland in
Europe and farther from NYC, America, as the distance will stretch out to about
Four thousand odd kilometers by air route. It is the eighteenth largest nation in the
world, when anyone counts on the area. If anyone is to visit Iceland from London
or Paris or anywhere from Copenhagen or nearby places in Europe, then it can take
anyone a good three hours journey by flight. Yes, it is not in your proximity for sure. Imagine then how it could have been
possible for the first permanent settler to this part of the world,
right from Norway, in the year 874. Carnarvon resided here in the
present day renowned Reykjavik. All the way from Norway,
the permanent settler paved way for big communities
to emerge later on. Occupants from Ireland as well as from
Norway potentially increased over a period of time as they saw potential
for agricultural lands in Iceland. There are plenty of areas
of interest if anyone closely looks into the
details of the Iceland map. Volcanoes, natural hot
springs, waterfalls, and lighthouses constitute
most part of the map. National parks and the national
reserves are in plenty as of today. As anyone can see in the map,
Iceland is about 603 miles when anyone travels from
Norway along the sea route. Topography of Iceland and the pretty much
jagged coastline is what that is considered to be one of the most spectacular kinds out
of all the other specialties of this place. It is a quite clear and buoyant
environment out here in Iceland. Anyone can reach Iceland from
the other way around too. There is a round trip flight
from Chicago to Iceland which will not cost anyone
more than five bills. Keflavik international Airport is where
anyone will have to gain access into the country if anyone is coming from
most parts of the European countries. Most of the North American countries
have direct flights to Iceland too. How about a trip rounding the
whole of the Iceland or island? Yes, it is an island at
any given day as anyone could have made out
from the Iceland map. It is just a ring road that spans
to a distance of about 831 miles or so at the most, which can cover the
circumference of the whole Iceland. If anyone is travelling in that route,
anyone can come across a lot of waterfalls, glaciers and geysers
before anyone complete your journey. Black sand beaches, hot springs, live volcanoes that spit lava and
so on, many beautiful natural scenic vistas are just part
and parcel of this landscape. In fact, quirkiness is the
absolute beauty here to count on. As one would easily guess it to be, this
is bitter cold part of the globe where anyone need to be completely equipped
to face the sharp minus degree wind and mostly drizzling kind of climatic
conditions all throughout the year. Movable and immovable
glaciers here that are found to be melting all the
while in certain degrees are the major reasons that
influence the climatic conditions here in this
part of the World. Iceland weather is also affected badly
by the frequent eruption in the volcanoes as the island is filled with
full of volcanoes, springs, waterfalls, and many interesting best natural
scenic vistas of all the kind. Eruptions from the
volcanoes, the dust and the fumes as well as the
smoke can have a great influence in the air
conditions and hence influence the climate prevailing
in Iceland as well. Seasonal variations can just
be approximate predictions here as it is prone to
change big time every year. Iceland weather can’t stay constant
as it is of one unwavering nature. 15th century France Charles VII dominated in the 15th
century France along with Louis XI. They have better control during those
days with the neighboring empires too. They had Iceland under their
control and Norway too. Yet, their indulging in foreign
affairs were detrimental to the powerful army they
had at that point of time. Indulging and intervening
in foreign affairs, like the American
revolutions or the portages colonization’s, Spanish
imperialism, or Iceland internal affairs, led to medieval
age decline in France. CFC is the standards of the climatic
conditions here in Iceland. It means oceanic coldest climatic
conditions of the severe kind. North Atlantic current
passes through the Iceland. This is responsible for
the temperate climatic conditions which are not quite
common for an island in this particular latitude
while being situated close to the southern part of
the Arctic hemisphere. French Riviera It is comparable to Iceland palace. On top of that there is one more reason that
subsides the bitter cold conditions and makes it to be a reasonable climate to bare
for the dwellers in this part of the world, and it is nothing but the armiger current. It is why the islands overall temperature
is found to be of the modest kind to live. Still if anyone closely observes
the climatic conditions out there in Iceland, the weather
is found to be highly variable. Anyone can see the aurora borealis
most often during the winter nights. At the same time anyone
can see the sun in the midnight too during the
summer seasons when anyone is residing in the island of grimsey
or somewhere close to the northern coast. Sacré-Cœur, Paris It is one of the major attractions
in the capital city for France. Winter is actually mild here
in this part of the Europe compared to its latitudinal
positioning on earth. 32 degrees Fahrenheit or zero degrees
Celsius in winter are quite common. There are the highlands where
anyone can experience a bit worse climatic conditions to the tune
of minus degree of 10 to 25 too. So far Iceland weather
has gone to the worst of about -39 degree
Celsius at the most. Tourists to this part of the world
come prepared to take it, and accept the smell of the water with
sculpture aroma, frequent rains, and reddish sunsets, smoky dusts in
certain parts of the island, and so on. Especially if anyone is to take
the round trip of the whole island which spans around the
circumference of the Iceland, anyone can experience
whole lot of wonders on your way during this
850 mile odd journey. There is plenty to capture on
your way, so don’t miss your video cameras to shoot some
rarest scenes of nature too. End of French revolution –
Rise of Napoleon the Great National convention
happened in France in 1795. First ever bicameral legislature put
forth an end to the reign of terror. Five member directories took
charge from the executive powers. Jacobins and the royalists
who agitated against the changes were put to silence
by the army and forces. Young and the most successful leader took
over, and he was Napoleon Bonaparte. Changes came in his rule. Changes in economy, social life
style, and eradication of poverty, seeds of industrialization and many
more changes came in successively. Much of the European
content was dominated by France under napoleons
era which ended in 1821. Eiffel Tower is one of the wrought iron
lattice towers of Europe that was designed to perfection in 1889 commemorating the centenary
celebrations of the French revolution. Musée d'Orsay Certain essential landmarks are of
tourist’s interests here, like the Louvre and the Sainte-Chapelle or the
Centre Georges Pompidou and so forth. Champs-Élysées is world famous too. The design of Gustav Eiffel
was chosen unanimously, when there were more
than 700 applicants. Similarly, there are so many populace places
today here like Notre Dame de Paris as well as the Arc de Triomphe or the Palace
of Versailles and the diverse destinations. Pamper yourselves in excess at a
best spring spa for holidays. All of us deserve a break at one
point of time or the other. Vacations are just meant for that. Planning for holidays is a pleasure. When anyone run short of
ideas, anyone can refer here. Yes, anyone show anyone the path
to relaxation, if not salvation. Palace of Versailles This is one of the Louis XIV's
gilded palaces and the gardens. France is one ideal tourist destination. In excess of 1200 springs in France is
the reason for so many spas out here. There are more than hundred
spas in this part of the world. History of spas in France dates back
to about two thousand odd years. There are plenty of refreshing activities
linked to hot bathing in the spas. Medical properties of the
naturally occurring spring water from hundreds of sources here
in France, help to heal people. Issues related to pathology
such as osteoporosis or sleep apnea or rheumatology
and other tobacco related addictions, can
be cured using the best chiropractic procedures
adopted in the French spas. A vacation to France
cannot be complete without having visited one of
the best spas out here. Hot spring spa resembles your Jacuzzi. It is meant for relaxation
to body and mind. To revive from your tiredness and
pain, with fresh verve anyone can try a hot spring spa as
often as anyone could do so. Heat, buoyancy combined
with massage, is the principle of operation here
in the hot spring spas. It is not just a long relaxation
soak, but it is also about therapeutic massages done with a
jet stream of hot spring water. Stress and blocks are
relieved out and anyone will feel literally like a float
on top of water surface. Sainte-Chapelle Temperature maintained
is to dilate the blood vessels and allow best
circulation of blood. Endorphins, the natural painkillers of the
body, are released in optimal amounts. Blood circulation in the body increases
to relax the aching muscles readily. Physicians are suggesting the
hot spring spa therapies to patients that are victimized
to debilitating diseases. Spring water has nutrition
rich and highly recommended to be used in
massages and therapies. Spring water bottled closed to the
sources, are the best options to use. It can be effective and useful
with high mineral value. There are certain spas where anyone can be
assured of best rejuvenation to the body. It is mainly just because of the
type of spring water they use and the herbs they use to anoint and
heal guests coming to these salons. Choose your destination and pay a visit
to enjoy your holidays this time. Ties with Russia for France have
always been limited in the past. That may be the reason
why the Ukrainian-French relations remained a bit
contradictory ever since. Kyuivan Rus periods were not
exception to that fact. The relations between France
and Ukraine were intertwined. Even today the visas services
are not less standardized. Getting a French Scheme
Visa is no more a daunting task as anyone have assumed
into be once upon a time. Yes, it is literally made to be
a completely easiest best task now with the advent of optimized
visa assistance services. Wondering what on earth is that? It is one noble visa
service that helps anyone get your France visa
without any hassles. Anyone need not even have to appear for a
personal interview with the visa examiner. The papers are prepared
in such a neat fashion to impress the visa
officials to smoothly get your visas sanctioned
to visit France as anyone have planned in
the particular dates. Reputation and relationship If in case, anyone are to visit France
on very short notice, then it may not be possible for anyone if anyone are a first
time traveller to this part of the world. Having said that anyone may ask why. It is nothing but the so many documentation
tasks that are to be done prior to submitting your application or request
for a visa, in the very first place. Secondly, when the Visa officer is
examining you, anyone is to answer in the most pleasing manner, to prove that
anyone will not stay there once for all. If the officer is convinced
then they will grant the visa stamp or else
simply reject your plea. Your money, time and efforts can
all go in pure vain when anyone do not get the visa as anyone
planned or expected at least. France Visa Service is affordable. So, how to steer clear from
this trouble filled route? Optimised visa assistance
services are the ideal solution. They know how to handle it efficiently. They are well trained to do so. Highly experienced staff
members are capable of serving anyone to
the best potential. Anyone get your visa in time and
the fees that anyone pays are low. So why wait anymore then, call here,
to get the service readily right now. Notre Dame de Paris This is the Iconic Gothic
church that has a lot of links. There are number of
interesting places to visit here, that lured in
the attention of the masses from around the
world, and also from the neighboring states of
Europe in particular. If anyone has ever been to France already,
then anyone is sure to pay a visit again for its superb landmark beauties
and natural scenic vistas all around. Bordeaux Cathedral is just a classical
example to prove that point. It is not just the Bordeaux
Cathedral alone though. Ask the experts of the Realistic
Solutions and they are to tell anyone many interesting facts about the
Bordeaux Montaigne University, boarding in and around the
city center, entertainment, tours, dining, nightlife,
casinos, pubs, bars, and so on. Realistic Solutions can be a single online
hub, where anyone can get things done to completion without having to run here
and there to do your bookings separately. Arc de Triomphe Triumphal arch and the national
monument is world famous. Even when anyone are to
hire a car to travel to the Bordeaux Montaigne
University, anyone can just get it planned with the executive
staff members of the Realistic Solutions to make sure that anyone are comfortable
and safe during your travel. Not just in France alone though,
anyone can prepare to travel anywhere in the world, when
anyone deal with the experts. Calanque tour will accompany
a lot of Colleges and Universities on
your way for real. D'Aquitaine must be included
in the itinerary without fail, if anyone is heading to
the Eiffel Tower in Paris. Similarly, French Riviera is a
major point of interest too. Almost all the tourists try to chill out
in the French Riviera without fail. Important something to remember again here
is the bookings that anyone will have to do readily in the Realistic Solutions without
fail to avoid any frustration later on. Grand Theaters de Bordeaux When anyone travels to Musée
d'Aquitain, do not forget to visit the adjacent
attractions in the proximity. Musée d'Aquitaine is something that can
flatter anyone at the very sight of it. Musée Matisse, has something
special for anyone too. Especially artistic people
will not forget to visit Musée Matisse when they
travel all the way to France. Notre Dame de Paris pulls in
majority of the tourists to this part of the world regularly,
all throughout the year. Tourists spend a lot of
time at Notre Dame de Paris as well as at
Notre-Dame de la Garde too. The best part about the Notre-Dame
de la Garde visits is that anyone can cover all the neighboring
attractions too at one stretch. Costs of the overall touring
will be minimal when anyone has booked everything through
Realistic Solutions. French connections with Ukraine Ukraine is one of the
largest European countries. It is larger than even France if anyone
calculate the land area in square km. the biggest European countries
such as Spain, Sweden and Poland, will all come only
next to Ukraine in size. Even from population consideration
Ukraine is quite huge. It ranks number fifth
in the whole of Europe. Its population is
about 51 million approximately according
to last decade census. By now it would have grown
far more due to so many reasons while immigration
being the prime most cause. Almost ninety people live in about every
square kilometer area in Ukraine. This kind of population
density is the peculiar beauty of the
most urbanized nation. On the whole if anyone considers
the whole of Europe as an average 67 people live in
almost every square kilometer. Landmark 324.0 meters-high
19th-century tower In case if anyone are intending to rent
an apartment in Ukraine then the best decision is to look for an online realtor
agency to assist anyone in your endeavor. It could ease your search by far. Just in case if anyone
looking for one in Kharkov Ukraine, then it is surely
a best choice of location. Anyone could find some of the
best apartment Kharkov, for ideally nominal costs when anyone
spends a little bit of time. Anyone needs to take the assistance of the
realtor agency, as they will be updated with the latest information about the rentals
that are available in the nearest proximity. Kharkov apartment could be
costlier at times if anyone intends to avail one in the
densest areas of the city. Ask for advice of selection
of arena from the realtor consultants itself to select the
ideal apartment in Kharkov. Kharkov Ukraine is one of the best
places in the locality to live in. especially when anyone are looking to
find Ukraine apartments as a student there are lot of places where anyone
could get concessions as student. University Kharkov accommodation facilities
are available for nominal costs. It is all dependent upon the type of
university that anyone are studying in. anyone might get admitted into certain
universities along with special scholarships and assistantships that will aid anyone
to get financial support for lodging. During your travel to Kharkov,
anyone should decide on what are all the areas that anyone likes to cover
in the shortest span of time. In that way, anyone will not
miss some of the exotic locations in the locality
which are a must see. Paris and the master class artists Paris is called as the city of lights. European cities stated to adopt the
gas street lighting seeing the developments happening at that point
of time in the French city of Paris. The city is surely 2000 years old. One can assess the depth of the
French culture, the language and many other interesting and
heritage rich past of the France. Paris civilization and social living Paris used to be one of
the fishing villages, when Julius Caesar conquered
this part of France. It was during the Roman Empire, the expansion
intensified towards the left bank, and the reputation grown to summit heights
for Paris eventually within years. Today, it is one of the top
rated cities of the world. Immobile is the word given to the
latest real estate agents who aid anyone to look for your best new
houses anywhere in the Paris city. Few of the prominent names in the trade do
serve exemplary services to the client. It is completely worth
the amount of money that is spent on these realtors
to buy new home Paris. They have their own dedicated websites
showcasing the various special features available with them for the clients
to make the best use of the services. The realtors offer developments almost
in every other department of the Greater Paris as well as in most of the towns
in and around the grandee couronne. If anyone want to look into the south-east
of the Paris, the immobile do offer opportunities that are immense and of quality
in the Châtillon and Sceaux regions. Centre Georges Pompidou Imagine if anyone are interested to move
down for further south, towards the Antony. It is really a wonderful choice of wisdom. It is because of the adequate
facilities of this locality. It is a well planned
township with good public transport links to almost
all the major areas. If anyone wants to look into the
more residential areas, your choices could be fulfilled better ways
from the western Paris arena. Especially the realtors have detailed
information and well knit sources of contact with these bullish realtor
areas of Sèvres and Suresnes. More options are there in the regions
in and around the Montrouge. Anywhere in proximity to this
area is quite an attractive suburban choice for the
professional communities. The Louvre Getting new apartments
here is the fashion trend currently among the
top working classes. Whole heap of realtors do really concentrate
and focus upon these regions for making some reliable fast bucks out of
merely soliciting transfer of properties. Still it is done with
naïve; right choice for the right client is
always a sure success. If anyone is in look out of more
similar kind of new apartments then anyone could really look
into one more region essentially. It is just the inner suburban centers
which are found in the Saint-Denis as well as the Le Plessis-Trévise just exactly
to the northern side of the Paris. In the same direction
lies the other wonderful similar option, the Les
Pavillons-sous-Bo. Anyone dream choice to buy new
home Paris could very well be finalized here and no more dragging
on your search any further. This could be the ultimate choice and it
is the north western region of le raincy. Realtors are targeting these
regions big time and the sales of new properties in these regions
are increasing every day. Paris being the executive hub of
the whole of France, it is almost everyone who wants to be a part of
these densely populated regions. It is to take advantage of this
thick populous place for their commercial reasons and sometimes
to cut down costs as well. Anyone get it all in one place which
minimizes your corporate costs annually. Such a resourceful destination is a
great choice to invest and to buy new home Paris is some sort of lifetime
achievements for a common man. France after Napoleon Once the monarchy was reversed, the plight
of the commons significantly changed. The French revolution and
the aftermath changes kindled the interests of
very many countries in and around the world, to start
their own rebel groups to come free like France
against the monarchs. There were significant changes that
led to renaissance in France sooner. The place become one of the
instrumental contributing sources for industrialization, and standardized as
well as developed economies of the world. French violins, the ultimate choice
of yours become world famous. With superb tonal registered
properties, the French violins are just an excellent
alternative for all those Italian violins which
could be said as those highly expensive models
of violins in the world. Made by violin manufacturers of the
France, the French violins are just not only beautiful for outlook
but also excellent enough to play. The strings of the French
violin could just produce bright as well as those
peculiar kind of rich sounds that would be best
suited to all the needs and requirements of a
great violin performer. The French violin is usually
labeled by the generic name of its specific kind
along the manufacturer as well as the year by which
it was made, according the specifications of
musical codes in France. Jean-Baptist Vuillaume,
the François Chanot, the Georges Chanot, the
Victor Henri, and the Nicolas Lupot were world
renowned as they are some of those highly esteemed
and most famous ones amidst the French violin makers. They are of the past records. Most of those notable
ones of the French violin makers would just
belong to Mirecourt. This is quite a famous town located nearly
about 100 miles of distance from Paris. The town of Mirecourt was
regarded as the center for the French violin
manufacturing of those days. French violins are still available
in a wide range of different sizes. They range from about 4/4 to the
full size violin, the premium 3/4, 1/2, the optimal 1/4 to 1/8
as well as the 1/10 to 1/16. Either a novice or a
pro, a French violin is something what could attract
anyone by all means. They are very much suited for the beginners
or else for the professionals as well. The French violins do have
exceptional qualities which are making them
to be so unique. The essential aspect
that makes them world famous and prominent to
have such high demands all around the year, from all around the
globe is just their Ultra-clean workmanship and the usage of very
good quality materials. When anyone is assured of those fundamental
two parameters, it governs the long lasting durability of the French violin
and also many other special attributes. It might include the
excellent tonal properties. It is not the violins alone, but the
French wine, and the French culinary tools and equipment and many other automobiles
are world class in standards today. They are affordable at
quite a wide range of prices according to the
demands and needs of the combinations of
accessories that comes along with the purchase of
those French violins. Anyone could pick and choose the
models and configuration what anyone need to purchase and then
anyone could place your order. Nowadays online ordering facilities
are available for anyone to get it all done very easily
and faster ways as well. Anyone could pay them through
online money transaction modes. French products are having a special
welcome from the international consumer’s society today for the immense
emphasis made on the quality aspects. Buyers can get them
shipped directly to your dwelling place by paying
a few extra bucks. Some of those standard brands do provide
anyone offer in the shipping facilities based on the respective areas of the
globe upon which anyone are residing. Buying French violins from
violin makers is a great idea to do so instead of buying
it from the violin shops. For this anyone will have to travel
deep inside to small hamlets to find some wonderful pieces of French
violins at pretty affordable prices. France today is completely
independent devoid of any hassles. To social and economical
conditions are good enough to live prosperous for the local
residents in France today. French language is sufficiently
discreet from Latin. With that said, one can understand the
independent language that is unique, might date back to very many number of
years even before the history of Latin. French history hence dates
back to 2000 years or more. The early oaths of Strasbourg are a
classical example to prove a point there. French revolution against
the monarchy, the French influence in the American
war of independence, and the infamous king Louis XVI, make up
most part of the history of French events. The two Louis rulers led the country
to almost a state of bankruptcy. Napoleon is the big man who brought in the
revolutionary changes to acclaim throne, but under the big democratic republic of
France with monarch reversed once for all.

Anderson .Paak – The Bird



Views:4517161|Rating:4.91|View Time:3:39Minutes|Likes:30326|Dislikes:546
From the album “Malibu”. Out Now!
iTunes:
Spotify:
Amazon:
Google Play:

OBE / Steel Wool / Art Club / EMPIRE

Why did Spain Decline? (Short Animated Documentary)



Twitter:
Patreon:
Merch:

Special Thanks to the following Patrons for their support on Patreon:

Richard Wolfe
Kevin Sanders
Chris Fatta
Daniel Lambert
Tom Loghrin
Joshua
anon
Matthew
John Garcia
Andrew Niedbala
Mitchell Wildoer
William Foster
Blaine Tillack
Norman A. Letterman
Danny Anstess
Bernardo Santos
Will Davis-Coleman
Richard Hartzell
Cornel Borină
LavaLampLover3000
Henry Rabung
Shaun Pullin
Perry Gagne
Joooooshhhhhh
FuzzytheFair
Jeffrey Schneider
Armani_banani
Paul
Spencer Smith
Byzans_Scotorius
Haydn Noble
Gideon Rashkes
Roberto
Chance Cansler
Andrew Keeling
Richard Manklow
João Santos
Gabriel Lunde

Sources:

The Fall of the Spanish American Empire by R. A. Humphreys

‘Exempt from time and from its fatal change’: Spanish Imperial Ideology, 1450-1700 by Eva Botella-Ordinas

The Decline of Spain (1500-1800): conjectural estimates by Carlos Álvarez-Nogal and Leandro Prados de la Escosura.

Spain was since the discovery of the new world at the forefront of European politics under Charles the first and philippe ii spain was the cultural military and economic master of the western world its Empire stretched from California to Cape Horn and the immense riches of the Americas flowed back to Madrid Spain's Habsburg rulers alongside their relatives who run the Holy Roman Empire dictated European politics for centuries yet this came to an end in Spain was replaced as a global power by the Dutch the French in English the question is why did this happen and when was this process complete at what point did Spain the conquerors of a continent lose the title of Europe's greatest power and furthermore when did it stop being a great power all together it was under Charles the first and Philippe the second that Spain's power in Europe was at its height yet it was during the later reign of Philippe the second that things started to sour the Spanish monarch was also known as the Catholic monarch and was dedicated to preserving and protecting the church two things on this front for Spain's attention first was the Muslim Ottoman Empire to the south whom Spain wanted to keep out of Europe and this culminated in the 1571 Battle of Lepanto which tippity Valley was expensive the second challenge to it was the Protestant Reformation which sold the Netherlands rebel against Spain and also brought Philippe's kingdom into conflict with the English all of these things were quite expensive not least the failure of the Spanish Armada which basically bankrupted Spain however Phillipe did manage to inherit Portugal and its empire – which gave Spain a major boost philippe ii died in 1598 and was succeeded by his son philippe the third who would in 1618 bring spain into the thirty years war against the protestant powers of Europe and France Spain actually performed quite well during the war but he was extremely costly also revolts broke out in Portugal and Catalonia which are Philip the fourth in 1640 effectively lose control of the former in 1648 at the end of the war Spain acknowledged Dutch independence and thus lost access to the richest lands in Europe and also now had to deal with another rival at sea in 1658 Spain was defeated by France which effectively established louis xiv as Europe's leading mark and also saw Spain lose this land it's at this point we can safely say that Spain was no longer the foremost power of Europe Spain suffered more difficulties when the heavily disabled an airless charles ii died in 1700 he had nominated Phillipe of Anjou the grandson of louis xiv as his heir this was unacceptable to many of Europe's powers because it made Spain a permanent ally of France and so war they spoiled the war of the Spanish Succession ended with Filipe taking up the throne on the condition that Spain in France never unite and also that's been give all of these territories to the Austrian Hapsburgs and despite all of this Spain was still a great power just a diminished one in the century following the war of succession the Spanish sought to reform their Kingdom and the Empire with it these reforms were especially pronounced during the reign of Charles the 3rd who opened the Empire strayed to other nations had introduced a much more direct form of governance it was Charles the 3rd son Charles the 4th whose actions meant Spain would lose its status as a great power he sided with Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars but was himself ousted from power in 1808 and succeeded by his son Ferdinand the 7th Napoleon wasn't okay with Ferdinand and so wanted his brother Joseph Napoleon made Spanish King civil war broke out Napoleon invaded Joseph was made King and France pinched Catalonia revolts against King Joseph broke out across Spanish America and even after Napoleon had been defeated and Ferdinand restored those who lived there felt that Spain could no longer provide wealth and security Spain was essentially sidelined after the Napoleonic Wars in the decades following lost most of her American colonies to revolution this was followed by yet more decades at near constant civil strife and conflict within Spain itself it was thus at this point after the Napoleonic Wars that Spain was no longer considered a great power but thereafter remain on the sidelines of European politics I hope you enjoyed this episode and thank you for watching with extra thanks to my patrons that you see on screen now and a special thanks to James Bissonnette David archaeologist zarqa flash Party Boyko Rob Waterhouse Yasha Enderman Chris wicker Myles Bailey Brent Gard Michael Reynolds Gustav Swan tun Rick Onion duck Maggie pax Kowski Winston k-word phacelia Ravidas Anthony Beckett Adam Harvey Ike Skye Chappelle and the amusement park Ives

Documentary | Ancient Greeks Golden Age | BBC Documentary | National Geographic History Ch



Views:9367|Rating:4.61|View Time:54:50Minutes|Likes:35|Dislikes:3
Documentary | Ancient Greeks Golden Age | BBC Documentary | National Geographic History Channel documentary,documentary films,documentary (tv genre) .

Ancient Greeks: Golden Age of Civilization | History Channel Documentary videos Follow me for new videos. The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization It was perhaps .

The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization It was perhaps the most spectacular flourishing of imagination and achievement in recorded history. In the Fourth and Fi.

The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization It was perhaps the most spectacular flourishing of imagination and achievement in recorded history. In the Fourth and Fifth .

Greece the Year 490 BC here a revolution has begun that will change the world the moment of chaos and anarchy the people of a tiny state named Athens have seized control of their city and established democracy for the first time in history but now this tiny state will face a greater challenge Athens will be pitted against the greatest power of the day a tyrannical Persian Empire in a contest spread across land and sea that will last over a decade Athenian democracy will be tested in the crucible of war this is the story of an extraordinary moment in history and of two men who would change the course of civilization thermostat league's military genius of the ancient world and parrot Lee's a visionary whose legacy still shapes the world today this is the story of the Greeks 490 BC a lone figure runs across the mountainous terrain of Greece his name is vitaveggies citizen of a tiny democracy named athens on this day Fida bodies will make one of the most astonishing athletic achievements in history the inspiration for our modern mouth but vitaveggies quest is not for glory but survival this homeland is about to be conquered by the mighty Persian Empire in the early 5th century BC the Persians were the greatest power on the world stage their vast Empire stretched from India and the East to Turkey in the West now out on their western frontier the tiny state of democratic Athens was gaining power this was a threat that the Persians would have to destroy the Persians lived in a culture of unbending tyranny at the head of their empire sat Darius known to the Greeks only as the Great King sucklings had to cover their mouths and his presence just to avoid tainting the air he breathed for Fida bodies and the Democratic Athenians conquest by Darius and the Persians would mean the destruction of their entire way of life there is a huge cultural difference between the Greeks in the Persians the Greeks are a people who emphasize freedom the Persians would put far more emphasis on obedience is a struggle between freedom and slavery the Persian force landed at a sandy bay called mouth just 26 miles from Evans news of the invasion spread through the streets like wildfire this was a city without a standing army every male citizen would have to come to the defense of his state the poorer citizens have Spears sticks bows and arrows whatever weapons they can find but the heart of the Athenian force would be the hoplites man who could afford heavy bronze armor a shield a spear a sword the Athenians would filled a small but determined force that's probably the first time in the history of the Athenian state that the entire population had been mustered and for them to feel 10,000 hoplites out of a citizenry that might have been even 20 or 30,000 it's a level of involvement that's astounding but as they face the Persians on the battlefield the Athenians held out little hope of victory they were I've numbered by two-to-one by deputies desperate mission was to run for help from one of Athens local rivals the Greek state of Sparta even as Iran by Dibby DS must have imagined the horror that his fellow Athenians now faced you're dodging Spears from your men in front and your men behind you probably couldn't see or hear all you would feel would be pressured you wouldn't see the sword plunge that took one of your testicles off you would not see the spear thrust that took your head off you would have no idea what was going on just the momentum that carry you ahead all you could be aware of is that you had to push forward and keep stabbing and keep on your feet and you would hope that everybody else would do that vitaveggies ramen was to become the stuff of legend fired by the terror that his fellow citizens were being slaughtered he ran 140 miles in just two days a fighter buddy's quest would end in failure help would be refused he was left only with the knowledge that his fellow Athenians would have to fight alone my deputies could never have imagined that the Greeks would in fact win a glorious victory the Athenians had rushed at their foe and a headlong charge and the Persians had scattered in the face of their assault the athenian slaughtered over 6,000 persians in one fateful day the world's first democracy had survived its first great test every Athenian knew that he had voted to fight and that this reflected the majority vote of the citizens and that was not true of the Persian whatever we want to say about democracy it feels the most patriotic enthusiastic and often large armies the Athenians returned to their city to celebrate their victory but amongst them was one from the war with Persia had only just begun an athenian general named Themistocles the mist at leas had fought on a battlefield at marathon he was typical of a new generation of Athenian leaders a man who had risen to power through democracy the mystic leaves is a fascinating character very much an example of the effect of democracy in Athens it's relatively clear that he doesn't come from the inner circle of the landed aristocracy that traditionally had ruled in Athens the restorer he's told about his feeling rather touchy about the fact that he hadn't had a traditional aristocratic upbringing for example music and poetry in fact I might have given him a spur to to show that he could do as well as someone who had gone to all the right schools as it were Themistocles opinion of his common origins was blunt and straightforward I may not know how to play the lyre or flute but I do know how to make a city great the mr. Cleese had learnt the skills of leadership here the democratic assembly of Athens here any Athenian could stand before his fellow citizens and tried to convince them to follow his leadership from this very podium Themistocles would now show himself to be one of history's greatest leaders the savior of his City for Themistocles alone recognize that the Persians might still be a danger and that next time victory for the Athenians might not prove so easy the mystical ease realized that the Persians if they came again it would be in a way that made sure that they weren't going to be defeated by land again there was no way that the Athenians could rely on traditional hoplite fighting technique Themistocles began to form a bold and new strategy employing the most advanced weapon of the day the trireme fry rims have been developed by the Greek state of Corinth the ancient world's finest shipbuilders stacking 170 oarsmen on three levels their combination of lightweight and raw power gave them astonishing speed and maneuverability there was nothing else like them on the water contemporary terms a trireme is a missile the object of trireme is to ram the enemy ship it is a very narrow very light very sleek and very fast weapon of these triremes were also exceedingly expensive Themistocles vision of a vast Athenian Navy might never have come to pass if it had not been for one stroke of luck in the year 483 BC the Athenians discovered a great vein of silver in their territory worth a hundred talents a vast amount in the ancient world the Athenians wanted to divide these newfound riches among themselves but then the mist at least oould up in the assembly he wanted to spend the money on ships but he also knew that this would be a hard proposal to sell and so Themistocles played a complex Bluff his argument is not that the money should be used to build a fleet against Persia but rather it should be used to build a fleet against Athens local rival of the Greek city-state of Aegina the reason for mystical ease does this is that he knew it would simply be too upsetting to remind people of the Persian threat it's a difficult argument to make and attribute to his political skill that he's able to do it Themistocles convinced the Athenians to build the greatest naval force in Greece I'm not a moment too soon the great Persian King Darius died in 486 BC and his son Xerxes assumed his Father's throne Xerxes first action was to valve engines for his father's defeat at the hands of the Athenians on my father's behalf and on behalf of all my subjects I will not rest until I have taken hath ins and burnt it to the ground as an imperial power the Persians cannot allow small regional states like this to beat them with impunity Xerxes began to gather his forces he conscripted troops from every corner of his empire Arabians Egyptians Phoenicians as well as Persians rumors began to leak back to Athens that Xerxes army numbered nearly two million men that was the greatest force the world had ever seen but soon it would be ready to march and then finally in the spring of 480 BC news reached Athens the Persian army had set out for Greece history records that Xerxes troops drank rivers dry trampled fields to the law ravaging the land as they marched on towards Greece Xerxes was confident of victory we shall so extend the Empire of Persia that its boundaries will be God's own sky so that the Sun will not look on any land that is not ours when the Greeks realized that the Persians were invading again terror gripped the whole country for the Athenians who knew that they would be Xerxes first target it seemed that this could only be the end as panic gripped the city they turned desperately to their gods they sent a messenger to the Oracle to find out their fate here hi and the Greek Mountains can still be found the site of Delfy the most famous of the Greek Oracle's built around a vast chasm in the mountain from which a sacred spring still flows here the Greeks would come to discover their future they would ask questions of the Pythia the mysterious priestess who spoke with the voice of the god Apollo people came from all over the Greek world to consult Delfy and sometimes came from outside the Greek world as well it was considered to be the center of the universe the omphalos the navel stone of the whole world was at Delfy people asked questions about their private life which are just the sorts of questions people want answers to now archaeologists have discovered copies of the questions asked of these ancient Oracle's the Hera stuff stolen the wool from the mattress Hawaiian asks what should I do to have useful children but as the Athenians walked up this path two and a half thousand years ago their question was simple and grave what could they do to save themselves the Oracles response could not have been more negative why sit you doomed ones fly to the ends of the earth all his ruin for fire and the headlong god of war shall bring you low when this message came back to Athens the Democratic assembly dissolved into uproar it seemed that even the gods had deserted them but thermostat Lee's refused to panic he had spent every day since the Battle of Marathon waiting for this moment he sent the envoy's back to Delfy for a second prophecy though all else shall be taken Zeus the all-seeing grants that the wooden wall only shall not fail argument raged as to what this wooden wall could be some said it meant the stronghold at the center of Athens the Acropolis but Themistocles had a different idea he read the Oracle and he insisted that it had a different interpretation he said the ships of the the wooden barricade which are going to be the key to our success Themistocles plan was daring avoid a conflict on land and fight the Persians at sea he ordered the evacuation of Athens for the first time in her history this order for evacuation carved into a stone tablet for public display is still preserved discovered in the back of a Greek coffee house the Athenians shall send their children and wives to the village of troyzan all the men should embark on the 200 ships that have been prepared to fight the Barbarian Themistocles ordered that his fleet of triremes should gather at Salamis a tiny island of the Athenian Coast Themistocles strategy is remarkable not only because it is innovative and because it is old but because it requires extraordinary self-sacrifice on the part of the Athenian people they wants every man woman and child to leave their homes and possessions and to go into exile with Athens abandoned Xerxes mighty force entered the city the Persians marching and go up onto the Athenian Acropolis the symbol of Athens and they burn it to burn the temples to the ground then you can see the smoke rising from Salamis this would have been a devastating sight a humiliating one they wouldn't sure have seen their country occupied by a fearsome foreign invader surely they would have wondered if they would ever be able to go home again as night fowl Themistocles met the leaders of the other Greek city-states on the island of Salamis they had also assembled their much smaller fleets here the scouts had reported back the Persians now not only held Athens but had also gathered a mighty fleet four times the size of the Greek forces but the mr. Glee's plans were laid Themistocles sticks to his guns and his plan is to defeat the Persians at sea he wants to fight in this narrow body of water between the island of Salamis and the Athenian mainland the trick is going to be to get the enemy to fight there because the Persians are on stupid Themistocles sent his servant to Xerxes with a seemingly traitorous message the Greeks are afraid and are planning to slip away they're squabbling with each other and will offer no opposition you have at this moment an opportunity of unparalleled success so eager with Xerxes for a crushing victory he was happy to believe the mr. Glee's ploy Xerxes marshals his Admirals and they embark and they spend the night Roy they send a contingent along the eastern defiled straight there and try to block up the streets only as the dawn rose that the Persians realized the true nature of Themistocles plan they discovered the Greeks not in disarray but ranged in a battle line across the Narrows and front of them the Persian fleet had been lured so far up the Straits that it had no room to maneuver powerful Greek triremes pour down on them without mercy the Greek playwright Aeschylus fought in the battle and live to tell the tale we heard from every part his voice of exhortation advanced he sons of Greece from slavery save your country save your wives your children save this day the common cause of all demands your valour the Greek force are smashed into the comet urgently Xerxes himself watts the carnage from his golden throne placed on the shore at the end of the battle the Persians had lost 200 ships for the Greeks it was a stunning and conclusive victory victory at Salamis is tremendously important for Greece and for the Athenians it breaks the Persian Navy the Persians can no longer guarantee that they can feed their army nor can they guarantee the safety of the Persian king you must immediately get back to Asia Minor while the going is good in practical terms the game is over than the Greeks have won the mr. Lee's triumph was complete he had persuaded the Athenians to build a Navy he had convinced them to sacrifice their entire city to bring them victory and see his instincts had been proved right he had defeated the greatest Empire of the day and he had now placed Athens in a position where she could build an empire of her own after the years of conflict this was a new dawn for Athens flush with victory equipped with the largest fleet in the eastern Mediterranean the tiny democracy began to grow the Athenians are going to have naval superiority in the eastern Mediterranean and that is how great their victory over the Persian fleet is and this has a momentum of its own before you know it the Athenians are the head of a naval Confederacy and they're on the road to becoming a superpower the Athenians founded the Delian League an alliance of Greek States designed to keep the persians and check its Treasury was located here on the island of Delos but the ruins still remain by 450 BC this league had more than 200 member states but Athens was the undisputed leader the Delian League had become Athens Empire in all but name Nathan's naval supremacy also gave her economic power he became a city of the center of a vast trading network goods from all over the Mediterranean flooded into her harbors in its heyday Athens was the Big Apple or if you will the big olive of the eastern Mediterranean constant coming and going of traders the wharves would be busy full of people in a cacophony of language one contemporary author gave an account of the diversity of goods in the Athenian marketplace from Sri Nia Oxford's from the Hellespont mackerel and all kinds of salted fish Libya provides abundant ivory Pagis a provides tattooed slaves Carthage rugs and many colored cushions the Athenian Empire was unprecedented in the degree of prosperity that came to it because of its role as a center of trade the Athenians had access to a quality of life that probably no Greek had ever had before Athens rise to economic and political supremacy occurred at lightning speed after the Battle of Salamis she became the dominant power in the eastern Mediterranean in less than a generation and that the city's heart still lay her unique system of government democracy the system of voting using pebbles olive leaves or the show of hands that decided every aspect of the city's government democracy gave the Athenians a great advantage of unleashing talents powers opportunities that other cultures simply cannot match the Athenians keenly protected their democracy from any threat foreign or domestic once a year each citizen can scratch the name of an individual onto a shard of pottery known as an ostrich and place it into a pot in the assembly the person whose name came up most would then be ostracized banished from the city this was the Athenians method of protecting their government expelling any person they felt might become too powerful but Athenian democracy could turn on any citizen even it's great as war hero the mr. Glee's now found himself under attack the threat was gone now this very song d'etre has been taken away this is something he can't understand the mystic Elise reacts perhaps in an uncharacteristically crude way he reminded the Athenian voters of what they owed him voters don't want to be reminded in any period of what they owed to their politicians they want to be told what their politicians can do for them the Athenian people turned on the aging politician calculated cruel but deeply democratic they ostracized the man who had led them to the greatest victory Themistocles was ostracized I believe because he was simply regarded as having gotten too big for his boats some of the ostraca with Themistocles name still inscribed upon them have been found hidden down in ancient will archeologists believed that these had been pre prepared by Themistocles enemies to be handed out to Athenian voters who couldn't write the mr. Lee's never recovered from this humiliation he was to spend the rest of his years wandering from state to state finally dying in exile in Persia the country whose defeat had been his greatest triumph the Athenians were now looking for a leader who might fulfill their newfound sense of imperial glory they found a man who seemed the perfect reflection of this new ideal a man who would change the face of Athens forever a man named Pericles it's probably not a more important figure in the history of classical Greece than Pericles he was the leader of Athens at the height of its power and of its artistic achievement he was the figure associated appropriately with bringing Athenian democracy to its climax to its height but parent Li's was no obvious Democrat like Themistocles for he had been born into one of Athens most elite families nobody had blower blood than Pericles his father was a famous and successful general his mother came from one of the most distinguished Athenian political families Pericles was born with advantages and eminence that Themistocles lacked and perhaps because of his aristocratic origins Pericles knew what the people of Athens now wanted a city fit to rule an empire it seems clear that Pericles had in mind to create a city whose greatness would be admired by the people who live there by everybody else in the Greek world well into the future Pericles announced a glorious new vision to the Athenian assembly all kinds of enterprises should be created which will provide inspiration for every art find employment for every hand we must devote ourselves to acquiring things that will be the source of everlasting Fame Pericles turned his attention to the Acropolis the sheer peak in the center of Athens home of the city's patron goddess Athena 20 years earlier the Persians had burned down the temples that stood here ever since the Athenians had left these ruins untouched as a memorial to those killed in the war but Pericles had other ideas he proposed a massive reconstruction plan at its center would be a new Parthenon a temple to Athena and it would be one of the most astonishing buildings of the ancient world this new construction program was of unprecedented magnitude and expense the Parthenon in particular was extraordinarily expensive it was filled with all sorts of architectural refinements Pericles planned to spend over 5,000 talents in the first year alone total budget of more than a billion dollars in today's terms this project would require 20,000 tons of marble the athenian quarries at mana pentelic is just outside the city resounded as hundreds of workmen traced out and carved great blocks of marble from this temple will be decorated like none before sculptors and craftsmen were gathered from all over the Greek world with them student Pericles where he treated the building of the Parthenon as his own personal project he selected architects he selected the men who designed the plans Pericles was directly involved in the planning profit some protested that he was taking out the city like a prostitute but when the building was completed and only 15 years his critics were silenced the Parthenon was and still is the most glorious symbol of Athens Empire here was the spiritual heart of the city the mark of a width power and artistic genius when you first came through the door you'd have been just stunned you'd have been confronted immediately by an enormous 40-foot high statue of Athena and gold and ivory and studded with jewels I think the impression of a statue of that size and with that kind of dressing must have truly overwhelming Pericles had embellished his temple like no other though this astonishing statue has since been lost to history other traders from the Parthenon have survived for over 2,000 years the most famous is the Parthenon frieze a 500 foot long stretch of carved marble which ran around the inner wall of the temple Parthenon frieze is only two-and-a-half inches thick at its maximum depth and yet in this space the sculptors carved rank upon rank of crowded figures a great procession of Athenians glorious and elegant here apparently is offered his fellow citizens a vision of themselves and their democratic state at the height of their glory democracy itself becomes paralyzed in that monument it's a very democratic thing that wants to include all those citizens who participated in beating off the first great threat to democracy which was from versions these are ideals to which you can aspire the monuments that Pericles built for his fellow Athenians still stand on the peaked of the Acropolis they remain the most striking legacy of classical Athens of one of the great empires of the ancient world 20,000 tons of perfectly proportioned marble carve to submillimeter accuracy the entire structure of the Parthenon is subtly designed to compensate for optical distortion there isn't actually a single right angle in the entire temple pillar swell the floor is curved all to give the appearance of perfection it is an astonishing testament to the achievements of Athenian democracy the Pericles was not simply concerned with astonishing construction projects under his leadership Athens will also become the intellectual center of the ancient world the traditional center of Athenian upper-class life had always been the symposium or dinner party where guests would gather to eat drink and talk in these years Pericles played host to an astonishing generation of individuals figures whose achievements would shape Western civilization Pericles was remarkable in that he associated with the leading minds of his day in just about every field of endeavor Pericles was acquainted with the world's first scientists figures such as annex a giris the first man to realize that the moon was lit by reflected sunlight new Herodotus the world's first historian who wrote one of the earliest records of Greek life and poets and authors such as Aeschylus and Euripides whose works are still standards a moral literature Pericles was well aware of his City stature our whole city is an education for our citizens excel all men in versatility resourcefulness and brilliance even parrot Leigh's partner a woman named Aspasia was unique and distinguished Pericles had divorced his wife and set up home with a foreign woman a woman whose occupation was hardly to be expected for a space here was what was known as a hetero Greek for a companion yes she was in a technical sense I guess a prostitute but she was more than that a woman of charm of style of intellect she really was very extraordinary she had an extraordinary mind this relationship caused scandal throughout Athens not just because of his phases profession but because Pericles treated her as an equal something deeply unusual in 5th century Athens one of the things that created such a stir was that Pericles had her participate in conversations that he had with some of the most important individuals with whom he taught this jokes to suggest that Aspasia actually was the person who wrote Pericles speeches there at leas and his circle were to become one of the most famous and influential groups in Western history but in 5th century Athens the highest achievements of arts and culture were not restricted to the elite here in the shadow of the Acropolis it's the world's first theater twice a year the Athenian population would gather here to watch a great festival a festival of drama television cinema theater although their existence to this place for here is the home of popular entertainment there's one huge difference between the ancient theater and our own and that is that it was incredibly noisy we hear stories of how when they didn't like a play the audience booed and they hissed and they actually got actors driven off the stage but there's other stories that show that when they were going with the story and deeply involved in it they actually all collectively burst into tears the favorite tales of the Greek stage were called tragedies these were stories as shocking as a contemporary harm the tragedies told stories of great men falling from our Heights losing everything he owned Greek tragedy shows human beings however able however brilliant however intelligent quite unable to alter the destinies which have been decreed for them these tragedies have fascinated audiences ever since this 19th century painting shows the story of the mythical ruler Agamemnon who was murdered by his own wife another tragedy told of King Oedipus who gouged out his eyes when he discovered that he had married his own mother these athenians nathan's of the greatest city in the ancient world seemed to revel and seeing how frail greatness could really be I don't think we can use Greek tragedy to tell us exactly what happened in reality it's not a document of Athenian social life but what it does do is take us directly and immediately into this psychological heart of those Athenian men the kind of dreams and fantasies and fears and imaginary scenarios that they came up with in the theater have to tell us just as much about them as any document of everyday reality could theaters were built in every major Greek city in Sparta Corinth on the island of Delos here in Delphia Athens was the heart of a cultural revolution that would spread across the Mediterranean and echo around the world Periclean Athens seems to me to belong in the smallish collection of cities where truly great moments in the human experience took place culture in the broadest sense reaches a peak but after 20 years of building the cultural capital of the Western world Pericles and his fellow Athenians would now find that their theater and their tragedies would hold a bitter sting it is possible to think of Pericles indeed I think of him as a man with a tragic flaw as the sort of man whose greatest qualities the ones that make a most admirable and successful turn out to be the seeds of his own destruction ultimately it can be said they lead to the destruction of the Athens that he prized more than anything else in the coming years Pericles would embroil his city in the greatest war of the history of classical Greece he would see how devastated by siege and plague and he himself would fall victim to evade the equal of any tragic hero

The Mughal Empire and Historical Reputation: Crash Course World History #217



Views:2153650|Rating:4.74|View Time:11:44Minutes|Likes:25249|Dislikes:1380
There’s a new Crash Course poster with all your favorite World History characters! Czech it:

In which John Green teaches you about the Mughal Empire, which ruled large swaths of the Indian Sub-Continent from 1526 to (technically) 1857. While John teaches you about this long-lived Muslim empire, he’ll also look at the idea of historical reputation and how we view people from history. Namely, he’ll look at the reputations of Mughal emperors Akbar I and Aurangzeb. Traditionally, Akbar I is considered the emperor that made the Mughal Empire great, and Aurangzeb gets the blame for running the whole thing into the ground and setting it up for decline. Is that really how it was, though? It turns out, it’s complicated.

You can directly support Crash Course at Subscribe for as little as $0 to keep up with everything we’re doing. Free is nice, but if you can afford to pay a little every month, it really helps us to continue producing this content.

مرحبًا، أنا جون غرين وهذه سلسلة
Crash Course World History، واليوم سنتحدث عن الإمبراطورية المغولية. كما سنتحدث عن أهم إمبراطورين مغوليين، أكبر وأورنكزيب، ومن أين جاءت سمعتهما. أستاذ غرين! ألا تقصد الإمبراطورية المنغولية؟ يا ذاتي القديمة، ذكرتني بالمرة التي خلطت فيها بين كلمتي "قوة" و"حصن"
وأخطأت طبعًا في لفظهما. لكنك هذه المرة لست مخطئًا تمامًا. المغول هم نفسهم المنغوليون نوعًا ما.
سنشرح هذا بعد قليل. كان المغول مسلمين أنشأوا إمبراطورية في الهند بقيت حاكمة حوالي 200 عام
بين مطلع القرنين الـ16 والـ18. مع أن نهاية الإمبراطورية الفعلية كانت
بعد الثورة الهندية على البريطانيين عام 1857. لم يكن المغول أول المسلمين في الهند،
فقد كان أولهم التجار، ولم يكونوا حتى أول مسلمين
يحكمون أجزاء معتبرة من الهند، فهذا الشرف يعود لسلطنة دلهي
التي قامت عام 1206 شمال الهند. لكن سلطنة الهند لم تستمر طويلًا،
فقد أبدلتها مجموعة من الممالك الإقليمية، وإحداها، سلطنة لودي، وقعت في يد
منشئ السلالة المغولية بابور عام 1526. ليس بابار، لكن كم كان الأمر ليكون ممتعًا! كان بابار من نسل تيمور،
آخر محتل منغولي عظيم في وسط آسيا، وأيضًا جنكيز خان، وهذا يفسر
سبب تسمية بابور وأتباعه بالمغول: فهي الكلمة العربية الفارسية
التي تعني المنغوليين. أعرف أنكم تقولون
إن حوالي 12% من سكان العالم اليوم هم من نسل جنكيز خان،
لكن بابور كان من السابقين للفضل. أعتقد أن لدينا تصويرًا لبابور
يغير على سلطنة لودي، أليس كذلك يا ستان؟ لا أعتقد أن هذا التصوير
للوقائع الحقيقية عام 1206، أظنه فيلم هرقل عنصريًا إيطاليًا من الخمسينات. الإمبراطورية المغولية بالغة الأهمية
في التاريخ الثقافي للهند. فقد بُني مثلًا تاج محل أثناء حكمها، وفي الهندسة المعمارية والرسم،
نرى مزيجًا بين الأسلوبين الهندي والفارسي يظهر مدى استيعاب الإمبراطورية
للحضارات المختلفة. لكن، لعل أهم ما في المغول،
على الأقل من وجهة نظر العالم المعاصر، هو أنهم رسخوا الحكم الإسلامي
في جزء كبير من الهند وهم أحد أهم أسباب وجود مسلمين هنود كثر. كما أن المغول مثال شديد الإثارة للاهتمام
على بناء إمبراطورية والمحافظة عليها. فلنذهب لفقاعة التفكير. كان المسلمون أقلية من الطبقة الحاكمة
يفوقهم العدد الهائل للهندوس، وكغيرهم من الإمبراطوريات، فقد اعتمدوا
على القوة العسكرية وسياسات التوسع. ومثل معظم القادة المغول،
قضى أكبر وأوركنزيب خصوصًا وقتًا كبيًا في محاولة نشر سيطرة المغول
في جميع أنحاء شبه القارة الهندية. وقد بنوا إمبراطورية عظمى. استطاعوا
إدخال الأمراء الهنود في الطبقة الحاكمة فيما بقيت أعلى المراتب للمسلمين. كما أعادوا تنظيم البيروقراطية
ووضعوا نظام جمع للضرائب فعالًا، وكان ذلك مهمًا لأن إمبراطوريتهم كانت، كغيرها
من الإمبراطوريات، إدارتها باهظة بالطبع. معنى ذلك أنه كان يجب تقدير الضرائب بدقة، وكان
يجمعها القادة المحليون المسمون الزاميندار. كانت الضرائب تُدفع نقدًا، ما ساهم في نمو
التسويق التجاري في الإمبراطورية المغولية. كان الاعتماد على الزاميندار،
وهم رجال ذوو مكانة في مجتمعاتهم ذا الفضل في جمع الإمبراطورية المال
دون التشويش على حياة القرى المحلية. ومع أن معظم موارد الدولة كانت قائمة على ضرائب
الزراعة، إلا أن التجارة كان عليها ضرائب أيضًا. من أوجه شبه الإمبراطورية المغولية
بالإمبراطوريات الأخرى هو انخراط حكامها في مشاريع البناء
التي عززت من هيبتهم. من بيرسيبوليس لروما للمدينة المحرمة،
بنى الأباطرة معالم تشهد على عظمتهم، ولم يكن المغول استثناء. ولأنهم مسلمون، كانت معظم مشاريعهم مساجد، لكن المغول بنوا أيضًا حصونًا
وأضرحة مثيرة للإعجاب. شكرًا يا فقاعة التفكير. إذن،
تركز معظم دروس التاريخ عن المغول على المقارنة بين أكبر وأوركنزيب، حيث أكبر هو القائد الجيد،
وأوركنزيب القائد الذي أفسد الإمبراطورية. إن نظرة المؤرخين الإيجابية لأكبر
الذي حكم من عام 1556 وحتى 1605 يمكن اختصارها بهذا الاقتباس من كتاب
"الهند قبل أوروبا" لآشير وتالبوت: "من خلال إصلاحاته الإدارية والضريبية، وضع أكبر قاعدة متينة صلبة للحكومة المغولية، أما موقفه المتسامح
وسياساته الشاملة للهندوس والجينيين فقد جعلت دولته أكثر هندية في سماتها." إن التسامح المذكور شديد الأهمية، فقد أزال أكبر ضريبة الجزية
التي كان يدفعها غير المسلمين، وفي عام 1580، أعطى جميع غير المسلمين حقوق
المسلمين نفسها واضعًا بذلك سياسة "صلح الكل" والتي تعني التسامح مع جميع البشر،
كان سبب لوضع هذه السياسة هو تقليل سطوة علماء الدين المسلمين، الذين ربما انزعجوا من مزج أكبر
بين الأفكار الهندية والإسلامية للملكية وخصوصًا من فكرة أنه كان نوعًا من إله. هذه فكرة إشكالية قليلًا
للكثير من علماء المسلمين خصوصًا وأن أساس الدين الإسلامي هو عبارة
"لا إله إلا الله"، لكن هذا ما حدث. بالإضافة لصلح الكل، بنى أكبر سمعة التسامح
بدعم النقاشات الدينية والفلسفية. حتى أنه أمر ببناء مبنى للنقاشات الدينية
اسمه "عبادة خانة"، يجتمع فيه المسلمون والبراهمة والجانيون
والزرادشتيون والمسيحيون لنقاش اللاهوت. إن دعم أكبر للفكر
من الأشياء التي يحبها المؤرخون الحديثون، لذا، فليس غريبًا أن يُذكر بينهم بالخير. أما حفيد أكبر، أوركنزيب، الذي حكم بين 1658
و1707، فحظه أقل بكثير لدى المؤرخين. يعود سبب ذلك جزئيًا لجي إن ساكار
الذي روج لفكرة أن أوركنزيب بنى دولة إسلامية
اضطهدت الهندوس وغير المسلمين، ما أدى لانحسار الوحدة في شبه القارة الهندية،
وفي النهاية انهيار الإمبراطورية. صحيح أنه مع موت أوركنزيب عام 1707،
كان المغول قد فقدوا السيطرة على إمبراطوريتهم. حلت صدمة واقع انهيارها عام 1757 عندما
وضعت شركة الهند الشرقية البريطانية قدمها بشكل دائم في البنغال
وبدأت جهودها الحثيثة لاستيطان كامل الهند. لكن ذلك كان بعد 50 سنة من موت أوركنزيب،
إذن ربما لا تقع المسؤولية كلها عليه. في الواقع، إن مدى استحقاق
هذين الحاكمين لسمعتهما يعتمد كليًا على جوانب حكمهما التي ننظر إليها
وكيفية تفسيرنا لها. كمحتلين، كان أكبر وأوركنزيب
تجمعهما قواسم مشتركة كثيرة. أكبر دعم فعلًا النقاشات
ذات المستوى العقلي الرفيع، لكنه كان مستعدًا لاستخدام العنف الشديد
كي لا تعصيه رعيته. فمثلًا، هو ذبح آلافًا من سكان حصن شيتور وأمر ألويته بجمع جماجم الأمراء الهنود
لإخافتهم وجعلهم يستسلمون. هذا ليس تسامحًا.
إليكم أيضًا جانبًا آخر من حكم أكبر يُنظر إليه على أنه حديث ومستنير. بسبب اهتمامه بالعلم، رتب أكبر لتجربة. "أمر بنقل الرُضع لمنزل خاص
لا يجوز أن يكلمهم أحد فيه كي تنكشف له لغة البشر الطبيعية. فشلت التجربة، لكنها تعكس رغبة أكبر
في اكتشاف الطبيعة الإنسانية بطريقة علمية واختبار ما رآه حالتهم الطبيعية." قد تنظرون لذلك على أنه رغبة القائد
في فهم الصلات المشتركة بين جميع البشر بغض النظر عن خلفيتهم الدينية، أو قد ترونه إساءة فظيعة للأطفال. أما أوركنزيب فكان مسلمًا ورعًا
وحاول إدخال المبادئ الإسلامي في الحكم المغولي لكن تبني المعتقدات التقليدية
والتخلي عن تسامح أكبر بدأ قبله بكثير بسابقه في الحكم شاه جاهان،
الذي يُعرف ببنائه تاج محل. أحسنت عملًا. ستان، هل بناه بنفسه؟
يبدو أنه بناه بمساعدة غيره. لكن صيانة تاج محل
كلفت الحكومة إيرادات 30 قرية، ولعل تمسك أوركنزيب بالعقيدة أقل أهمية من
رغبته بأن يظهر بمظهر القائد الرصين المقتصد. كما أن أوركنزيب متهم بتدمير المعابد عام 1669، مع أنه لم يصبها سوى ضرر كان الهدف منه توجيه رسالة سياسية للخصوم،
لا إظهارًا للتعصب الديني. كما أنه حاول تقليل نفقات القصر
بمنع استخدام الذهب في حلي الرجال وأوقف تقليد قياس وزنه بالذهب في عيد ميلاده. وبخلاف أكبر الذي يُعتبر راعي الفنون، يُذكر عن أوركنزيب طرده لموسيقيي وشاعري البلاط، لكنه طردهم بسبب الضيق المالي. وأيضًا بسبب تفسيره للشريعة الإسلامية. وهذه النقطة تثير اهتمامي،
فإن من يريدون أخذ فكرة سيئة عنه قد يرون تفسير أوركنزيب للإسلام
طاردًا للموسيقيين والشعراء، لكن يجوز أيضًا أن يكون قراره ذاك
نابعًا من حرصه على المال. إليكم جانبًا آخر من حياة أوركنزيب
استخدم لوصفه بالمتشدد. أوركنزيب، بخلاف سابقيه،
دُفن في قبر بسيط في الخارج، وليس في ضريح مفصَل غالي الثمن. قد يُعتبر ذلك رمزًا للإيمان،
أو علامة على الزهد، أو محاولة من قائد رصين
لتخفيف تكاليف صيانة ضريح على شعبه. مع ذلك، فإن تاج محل
در الكثير من المال بفضل السياحة، ولا أظن أن أحدًا دفع مالًا لزيارة قبر أوركنزيب. لكن الفكرة أن أوركنزيب
كان عليه ادخار المال. إن أردنا اعتباره حاكمًا سيئًا،
فليكن ذلك بسبب إضاعته ثروات ووقتًا كبيرًا في محاربة المتمردين جنوب إمبراطوريته،
ومن ثم إهماله للشمال، حيث كانت الاضطرابات تتنامى أيضًا.
نبالغ في تبسيطنا للأمور إن قلنا إن أيام مجد إمبراطورية المغول كانت في تسامحها
أما انهيارها فأتى من عدم تسامحها. فهناك عوامل كثيرة أدت لانهيار الإمبراطورية، منها الشقاق المتزايد في البلاط المغولي
وظهور القوى الإقليمية وانهيار نظام حكم النبلاء المحليين. يطيب للمؤرخين أن يدعوا أن هذا وذاك حدث ويدعموا ادعاءاتهم بالأدلة التي تقدم غالبًا
تفاصيل تجعل دراسة وقراءة التاريخ ممتعة. إن التفاصيل تقدم أحيانًا تفسيرًا واحدًا، لكنها في حالات كثيرة
تأخذنا لاستنتاجات متعددة. وإن حكم أكبر وأوركنزيب مثال مهم
على الحذر في التفاصيل التاريخية. يحتمل أن أوركنزيب كان قائدًا سيئًا إذ حاول فرض المنهج الإسلامي
على شعب أغلبيته هندوس، ولا شك أن هندوس كثر اعتبروه سيئًا،
خصوصًا بعد إعادته لفرض الجزية. كما أنه حاول فعلًا جعل الشريعة الإسلامية
أساس حكم الإمبراطورية. لكن يُحتمل أيضًا أن تكون سمعة أوركنزيب السيئة
متأتية من تفضيل المعاصرين للتسامح على التدين في القادة،
أو من إحساس عام بأن الدول أفضل حالًا إن كانت قوانينها علمانية بدلًا من دينية. أو من صعوبة حكم إمبراطورية تتداعى.
وهذه حقيقة، اسألوا الرئيس أوباما. إن تجاربنا وتحيزنا يجعلنا نميل
لرؤية طرد موسيقيي وشعراء البلاط يدل على التعصب الديني بدلًا من الحرص المالي. وربما أكبر، الذي كان بوحشيته
كأي محتل عسكري آخر من الأباطرة، ينال استحسان المؤرخين
لأنه نادى بالتسامح الديني، لكن تسامحه الديني
لم يكن السبب الوحيد ولا الرئيسي حتى في انتصاره في معظم معاركة،
وإن التمردات الكثيرة على حكمه تشير إلى أن شعبيته لدى رعيته
كانت أقل من شعبيته اليوم لدى مؤرخينا. آخر ملاحظة لي على تأثير نظرتنا للماضي
على الحاضر والعكس هي دعواي لتوخي الحذر الشديد في نظرتنا للمغول، لأنهم حتى اليوم لا زالوا يؤثرون
في نظرة الهنود لأنفسهم. إن أحد جذور القومية الهندية المعاصرة
هي الفخر بتحرر الهند من أغلال الإمبريالية، وبالنسبة لكثير من القوميين الهنود،
فإن تاريخ الإمبريالية لم يبدأ بالبريطانيين، بل بالمغول.
إننا نستخدم التاريخ لنعرّف أنفسنا في الحاضر وأحد أكثر وسائل ذلك شيوعًا
هي في ذم من نعتبر أنفسنا لسنا منهم. لكن عندما ننظر للشخصيات التاريخية،
علينا أن نعي أننا نحن من ننظر إليهم. شكرًا للمتابعة، أراكم الأسبوع القادم. يتم تصوير Crash Course في استوديو
تشاد آند ستايسي إيميغلوتز في إنديانابوليس وأسهم في إعداده هؤلاء الأشخاص الطيبين، وهو قائم بفضل دعمكم له عبر Subbable وهي خدمة اشترك تطوعية تسمح لكم بدعم
Crash Course كي يبقى مجانيًا للجميع إلى الأبد. لذا، شكرًا لجميع المشتركين
بـCrash Course عبر Subbable وشكرًا لكم على المتابعة، وكما نقول
في مسقط رأسي: "لا تنسوا أن تكونوا رائعين."

Decolonization and Nationalism Triumphant: Crash Course World History #40



Views:2808938|Rating:4.86|View Time:12:49Minutes|Likes:29535|Dislikes:881
READ THIS: THERE ARE TWO MORE VIDEOS IN THE WORLD HISTORY SERIES. You should also turn on the captions. You’ll like them.

In which John Green teaches you about the post-World War II breakup of most of the European empires. As you’ll remember from previous installments of Crash Course, Europeans spent several centuries sailing around the world creating empires, despite the fact that most of the places they conquered were perfectly happy to carry on alone. After World War II, most of these empires collapsed. This is the story of those collapses. In most places, the end of empire was not orderly, and violence often ensued. While India was a (sort of) shining example of non-violent change, in places like The Congo, Egypt, Rwanda, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos, things didn’t go smoothly at all. John brings you all this, plus pictures of Sea Monkeys. Sadly, they don’t look anything like those awesome commercials in the comic books.

Resources:

The Columbia History of the 20th Century –

Crash Course World History is now available on DVD!

Follow us!
@thecrashcourse
@johngreen
@crashcoursestan
@raoulmeyer
@thoughtbubbler
@saysdanica

Like us!

Support Crash Course on Patreon:

مرحبًا، أنا جون غرين وهذه سلسلة
Crash Course World History واليوم سنتحدث عن التحرر من الاستعمار. إن الإمبراطوريات التي أنشأتها الدول الأوروبية
في القرن التاسع عشر كانت باستقرار وطول عمر إمبراطورية جنكيز خان ما أدى لقيام الدول القومية
التي نعرفها ونحبها. أجل، أتحدث معك يا بوروندي. هل تعرفين أنك بوروندي حبيبتي؟
أنت كل شيء… "موسيقى الشارة" ستان، لا تقطع غنائي بالشارة!
صوتي كصوت ملاك! "موسيقى الشارة" إذن، إن لم يكن عمركم 60،
ولن يكون، فهذا الإنترنت، فإنكم لم تعرفوا العالم قبل الدول القومية. لكن، كما رأينا في مصر إلى الإسكندر المقدوني إلى الصين وروما والمغول،
الذين للمرة الأولى ليسوا الاستثناء، إلى العثمانيين والأمريكيتين، فإن الإمبراطوريات كانت الطريقة السائدة
لتنظيم أنفسنا سياسيًا، أو لتنظيم غيرنا لنا على الأقل. أستاذ غرين!
إذن بالنسبة إليهم لكان فيلم Star Wars مختلفًا تمامًا، معظمهم كانوا ليقولوا: "فلتحيا الإمبراطورية!
اسحقوا أولئك المتمردين!" أجل، وكانوا ليقولوا: "ما هذه الشاشة التي تعرض
صورًا متحركة واضحة لأحداث ليست تقع الآن؟ أيضًا، كي لا نخرج عن الموضوع، نحن لا نعرف
ماذا يحدث بعد انتصار المتمردين في الفيلم. وكما تعلمنا من الثورة الفرنسية والربيع
العربي، فإن الثورة هي غالبًا الجزء السهل. أعني، أتظنون أن تدمير Death Star صعب؟ حاولوا مفاوضة الغونغون على معاهدة تجارية. بجميع الأحوال، لم يكن آخر القرن العشرين
الفترة الوحيدة لتفكك الإمبراطوريات. فهناك روما والفرس وبالطبع الثورة الأمريكية
التي أنهت إحدى تجارب الأوروبيين الإمبريالية. لكن، في تلك الحالات جميعها،
فقد تصدت الإمبراطورية… أرأيتم ما حدث؟ فبريطانيا خسرت مستعمراتها الـ13، لكنها سيطرت فيما بعد
على نصف إفريقيا وكامل الهند. وما يميز زوال الاستعمار الحديث
هو أنه، إلى الآن على الأقل، لم تقم إمبراطوريات جديدة مكان القديمة. وجزء من سبب ذلك
أن الحلفاء في الحرب العالمية الثانية كانوا لحد ما يقاتلون
لوقف الإمبريالية النازية. أراد هتلر السيطرة على وسط أوروبا
وإفريقيا وربما الشرق الأوسط أيضًا، وبهزيمة الحلفاء للنازيين
فقدت فكرة الإمبراطورية مصداقيتها. لم يستطع الإنجليز والفرنسيون والأمريكيون
أن يقولوا لقواتهم الاستعمارية التي قاتلت إلى جانبهم: "شكًرا لمساعدتكم لنا
بإيقاف طموحات ألمانيا الإمبريالية، وكمكافأة لكم،
أرجعوا البنادق وعودوا للاستعمار." كما أن معظم القوى الاستعمارية،
وخصوصًا فرنسا وبريطانيا واليابان، أضعِفت بشكل جسيم في الحرب العالمية الثانية، وأعني بذلك أن أجزاء كبيرة منها
كان شكلها هكذا. حدث التحرر من الاستعمار
التالي للحرب في كل مكان. الهند التي كانت مستعمرة بريطانية
أصبحت ثلاث دول مستقلة. بالمناسبة، أهذا غاندي
أم بين كينغسلي في دور غاندي؟ في جنوب شرق آسيا، أصبحت الهند الصينية
الفرنسية كامبوديا ولاوس والفييتنام. أما الهند الشرقية الهولندية فأصبحت إندونيسيا. لكننا عندما نفكر بالتحرر من الاستعمار، فإننا غالبًا نفكر بإفريقيا
متحولة من هذا إلى هذا. لذا، سنبالغ في التبسيط لأننا مضطرون. فزوال الاستعمار في أفرو-أوراسيا
كان فيه خواص مشابهة. لأنه حدث في الحرب الباردة، تحتم على هذه الدول الجديدة
أن تختار بين الاشتراكية أو الرأسمالية، وهذا ما حدد مستقبلها.
ومع أن كثيرًا من هذه الدول الجديدة أصبح حكمها فيما بعد ديمقراطيًا لحد ما،
فإن الطريق إلى ذلك كان صعبًا. كما أن زوال الاستعمار اشتمل على العنف
وعلى إسقاط الحكام الاستعماريين. لكننا سنعود الآن لأشهر تحرر من الاستعمار
خال من العنف -أو هذا ما يفترض على الأقل- وهو تحرر الهند. تبدأ القصة تقريبًا عام 1885
بإنشاء المؤتمر الوطني الهندي. كان قادة حزب المؤتمر وغيرهم من الوطنيين
الهنديين عادة من الطبقة الراقية، وفي البداية،
لم يطالبوا حتى بالاستقلال من بريطانيا، بل كانوا مهتمين بإنشاء دولة هندية حديثة
بدل العودة لشكل الدولة السابق للاستعمار، ربما لأن الهند كانت وما زالت شديدة التنوع
ولا يوحدها في دولة واحدة إلا حكم إمبريالي من جماعة واحدة،
سواء الإمبراطورية الماورية أو الغوبتية أو المغول أو البريطانيين.
فلنذهب لفقاعة التخيل. كان أشهر قومي هندي،
موهانداس غاندي، شخصية فذة. كان محاميًا بريطانيًا متعلمًا مولودًا
في عائلة ثرية، وعُرف عنه صنعه لثيابه بنفسه وصومه الطويل ونضاله من أجل تخفيف الفقر
ونيل النساء حقوقهن وتحقيق وحدة الهند واستقلالها من البريطانيين.
فيما يتعلق بزوال الاستعمار، فإن ما يميزه هو استخدامه للاعنف
وربطه إياه بنظرة ميثولوجية للتاريخ الهندي. لقد كان هناك عنف كثير
في ماضي الهند وملاحم أبطاله، لكن غاندي اعتمد على ماض
حدث فيه التغيير السلمي. كان غاندي ورفيقه جواهر لال نهرو
يؤمنان بأن الهند يمكن أن تُحكم كدولة واحدة من الطبقة الراقية
من الهنود، وأن تتخطى بشكل ما التوتر القائم بين غالبية الهنود الهندوسية
والأقلية المسلمة. وكانا بذلك أقل عملية
من المعاصر لهما محمد علي جناح زعيم عصبة مسلمي عموم الهند، الذي كان رأيه،
حسبما يقول المؤرخ إينزلي إيمبري، "أن الهند الموحدة التي يتحدث عنها
المؤتمر هي هند مزيفة صنعتها وتحافظ عليها الحراب البريطانية." اتضحت صحة كلام جناح،
وعام 1947 عندما رحل البريطانيون، قُسمت مستعمرتهم الهندية إلى الهند الحالية
وغرب وشرق باكستان، وأصبحت الأخيرة بنغلادش عام 1971. وبينما من السهل تهنئة
الحكومة البريطانية والهندية على هذا الانتقال السلمي المنظم للسلطة، إلا أن التقسيم لم يكن لا سلميًا ولا منظمًا. هُجر حوالي 12 مليون شخص
لدى انتقال هندوس باكستان إلى الهند ومسلمي الهند إلى باكستان.
ومع ترك الناس بيوتهم، أحيانًا قسرًا، كان هناك عنف،
وقُتل في المجمل حوالي نصف مليون شخص، أكثر مما مات في معركة إندونيسيا للاستقلال. إذن، مع أن التظاهرات الحاشدة التي أجبرت
بريطانيا على إنهاء استعمارها للهند كانت سلمية إلا أن قيام الدول المستقلة لم يكن كذلك.
شكرًا يا فقاعة التفكير. إن هذا العنف دمر غاندي، الذي أدى إضرابه عن الطعام المطول
والمتكرر لنتائج مختلطة. واغتاله في النهاية قومي هندوسي شعر أن غاندي متعاطف مع المسلمين.
هل حان الوقت للخطاب المفتوح؟ رسالة مفتوحة للمضربين عن الطعام. لكن فلنرى ما بالحجرة السرية اليوم. كعكة؟ هذه قسوة يا ستان. هذه الكعكات أحضرتها المتدربة ميريديث
بمناسبة عيد الميريديث وهو عيد اخترعته للاحتفال بذكرى عزوبيتها. أعزائي المضربين عن الطعام،
أتذكرون أنني قلت في السابق إن غاندي ارتكز على ماض ميثولوجي للهند؟ لقد اتضح أن الإضراب عن الطعام
في الهند يعود حتى القرن الخامس قبل الميلاد. استُخدم العديدون الإضراب حول العالم، بمن فيهم المطالبات بحق اقتراع المرأة
في بريطانيا والولايات المتحدة. وفي إيرلندا قبل المسيحية،
كان يشيع أن الناس إذا ظلموا يجلسون على عتبة دار من ظلمهم
ويضربون عن الطعام حتى يُرد لهم حقهم. وقد نجح ذلك أحيانًا.
أنا معجب بكم حقًا أيها المضربون عن الطعام، لكنني أفتقد شجاعة إيمانكم.
كما أن هذه الكعكة لذيذة. مع أطيب أمنياتي، جون غرين. منذ الاستقلال والهند قصة نجاح
في الغالب، مع أننا سنتحدث في الأسبوع القادم عن تعقيد
الرأسمالية العالمية الجديدة للهند. أما الآن، فلنذهب شرقًا إلى إندونيسيا،
وهي دولة ضخمة من 13 ألف جزيرة أهملناها في برنامجنا
بسبب تحيزنا ضد الجزر. فنحن مثلًا لم نذكر حتى غرينلاند، لكن أهلها لم يشكوا لأنه ليس لديهم إنترنت. نهب الهولنديون مستعمراتهم في الجزر
بنظام يسمى نظام الزراعة "كولتورستيلسيل"، حيث يجب أن يعطي المزارعون خمس أراضيهم كمحصول يُصدر إلى هولندا. كان هذا يمثل 25%
من الميزانية الوطنية الهولندية ويفسر سبب وجود مبان فاخرة فيها
مع أنهم يعيشون تحت الماء، وكأنهم قرود البحر.
كان هذا النظام أقل شيوعًا في إندونيسيا ولم يقدم الهولنديون شيئاً في المقابل. حتى أنهم لم يستطيعوا
حماية مستعمرتهم من اليابانيين الذين احتلوها لمعظم فترة
الحرب العالمية الثانية. حيث عمق اليابانيون من القومية الإندونيسية بوضعهم إندونيسيين في مواقع بارزة للسلطة، بمن فيهم سوكارنو
الذي أصبح أول رئيس وزراء لإندونيسيا. وبعد الحرب، حاول الهولنديون بمساعدة
البريطانيين التمسك بمستعمراتهم الإندونيسية بما يسمى "حركات الشرطة"
التي استمرت أكثر من أربع سنوات إلى أن نالت إندونيسيا استقلالها عام 1950.
وفي المستعمرات الفرنسية في الصين الهندية، والتي سُميت بذلك لأنها لم تكن هندية ولا صينية،
كان الأمر أشد عنفًا. إن انتهاء الاستعمار كان كارثيًا
في كامبوديا، حيث انتهى حكم نوردوم سيانوك الذي امتد 17 سنة وأتى مكانه الخمير الحمر، الذين ذبحوا 21% من سكان كامبوديا
بين 1975 و1979. في الفييتنام، حارب الفرنسيون القوميين ذوي
القيادة الاشتراكية، خصوصًا هو تشي مين، من لحظة انتهاء الحرب العالمية الثانية
وحتى 1954، حيث انهزم الفرنسيون. ثم سمع الأمريكيون بتوفر أرض في آسيا،
فاستلموا مهمة الفرنسيين سريعًا ولم يصل الشيوعيون لحكم إندونيسيا
بشكل كامل حتى 1975. مع أنها ظاهريًا شيوعية،
إلا أن الفييتنام تصنع اليوم أشياء نحبها في الولايات المتحدة،
خصوصًا أحذية الرياضة. سنتحدث عن ذلك الأسبوع القادم.
أما الآن فإلى مصر. تتذكرون أن مصر أفلست في القرن التاسع عشر في محاولة التصنيع،
ومنذ ذلك الحين حكمها ملك مصري كان يأخذ الأوامر من البريطانيين.
ومع أن مصر استقلت رسميُا عام 1922، إلا أن استقلالها لم يكن مستقلًا. لكن ذلك تغير في الخمسينات
مع انقلاب الجيش على الملك. قاد ذلك الانقلاب قائد الجيش
جمال الدين عبد الناصر الذي برع في استغلال نزاع الولايات المتحدة
والاتحاد السوفييتي لصالح مصر. كان حكم ناصر قوميًا علمانيًا،
واعتبر هو وأتباعه أن القوة القومية المعادية للإمبريالية
الأخرى في مصر، وهي الإخوان المسلمين، تشكل تهديدًا. وما إن تولى السلطة، حتى أمر بحملة أمنية
على الإخوان المسلمين، فاختفوا واندثروا إلى الأبد وما عاودوا الظهور.
لحظة، ماذا؟ حقًا؟ وأخيرًا، سنعود لوسط وجنوب إفريقيا. إن أكثر الموروثات الاستعمار
إشكالية هي جغرافيتها. تغيرت حدود المستعمرات
مع قيام حدود الدول القومية، حتى عندما كانت تلك الحدود
اعتباطية وفي بعض الأحيان قاصدة الشر. أفضل مثال على ذلك راوندا، التي جُمعت فيها قبيلتان شديدتا الاختلاف
هما الهوتو والتوتسي في دولة واحدة. أما بشكل عام،
فإن تركيز المستعمرين على استخراج المصادر أساء جدًا للدول الجديدة.
ادعى الأوروبيون أنهم يجلبون الحضارة والنمو الاقتصادي لمستعمراتهم،
لكن هذا النمو الاقتصادي كان تركيزه بناء بنى تحتية
لاستخراج المصادر وتصديرها. إن تخريب القوى الأوروبية النمو
في إفريقيا عمدًا موضوع شديد الحساسية وسنبتعد عنه، لكننا متأكدون من الآتي: عندما رحل الأوروبيون،
لم يكن لدى الإفريقيين المؤسسات اللازمة للنجاح في العالم التالي للحرب. كان لديهم مدارس قليلة جدًا وجامعات أقل. مثلًا، بعد استقلال الكونغو
من بلجيكا عام 1960، كان في الدولة ذات الـ14 مليون نسمة
16 خريجًا جامعيًا فقط. في العديد من هذه الدول الجديدة، كانت طبقة النخبة التقليدية
في الدولة قد أضعفتها الإمبريالية. لم يحكم معظم الأوروبيين أراضيهم مباشرة بل عبر وكلائهم المحليين، ومع رحيل الأوروبيين نُظر للحكام المحليين من الطبقة الراقية
على أنهم متعاونون غير شرعيين معهم. وكان على جماعة جديدة من الحاكم تولي مناصبهم،
ولم يكن لديها خبرة في الحكم غالبًا. فديكتاتور زمبابوي مثلًا الذي حكم طويلًا
روبرت موغابي كان مدرسًا للثانوية. فليكن هذا درسًا لكم.
قد يكون لدى مدرسيكم طموحات ديكتاتورية. لكن معظم الزعماء كانوا طبعًا من الجيش،
فجوزيف موبوتو تولى الحكم في الكونغو من 1965 وحتى موته في 1997. إيدي أمين كان الدكتاتور العسكري
في أوغندا من 1971 وحتى 1979. ومعمر القذافي حكم ليبيا من 1977 وحتى 2011.
وهناك غيرهم، لكنني لا أريد نقل صورة خاطئة عن إفريقيا. فبينما لدى هذه القارة حرية ونمو أقل من مناطق أخرى في العالم، إلا أن كثيرًا من
الدول الإفريقية أظهرت مؤشرات قوية وثابتة للنمو بالرغم من تحديات زوال الاستعمار. بوتسوانا مثلًا ارتفعت فيها نسبة القراءة
والكتابة من 70% لـ85% بآخر 15 سنة، والناتج المحلي الإجمالي لها
يرتفع بنسبة ثابتة هي 5%. نما اقتصاد بينين في كل سنة من آخر 12 سنة،
وهذا أفضل من حال أوروبا والولايات المتحدة. عام 2002، كان متوسط العمر المتوقع
في كينيا 47، واليوم هو 63. تضاعف الناتج المحلي الإجمالي للفرد
في آخر 10 سنوات، أما في موريتانيا فانخفضت نسبة موت الأجنة
بنسبة تفوق 40%. هذا التطور ضعيف ومتردد،
ومع ذلك تجدر الإشارة إلى أن هذه الدول عمرها أقل بـ13 سنة من عمر أبي. إن تجارب البشرية السابقة مع انهيار
الإمبراطوريات لا تعطينا كثيرًا من الأمل، لكن كثيرًا من مواطني
الدول الجديدة يرون تقدمًا حقيقيًا. ومع ذلك فقد تكون الكارثة
على الأبواب. لا أحد يعلم. فنحن الآن نحاول أكثر من أي وقت مضى
أن نسرد قصة البشر من داخل قصة البشر نفسها. شكرًا لمتابعتكم، أراكم الأسبوع المقبل. أنتج وأخرج برنامجنا ستان مولر. مشرفة النص هي ميريديث دانكو
أما مساعدة الإنتاج فهي دانيكا جونسون. كتب نص الحلقة مدرسي للتاريخ في المدرسة
الثانوية راؤول ماير بالتعاون معي، وفريق الرسومات هو Thought Bubble. كانت عبارة الأسبوع الماضي
"سيرة ميتلوف المهنية". إن أردتم تخمين عبارة هذا الأسبوع
أو اقتراح عبارة مستقبلية، فافعلوا ذلك في التعليقات
حيث يمكنكم طرح أسئلة أيضًا عن حلقة اليوم
سيجيب عليها فريقنا من المؤرخين. شكرًا لمتابعتكم برنامجنا، وكما نقول
في مسقط رأسي: لا تنسوا أن تكونوا رائعين.

Age of Empire – Ep. 2: Full Episode | History of the World | BBC Documentary



Views:124545|Rating:4.21|View Time:49:20Minutes|Likes:588|Dislikes:111
We tell the story of the first empires in China and Greece which laid the foundations for the modern world.

This programme contains some violent scenes. Parental Guidance is advised.

Subscribe:

Welcome to the BBC Documentary channel, offering audiences long-form documentaries that deliver a thought provoking and captivating viewing experience inside key moments from history and the lives of fascinating people.

Want to share your views with the team? Join our fan panel:

Due to rights and sales restrictions, content on the channel may not be available in all territories. The availability of certain content may also change over time.

This is a channel from BBC Studios who help fund new BBC programmes.Service information and feedback:

to started spreading out front our biggest battles were with the forces of nature we created the first civilizations who faced a new threat and Akane three thousand years ago was a dangerous time to live conquerors rampaged across the released and vicious the China but all these violence and mayhem historian out of the ashes of destruction new ideas I'm thinking about this was the first page of a time of great progress foundations [Applause] these barren lands are silent and empty now but once they were crossed by vast armies they came in search of new territories slaves and gold to take back to a palace in the east two thousand seven hundred years ago this was the most splendid Imperial headquarters the palace of Nineveh in what is now Iraq it was home to the most ruthless Empire Builder of the age Sennacherib king of the Assyrians [Applause] a legal tally with 200,000 battle-hardened troops sanaka had moved with an iron grip he was feared as much by his own sons let's see neighboring states were forced to pay tribute or be conquered but the king of Judah was now refusing to go on paying and the thriving city of lakish in today's Israel faced the most terrifying military machine of the age sonarak showed no mercy the military tactic is Shepard for is invented by the Syrians this was total war anyone who survived and enslaved anything left behind was torched the Assyrians created the blueprint for every Empire build and tyrant who rules through terror [Applause] archeologists have found evidence of the Assyrian slaughter in the ruins of lakish Musgraves containing the remains of men women and children but there's another record of Sennacherib atrocities on the palace walls of Nineveh the tyrant proudly displayed huge freezers of his victorious military campaigns a catalogue of brutality flames in palings prisoners taken into slavery images to terrorize anyone who visited his palace this was the propaganda of the ancient world Sennacherib dominated his empire for twenty years after the sacking of lakish but he couldn't control his own family I was murdered by one of his sons who wanted to rule in his place 100 years of Sinha Korea's death the Assyrian Empire was falling apart alone wasn't enough to unite the oppressed peoples of this vast empire the Assyrians left the world little to be proud of but their insatiable demand for tribute had one unexpected consequence it helped spread something that we all use to this day the alphabet the alphabet was developed by the Phoenicians a seafaring people living on the western edges of the Assyrian Empire they regularly pay tribute and as they sailed the Mediterranean seeking gold and silver to buy off the Assyrians they had to communicate with many cultures speaking different until this time writing had been a series of simplified symbols to represent objects and ideas but the Phoenicians started to use symbols representing sounds other Darla's this was a more efficient and flexible way of writing the nation's spread the alphabet wherever they then later the room forms the basis of logic the Jews adapted it to our Kiwis the arrows too right now this legacy from the first splurged all today's Western alphabet [Applause] as the Assyrian Empire waned the new imperial power was already on the rise in the Middle East led by another title I am Silas a king mighty king king of the world king of the four quarters of the earth Luxan uh courage Cyrus was a ruthless Conqueror he's about to discover the solids [Applause] in 547 BC Syrus turned his attention to the city of Sardis capital of a wealthy kingdom called Lydia in today's Turkey the Lydians had dared to attack the Persians now Cyrus had come to take his revenge Lydia was a great prize rich in natural deposits of gold and silver ladies [Applause] all the gold in the world couldn't save creases now he was at the mercy of the Persian leader [Applause] according to legend creases called on the god Apollo to save him the Persian king was impressed the US Croesus why he had dared to attack the Persians Croesus blamed the gods and said he regretted causing so much bloodshed in peacetime sans bury their fathers fucking war fathers buried in sons Syrus was learning to use his power in a new way he decided to spare the life of his wise prisoner and appointed him as his advisor but it wasn't only wisdom he acquired from Croesus the Lydians have used their gold to develop a standardized currency the Persians took this idea and introduced it across the Empire and time standardized coins were minted in Greece and throughout the ancient world and reached with the gold and the wisdom of Croesus cyrus carried on expanding his enemy and as he did he gained a new reputation for respect and tolerance and fallen cultures in 539 BC Cyrus encountered the Hebrews of Jerusalem who were living in exile and slavery the Bible says that for many years they've been weeping by the waters of Babylon Cyrus set them free and allowed them to return home he also paid for the rebuilding of their temple in Jerusalem the Wailing Wall is part of it the most sacred Jewish site to this day through his acts of religious tolerance the Persian came became known as Cyrus the Great is the only Gentile ever to be horny with the title Messiah Cyrus the Great went down in history as a wise ruler by listening and showing respect to other cultures and religions he created an enduring Empire known for its progress in prosperity in this age when empires were driven forward by aggression power and wealth a number of extraordinary individuals began to emerge who offered alternative ideas about how to live one of them lived in the foothills of the Himalayas in northern India around the time Silas was liberating the Jews his name was Siddhartha Gautama and he was one of the first great radical thinkers in world history Siddhartha's family were clan leaders we lived a sheltered life in his palace but Siddhartha was not fulfilled he knew that all his wealth wouldn't stop him from growing old becoming ill and perhaps dying in pain and he began to think about the meaning of human existence we here on earth for a reason Siddhartha had never been beyond the walls of his palace after much soul-searching he decided to leave his family and seek answers to his questions in the outside world the first time he was confronted by poverty illness death one question kept coming the game how can we learn to accept the separated for six years Siddhartha wandered through the forests of northern India he wasn't interested in the worldly power of kings the age of empire drove him to look deep into himself searching for a simpler way to live on his troubles he came across holy men but they didn't have answers for him he fasted almost to death but that didn't help either eventually he concluded that to discover wisdom compassion and insight he needed to meditate let my skin and see mousse and bones dry up together with the flesh and blood of my body I will welcome it but I will not move from this place until I have attained the supreme and final wisdom slowly Siddhartha was able to let go of all distractions day by day as my cleaver after 49 days he finally reached a state of inner peace enlightenment Siddhartha became known as the awakened one the Buddha for the rest of his life he traveled through northern India attracting a growing band of followers he believed that meditation could liberate us from desire and suffering his philosophy was passed down from generation to generation by monks chanting the words together so they would never be forgotten in Bodhgaya in eastern india a temple was built next to the Bodhi tree where the buddha had meditated pilgrims still come here from all over the world this tree is said to have grown from the seed of a cutting from the Buddha's original Bodhi tree the Buddha's way of living was the opposite of all Empire builders it had no place for violence no hierarchy and it was open to everyone while the Buddha was seeking a better way of living in India in Europe a better way to rule was beginning to emerge great political experiments of all time began in Athens n-b-c the people rose up tyrannical ruler Nicholas they established a public assembly all male citizens of freedom of speech hold on how the city-state's should be run and the Greeks had two words to describe this demos people and Kratos power law rule demos Kratos the rule of the people democracy just 20 years later the Athenian people were forced to defend their new freedoms from foreign invasion the Persians still ruled the biggest empire in the world the massive invasion force came to swallow up the Athenians fledgling democracy the two armies met a short distance from the city and a place the night before the battle the Greek commander mil tidies knew the odds were against him his troops were outnumbered two to one and this wasn't even a professional army they were ordinary citizens farmers shopkeepers tradesmen among them was a playwright Aeschylus and his brother sin a take their souls no Greek army had ever defeated the Persians in battle their names struck fear into the heart of the Athenian soldiers the Persian commander datas was convinced the Greeks will simply surrender but meltia DS and devised in an expected strategy [Applause] instead of waiting to be attacked the Dixit bucks to the Persians this tactic must have looked like suicide the Persians punch through the sense of the deadlines in these deities had deliberately weakened the center and strengthened the sides of his formation now he ordered those sites to surround him 6,000 urgent soldiers were killed few of the two divisions the brother of Aeschylus was among them the Fallen Greek soldiers were buried under this mound of Earth and nearly two and a half thousand years later they still lie here they died fighting for their freedom and for democracy the Greeks had won the battle but surviving Persians return to their ships and set sail for Athens the exhausted Athenians now had to race 26 miles to defend their city they arrived just in time and the Persian fleet was turned away the legend of a messengers heroic run back to is now remembered in the Gamze ultimate test of courage and stamina they own soldiery schoolís went history's greatest dramatists writing some of the most [Applause] [Applause] the defeat of the Persians heralded the Golden Age of Greece an era of confidence and expansion and the finest culture and literature of the ancient world the Parthenon itself the crowning achievement of Greek architecture is an offering of thanks for the Athenian victory of the Persians democracy had been saved over the centuries that followed in the falter and even disappear for long periods but the idea would never be forgotten while the Greeks were developing the world's first democracy in China another new thinker was challenging the way people lived his ideas were provoked by an age of imperial turn in 500 BC much of the Lund we now call China was dominated by the Zhuo dynasty a line of rulers going back hundreds of years but the Empire was divided by infighting between small rival dukedoms the threat of war dominated the age this time of uncertainty produced a man with a clear vision of how to restore order to society the Chinese call him come too we know him as Confucius Confucius was a civil servant in the court of the Duke of Lu in eastern China it worked his way up from humble origins and now saw that the old standards of discipline and respect were slipping without feelings of respect what is there to distinguish men from beasts Confucius persuaded the Duke to introduce reforms to improve standards in the court but his campaign would face a setback from the Duke himself when he was presented with a gift of some beautiful courtesans the Duke started neglecting his duties audiences were canceled work left undone confucius believed if you didn't set a good example at the top there was little hope for everyone else Jim Tom are you shall wear your t-shirt in Dawa sorry she would harm believing he had failed confucius resigned and left the court the culture of modern china was shaped by Confucius decision to leave that you could lose court he went on the road in search of a wise ruler he could look up to and advise as he traveled he started teaching he slowly began to attract supporters Confucius was convinced that small individual actions could improve the whole of society he urged his followers to honor tradition respect their families and follow ancient rules of good behavior respect yourself and others will respect you to see what is right and not to do it is to lack courage and principles do not do unto others what you would not lie down to yourself Confucius never found a ruler who matched his high ideals when he died at the age of 72 he was convinced he was a failure but his followers continued his work and they wrote down his teachings in a book called the Analects in time the rulers of China came to appreciate the wisdom of Confucian ideas his philosophy finally took root in Chinese society but it became deeply embedded in state institutions Confucius placed discipline order and respect at the heart of Chinese civilization those looking for something more than communist ideology still see the teachings of Confucius was an important lesson for the next generation in Europe in 356 BC an imperial legend was born the son of the king of Macedonia it's ended a wild and broken horse was caught in fact his father to let him try to tame the Beast his father was impressed by success my son seek out the kingdom worthy of yourself Macedonia is too small for you but the horse was named Bucephalus standby at the age of 20 Alexander became a possibility the lessons learned by Cyrus who might even further accept us to conquer he crushed through today's Turkey marched across the Middle East and into Egypt then he conquered the old enemy Persia and carried on towards Afghanistan and the borders of India this was Empire building on an epic scale Alexander led his army sixteen thousand miles on his campaign of conquest he founded 70 new Greek style towns in North Africa and Asia and Greek became the common language across this entire domain like the Persian king Cyrus Alexander was fascinated by the people's he conquered and he saw the bringing together of different coaches as an opportunity to consolidate his empire he mingled Macedonian Greek and Persian customs in his court he started wearing Persian robes the Persian royal crown and even made people prostrate themselves before him in the Persian manner but Alexander's Macedonian generals were outraged by his foreign habits even his trusted friend cleitus thought he was going too far he'd once saved Alexander's life in battle and now he was taunting him for being more Persian than Greek after the death of cleitus Alexander is said to have wept and fasted for three days but then he marched on and came up with an extraordinary new planet a few cultures of Greece in Persia Alexander married two Persian princesses himself and then organized a mass wedding of Macedonian soldiers to local women he rewarded over 10,000 couples with generous calories the union of two great peoples the people of Macedonia and the people of Persia now one Empire let the feasting and dancing begin Alexander hoped that all their children would keep his empire alive for generations to come a marriage of east and west but within a year of the mass wedding at the age of 32 Alexander was dead some say he died of typhoid fever or malaria others that he was poisoned by enemies among his own ranks alexander's vast empire was divided into four kingdoms but the spread of the Greek language customs and culture continued Alexander the Great's rule was short-lived but Greek culture continued to shape the ancient world from Athens to the Middle East from North Africa to Asia Alexander is the most famous Conqueror in history but the greatest legacy of ancient Greece was forged 70 years before him by a man who was prepared to die for his beliefs Socrates the father of Western philosophy Socrates was the opposite of the great Conqueror no glamorous hero striding to the far corners of the known world but a difficult old man who stayed close to home he taught his students here to question everything the unexamined life he said is not worth living Socrates was a critic of how the rulers ruled and of how the people lived he accused the political leaders in Athens of corruption and said that some citizens didn't deserve a vote because they were too stupid to know how to use it wisely in a time of political instability this was dangerous talk the city leaders saw the old man as a threat to their young democracy they were looking for an excuse to silence it it seems our thoughts may be stronger than armies by 399 BC the authorities had heard enough of his awkward questions Oh Socrates there echo Jose cattle name Salinas Socrates was arrested and tried on charges of corrupting the youth of the city and undermining the state he mocked the court for trying to limit his freedom to criticize those in power and he confronted Greek democracy with the dilemma how should an open society deal with dissent he was narrowly convicted the sentence was death the prisoner would be forced to drink the poisonous juice of the hemlock plant Socrates said goodbye to his wife and family and with his students around him prepared for death better to die than to live as a hypocrite [Applause] after Socrates death his ideas lived on from the seeds he planted grow Western philosophy and society is built on the principles of free expression this was a new way of thinking about how to live and how rulers are serve respect there be today the awkward questions Socrates raised are still debated and fought over as passionately as they were when he first raised them from China to India to the Middle Eastern Europe the first age of empire set humanity on the road to the modern world and the next program the word of the sword the world kings and emperors

Medieval Nobility – Historical Presentation



Views:72013|Rating:4.93|View Time:8:46Minutes|Likes:3488|Dislikes:47
A detailed historical presentation about Medieval nobility starting from ancient Rome going all the way through high middle ages and late middle ages.

“The old English nobility of office made way for the Norman nobility of faith and landed wealth” (Winston S. Churchill).

Support me on Patreon for more and better content 😀

Follow me on my social networks:

Royalty free music by Epidemic Sound:

intro ES_Knights Templar 1 – Johannes Bornlöf

intro 2 ES_Medieval Adventure 01 – Johannes Bornlöf

outro ES_Knights Templar 2 – Johannes Bornlöf

Check out the facebook page of the photographer who works with me, he has lots of fantastic pictures

and his instagram

Check out my friend Salvo’s channel

hello number ones welcome back to my channel this is the method one speaking today we're going to talk about number ones throughout history human society has at various intricate models of social class distinction the most famous of which is probably nobility which round immediately under royalty membership thereof being typically hereditary and I believe that most people particularly people like you and me who are interested in medieval society are quite familiar with terms and titles such as Duke count Earl Barron etc but the point I'm trying to draw here is if you were asked right now to make a scale of importance of medieval mobility would you be able to do it now really let's consider these three titles ad Duke and count would you be able to put them in order of importance what if you want to try why don't you write your answer in the comments below the purpose of this video however is purely educational will only present plain historical fact so will not indulge myself into deep discussions about topics such as human rights of human equality which are all a very important concept of course which I strongly syndicated but that in this case will be a Norfolk so to speak hence if you are a knowledgeable individual who has already a profound knowledge of medieval and feudal nobility and you might find this video rather to use for which I apologize profusely but for the others let's get started oddly no I'm very keen on teaching Roman history and I reckon there will be pertinent to do so even in this case because the term nobility originates in ancient Rome from the Latin word know believers which is the abstract noun of the adjective nabis it was an informal designation of the political governing class the dentist's singular against a family individuals sharing the same Norman claiming a common ancestor Roman dentists would normally be divided into category the patricians and their plebeian the patricians which derived from the city fathers thus being more important where themselves divided again into different kinds being dentists mayores the major families and ganders minnows the minor families now from a social political point of view we don't know for certain whether it was a big distinction between dentists Myotis ingenta me notice we don't know the most likely the speaker of the sent the preen caps sanada's was chosen from a member of against my youris now to explain in a few words the social relevance of these ganders within Roman society we can say that they were similar to a state within a state so each gains had its own religious rights its own political rules etc but during the Imperium so during the Imperial time the power and social relevance of these dentists became virtually in existent but with the fall of the Western Roman Empire the and the beginning of medieval times nobility gains back its power and social relevance now in medieval feudal times within the feudal system for instance the nobility where those who held fee-funded vassalage arrest in exchange for and legions the most part military services for a monarch or a high-ranking noblemen it is obvious that in modern times and Noble status which formally conferred significant privileges has become largely honorary exception being yet the UK and the Netherlands but nobility has to be considered as a historical social legal notion which has nothing whatsoever to do with a high social economic status based on income wealth does not eat so facto make someone noble so we have again two different kinds of nobility inherited and conferred a good example of these is France now in France we have wealthy members of the bourgeoisie who wear ennobled by the king so creating the noblesse dahab or in English the nobility of the gown as opposed to the nobility of the sword Lana bless depict and so mainly landed and Knightly nobility who strongly opposed the pretensions of this but the new nobility so another way to describe this nobility of the gown is aristocrats holding rank from the administrative posts now this brings us to our next linguistic point the word aristocrat now this one is different from noble because in this case it can mean two things elevated social status coming from hereditary nobility or moneyed upper class so moving to the scale or nobility we begin from the gentleman we moved to the Esquire the night the hereditary night the baronet baron Viscount and then we move to the path that I mentioned at the beginning of this video that counts and the Earth's Earl is more of a land or Saxon title at least in origin which at the beginning of English history or medieval England was akin to the the title of Duke which is a very high tide and we will see in a mint but towards the late medieval England it was akin to the European count hence its position in this list the anglo-saxon title of urn originated from the Scandinavian title of yard which could be translated as chieftain the title of a yard was that of a Duke in Europe so very it was a very high title of a person governing a certain territory in the stead of a king this is where titles that were here in video games for example Earl in Dragon Age Origins comes from or yard in Skyrim I would personally consider them to be dukes in Skyrim and counts so late medieval urns in Dragon Age the Scandinavian title yard will become obsolete in medieval times and will be replaced by the term Duke we then move to Marcus sovereign prince Duke Prince or Infante in Portugal and Spain Grand Prince Grand Duke Archduke King and Emperor all right then as a general video about this very deep topic I think that this is good for today I hope that you enjoyed it and if you did please thumbs up and remember to subscribe to my channel for more content from the Metatron and we'll make many more videos if you would like me to do so about this topic and perhaps I was considering making one video for each noble rank or noble title so a video full account of beautiful the earlier video for the yarn are beautiful the Emperor do etc if you like this idea please let me know in the comments below for now thank you very much for watching and remember the Metatron has spread his wings goodbye you

The British Empire vs The Roman Empire – Historical Comparison



Views:806124|Rating:4.63|View Time:7:45Minutes|Likes:14501|Dislikes:1171
Today we’ll look at two mighty historical empires, in this episode of the Infographics show, The British Empire vs. The Roman Empire.
💚SUBSCRIBE: 💚

WEBSITE (You can suggest a topic):

SUPPORT US:
Patreon…….►

CHAT:
DISCORD…..►

SOCIAL:
Facebook…►
Instagram..►
Twitter……..►
Subreddit…►

————————————————————————–
Sources for this episode:

Wild Animals – The Cat Empire (2013)



Views:188280|Rating:4.90|View Time:4:4Minutes|Likes:283|Dislikes:6
The fifth song from the new album “Steal the light” of a great Australian band The Cat Empire.

The audio file is not ripped by me, is in 128kbps and was online streamed.

However, if you do not own an original copy of this album, I strongly suggest ordering one, because it’s worth having it and supporting the author!!!

** I do NOT own any copyrights of the picture, shown in the video (which is album cover picture) nor for the audio in the video. I’m not the author of any of those two, but did merge them to a flv format.**

Ten Minute History – The Late British Empire (Short Documentary)



Views:957638|Rating:4.86|View Time:10:Minutes|Likes:13071|Dislikes:371
Twitter:
Patreon:

This episode of Ten Minute History (like a documentary, only shorter) covers the growth of the British Empire after the American Revolution all the way to its end with the handover of Hong Kong. The first half deals with the Pax Britannica and British global hegemony through the Sepoy mutiny. The second half deals with the apex of the empire after World War One and its subsequent decline and fall.

Twitter:

Ten Minute History is a series of short, ten minute animated narrative documentaries that are designed as revision refreshers or simple introductions to a topic. Please note that these are not meant to be comprehensive and there’s a lot of stuff I couldn’t fit into the episodes that I would have liked to. Thank you for watching, though, it’s always appreciated.

The Ancient Greeks: Crucible of Civilization – Episode 1: Revolution (History Documentary)



Views:383474|Rating:4.72|View Time:54:59Minutes|Likes:1320|Dislikes:77
The Ancient Greeks: Crucible of Civilization – Episode 1: Revolution (History Documentary)

It was perhaps the most spectacular flourishing of imagination and achievement in recorded history. In the Fourth and Fifth Centuries BC, the Greeks built an empire that stretched across the Mediterranean from Asia to Spain. They laid the foundations of modern science, politics, warfare and philosophy, and produced some of the most breathtaking art and architecture the world has ever seen. This series, narrated by Liam Neeson, recounts the rise, glory, demise and legacy of the empire that marked the dawn of Western civilization. The story of this astonishing civilization is told through the lives of heroes of ancient Greece. The latest advances in computer and television technology rebuild the Acropolis, recreate the Battle of Marathon and restore the grandeur of the Academy, where Socrates, Plato and Aristotle forged the foundation of Western though. The series combines dramatic storytelling, stunning imagery, new research and distinguished scholarship to render classical Greece gloriously alive.

EPISODE 1: THE REVOLUTION
The first part tells the story of the troubled birth of the world’s first democracy, ancient Athens, through the life of an Athenian nobleman, Cleisthenes. In the brutal world of the 5th century BC, the Athenians struggle against a series of tyrants and their greatest rival, Sparta, to create a new “society of equals.” This documentary makes history entertaining as well as educational. Beautifully photographed, using reenactments, paintings, maps, pottery, metalwork, and “living statues” to take the viewer on a vicarious journey through ancient Greece. Episode one, The Revolution, begins at the dawn of democracy in 508 B.C., with the revolution of the common people against aristocratic rule. The film then travels further back in time to chronicle the key events leading up to the revolution. As the camera roams ancient ruins, the Greek countryside, and old stone roads, the viewer learns that the inhabitants of Greece once lived in mud houses with no sewage and frequently fell prey to disease and warfare. Unable to write, they memorized their works of literature in order to pass them on to the next generation. Over time, their hardship and learning whetted their appetite for freedom. After rule by tyrants of the aristocratic class and a struggle for power, Cleisthenes (570-507 B.C.), himself an aristocrat, sided with the common people of Athens and brought democracy into being. From this beginning, western democracy developed and flourished. All the while during their early maturation into a Mediterranean power, Athens and other city-states had to live with the threat of war from expansionist Sparta as well as the vast Persian Empire. But democracy had taken root, and it proved in the long run to be a greater force than the mightiest of armies. The program closes on the eve of the new society’s first great test: invasion by the mighty empire of Persia.

british empire history Documentaries 2016



Views:23071|Rating:4.32|View Time:1:5:31Minutes|Likes:89|Dislikes:14
At its peak, the British Empire was the largest formal empire that the world had ever known. As such, its power and influence stretched all over the globe; shaping .

History of the British Empire | History Documentary Films The historiography of the British Empire refers to the studies, sources, critical methods and .

History Of The British Empire – Documentary The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or .

Thank you for watching ! If you enjoyed it, like and subscribe please. You can let me know in the comments what is your opinion on the topic of the video.

Ten Minute History – The Early British Empire (Short Documentary)



Views:1273105|Rating:4.84|View Time:10:Minutes|Likes:15334|Dislikes:492
Twitter:
Patreon:

This episode of Ten Minute History (like a documentary, only shorter) covers the birth and rise of the British Empire from the reign of Henry VII all the way to the American Revolution. The first part deals with the Tudors and their response to empire in Spain (as well as the Spanish Armada). The second part deals with England’s (and later Britain’s) establishment of its own empire in North America and India. It then concludes with the Seven Years’ War and the American Revolution.

Twitter:

Ten Minute History is a series of short, ten minute animated narrative documentaries that are designed as revision refreshers or simple introductions to a topic. Please note that these are not meant to be comprehensive and there’s a lot of stuff I couldn’t fit into the episodes that I would have liked to. Thank you for watching, though, it’s always appreciated.

History of the World: Every Year



Views:7544930|Rating:4.67|View Time:16:36Minutes|Likes:138245|Dislikes:9755
The entire history of the World from the rise of civilisation to the present day.

Drex’s channel:
—————————————————
Music:
00:09 – The Whale (Life of Pi)
02:06 – Audiomachine – Blood & Stone
05:22 – Globus – Preliator
09:00 – Antti Martikainen – Barbarossa
12:11 – Peter Crowley – The Treasure Quest
14:36 – Zack Hemsey – See what I’ve become
Outro: Kawai Kenji – Kishi Ou No Hokori

The Eagle – Movie Historical Evaluation



Views:176508|Rating:4.95|View Time:19:29Minutes|Likes:7074|Dislikes:67
This is a very detailed historical evaluation of the film The Eagle, taking into consideration real Roman history.

Roma Invicta!

Follow me on my social networks:

Music:
intro ES_Knights Templar 1 – Johannes Bornlöf

outro ES_Knights Templar 2 – Johannes Bornlöf

History of The Byzantine Empire – Documentary



Views:28361|Rating:4.85|View Time:59:40Minutes|Likes:1467|Dislikes:45
In this video, we discuss the history of the Byzantine Empire, from the year that Western Rome fell, 476, onwards.

Check us out here too!
Patreon: www.Patreon.com/Fireoflearning
Facebook:
Instagram: @Fire_of_Learning
Twitter: @Fire_Learning

Picture sources
By Nserrano – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
By Constantine Plakidas – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Ra Boe – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. CC BY-SA 2.5,
By Gun Powder Ma – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By User:Fabienkhan – Own work, CC BY-SA 2.5,
By Petar Milošević – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
By Roger Culos – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Dpalma01 – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By mehrdad68, CC BY 3.0,
By Cplakidas – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By en:User:Bigdaddy1204 – Photograph taken in June 2006 in Istanbul by en:User:Bigdaddy1204. All credits go to him., CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Roberta F. – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Nepenthes – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Marina Milella – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,
By Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. CC BY-SA 3.0,
By cheesy42 – CC BY 2.0,
By Berthold Werner – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Stanislav Traykov – Edited version of (cloned object out of background) Image:Michelangelo’s Pieta 5450 cropncleaned.jpg), CC BY 2.5,
By Klearchos Kapoutsis from Paleo Faliro, Athens, Greece – The Great Basilica, CC BY 2.0,
By Brocken Inaglory – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By Arild Vågen – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By MapMaster – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,
By RG72 – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Partial Map sources:

Rome according to legend founded in April of 753 BC this small village would over the course of a thousand years build one of the greatest and longest lived empires in history yet around the beginning of the 3rd century AD a series of events were set in motion that would sicken and eventually kill the Western Empire corruption economic difficulty external and internal warfare invasion and migration disease and frankly carelessness would bring the Empire to its end in 476 ad but only in the West though the Empire began to rust in this time there were men who endeavor to save the Empire such as Diocletian who divided the empire to ease administration and Constantine who moved his capital to the east in his City which was renamed after him Constantinople these emperors in particular were key in preserving the empire not just for a few centuries but for another millennium though the West fell in the 5th century the eastern Roman Empire would live on until the 15th century we call these eastern medieval Greek Romans the Byzantines but they called themselves Rome a Romans and that's how they always saw themselves hello and welcome the fire of learning I'm Justin and in this video we will be exploring the history of the Byzantine Empire the story of an empire between worlds but ultimately its own world an empire of religion tradition and culture an empire on the crossroads of the world which attracted the attention of all from the trade it conducted with India and China to the Vikings and employed as elite Guardsmen to the writing system and religion it would give too much of Eastern Europe an empire of innovation great works of architecture advanced communication and secret weapons of war an empire which faced the wrath of numerous rivals Persians Arabs Slavs holy Romans Vikings Crusaders Ottomans an empire which preserved Roman heritage in the Classical era to the Renee sots before we begin I would like to thank Alan Thornburg for being our most recent patreon supporter as well as the other patrons listed here mentioned in past videos who have donated since our last documentary they join these supporters who make these videos possible thank you all for joining us as we now add the Byzantine Empire or the eastern Roman Empire to the list of nations and peoples whose history we have fully covered in our documentary series as always I plan to cover the history from A to Z so if you enjoy this video and find it informative please consider subscribing to fire up learning here on YouTube if you haven't already Byzantium or Eastern Rome how should we treat this Empire as the continuation of the Roman Empire or as a successor State this is a topic worthy of its own video but to summarize the eastern Roman Empire was not referred to as the Byzantine Empire until the sixteenth century a hundred years after it had already fallen it was a name created by Western Renaissance historians who wanted to separate the medieval Greek Eastern from an empire from the Western Latin Rome of Caesar and Cicero though an anachronism and though I favor the perspective that this was a continuation of Rome not a completely separate successor state I will use both terms interchangeably I myself don't mind the term Byzantine Empire as long as we remember that Byzantine is another way of saying the eastern Roman Empire post 476 ad speaking of that year let's go there now the eastern emperor in the year 476 was Zeno the asourian who had begun his rule two years prior he would carry the east through one of the Empire's darkest hours the men who had delivered the final blow to the Western Roman Empire in 476 was a barbarian general who was serving in the Roman army Oh to wacker Oh to wacker deposed the final puppet Emperor Romulus Augustus instead of claiming the position of Emperor for himself he sent the Imperial regalia to Zeno saying that Rome no longer needed a Western Emperor and that he was willing ostensibly to be a vassal of the Eastern Emperor though not the most surprising turn of events given the situation the West had been in for over a century now Zeno and the Romans of the day were very bothered by this state of affairs but for the time being there was little they could do Zeno was too busy with problems in the east to intervene barbarian Ostrogoths for ravaging the Balkans and he had to deal with contenders for the throne challenging his legitimacy yet despite these events it is important to remember that the dream of Rome was not lost to the people of the day just because of these circumstances the concept of Rome disappearing totally was unthinkable Rome was not an empire it was the Empire destined to rule the world forever many Romans didn't doubt that and just assume that this was a temporary setback one day the lost lands would reunite with the East currently a Roman rump state in modern France that historians call the kingdom of Swann would hold out for a few years and in Dalmatia Ullaeus napus would continue to claim to be the western Emperor until 480 in the city of Rome the Senate still functioned and would until the 7th century Ladin was still commonly spoken barbarian invaders still converted to Christianity and many of the native peoples of the West still saw themselves as full true Romans if Rome did have a real chance though it would have to come from the east in the late for a DZ no decided to kill two birds with one stone recognizing that Italy likely a lost cause at least for the moment he encouraged the Ostrogoths to march on oda walker's kingdom and take it over the Ostrogoths agreed and they were successful Zeno thus eliminated his rival or whacker and got the Ostrogoths out of his territory the next few decades were comparatively stable he died in 491 and the throne went to anastasius the first darkness Theseus was a competent administrator and ruled with less difficulty than many of the successors his reign foreshadowed many of the problems that the Byzantine Empire would be facing throughout its existence the first was war with the east in this case Sassanid Persia the war with Persia from 502 to 506 called the Anastasia war was merely a brief conflict begun over a territorial dispute the significance of this war was that it was the first time in around 60 years that the two empires had gone to war and it would as I said foreshadow conflicts to come secondly the rule of Anastasius endured religious controversy Christianity was by now firmly rooted in the Roman Empire and had been for centuries traditional pagans represented a very small unfavorable minority despite this Christianity was still in many ways figuring itself out because the Christian religion is absolutely central to the history of the Byzantine Empire it is necessary to discuss the controversies that arose the current one in question was the Monophysite controversy from mono fizz's meaning single nature many of these early controversies had to do with Christ place in relation to God the Father but twist of all of this is that Anastasius came to favor the Monophysite view of things despite what the church held to be true the result the Pope in Rome and the emperor in Constantinople disagreed on theology and not for the last time Anastasius died in 518 a.d leaving behind an empire which was in fairly decent shape administratively and financially though a little on the heretical side the throne passed to an elderly man named Houston us came usiness or justin the first born a peasant justin rose to become a prominent military commander and later used his position to come to the throne he rolled until five twenty seven reversing the religious changes of his predecessor and doing his best to avoid war war did come though in 526 once more with Persia in the last year of Justin's life he appointed his nephew Houston Janos Justinian to be his co Emperor and after his death his successor leaving him to deal with this and many other issues in the empire christine ian was up to the challenge he was a profound choice for successor he would be a complicated and controversial ruler but an effective and strong one who got the Empire back to being moving strong and exciting he would earn the title Justinian the great throughout his reign and even become a saint his goal nothing less than bringing the Roman Empire back to the west like his uncle Justinian had been born a peasant in the Balkans not much is known about his early life so he quickly showed signs of intelligence ambition and a high work ethic in 525 a few years before becoming Emperor he met his future Empress Theodora the marriage of Justinian and Theodora is among history's most interesting marriages Theodora caught his eye as in actress and our modern world famous actors and actresses are internationally idolized in the medieval world it was one of the lowest positions in society an actress was also implicitly a prostitute so this was hugely controversial laws were overturned prohibiting this kind of thing just so the marriage could take place on top of all this she was a Monophysite but trust in Ian didn't seem to mind strange as the marriage may be it seems to have been one of genuine love despite her background the reputation Theodore would turn out to be a key player in Byzantine history as well when Justin died in 527 Justinian became sole ruler thanks to the work of his predecessors Justinian inherited an empire that was in good condition and ready for grand and daring plans he started with performing taxation his minister Johnna Cappadocia was one of the most efficient tax collectors in the history of the Empire providing his government with much-needed funds we can tell he was effective because not many people had good things to say about him next was legal reforms Justinian revised Roman law completely in what is remembered as the corpus UD ski wheelies or the Justinian code a body of law which influences us to this day all the while though the war with Persia which had begun under his uncle remembered as the iberian war was still going on for just onions plans to truly get underway the persians had to be dealt with he agreed to pay the persians a tribute to keep them quiet this finally freed up his attention and will allow him to focus on new fronts during this war with Persia Justinian had found the man he needed to lead his forces on these fronts a general named Belisarius Belisarius born 500 AD in modern-day Bulgaria had gained Justinian's favour in the fight against the Persians beating them in battles of his Daraa where he was outnumbered two to one unfortunately Justinian's next battle was not where he was expecting it it came a little too close to home in Constantinople itself and 532 the Nika riots began these riots began following a number of events revolving around chariot races Chariot Racing was the main sport of the Byzantine Empire gladiator fights weren't very popular with Christians so they were gone by now there was a stadium in the city called the Hippodrome which would hold around a hundred thousand people and two main teams the blues and the greens you could compare them to the Mets and Yankees in New York but the key here is that they also acted like political parties in an important sense as well Justinian was forced to execute two chariot racers because they were guilty of violence the crowd demanded mercy but he refused because of this the crowd and Constantinople then united against him in anger during the next game shouting Nika meaning conquer and Greek at him a number of politicians seized a moment and began to support and direct the angry crowds for their own gain and soon it turned into a massive uncontrollable riot which lasted for days and destroyed a huge section of city Justinian prepared to flee knowing that this would mean a new Emperor would rise in his place however he was stopped by his wife Theodora who persuaded him and his men to stay with a moving speech saying she would rather die in the Imperial purple didn't live as a refugee Justinian realized she was right he summoned a Belisarius and his forces already present in the city they managed to trap much of the mob in the Hippodrome and slaughtered 30,000 of them decisively ending the riots with a harsh blow from the rubble of the destroyed sections of the city Justinian intended for a new Constantinople to bloom at its heart a grand new church to replace the old one which had burned in the riots he would construct the aya Sophia the Church of holy wisdom it still stands in the time of Justinian it was the greatest church in the world located in the greatest city in the world now the time was right for action in the West the Western Empire had only been gone for around 60 years it was time to bring it back she began with North Africa sending Belisarius to conquer the vandal Kingdom that had been set up there thus arias was rapidly successful taking North Africa Sicily and Sardinia within a year he rode through the territory not as a conqueror but as a liberator instructing his men to respect the people of the territory they were Romans after all next was Italy Vasari is commended only a small force of 7,500 men in Italy the days of massive Roman armies being fielded were gone by this time but Belisarius was still able to ride through capturing important settlements without much resistance until they reached the city of Naples by 541 Belisarius had retaken Italy from the Ostrogoths using clever tactics to take cities like Naples Rome and even the well-defended city of Ravenna but then he was recalled Persia had returned and was attempting to use Rome's distraction in the West to attack them but thus arias was entrusted to counter this threat war raged between the eternal enemies of Persia and Rome but the fighting grinded to a halt when a new invader entered the scene the Justinian plague the first recorded incidence of plague in fact this play came from the east and devastated both Byzantium and Persia the Roman Empire and Persia for that matter was very much urbanized compared to the peoples of Western Europe and with hundreds of thousands of people living in close proximity in places like Alexandria and Constantinople the plague spread rapidly even reaching Justinian himself it would kill as much as a quarter of the world's population in total so many bodies piled up in places like Constantinople where half the population died that people didn't even know how to get rid of them anymore the emperor was among the lucky however and after a long fight with it he recovered still when he did he had to deal with the fact that his industrious empire had been drained of its power the play came when Justinian needed the empire at its peak that gave the Ostrogoths in Italy the opportunity to reclaim the peninsula and it would take Belisarius and the other commanders of Justinian years to put them down again though eventually they did and 5:48 Theodora died of cancer and Justinian was so overcome with grief that he refused to remarry despite not having any heirs he continued his reign for 17 more years until 565 dying shortly after his general Alice arias in that time despite these setbacks he worked tirelessly toward his goals and by the year of his death the Roman Empire looked a little bit like its old self again it was an image of glory the empire had reached its greatest extent since the fall of the West but this image was deceiving deep down the empire had worn itself Italy had caused more than it was even worth to maintain the empire had been crippled by plague his finances had been spent and armies exhausted it was in no shape to continue further who knows how history might have changed if one thing like the plague hadn't hindered him perhaps the greatest misfortune Fordyce inian who was one of Rome's greatest emperors and Belisarius one of its greatest commanders was that they were born a century too late the Empire's weakness had become more evident under his nephew and successor the mentally ill Emperor Justin ii historians frequently note the difference between the two and some called Justinian the last Roman Emperor he was the last emperor to speak fluent Latin Greek language and culture became more prominent after his rule he was the last emperor with any realistic hopes of reuniting with the West of course we only know that from hindsight remember that the hope and intention was still present and after him the Empire's slowly began to join the rest of Europe in the Dark Ages though Justinian was a competent and able ruler his misfortunes were too great and his dreams were never fully realized as he died he left an M fire that seemed much less able to handle the new threats that were not far away the Romans were unable to fully retain control over the Italian peninsula not long after Justinian's death in 568 a dramatic tribe called the Lombards seize the moment and invaded Italy the Byzantines were only able to defend certain areas around Rome Ravenna and the south the peninsula retained this patchwork of borders shown here for over two centuries but at least Byzantium had held not long after in 582 other non-dramatic barbarian groups broke through the Balkans they managed to capture the city of sirmium in modern-day Serbia these groups we know as the avars and the Slavs the avars were a group of nomadic horse warrior people from the Eurasian steppes not too dissimilar from the Huns prior to this point they had been busy growing in power by asserting dominance over the territory north of the Danube the Slavs were a group of people who began migrating west and south during this time from around modern-day Russia you've likely heard of his group as they survived to the modern day and are the founders of nations like Russia Poland and multiple Balkan nations like Serbia and Croatia which have their origins in this place in time when sirmium was captured the door was open for the whole of the Balkans to be ravaged by these groups however 582 was the same year that the Emperor of mabye Chios known in english as maurice took a throne and he would have something to say to the new invaders maurice would spend most of his 20 year reign in the balkans fighting these invaders often trying to stabilize the region once again the cost of this focus was parts of the West the Roman presence there was too weak allowing the Visigoths to take over parts of Spain and the lombards more of Italy Byzantium grip on Western Europe would always be tenuous for as long as it lasted fortunately at least Maurice was able to count on stability in the East when the Persian Emperor Costra ii was deposed maurice and the romans intervened in a persian civil war and help restore Khosrow to the throne because of this assistance khosrau agreed to in eternal peace as thanks and the fighting stopped for the rest of maurices reign entire Roman cities were destroyed by the combined efforts of the loosely allied of ours and Slavs and the Balkans but Maurice was bringing stability to the situation Maurice was the successor licinia needed he possibly even planned to revive the western empire leaving the Roman Empire divided between his two sons he never got the chance however in 602 while visiting Constantinople Maurice was overthrown by a joint civilian and military effort and he and his family were killed a usurper Foucault's then took the throne though the military and population imposed Maurice in hindsight we can see that he was holding the situation together more than the Romans realized many of the troops stationed in the Balkans had left with vel'koz relieving the pressure on the Slavs and bars up north furthermore the Persian Emperor khosrau was able to use the fact that his old friend Maurice had been overthrown to justify an invasion of the Roman Empire for his personal ambitions whatever progress was being made was now largely being lost in the 650 or so years that Roman Persia had shared a border the war that had just been started the Byzantine sasanian war of 602 to 628 which I personally think should be called the Erechtheion war he is among the most notable of all their conflicts on the verge of being victorious in the Balkans the new emperor focus had to draw troops from there to fight against Persia allowing the Avars and Slavs time to recover focus fought a losing battle against the Persians as they slowly gained territory in 610 Focus 2 was overthrown by a powerful conspirator from North Africa named Iraq leus the first decade of Pericles his reign was also marked by critical defeats as the Persians took cities like Caesarea Jerusalem Antioch and even Alexandria depriving the Romans of very important pieces of their empire a threat of losing the whole east of the empire was not real exploiting this weakness the avars and Slavs now feeling quite recovered pounced on the Balkans yet again the chaos in this time was so great that historians actually lack a lot of details about this time period things were just too tumultuous to be writing things down the war was no longer even just about maintaining the eastern provinces now it was about surviving in 626 the Empire came close to death Constantinople itself was besieged in a combined Persian Avar and Slav effort though the enemies of Rome had United in this effort before them stood a Herculean task breaching the best defensive city in the world in its nearly 1200 years under Roman rule Constantinople only fell two times this was not one of those times the Romans defeated the invaders and then pushed back her acquiesced daringly then began to attack the Persians in their own land causing chaos among their ranks in 627 they met at the Battle of Nineveh some tales state that her ackley is actually met a few Persian commanders including the general here in single combats and one each time during this battle whether or not that's true is unclear but either way what is clear is that Nineveh came as a key victory for the Romans the Persian Emperor khosrau was overthrown in a panic and purged of accepted peace in 628 the two sides agreed to restore the pre-war borders and agreements there was still much to sort out and the Balkans were by no means safe but the Empire had been saved perhaps now her acquiesced and the Romans could breathe a sigh of relief or perhaps not as all of us have been going on the rest of the world had been busy – not far away in the city of Mecca a new religion had been founded the religion of Islam this new religion was about to spread rapidly as the Warriors of Islam forge an empire that would stretch from Spain the borders of India within a century the first target of the Islamic conquests both Persia and the Romans one thing I want to clarify is that the Persians and Arabs are separate people Arabs are a separate ethnic group sort of like slobs in Europe this is true then and today modern Persia aka Iran is not an Arabic nation cuz I wanted to clarify that because it is not clarified often enough and they wanted to avoid confusion now then the Arabs had been united under Islam the successors of the Prophet Muhammad were ready to pounce on the world starting with Rome and Persia the state they had formed is known as the rash ADUN caliphate I mentioned that the Korean War was one of the most important wars fought between Rome and Persia but the result of this war was to simply return for the most part to pre-war conditions the war was profound because it helps pave the way for this new era in history the Islamic conquest because it had weakened the two empires so significantly the Muslims began their conquests at an ideal time both Persia and Rome were trying to recuperate and many of their soldiers were a little on the dead side the Emperor Heraclius now an old anxious man was not expecting a new offensive in 634 forces under the first caliph Abu Bakr Invisibles Rome and Persia this came as a huge surprise both empires had been in contact with the Arab people as for centuries but up to this point the only threat they posed was small tribal raids frankly they were mere nuisances in August of that year they captured the city of Damascus and began to pressure many important cities of both empires clearly this was a little bit of a bigger issue overwhelmed the Romans and Persians realized the enemy of their enemy was their friend and worked together to try to stop the invader but would it be enough in August of 636 the Romans and Arabs met at the Battle of Yarmouk the Arabs had around 17,000 men under the command of Khalid ib'n Alwaleed and the Byzantines had perhaps twice as number or more under Theodor tree theories despite being outnumbered Khalid ib'n Alwaleed skillfully managed to outmatch the Romans and won decisively this catastrophic defeat opened the door for the Arabs to move into the rest of the Levant the following year in 637 Jerusalem Gaza Antioch and also the Persian capital of tes upon all fell to the Muslim armies Arab foreign policy was quite simple war to all non-muslims however domestic policy was actually comparatively quite amiable the early Muslim caliphates in many situations tolerated other monotheistic groups such as Christians specifically non Orthodox Christians here like monophysites as well as Jews and even Persians over s-trans much more than the Byzantines had combined with the fact that the Arabs offered lower taxes and certain groups list loyal to the Orthodox from an empire weren't exactly sad to be under a new landlord in 639 the conquest of North Africa began Egypt too was swiftly fall from the hands of the exhausted Romans by 643 Alexandria had been taken and the whole of Roman Egypt was under Arab rule and there were no signs that they were prepared to stop there in fact that same year the Arabs had come to dominate much of the Persian Empire they were moving fast the loss of Egypt was economically politically and strategically crippling it had been a Roman breadbasket for centuries and now it's laws cut off the food supply to the Empire without this food supply Constantinople elation would drop to fifty thousand or one tenth of its former size furthermore the cultural and political significance of places like Alexandria made a JYP's loss even more of a crushing blow with Egypt gone it was unclear how exactly the Byzantines could mount a reconquest of the East and the door was now open to the rest of North Africa in the face of this chaos the Byzantines were forced to reorganize they would develop a new system a thematic system the thematic system reorganized the provinces and combined military and administrative positions if you recall from the fall of Rome Documentary Diocletian actually had separated military and political administration furthermore in this system land was to be loaned to so in places like Anatolia and later the Balkans this reduced the amount of money needed for the military as soldiers could be paid with lands and filled the provinces with soldiers were ready to be called up it also set up farming communities which helped ease the loss of Egypt Heraclitus had died a few years prior in 641 his first son died of tuberculosis and his second son was overthrown leaving konstanz a second his grandson on the throne though the Eastern Roman says was to act as regent until around 646 as he was only a boy at the time the eastern roman senate was still alive and kicking it's not entirely clear how much power exactly it maintained in this time although it was of course nothing like the days of be Republic in 643 the Arabs expanded into the rest of North Africa in 645 however Arab forces were recalled as the Caliphate was distracted by the khazar khaganate this encouraged the Romans to try to retake the all-important Alexandria but they failed by 647 the Arabs had expanded all the way across the Byzantine Holdings in North Africa taking the area of what was once Carthage in 651 the Arabs completely toppled Assassin and persians once and for all was the same fate now awaiting the Romans from their new base in Egypt the Arabs were able to construct a fleet to challenge the Byzantine Navy which opened up much of the rest of the empire to potential conquest perhaps even Constantinople itself this Navy was used to capture tsipras and Crete in 653 and roads in 654 disturbed by these events Emperor Constance ii now a young man met the arabs at the naval battle of the masts in 655 the romans lost massively perhaps 500 roman ships were destroyed here Constanza ii was barely able to escape and only did so because apparently he approached his sailor and told him you know what you would look great in purple konstanz then dressed up like a sailor and the arabs killed the unfortunate man dressed up like an emperor the Byzantine Empire was in very bad condition the Slavs had heavily invaded and migrated into much Balkans during his time as well going as far south as modern Greece reducing Byzantine territory to half of Anatolia along the Taurus Mountains some coastal territories of the Balkans and some Mediterranean and Italian lands following the Battle of the masts however the skilled Arab commander mu'awiya led led these invasions had to turn back to deal with a civil war which had erupted among the Arabs this Arab civil war relieved the pressure on the Romans and provided them with the opportunity to retake parts of North Africa and the Balkans it would be the downfall of the rash of Dune caliphate but the new dynasty which rose in its place in 661 began the Umayyad Caliphate which would rule for nearly a century and build one of the largest empires in history by resuming with a rash adoun caliphate had begun war upon Rome konstanz ii is not remembered well he had ordered a cessation of theological debate in his empire in order to try to create religious unity in a time when Christianity was threatened by Islam he even went so far as to exiled Pope Martin at first to Crimea for defending the necessity of theological debate he tried to escape those who began to hate him by moving to Syracuse but in 668 he was assassinated his son constantinos the fourth in English Constantine the fourth was then made Emperor being a Byzantine Emperor was becoming a dangerous job as time went on it would be clear that the Romans have learned little from their history as struggles to sit on the throne toward the Empire apart at a time when unity was crucial not long after this the Muslims went for the heart of the Roman Empire itself in 674 they besieged Constantinople Rome was on its last legs but Constantine a fourth was determined to defend the great city he relied on a new weapon known to them as Roman sea fire but to us as Greek fire Greek fire was a kind of medieval flamethrower that was mounted in this battle on ships it burned the Arab fleets and was likely responsible for driving them off and saving a city Roman saved itself for the second time in a century but it would not bounce back as it once had the loss of many of the eastern territories of the Empire apart from North Africa which was briefly held again after the siege were permanent these lands were changing religiously culturally politically ethnically and socially laying the foundation for some of the modern nations of the Middle East to evolve even when a piece what the Caliphate was concluded constantina forth was not able to kick back and relax Byzantine hold over the Balkans continued to slip as various Slavic groups continued migrating into the region because the Slavs settled in and controlled the countryside many of the great cities of the Balkans had shrunk further even if they weren't directly attacked it was to the Balkans that the Emperor now turned his attention to retake what the Slavs had taken during a time of weakness but now a new contender rode in from the northeast a nomadic people known as the bull gars the bull gars had been known to the Byzantine Empire for some time and even served as occasional allies when they were centred in this region here now after the death of the great bull gar King ku brought caused our invasion forced the sons of kubrick off from their homeland they divided the tribes and went off in various directions one of which was toward the Balkans under a leader named oz / ik hospira crossed the Danube and began to establish control over the region around northern frase and Malaysia which had been heavily settled by Slavs but was still nominally under Byzantine rule Constantine the 4th march to push them out but his army fumbled at the Battle of on Gaul and they were defeated by a Bulgarian forest half their size this was a critical loss it forced the Byzantines to recognize the establishment of the bulgarian kingdom and thus the first bulgarian empire began this was unique though many lands in the balkans had been lost the romans rarely acknowledged the claims of the invaders constantine DeForest died in 685 only 33 years old from the Z's he left behind an empire was still a shadow of its former self but the his and his recent predecessors credit even though it was not an empire that won every fight it still could put up a fight he was succeeded by his 16 year old son Justinian the second Justinian the second continued the work of his father trying to push back the Arabs and reclaim the Balkans he was initially successful against the Arabs as military strikes into Armenia led to the two empires agreeing to divide it they also agreed to a joint ownership of Cyprus he then defeated the Slavs and bull gars and the Balkans in multiple areas however when he attacked the Arabs again he would not be so successful Justinian was reliant upon a large force of Slovak troops in his war but at the Battle of Sebastopol s in 692 found that many of them decided to defect outraged Justinian was forced to retreat some sources say that as he returned through Anatolia he slaughtered the Slavic men women and children that had been allowed to settle there as revenge although this story probably isn't true still he was certainly not a happy camper not long after this Armenia was lost and soon North Africa which had changed hands a few times by now was permanently lost to the Muslims over the next few years Justinian the second would also fail on the home front he would enact unpopular religious policies and even unsuccessfully tried to arrest the Pope he raised taxes and came into conflict with the aristocracy over land rights in 695 his subjects had had enough they rebelled he was deposed and earned his nickname arenak Methos roughly the noseless a common punishment for crime in the east at this time was to cut someone's nose off the idea was that was a merciful alternative to killing someone and in this sense it prevents a Justin in a second from retaking a throne because of a very ancient Roman belief that an emperor should not be physically disabled or so they thought Justinian ii would spend the next decade wearing a false golden nose seeking assistance to retake thrown by 7:05 he had made a deal with the Bulgarians who provided him with a number of troops he then snuck into Constantinople began a coup d'etat and reassumed power using the leaders who had overthrown him as footstools at a celebratory chariot race before beheading them the impression one gets of Justinian a second and his second reign is basically red skull wandering around the Imperial Palace and purple robes ruling insanely and tyrannically but like Commodus and Caligula he probably was not as bad as he was recorded sometimes these Bab Roman emperors just got on the wrong side of the people who write history but it is clear Justinian a second was indeed ruthless after his research into power he resumed war against the Arabs and betrayed the Bulgarians resuming war against them as well in 711 however he was to post again this time permanently he was beheaded and that made it difficult for him to reclaim power the Empire would then spend the next decade attempting to recover from this political strife the next six years were presented over by three emperors who each ruled for two years the first two were overthrown in the third Theodosius the third chose to resign before he could be overthrown this period dated from the first deposition of justice in a second in 695 the Theodosius the third resigning in 717 is often called the 20 years anarchy because of its volatility and because he knew it lasted for around 20 years it is a miracle that the Byzantine Empire was able to survive not only being surrounded on both sides by enemies one of which was the most militarily powerful and expensive of the day but to have done so while undergoing leadership crises and domestic turmoil in 717 Theodosius the third resigned the throne to Leo the third just in time to face the Arabs in 717 the Umayyad Caliphate besieged Constantinople for the second time this was the third time in the past hundred years that the capital came under direct attack in arab forests under muslimah urban Abid al-malik besieged constantinople in the summer of 717 on both land and on sea numbers are unclear but the arabs appear to have had tens of thousands maybe over a hundred thousand men and as much as a couple thousand ships the Byzantines had only around 12,000 men but recall of course some of the best offenses in the world right away the Arabs once more had to contend with Greek fire which broke the morale of their sailors but did not prevent them from forming a blockade around the city the battle seemed uncertain this was an overwhelming force if Constantinople broke the Empire was done and the Arabs could then spill across Dark Age Europe in the fall however in the distance a new player was seen riding in 15,000 strong under King Turville son of aspera it was the Bulgarians recently allied to Rome the Bulgarians attacked the Arabs from behind and pinned them between them in the city the Arabs were forced to endure this situation over the winter in a colder climate to which they were not accustomed in the spring though Arab reinforcements arrived some of the reinforcements sent however were Christians and they chose to defect to the Byzantine side it borders on amazing how wrong the seat was going for the Arabs by late summer 718 the Arabs could not continue to siege and that was lifted it was a truly historic battle frankly the Arabs should have won this siege along with the Battle of tour with Charles Martel and modern France in 732 were major setbacks that repelled the Muslim forces from invading mainland Europe with the exception of Spain and Portugal until later Ottomans despite this success it was not exactly the beginning of a Byzantine Golden Age the Empire would still suffer and the number of Romans including clear the third wanted to know why the question was had they offended God in some way had he sent Rome's enemies to punish them for impiety the fear of such a thing ran high people wondered what sin could have been committed and some Christian scholars began to question the use of icons religious images or monuments and the like the fear it was that people had subconsciously begun to worship these icons and not God himself this goes back to an interpretation of the Old Testament second commandment thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image a cultural movement began in the seven 30s to attempt to change this leading to the first iconoclastic controversy many religious images were destroyed across the empire accordingly the movement became popular in the east but not in the West icons were seen as perfectly acceptable in the West and spoiler alert iconoclasm never quite latched on in catholicism although different groups of Christians today do have different feelings about it but for the time being it was a major debate in Byzantium Western opposition to iconoclasm is important because of course both Rome and the Pope were still a part of the Byzantine Empire in this time period and found themselves disagreeing with the Eastern Church yet again however the Western Church in this time and for the past century too had been trying to distance itself from Constantinople edging towards independence the divide was exacerbated under Leo the third son Constantine of fist who came to power in 741 and ruled to 775 he did two things in his early rule the first he stepped up his father's dislike of icons and began to actually persecute icon O'Doul's supporters of the use of icons secondly he lost interests in Italy Byzantine power and Italy had been waning since the death of Justinian now because of his lack of concern in the seven 40s their longtime Italian rivals the lombards began to seize more territory in 751 they even captured the city of Ravenna the power base for Byzantine rule in Italy much of Italy except for the south and Sardinia was now open to Lombard expansion with Byzantine power in Italy and relations with the Pope both deteriorating and with a long bar is about to be on the doorstep of the city of Rome itself the Pope turned to a potentially more reliable and amiable Ally the Franks the Franks at this time under Pepin the short were the most powerful forests in Western Europe they were also not running around breaking statues like the Byzantines were they were good Catholics the Franks are essentially the ancestors of modern France and their territory as you can see encompass much of modern France but in time they would grow to much more Pepin the short son would even lay the foundation for much of Western Europe and go on to challenge the Byzantine Empire directly in Byzantium Zab since the Franks invaded Italy and laid a foundation for the papal States to form independent of Eastern draw the Franks kid the church land that would become the papal States Pepin's donation is often called the donation of Pepin though having lost in Italy Konstantinov its reign was successful in other theatres the Umayyad Caliphate had been replaced in revolution by the Abbasid providing Constantine and v with an opportunity to attack the distracted Muslims in his seven 40s and 50s following this he began a series of campaigns against the Bulgarians neither of these campaigns managed to bring the Byzantines much territorially but the fact that they were able to go on the offensive is a sign that the Empire had recuperated to a good degree Constantine a fifth died in 775 in the throne passed to his son Leo de Forest Leo fell ill to tuberculosis however within five years of his reign and the throne passes to his infant son Constantine sixth Leo's wife irene of athens who was to serve as regent as the young emperor grew up but was soon display ambitions of her own after around 50 years of iconoclasm irene revealed herself to be an icon o'doole and thus she reversed the strict policies of her predecessors this Regency continued for ten years in 790 Constantine a sixth was ready to rule his mother however was not ready for him to rule after seven years of regular disputes she had her son blinded he later died from the wounds leaving irene to rule as sole empress this was the first time in all of Roman history all the way back to Agassi this that there had been a Roman Empress or vassilissa in Greek on the throne not the first time that there had been a woman basically in charge Theodora had held some power in Justinian's time especially when he was sick with plague and recall from the fall of Rome Documentary Severus Alexander and his mother but this was the first time a woman was the recognized head of state this was a problem in the Roman Byzantine view some women could if necessary handle matters of state but religious affairs were different keep in mind the emperor of Rome was always a semi religious figure in the West this undermined Irene's legitimacy and the Pope essentially viewed the office of emperor of Rome as vacant therefore Pope Leo took it upon himself to find a man to fill the spot coincidentally this man was a man who would benefit people interests on December 25th 800 AD Pope Leo crowned the great Frankish king Charlemagne the ephra mentions son of Pepin who had been conquering territories from Spain to Austria emperor of Rome or Holy Roman Emperor this did not go over well in Constantinople having a woman as Empress of Rome was controversial but having a Germanic barbarian who was in cahoots with the Pope take a title that wasn't his was even worse a popular saying about the Holy Roman Empire which was basically being founded here with Charlemagne's crowning is that it was not holy nor Roman nor an empire this holds true as time goes on especially in the Renaissance and early modern era but at the time and for much of the time that this documentary will cover many westerners really viewed this as a revival of Western Rome or as the centuries went on as a kind of attempt these are topics of much more thoroughly discussed in other videos but for now the important thing is that the intention at least is for the Holy Roman Empire to be Western Rome reborn with this claim came some claims to the east in 802 Irene was given a tempting offer it just so happened that she and Charlemagne were both unmarried and Charlemagne proposed marriage to her this could have changed everything if Charlemagne's western empire were reunited with the east it could have led to a revival of the old Roman Empire it did not happen however Irene was overthrown before such a deal could take place and died a year later she had been overthrown by Nikifor os– the first who reigned from 802 to 8:11 Nikifor o–'s came to inherit all the problems Irene was dealing with most notably tense relations with the Arabs under Harun al-rashid the Bulgarians under khan krum and the west of course largely under Charlemagne war came with all three the war is with the Franks and the abbasids were brief and resulted in tribute to the Arabs and they settlement with the Franks Bulgaria however would be a larger challenge the Bulgarians were growing in power they had recently defeated the last of the avars and her empire doubled in size from the Byzantine view of things they had to be dealt with nikka for us was very much interested in restoring Byzantine rule to the Balkans he would even resettle Greeks from Anatolia in Greece the try to revive Greek culture in the area and to snuff out the Slavs part of this focus was a preventative measure fearing perhaps that the ever expanse of Charlemagne could move into the region in 811 nikka forests invaded Bulgaria she was initially quite successful even taking the Bulgarian capital but later that year he was ambushed at the Battle of Pliska his army was badly defeated and he was captured nikka Feroze was sent to the bulgarian khan krum where he was beheaded and his skull was turned into a drinking cup this is the only time in history that a Roman Emperor skull was turned into a silver-coated drinking cup but I'm sure it was listed in the fine print as a possible occupational hazard Nikifor is's successors were usurped by alia v and 8:13 it wasn't this year that constantinople was besieged once again this time by the barbarians it was only a minor siege however and Crum abandon to quickly the Romans and Bulgarians then agreed to peace Leo v an iconoclast soon restored iconoclasm to the empire thus beginning the second iconic last period his reign was largely peaceful however in a twenty he was deposed and killed Nick coup d'etat involving a guerrilla essentially what happened was that Leo ordered the execution of a prominent commander named Mikhail or Michael in English probably for a slander that was seen as treason the method of execution was for Michael to be tied to a guerrilla and sent into the fire room which was underneath the palace path where he would either die from being mauled or from heat stroke I don't know why they didn't just you know hang him but I suppose the Romans always have to go above and beyond his execution however was postponed until after Christmas Michael supporters used this as an opportunity to assassinate to leo v during Mass at the aya sofya and then proclaimed Michael Emperor the sources are silent on the fate of the guerrilla and his possible involvement in the coup michael ii as he's known began ruled on christmas day 820 ad his reign was immediately challenged however by another prominent military commander Thomas the Slav a brief civil war erupted Michael 1 and 823 but it had been costly the Byzantine Navy especially has suffered it destroyed itself with the use of Greek fire this would prove tragic when the Arabs decided to invade the Empire again the year after in a 24 by this time the mighty Abbasid Caliphate had weakened but its forces as well as the forces of the other various Muslim states that had formed were still a threat to Europe with the Byzantine fleet down its island holdings in particular were vulnerable in 824 the Muslims took the island of Crete once again in 827 Sicily was invaded the fighting would reach a stalemate on Sicily however and the Arabs and Eastern Romans would dispute it for years to come well over a century in fact but it was clear Byzantine hold there was weakening Michael died in 829 and was successfully succeeded by his son Theo filos Sanofi Louis ruled from a 29 to 842 in that time war with the Arabs continued and even spilled into Anatolia realizing the necessity for instant notification of Arab attack theofilos working with these scholar Leo the mathematician design is something straight out of a Tolkien work signifiers a series of towers stretching across Anatolia over 400 miles when one fire was lit the next tower a good deal away with inlet afire as well and so on and so forth until Constantinople wasn't formed the fire would signal an Arab attack and could reach the Emperor from the frontier over 400 miles away within an hour the fastest communication in the ancient world Sardinia was also lost in teófilo says rain and a number of independent kingdoms emerged on the island but for the most part his rule was not too troubled he died a disease in his 30s and was succeeded by his infant son Michael the third with his mother Theodora ruling his regions until around 855 I kind of class him once more ended with a woman Theodora Nikon o'doole overturned at the year after her husband's death finally bringing an end to the controversy an event which was celebrated across the empire and led to her sainthood when her son Michael the third was finally ready to come to the throne he unfortunately began to show signs of dissent rest's toward his duties he is remembered as Omega Zeus the drunk there was trouble on all fronts of the Empire the Bulgarians and Arabs remained ever-present threats and war was waged against him Michael seems to have shaped up and taken a little responsibility however and his reign was thanks to his generals militarily fairly efficient in 860 while fighting the Arabs constantinople faced another attack however it's referred to historically as a siege but seems to have been more of a raid of the area surrounding the city the raid or siege was carried out by a people called the ruse one could call the ruse the predecessors of Russia as certainly the area where they came from however it is important to keep in mind that the leaders of this raid were not Slavs they were Norseman Vikings while the world of the Vikings and the world the Romans may seem to be opposite dimensions the two cultures did interact the Romans would remember these Vikings barber Indians as they are called in the East and as we shall see there is more the story between these two groups speaking of Slavs it was also under Michael a third that the Byzantines decided that the spread of Christianity their perspective on Christianity specifically into the Balkans would be greatly beneficial to them I see their perspective as they divide between Christianity in the east and west was becoming more and more apparent the two churches were in regular disagreement a number of missionaries were sent to preach to the many groups living in the Balkans some of the most famous were Cyril and Methodius who began their work in 862 Cyril devised an entirely new alphabet for them based largely on Greek letters Cyrillic still used in languages today like Russian Serbian and Bulgarian their efforts were largely successful and had an effect on tying the Slavs to the Christian East religiously up through the modern day Michael the third being a character himself seems to have surrounded himself with a number of other colorful people one such person was a wrestler from Macedonia named basil despite his humble origins basil rose to prominence in Michael's court Michael came to rely on his great friend basil sharing power with him even as he came to trust him more but this was a mistake in 867 after having fallen asleep drunk basil killed the Emperor he would then claim the position for himself the dynasty he would found though established on bloodshed although let's be honest how many dynasties weren't the Macedonian dynasty would guide the Byzantine Empire for nearly 200 years as he and his descendants would drag it out of the Dark Age which it had been enduring now since the death of her alius this line would give Byzantium perhaps its second most well known emperor basil the second the Empire would regain some of its former glory not only reclaiming many lost territories in the Balkans Near East and Italy but maintaining the borders of those territories with integrity the first time in centuries but would this be enough to save the Empire in the next video we will start off in this Golden Age but then as we continue we will watch as Byzantium is faced with numerous other challenges religious controversy and outright schism war dynastic struggles Crusades and finally Turks part two will be coming soon it will be titled the fall of Byzantium so stay tuned for that I hope you enjoyed this video if so I invite you to come check out the rest of fire of learning and subscribe to keep up with more like it in the future to help with the cost of production fire of learning does take donations on patreon the link to which you can find in the description you can support the channel with as little as a one dollar contribution however it's simply subscribing to our YouTube channel for free is also a large help a special thanks again to our patreon supporters us two here we were also on Instagram Facebook and Twitter so come check us out there too of kadhi Stowe for watching

The History of Western Europe: Every Year



Views:690756|Rating:4.69|View Time:5:57Minutes|Likes:8120|Dislikes:536
The History of Western Europe from the fall of Rome to modern times.

—————————————————————————————————————-
Support me on Patreon:
Follow me on DeviantArt:

—————————————————————————————————————-
Original Map:

—————————————————————————————————————-
Thanks to:
TeeMee for helping speed up the animation process with “Number Animationer”

—————————————————————————————————————-
Music:
Andreas Ericson – Medieval Myths 5
Johan Hynynen – Battle

Biggest Empires in History



Views:1272221|Rating:3.55|View Time:4:58Minutes|Likes:14329|Dislikes:5828
In this video,on a World Map,I will be graphically showcasing you the biggest empires in World history. Note that these empires are ranked by SIZE not by POWER or INFLUENCE. Sorry for the mistakes.

Music (I DO NOT OWN THE MUSIC IN THIS VIDEO THE AUTHORS ARE CREDITED HERE IN THE DESCRIPTION):
Ivan Torrent – Icarus (ft. Julie Even)

Enjoy the video!

The Roman Empire – Episode 1: The Rise of the Roman Empire (History Documentary)



Views:1532742|Rating:4.55|View Time:50:40Minutes|Likes:5205|Dislikes:515
The Roman Empire – Episode 1: The Rise of the Roman Empire (History Documentary)

Two thousand years ago, one civilisation held the entire Western world in its grasp. From Northern Europe to Africa, it imposed laws, ideas and a single language. Rome was the super power and a colossal empire.

Travel back in time and experience the exporting of the Roman world through the glory years of conquest to the longest period of stability the world has ever known.

EPISODE 1: RISE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Two thousand years ago, one civilisation held the entire Western world in its grasp. From Northern Europe to Africa and the Middle East. It imposed laws, ideas and a single language. Rome was the super power of the ancient world. Indeed later super powers never stopped learning the lessons of her spectacular rise and fall. Rome truly was a colossal empire. During the rise of the Roman Empire, it was not always easy to separate virtue from vice, or hero from villain. Indeed, all too often, they were one and the same. Rome was still an adolescent discovering who it wanted to be, and its dream of greatness was a prlude to a nightmare. It was not for another 100 years that the state would mature and commit to one enduring view of itself. It would be the army, more than any other force that was destined to shape Rome’s lasting identity.

over a thousand years after Rome's fall the armies of the French Emperor Napoleon descend on the city Napoleon's forces have already battled their way through Europe to take Rome seems an afterthought by this time it's a backbone but for Napoleon it has an almost religious significance he claims he's the spiritual descendant of the Roman emperors he has himself painted wearing the Roman crown of laurels as if Rome still rules the world his troops march unopposed into the city it's like walking into a ghost town they find the frightened Romans huddling among the ruins of the ancient city crumbling palaces and arches still seem to echo the Magnificent triumphs they were built to celebrate goats and cattle graze where thousands once thronged the streets in 70 AD when the emperor vespasian started building the massive colosseum rome was ten times larger than the city napoleon found the space and wanted a great theater for the gory spectacle Romans so loved the scale of the Roman games like the scale of Rome itself was staggering the Coliseum had seating for 45,000 and standing room for 20,000 more in one series of games 5,000 people and 11,000 animals were slaughtered nothing in Hollywood could compare with this gruesome splatter fest the blood and brutality were all too real and the Romans were addicted to when he saw the blood rather than turn away he fixed his eyes on the scene and took in all its frenzy he reveled in the wickedness of the fighting and grew intoxicated with the bloodshed when he left the arena he took with him a sick mind which left him no peace until he came back again send Augustin they did get excited about you gonna go on another I'm not denying that but you know what so do we I think for example of the brouhaha over Mike Tyson right what Mike Tyson did when he bit Evander Holyfield's here that would have been applauded in the Roman arena that's great that's what you're supposed to do in fact you're supposed to rip the ear off and and march around the arena with it in your mouth that's what you're supposed to do [Applause] Rome's savagery was matched by its size when the Colosseum was built Rome was a city of a million people and growing not until London of the 19th century would a city approach this size again but I think you'd notice if a time traveler went back would be the smell the noise the dirt the crowdedness I think there were lots of beggars lots of signs of sickness disease lots of small children we're rather like Calcutta or real crowded modern town very poor with these monumental buildings in the centre expressing the wealth and power of the Empire traffic was terrible Julius Caesar forbade wheeled traffic during the day so people could move around which meant that at night all these carts started going on these stone streets and it was so noisy that you couldn't sleep to manage the problems of organizing such a huge concentration of people the Romans invented the science of urban planning they invented cement built gigantic public storehouses and installed citywide sewage systems but their greatest achievement was the water supply the aqueducts of Rome reached sixty and seventy miles into the hills to guarantee a continual flow of fresh water into the city that flow of fresh water are provided enough of water gallons per person per day that was not equalled by the city of Rome until the 1950s along with millions of gallons of water Romans consumed a staggering 8,000 tons of grain weekly supertankers each carrying a thousand tons of grain criss-crossed the Mediterranean they were the largest ships built until the Atlantic steamers of the 19th century the city of Rome was the heart of an empire that stretched from Scotland to Syria never has the Western world's been better organized or more United in the year 100 AD you could travel from Egypt to France on paved roads with only one currency and one passport in your pocket and this vast well-organized empire would muster the largest army the world had ever seen over half a million soldiers Rome was the superpower of the ancient world later superpowers never stopped learning the lessons of its spectacular rise and fall Napoleon was not alone in his obsession twenty years before Napoleon marched into Rome on the other side of the Atlantic a group of men who were designing a political system for their new country in designing the constitution of these United States of America we have at various times sought precedent in the history of that ancient Republic and endeavors to draw lessons both from its leading ideas and from the tumult and factions which finally brought it low Thomas Jefferson the American Founding Fathers spent most of their childhood and much of their adulthood reading the Latin classics to the founders the past was not something that was dead it was something that was alive especially the Roman past it was alive with personal and social meaning this was crucial I think to the American Revolution because they were doing something really unprecedented in this revolution and it and yet they were able to feel that they were not the first the basis of our political system I think lies in Rome the Western world grew up in Rome's shadow it's legends its loss it's institutions and its language Napoleon said the story of Rome is the story of the world it's a story of great commanders and politicians men like Caesar Augustus Hadrian and Constantine but it's also a story of the poor who bore the brunt of their leaders ambitions it's a story of vast idealism and an equally vast greed for power and finally it's the story of long spectacular fall and the chaos that far but behind all that are the stories of Rome's beginnings almost 3,000 years ago in the lush hills of central Italy when the Mediterranean sailors of ancient Greece and Egypt looked west toward Italy they stared into a great unknown it was 800 years before the birth of Christ and Rome still didn't exist but stories were told of mysterious peoples with strange exotic customs and untold riches the tales were irresistible setting off from the great civilized cities of the East like Athens and Tyre adventurous Greek traders sailed west into uncharted scenes navigating by the stars without instruments they began to explore a remote and little-known Peninsula of the western Mediterranean they called it Hesperia the land of the Evening Sun on the eighth century BC time of westward expansion Phoenicians going west Greeks going west founding colonies when the Greeks sailed into Italy they found something they didn't expect in advanced civilization already there here in the hills of Tuscany they were already walled cities there were kings and high priests there were skillful craftsmen who created a tender and sensuous art like no other in the Mediterranean and there were traders ready to barter the finest gold and iron work the ancient world had ever seen before Rome there were the Etruscans they taught the Romans everything but left no written records incredible the Etruscans were some of the most amazing artisans that the West has ever seen they worked in metal for sculpture they worked in terracotta and life-size statues with these amazing inviting expressions very warm they're not cold and distant but they are there they're people that you want to meet the Etruscans lived in the fertile hills of Tuscany but their real wealth lay underground the richest deposits of iron ore copper and tin in the central Mediterranean as early as 700 BC they created shafts tunnels subterranean galleries smelters and slag heaps so vast that two and a half thousand years later mussolini reprocessed them to produce weapons for world war ii Etruscans traded their metalwork as far afield as Syria Portugal and even Sweden but above all the Etruscans were famous for their open displays of affection between men and women it shocked the ancient world the Greeks who knew the Etruscans from very early on before Rome was anything before Rome was saw that the Etruscan people gave a position to women that the Greeks certainly wouldn't not only were women part of the entire house women reclined at banquets with men which for a Greek was absolutely unthinkable it is no shame for the Etruscans to be seen having sexual experiences for this to is normal there it seems to be the local custom Posidonia s' and they show no shame in sensuous acts while the torches are still lit servants bring in courtesans sometimes even their own wives and they all engage in lovemaking publicly via pompous the Greeks and later the Romans love to embroider scandalous stories about the decadence of the Etruscans they were almost certainly untrue but it is true that the Etruscans created memorable portraits of sensual pleasure after the Etruscans the idea of portraying such intimacy between men and women disappeared from Western art for almost 2,000 years the change began with the Romans who grew up in their shadow the first Romans were primitive tough backwoodsman they resented the Etruscans but had everything to learn from them including the darker sides of civilization like all ancient people the Etruscans were rigidly / class brutal rituals enforce the power and prestige of the nobility Etruscans staged games at the funerals of important men the losers were killed their blood celebrated the prestige of the dead man and was an offering to his spirit the wrestlers were slaves captured in warfare their lives were worth nothing only their deaths were significant the practice of human sacrifice was common in the ancient world the Etruscans were no exception the blood of slaves and captives watered the ground at state rituals throughout the Mediterranean Romans inherited the Etruscan taste for sacrificial blood gladiatorial combat was the Roman equivalent of these glory celebrations of power Rome took everything from the Etruscans the truscum engineers showed them how to drain the marshes where Rome now stands and channel the water and underground sewers Etruscan architects and builders laid out the Roman Forum as a public square in the seventh century BC the Romans owed everything to the Etruscans they would one day turn on them crush their beautiful cities and defame the memory it would be the first step on Rome's path to Empire [Applause] most of what we know about the birth of Rome comes from the work of one man one of Rome's greatest historians Livy he lived in the reign of the Emperor Augustus over 700 years after the city was founded the glory of Rome was at its height but Romans were already haunted by the specter of decline the Empire was emerging from decades of civil war bitterness and political intrigue were rampant decadence read and profiteering with the order of the day two men like living raised on the Roman stoic virtues of valor loyalty and self-sacrifice it seemed the spirit of Rome was rotting I feel that indulgence has brought us through every form of sensual excess to be morbidly attracted to death in all its forms Rome is at the dark dawning of an age in which we can neither endure our vices nor face the remedies needed to cure them living a cure was what Emperor Augustus was looking for he cracked down on dissent and passed laws to punish a morality he was determined to reform the empire and force a return to Roman family values body poets like Ovid who wrote the art of love were banished to the Asian steppes when his own daughter Julia was rumored to have slept with half the Senate Augustus banished her as well livvie saw in Augustus or in Octavian a chance for the world to finally settle down and get back to business what made Rome great to begin with you got to go back and look who were the heroes of the past that made Rome the city she was I hope that history maybe the best cure for a sick mind at least it can remind us of what we once were and show us the depths to which we are now sinking Livy set out to write a brief history of early Rome celebrating its glories and virtues propaganda for the reforms of Augustus what he had to go on were stories handed down over the centuries they were a mixture of fact and legend I for one am looking forward to absorbing myself in antiquity because I am so deeply tired of the modern world and all the troubles which torment it Livy he believed Rome's mythological beginnings would reveal the stories of heroism and nobility Romans needed to hear but the stories of Rome's origins were short on stoic virtues and long on murder rape mayhem in fratricide to his dismay Livie discovered they echoed the cruel realities of the Roman world of his own day legends told that Rome was founded by Romulus and Remus twins who were cast into the wilderness to die but the boys were said to be saved by a she-wolf who suckled them they grew up like savages in the woods when they returned to found the city of Rome they were filled with the simple ferocious spirit of their wolf mother according to legend Romulus and Remus then led their people to the bend in the river Tiber where she found their Rome was born the year was 753 BC but hardly had they founded the city then the two brothers quarreled over who should be king it was left to the augurs to decide boggers were the priests of early Rome who divined the will of the gods they studied the movements of birds the weather the entrails of sheep before making their pronouncements known as the auguries the augers placed each brother on a hilltop then waited when birds flocked over Romulus they knew he would be the first king of Rome but Remus refused the augury and the brothers fought Romulus killed him the first king of rome suckled by a wolf bathed in his brother's blood walked away furious and triumphant it was a fitting augury for the bloodshed and strife that lay ahead the story about Romulus killing his twin brother the members of the founding of the city is a very old story it's very very remarkable that in the late Republic the Romans were fighting civil wars and of course it didn't escape their notice that there seemed to be prefigured in the in the myth with Romulus killing his brother they actually thought this was a sort of curse on them that they were fated to to destroy each other well the whole Roman psyche was was based on violence if you look at the foundation legends of Romulus and Remus that's based on fat fratricide right one brother kills another to found the city and from that point it just escalates [Applause] the violence of the early Romans in fact and fiction was born of desperation in real life shunned by neighbouring tribes Rome was forced to welcome outcasts vagrants and fugitives and they lured their neighbors the say binds to a ritual of peacemaking and they're all pretty desperate a lot and Rome the earliest community that is organized in that way of course there's a place where no woman wants to go so they haven't got any women that's the first problem and so the Romans Romulus in particular got an idea new religious festival let's invite the neighbors bring your wife and kids especially the daughters the say binds were weary but accepted as the festivities went on into the night the say binds relaxed their guard was what the Romans were waiting for Romulus gave the sign and they attacked they grabbed the women and drove off the say by men the ones they didn't kill when painters of a later age portrayed the rape of the Sabine women they imagined a classical city they were wrong the early Romans were primitive people struggling desperately to survive the grim stories of the first Romans were as surprising to Livy as they are to us they certainly didn't provide the role models he was looking for his little book turned into one of the most monumental histories ever written by the time he died in 1780 it had grown to a hundred and forty two volumes all written laborious ly in wax it had absorbed his entire life Livi's Chronicle was the bestseller of its day it was more successful than he could ever have hoped but had no effect whatsoever on the moral chaos of Empire even a hundred and forty two books were no match for the influence of so much power by now Rome was a juggernaut whose momentum was unstoppable its course set by its mythic beginnings whether fact important fiction as it approached the 5th century BC Rome was emerging from its legendary past into the real world of recorded history it was now a thriving province of the Etruscan world ruled by at Ruskin King's primitive mud and thatch huts of Rome's early days had given way to a city of brick Rome was absorbing people from surrounding lands and growing fast Etruscan and Greek traders met in its busy streets Phoenician boats from Sicily in North Africa sailed the Tyler wine olives and gold flooded into Italy [Applause] but rome was still no different from many other prosperous cities of the Mediterranean what first set it apart was not its capacity for trade or engineering or even warfare but its ability to organize itself the man who reshaped Roman society was an Etruscan king called Servius Tullius there are no statues of him we have no idea what he looked like he never became as famous as later rulers of Rome but his mark on history may be even greater and yet all Servius Tullius did was carry out history's first census now the census the Roman census a very important institution they would count the Roman citizens alright and list them and then distribute them in their appropriate classes and political units and so on the census was a kind of way of grading Roman citizens according to their status and prestige in the sixth century BC the census detailed every Romans obligations to the city to obey its laws pay taxes and do military service but much more important it also gave them rights this was the great innovation of service in proportion to their contribution Romans were given a say in how their city was run Servius sowed the seeds of representational government he organized an assembly to govern the city and gave it a name the Senate finally census decreed that each of the city's social classes should contribute a group of soldiers for Rome's defense they were called the legions the fighting force that was going to put Rome's destiny back in its own hands and one day give it the world the census didn't create equality or democracy Rome remained a society governed by Kings and Nobles women had few rights but it created a level of organization unheard of in the ancient world no man did more for Rome than the Etruscan Kings service his reforms laid the foundations for Rome's greatest achievement the creation of the Republic but like so many Roman rulers he was brought down by treachery and intrigue the Kings own daughter wanted her husband Tarquin on the throne her henchmen knew how to get him there and after they murdered the great king power and paranoia went hand in hand in Rome for almost two centuries Rome had been ruled by Etruscan kings and Etruscan nobility under Servius things had gone well under Tarquin his successor brutality and decadence flourished while he and his relatives devoted themselves to pleasure their henchmen carried out campaigns of political murder to remove any and all opposition Romans were beginning to hate everything the Etruscans stood for resentments smoldered a woman called Lucretia was the spark that would set it on fire she was well loved and highly regarded for her kindness beauty and loyalty she represented everything Romans felt they had and the Etruscans didn't honor virtue bravely one day the king's son and some of his Etruscan Nobles were on a journey away from Rome drunk they decided to creep back into the city and spy on the most beautiful women to see what they were up to they found their own wives as expected party they found Lucretia hard at work because this was an indication of good virtuous matronly behavior right this is how Roman women should behave they should not be sleeping with 300 members of the Senate like Augustus his daughter allegedly did they're not supposed to be poisoning members of their family as Livia allegedly did they're supposed to be producing cloth the next night when he knew Lucretia's husband was away King Tarquins son crept back to her house alone with a knife at her throat he raped her and swore that if she breathed the word of it he killed that would be unnecessary the next day to proud to live with her dishonor Lucretia killed herself Romans went white mobs tore through the streets and attacked the Tuscan wherever they found the stern nobleman named Brutus organized a furious attack on the Etruscan King in his quarters they were overwhelmed and fled for their lives Romans were finally free of their Etruscan overlords Lucretia's legacy to Rome was its freedom Romans vowed they would never again live under a king so how exactly were they going to live how would they govern themselves their solution was momentous they declared that the affairs of Rome would belong to the people that citizens would vote and that Rome would be a resolute lika a public affair a republican government would no longer be the business of Kings Rome would be ruled by laws and elected officials the first two elected leaders called consuls were Brutus and Lucretia's widowed husband and so King was replaced with first two praetor's eventually two consuls with – both of them in agreement on everything elected annually so that no one person ever had very much power for very long at all this paranoia about Kings continues all the way through Roman history in ways he never could have imagined Servius a census had borne fruit the New Republic would be organized according to the voting categories and classes he put in place forty years earlier the birth of the Republic staked Rome's claim to a place in history SPQR was the Republic's banner Sinatra's populist gay Romanus the Senate and people of Rome it was the ancient world's first representation of government it paved the way for Rome's glories and all democracies to come Roman set themselves free from the Etruscans in 510 BC next they needed to be sure they stayed free so they set about building the fiercest fighting machine the world had ever seen and now it had its old masters to practice against [Applause] for over a hundred years after Rome declared its independence it was at war with the Etruscans who fought desperately to regain their old possession they failed they were no match for the highly disciplined Roman legions who'd fight to the death to defend Rome's Liberty as Roman soldiers fought for the Republic a man named Publius codified its leading ideas this legal system set a remarkable precedent for republics of the future 2,000 years later when the founding fathers of the United States needed to defend their constitution they too wrote under the name of Publius I think the American Revolution was an exciting period for the founding fathers they were excited by the opportunity to match their ancient heroes struggles against tyranny in a sense arrival the noble deeds they had spent their youth reading about and they were thrilled by this idea by this thought that they were beginning anew the work of the ancient Republicans only this time with an unprecedented chance of success throughout the fifth century BC the struggle for the Republic went on Rome and the nearest Etruscan City they faced each other across the Tiber in an endless stalemate of attack and counter-attack finally after decades of bitter skirmishing a Roman army battled its way toward the Etruscan City the year was 392 BC their goal was to take baby by storm and once and for all bring to an end the Etruscan threat to Rome survival the trust console' Jers fought furiously at the city walls priests prayed to their gods to save them from destruction No Romans smashed through the Etruscan defenses and laid waste to the city they slaughtered the men and made slaves of the women it was Rome's first great victory there would be many more each celebrated by the building of a triumphal arch a monument to the glory of victory and the humiliation of the defeated Rome now piled victory upon victory all across Italy as one by one her neighbors fell to the legions Rome's rise was gathering momentum and by now seemed unstoppable but she suffered one setback which haunted the Empire forever the year was 386 BC from beyond the Alps horsemen appeared and thundered toward Rome Romans called them barbarians they were Celts from Gaul present-day France the Gauls were a warlike people but this time they weren't looking for battle Wars with their neighbors had pushed them out of their own territory now they needed a new home Rome dominated central Italy so the Gauls asked them for territory Roman envoys refused point-blank who did these barbarians think they were to presume upon Rome in this way they've insulted the Gauls which was a mistake the Gauls descended on Rome in a fury but they weren't given they would take Romans were fierce warriors but had no idea how to fight these people who charged into battle in a suicidal friends their savagery even by Roman standards was terrified taken by surprise the Romans barricaded themselves inside their city and hope these terrifying wild men would go away they didn't the bowls smashed the way into the city and ransacked the Romans only escaped being slaughtered by paying the Gauls everything they had to move on and leave them in peace Rome's humiliation was complete the words of the Gallic chieftain as he exacted his crushing payment would ring in Roman ears for centuries to come woe to the vanquished Rome rose from this devastation stronger better organized and more determined than ever it forged an iron spirit and a civilized code of honor the stoic virtues of valor and discipline and self sacrifice that code produced soldiers and commanders with an unflinching dedication to duty one of the most famous was Cincinnatus Cincinnatus was a roman who came to embody the classic virtues like no other although a nobleman he liked to work his fields with his own hands one day as he worked a messenger arrived with news that Rome was being attacked and in such an emergency situation as this the Roman Constitution called for the appointment of a dictator somebody who'd be elected by the people but then once elected would have absolute power life-and-death power over all citizens but only for a maximum of six months he dropped his plow hurried to the city took up command of the army and was named dictator he quickly won a great victory and returned to the city in triumph now he had could have stayed on and he and he could have used his power as he wished but the very day that he returned to the city were told he immediately resigned to the office of dictator walked back to his farm outside the city and continued to plow his farm and the Romans loved to tell that story because here was a man who was totally selfless who cared nothing for his own for his own livelihood for his own life but merely to serve wish to serve and so it's no accident that one of the most famous sculptures in American history instead of George Washington as a Cincinnatus George Washington knew that many people compared him with Cincinnatus and he liked that and he consciously worked to encourage that image and so for instance during the darkest periods of the war when some thought maybe he should resign he held off that resignation but as he wanted to do like Cincinnatus did wait until the enemy was defeated and then in a in a big show lay down his power which he did and he retired to his own plough at Mount Vernon Cincinnatus became the role model for the Roman politician commanders Napoleon so admired he embodied the code of conduct that powered Rome's rise and extended Rome's dominion over the entire Western world Rome's battles abroad would highlight the conflict within its own soul the struggle to resist the corrupting influence of so much power the group haunt the Empire for centuries to come but first Rome's era of power and glory was about to begin

"HISTORY IN 3D" – ANCIENT ROME 320 AD – 3rd trailer "Walking around Colosseum"



Views:188099|Rating:4.93|View Time:10:51Minutes|Likes:3268|Dislikes:47
Here is the 3rd video trailer, illustrating our project dedicated to reconstruction of the whole center of ancient Rome city as it was in 320 AD. Also this is the last trailer before the release of 3d walkthrough, where you will be able to enjoy this reconstruction by yourself using modern and innovative 3D technologies.

History channel – Documentaries HD | Ancient Discoveries – Enigma Of The Etruscans 2015



Views:14762|Rating:4.07|View Time:51:42Minutes|Likes:44|Dislikes:10
History channel – Documentaries HD | Ancient Discoveries – Enigma Of The Etruscans 2015

documentary 2015 documentary national geographic documentary films documentary history channel documentary discovery channel documentary on serial .

History channel – Documentaries HD | Half Human Jungle Beast in India 2015 ancient discoveries ancient discoveries history channel ancient discoveries 2014 .

Mega Structures of the Deep – Ancient Discoveries (History Documentary) Shot on location in the Mediterranean and the Middle East, Ancient Discoveries uneart …

Solar Empire – Alien Neighbors Documentary documentaries documentary documentaries 2014 youtube documentaries documentaries online documentaries …

History Documentaries | China’s Ancient Machines | Ancient Discoveries | Documentary Films 2014 History Documentaries | Chin

History channel – Documentaries HD | Ancient Discoveries – Enigma Of The Etruscans 2015

History channel – Documentaries HD | Ancient Discoveries – Enigma Of The Etruscans 2015
History channel – Documentaries HD | Ancient Discoveries – Solar Empire – Alien Neighbors 2015 ancient discoveries ancient discoveries history channel ancien. New UFO Documentary | Solar…

documentary 2015 documentary national geographic documentary films documentary bbc documentary history channel documentary on serial killers documentary hist…

documentary 2015 documentary national geographic documentary films documentary history channel documentary discovery channel documentary on serial killers do…

History channel – Documentaries HD | Ancient Discoveries – Enigma Of The Etruscans 2015 They taught the French to make wine and the Romans to build roads, an…

armageddon – top ten ways to doomsday (documentary). thanks for watch

History channel – Documentaries HD | Ancient Discoveries – Enigma Of The Etruscans 2015

History channel – Documentaries HD | Ancient Discoveries – Enigma Of The Etruscans 2015
Etruscans, History, Empire, Pyramids, Neighbors, 2015, World, Ancient, Alien, Gods, King, Enigma, Machines, Solar, Channel, Documentary, Documentaries, Part

September 2000 off the southern coast of France salvage teams search for a downed world war two plane what they find 60 metres down is unexpected ancient Emperor's pottery containers of a type rarely recovered from the sea before their surprising discovery triggers an investigation that throws new light on Western Europe's first great civilization a sophisticated society centuries before the Romans skilled workers in ceramics craftsmen in bronze artists in gold experts in the production of wine the Etruscans a race that vanished into obscurity the Old Stone fort that guards the port of Marseilles harbors many treasures recovered from the Mediterranean as luke long the curator makes his way to his office this september morning a videocassette from the leader of the salvage team awaits him little does Luke realize that the underwater footage is about to draw him into a long-term archaeological adventure a full-scale inquiry into a vanished race danger Luke seeks confirmation from his colleague that the tape is received from the divers shows remains that are truly Etruscan there are 60 to 70 Emperor's indeed Etruscan and all of the same designs knowledge of the Etruscans is all too scarce yet they were perhaps the true founders of European culture in the 7th century BC Egypt Asia Minor and Greece ruled over the eastern shores of the Mediterranean in the West small tribal groups lived in antiquated villages all that is with one notable exception a unique civilization flourishing on the western edge of Italy today Etruria is known as Tuscany here wealthy through minerals and agriculture the Etruscans were developing a highly original way of life for more than five centuries these lords of the sea were vital middlemen between East and West only to disappear from history one major problem with Etruscan culture is a very big lacunae a very big gap and that is that although the Etruscans were literate and in fact we have thousands of inscriptions from Etruria what they didn't seem to write was any connected history about themselves in the way that we have Roman history written by Roman historians Greek history written by many Greek historians the Etruscans seemed to confine their writing more to matters to do with religion and because we don't have that information the the very memory of the Etruscans as a nation has tended to fade after the Roman conquests anything that sheds light on them would be a valued prize well worth an expedition one month after the discovery of the site on the Cote d'Azur an underwater salvage vessel complete with submersible sets out towards the west of the small island of glory bull the Emperor's were found just off its coast the managing director of the salvage company Ojeda Lowe's had made the initial discovery he's passionate about underwater archaeology and he's giving Luke long a brief loan of the equipment needed for a preliminary investigation the crew prepared a submersible for Luke's first descent we're just going to show the seeker Luke can only hope the submersible doesn't lease on below majora bottle both we are alone they don't follow so I'm after going MOOC is astonished to see ten amphoras in a single square meter and Fuhrer's pottery vessels with a narrow neck and two handles with the all-purpose containers of the ancient world if Luke can recover them they may offer clues to the mystery of their makers the first challenge is to free the Emperor's from the grasp of the mud and weed using an enormous fan known as the blaster the commercial diving equipment is only on loan to Luke for two weeks he doesn't have long to make his initial survey homeopath specify a limit sink the crew decide to sweep over the wreck at two and a half meters and map the area in three passes Luke takes the opportunity to test a new approach a robot the amphoras lies 60 meters down the limit for ordinary divers if the robot works here researchers will be able to explore depths beyond the reach of the Mediterraneans many underwater looters the Emperor's are spread out over an area a little smaller than a tennis singles court the archaeologists assumed that like other ancient vessels discovered in the Mediterranean the boat would have been a small craft about nine metres long but what a leader Lowe's observes on his diet leads him to reject this idea when Luke asks him about his dive all he insists that the find is much bigger than the remote pictures make it appear all he thinks the Emperor's are still upright in sand and mud one layer still as they were loaded what Luke hears delights him this would be the first time a big cargos been found and they can forget the idea that it was a small boat they're looking at a big cargo if the boat does prove to be a big one it will be a truly extraordinary discovery although Greek texts insists that the Etruscans were great navigators there are very few illustrations or images giving any idea of the design of their ships or the size of their cargoes after several precious days preparation of the site the archaeologists are at last ready to take to the water in force they'll go down for a good ten minutes all they can risk at that down Luke is concerned that defines be properly documented in mark it's the first time that a boatload of the same type of amphoras has been found until now scholars have assumed that only small boats carrying mixed loads plied the coast no complete Etruscan vessel has ever been found and no cargo all of the same contents as all-purpose containers the amphoras might have held grain oil or olives the first results are encouraging Luke quickly sees that the amphoras are all of a similar design the Potter was adept at producing a standard model he tells the others that the containers are of a type appearing at the end of the sixth century BC the design was widespread during the fifth century – the fragments confirm what they saw in the monitor the Ampharos are all the same time this does appear to be a commercial consignment of Etruscan emperors dating back some 2600 years the size of the cargo and the fact it is all the same make this a major discovery on the other hand he doesn't know what these are they look like names scale bowls or bars bottoms they're very very fine either copper or bronze it looks like a consignment of thin vases but he doesn't really know they'll have to soak them in fresh water and clean them to see properly Liuba so Ellen it proves to be a stopper in fact it's preserved perfectly intact and thick it's made of culture the cork Stoppers are a unique find traces of pitch enable Luke to identify the pots contents why alcohol appears to have been a mainstay of Etruscan culture but first-hand accounts are sadly looking fragments of history may lie inside each amphora wine was one of the principal products carried by the coastal traders the fragile pots must be handled with care if it were legal to sell them on the open market each would be worth between five and ten thousand pounds making them highly attractive to underwater thieves for their pains Luke and his team now know that in a small area they have already found at least one layer of seventy fifth century Etruscan amphoras the cork stopper has enabled them to identify the contents as wine the fact that they have found only Etruscan remains is promising but the unexpected number of containers provides a problem how do they tackle such a major find in the few days that remain can Luke dare to hope that they've stumbled on the first wreck of a large Etruscan vessel ever found for French underwater archaeologist Luke long this is the latest step in his quest to discover the source of the wreck he's investigating off the Cote d'Azur the largest antique wreck yet found now he's searching among a thousand acres of tombs in Tuscany long before the Romans their builders the mysterious Etruscans dominated Italy and flourished throughout the Mediterranean Basin this was where the people of the town of kyuri honored their dead enormous to muley rise up from the ground 2700 years old sculpted out of volcanic rock some of them reach almost 50 meters across around them lie more simple graves almost uniform in design these are pointers to the existence of a middle class merchants made wealthy by trade for Luke examining this city of the Dead with its streets and squares is the closest he can come to walking the lost world of the Etruscans many of the various influences that inspired the Etruscan City are still visible right angled streets in the style of the Greeks oriental design cornices decorating the Front's of buildings the interiors of the tombs show Luke what Etruscan homes look like with entrance halls rooms and corridors he can clearly identify the characteristics of Roman houses of the future below-ground is an astonishing insight into the daily life of a wealthy Kyrie family the walls of the tomb are covered in raised plaster models of household possessions and even pets other tombs in Tarquinius revealed the ruling classes love of banquets and symposia where people came together to drink wine the Etruscans love dancing and wrestling regularly organizing nationwide games activities that were previously believed to be Roman in origin can be seen among the Etruscans much earlier among them circus games theatre and Chariot Racing objects found in the tombs like this terracotta sarcophagus from the end of the 6th century BC demonstrate how developed Etruscan culture was in most ancient funeral monuments the figures are very often set apart not here they're a couple enjoying a banquet the man looks lovingly at the woman his right hand on her shoulder she leans against her companion with confidence and Trust Etruscan woman is shown on the same level this man when objective Assam Basking approach dodging atmosphere become an to that motive it's interesting because it plunges us into an atmosphere totally different to banquet scenes and Greek poetry poetry from ancient Athens or Corinth where we can see that ultimately the Greek banquet who strictly for men will a Greek women we're only allowed to take part as musicians or as cooties there is further evidence of the privileged status of women in Etruria in their names the Etruscans would often add the name of their mother men were not just the son of mr. so-and-so but also the son that mrs. such-and-such when a woman not only has a family name but also an individual identity within the family she has a privileged status compared to a Greek or Roman woman who would always be anonymous behind her husband and family Luke now has a clearer picture of a people bridging East and West with their coastal trade his curiosity and energy are renewed and although no Etruscan boat has been found before he has a growing conviction that the wine vessels he has discovered are not a part load but themselves the major cargo how many Emperor's could be in the consignment and how were they loaded as he's found other objects too were these part of the shipment wedged in among the wine containers it's time to experiment after the emperors have spent a few weeks in fresh water to combat two and a half thousand years of sea salt Luke prepares to reconstruct the method of loading until now no one had imagined that amphoras could have been stacked one on top of another it would have big implications for the size of boat necessary to carry such a weight Luke wants to see how high they can stack them they fit them together guided by marks of where it's a kind of three-dimensional jigsaw puzzle with five layers the pots would reach 1 meter 60 with the number of amphoras they have per square meter even with just four layers Luke concludes the ship would need to be more than 20 meters long to carry a little over 30 tons so this is already one of the biggest commercial ships from antiquity over 30 tons carrying in the region of 7 to 800 the next test is to see how the load was secured Luke's theory is that the Etruscans used vines because he found many of them among the wreckage and their assigns a roguelike worth Lucas ascertained there's no way to put either dishes plates or the bronze bowls between the Emperor's so in fact they were where the divers found them and piled up on top with barely space to get a hand in they could not have been wedged in between the amphora but their discovery will have to be verified is their stacking method a one-off or a tried and tested technique certainly there appear to be marks as if twisted vines were used perhaps they were tied to form bunches like grapes or lashed down for stability at see exactly what opposed it's easy enough in order to be certain luke visits the fort stock of Etruscan emperors from other excavations to see if they bear similar scars he's certain he can see similar marks on other emperors Luke is struck by one pot straightaway it didn't come from his expedition the researchers have had it for at least thirty years lashing the pots together as a system that was widely used it's not just related to one rack Luke has new answers and a fresh puzzle to obsess him if he has identified the first large merchant ship of the ancient world Etruscan 2,500 years old carrying 30 tonnes of cargo a single batch of 700 pottery jars stacked several layers high all containing wine then where was it heading and who was the shipment for French archeologist Luke long pursues his inquiries he is assembled enough evidence to suggest that the oldest untouched wreck ever found left tuscany with a shipload of wine but what was its destination the ship left the Etruscan City of Kyra's port of pure ghee and sailed west the location of the wreck and cargo point towards Gaul Luke goes beyond Marseilles to light there archaeologist Michel P is unearthing the remains of a major port with many signs the Etruscans were there the original appearances satomura Kate if only Michelle tells him the site was originally on the edge of the lagoon because ships could reach here it's builders took advantage of the ease of access for ships to develop a major port during the Iron Age first Etruscans used it then people from Marseille then Italians then Roman the whole history of Mediterranean commerce is written in the dig here Luke is anxious to find out if the port was functioning in the late 6th or early 5th century BC and whether it Ruskin goods were passing Michel P is quick to confirm that the time of the wreck was during the period when the site was founded the port started out on a grand scale all the ramparts were built at the same time the town covered several acres right from the beginning and the impact of this new development on the in land can be easily traced the Etruscan amphora is found in this area outnumber those in Marseille or even the local counting this must be due to regular shipments of which the wreck could be one example Michelle shows Luke one of the old entrances right at the edge of the lagoon the tree line is where the lagoon was in antiquity in fact the area has changed a lot the port has silted up at first the ships would have arrived on a beach before a solid port was set up so it's a typical example of a harbor where foreign middlemen would come and trade with locals excavations here have gone on for many years finally Michelle is able to show Luke an area where there were two rooms and a kind of narrow storeroom crammed with broken Etruscan amphoras about a dozen of them his impression is that it was a place for selling wine the digs provide other evidence that Etruscan traders settled in this part of Gaul oily Sonny Coonan is selling in the museum at lot Michel points out exhibits with Etruscan markings on them probably indicating who owned them Luke wonders if the markings are in Etruscan were there people from around here who wrote in Etruscan or were there really Etruscans here Michele is almost certain that these are the signatures of people from etruria who were here he's convinced that the Etruscans lived here not just delivering goods because writing isn't learnt overnight one crucial point remains to be checked are the amphora is from the wreck the same type as those from the Etruscan warehouses in lat I really miss you uncle Booya Luke has brought examples from the wreck to compare them with those dug up at night his and heavier the two men noticed that the pottery clay looks quite similar to the naked eye it's a characteristic dark red-brown color they're convinced it's from the same source Luke is also keen to solve another mystery Josie remember by saying woody wasn't a Porsche because Lucas noticed bronze bowls similar to the bowls found on the rack dudu told feta nemesis surrealist Salter some quality but professor Garcia tells him they were used for drinking in fact they're the equivalent of a wine tasting cup or a drinking cup a new quarter the Etruscans drank wine from these probably passing them round seeing that they would contain quite a lot jealousy honda grom – no sir here's someone pumpernickel Dominique's conclusion is that the Etruscans not only spread wine throughout southern goal but also how to drink it the amphora once it had been emptied was thrown away it was disposable whereas for the goals the cups were quite clearly prestigious possession they aren't found in homes they're found in tombs which clearly means that people wanted to be buried with a symbol of access to drink in reality not everyone would be entitled to this kind of car Luke found about 40 on the ship for an a-league perhaps or at least for people who knew how to behave like Etruscans another similarity between the area around lat and the wreck but why was wine so prized by the goals if you look at the overall pattern of imports they really didn't want much else that the Greeks or Etruscans had it was really entirely centered around wine and drinking vessels before the monetization of the economy and the development of paid labor one of the only ways to really mobilize a large number of people for a specialized task like building a house or a wall or a road or something like that was to call people together and offer them a large feast when one begins to think about alcohol and its role in all of these social and political aspects of life then one can begin to understand the social logic that lies behind this beverage the wine probably had a slightly higher alcohol content and that native years which means that it's this is its psychoactive properties would have been augmented in the important intoxicating aspects that are very important and often in rituals and there's also the just the exoticness of the product itself so the fact that it was a beverage which came from somewhere else in which they had no no way of knowing how to make themselves ten months after beginning his investigation Luke seizes the chance to return to the wreck he has to find out whether against all odds after two and a half thousand years remains of the ship's hull still exist hidden beneath the layers of sand bound and Ferrer's the dives begin again in earnest the atmosphere is tense the stakes are colossal no hull of an etruscan ship has ever been found for Luke and his team the mission is clear first they must gradually remove the layers of amphora over a small area in order to discover if anything is concealed below only when these are cleared away and documented and they open a shaft into the seabed they're proved to be at least four layers of wine containers if any Timbers have been preserved they could open a whole new chapter in the lost history of the Etruscans once more the blaster aims are precise jet into the mud on August 11th 2001 a rib appears part of the interior of a hull there really is a ship there entombed in the mud 30 fathoms down the hundred and fifty amphoras recovered so far must only be a fraction of the cargo there yet more discoveries to be made about Etruscan ship materials and design a clearer picture is forming the rack still conceals many secrets it's a staggering find a ship of unprecedented size over 20 metres long and 7 meters wide complete with cargo and she may provide clues to the mystery of the disappearance of the Etruscans had they indeed foreseen that their world would come to they also had a system of recognizing the future of their own society how long it would last on earth by calculating something called secular in Latin which we might translate as great generations and the Etruscans thought that for them they were only a certain number of generations and when they were gone there would be no more Etruscans left and they were right by the first century BC at the time of the Roman Emperor Augustus the Etruscans and their empire had vanished yet the rack must wait a little longer to reveal its last secrets its location carefully guarded against pillagers Luke search has brought him unexpected answers he knows that a ship set out from the port of pyrgi near kyuri heading for the South of France perhaps the port of lat there it would have landed its cargo a batch of 700 pottery jars stacked several layers high containing wine he knows they're made of Etruscan clay and the design on a cup on board has given him a name for the rack the pod rose marks on the Emperor's have taught him how Etruscan cargoes were loaded stacked on themselves yet the 30-ton cargo never reached to thirsty calls Luke can finally imagine the last moments of the pack Ross two and a half thousand years ago this was the fate of the largest merchant ship of the ancient world ever found our world war 1 season continues on Thursday night at 9:00 here on 4 focusing on the civilian population in horror on the homefront even severe in quite a lot of jealousy honda grom – nose ears someone popping google Dominique's conclusion is that the etruscans not only spread wine throughout southern goal but also how to drink in the amphora once it had been emptied was thrown away it was disposable whereas for the goals the cups were quite clearly prestigious possession they aren't found in homes they're found in tombs which clearly means that people wanted to be buried with a symbol of access to drink in reality not everyone would be entitled to this kind of car Luke found about 40 on the ship for an elite perhaps or at least for people who knew how to behave like Etruscans another similarity between the area around lat and erech but why was wine so prized by the goals if you look at the overall pattern of imports they really didn't want much else that the Greeks or Etruscans had it was really entirely centered around wine and drinking vessels before the the monetization of the economy and the development of paid labor one of the only ways to really mobilize a large number of people for a specialized task like building a house or a wall or a road or something like that was to call people together and offer them a large feast when one begins to think about alcohol and its role in all of make this a major discovery on the other hand he doesn't know what these are they look like names scale bowls or bars bottoms they're very very fine either copper or bronze it looks like a consignment of thin vases but he doesn't really know they'll have to soak them in fresh water and clean them to see properly it proves to be a stopper it's preserved perfectly intact and thick it's made of cork the cork Stoppers are a unique find traces of pitch enable Luke to identify the pots contents why alcohol appears to have been a mainstay of Etruscan culture but first-hand accounts are sadly looking fragments of history may lie inside each amphora wine was one of the principal products carried by the coastal traders the fragile pots must be handled with care if it were legal to sell them on the open market each would be worth between five and ten third Luke's theory is that the Etruscans used vines because he found many of them among the wreckage and there are signs of rope-like wealth Lucas ascertained there's no way to put either dishes plates or the bronze bowls between the Emperor's so in fact they were where the divers found them and piled up on top with barely space to get a hand in they could not have been wedged in between the amphora but their discovery will have to be verified is their stacking method a one-off or a tried and tested technique certainly there appear to be marks as if twisted vines were used perhaps they were tied to form bunches like grapes or lashed down for stability at Siena exactly what opposed it's easy enough in order to be certain Luke visits the fort stock of Etruscan amphoras from other excavations to see if they bear similar scars he's certain he can see similar marks on other amphoras but 30 fathoms down the hundred and fifty Emperor's recovered so far must only be a fraction of the cargo there yet more discoveries to be made about Etruscans ship materials and design a clearer picture is forming the rack still conceals many secrets it's a staggering find a ship of unprecedented size over 20 metres long and 7 meters wide complete with cargo and she may provide clues to the mystery of the disappearance of the Etruscans had they indeed foreseen that their world would come to an end they also had a system of recognizing the future of their own society how long it would last on earth by calculating something called sekolah in Latin which we might translate as great generations and the Etruscans thought that for them they were only a certain number of generations in most ancient funeral monuments the figures are very often set apart not here they're a couple enjoying a banquet the man looks lovingly at the woman his right hand on her shoulder she leans against her companion with confidence and trust Etruscan woman is shown on the same level this man when objective asanas Kinuko starting atmosphere a command to tell modi it's interesting because it plunges us into an atmosphere totally different to banquet scenes on Greek poetry poetry from ancient Athens or Corinth where we can see that ultimately the Greek banquet who strictly for me Greek women we're only allowed to take part as musicians or as cooties there is further evidence of the privileged status of women in Etruria in their names the Etruscans would often add the name of their mother men were not just the son that mr. so-and-so but also the son that mrs. such-and-such when a woman not only has a family name but also an individual identity within the family she has a privileged status compared to a Greek or Roman woman made for ordinary divers if the robot works here researchers will be able to explore depths beyond the reach of the Mediterraneans many underwater looters the Emperor's are spread out over an area a little smaller than a tennis singles court the archaeologists assume that like other ancient vessels discovered in the Mediterranean the boat would have been a small craft about nine meters long but what a leader Lowe's observes on his diet leads him to reject this idea when Luke asked him about his dive all he insists that the find is much bigger than the remote pictures make it appear all he thinks the Emperor's are still upright in sand and mud one layer still as they were loaded what Luke here's delights him this would be the first time a big cargos been found and they can forget the idea that it was a small boat they're looking at a big cargo thousand pounds making them highly attractive to underwater thieves for their pains Luke and his team now know that in a small area they have already found at least one layer of seventy fifth century Etruscan amphoras the cork stopper has enabled them to identify the contents as wine the fact that they have found only Etruscan remains is promising but the unexpected number of containers provides a problem how do they tackle such a major find in the few days that remain can Luke dare to hope that they've stumbled on the first wreck of a large Etruscan vessel ever found for French underwater archaeologist Luke long this is the latest step in his quest to discover the source of the wreck he's investigating off the Cote d'Azur the largest antique wreck yet found now he's searching among a thousand acres of tombs in Tuscany long before the Romans their builders the mysterious Etruscans dominated Italy's the fact that they have found only Etruscan remains is promising but the unexpected number of containers provides a problem how do they tackle such a major find in the few days that remain can Luke dare to hope that they've stumbled on the first wreck of a large Etruscan vessel ever found for French underwater archaeologist Luke long this is the latest step in his quest to discover the source of the wreck he's investigating off the Cote d'Azur the largest antique wreck yet found now he's searching among a thousand acres of tombs in Tuscany long before the Romans their builders the mysterious Etruscans dominated Italy and flourished throughout the Mediterranean Basin this was where the people of the town of kyuri honored their dead enormous to muley rise up from the ground 2700 years old sculpted out of volcanic rock some of them reach almost 50 meters across around them lie more simple graves almost uniform in design these are as an investigation that throws new light on Western Europe's first great civilization a sophisticated society centuries before the Romans skilled workers in ceramics craftsmen in bronze artists in gold experts in the production of wine the Etruscans a race that vanished into obscurity the Old Stone fort that guards the port of Marseilles harbors many treasures recovered from the Mediterranean as luke long the curator makes his way to his office this september morning a videocassette from the leader of the salvage team awaits him little does Luke realize that the underwater footage is about to draw him into a long-term archaeological adventure a full-scale inquiry into a vanished Luke seeks confirmation from his colleague that the tape is received from the divers shows remains that are truly Etruscan there are 60 to 70 Emperor's indeed Etruscan and all of the same design knowledge of the Etruscans is all too scarce yet they were perhaps the true founders of European culture in the 7th century BC Egypt Asia Minor and Greece ruled over the eastern shores of the Mediterranean in the West small tribal groups lived in antiquated villages all that is with one notable exception a unique civilization flourishing on the western edge of Italy today Etruria is known as Tuscany here wealthy through minerals and agriculture the Etruscans were developing a highly original way of life for more than five centuries these lords of the sea were vital middlemen between East and West only to disappear from history one major problem with Etruscan culture is a very big lacunae a very big gap and that is that although the Etruscans were little

By train across Sri Lanka | DW Documentary



Views:2819687|Rating:4.66|View Time:42:26Minutes|Likes:13465|Dislikes:978
Asia’s most beautiful railway line? The “Main Line” cuts through tea plantations and jungle, then passes Buddhist temples and relicts of the British Empire.

In the 19th century the British built a railway in what was then their colony of Ceylon. Their idea was to transport goods such as tea from the highlands to the port of Colombo. Today it’s mainly only locals and tourists who use the so-called “Main Line.” The route is considered one of the most picturesque in the whole of Asia.

Our trip takes us from the capital, Colombo, to Ella in the highlands. Our first stop is one of the country’s largest elephant orphanages. And then on to Kandy, the former capital of the Singhalese kingdom. The city is home to the famous Temple of the Tooth, which is said to house the Buddha’s top left canine. The train then winds its way further up into the highlands. We watch tea pickers at work and go to a tea factory to discover where the aroma comes from. Nuwara Eliya is Sri Lanka’s highest town at an altitude of almost 1900 meters, where a racecourse still brings the colonial era back to life. The stations have also retained their own colonial charm: in 1901, a signaling system was set up to make the long journey safer. And those suffering from the altitude can catch their breath at the final stop, the spa in Ella.
_______

Exciting, powerful and informative – DW Documentary is always close to current affairs and international events. Our eclectic mix of award-winning films and reports take you straight to the heart of the story. Dive into different cultures, journey across distant lands, and discover the inner workings of modern-day life. Subscribe and explore the world around you – every day, one DW Documentary at a time.

Subscribe to DW Documentary:

For more information visit:

Instagram

Facebook:

DW netiquette policy:

mainline railway is supposed to be the most beautiful line in the railway it's of such-and-such a scenic beauty you cannot get this type of beauty anywhere in the world be it the pearl of the Indian Ocean or the teardrop in the sea both are true on sri lanka the entire island nation including its capital colombo is caught up in an atmosphere of change the civil war that lasted more than a quarter of a century ended in 2009 at the beginning of 2015 the people of sri lanka voted for more democracy in the form of a new president the island formerly known as salon is an idyllic holiday destination for tourists it's best explored by train a train journey here is always also a journey into the country's colonial past that much becomes clear before we start our journey at the Central Station in Colombo fort in the heart of the city we buy our tickets at a counter that has a nostalgic air they can then be checked by a friendly conductor this station building was modeled on Victorious station in Manchester the traces of the British colonial rulers are everywhere the British ruled between 1796 and 1948 things were different back then there are many problems we have the drivers and gas problems there in time they are not into the for their jobs and other other ways the workshop peoples also are not working at time not they are doing their work properly we're in luck our train bound for badula is waiting already we set off a tough past eight we're about to go on a train journey that's been described as one of the most picturesque in Asia it will take us from Columbo to Ella in the highlands via candy a journey of around 270 kilometers a special trip on special tracks it was the islands first railway route and it's still known as mainline the first 54 kilometer stretch to Amber Pusa is celebrating its hundred and fiftieth birthday this year maybe that's where this train journey gets its charm and atmosphere it's a train journey that's always been significant to the people of Sri Lanka originally it was for transport of goods but they had the minimum passenger carriages as well very few passengers traveled but of course with the building of the railways very many in upcountry areas they always liked to travel by train to see go and see the sea see Beach first time in life for them to go and see the sea Beach they traveled by train through ela movie we crossed the Kalani one of Sri Lanka's largest rivers and leave Colombo behind the entire trip costs between one euro fifty and third-class and eight euros in first-class Sri Lankans are very proud of their railway that I'm traveling alone and it's quite safe for me I've taken the train ever since I was little it feels good you can breathe fresh air and see many things out the window such as mountains rivers and lakes I like that the Train is better than the bus you feel freer and the bus costs around twice as much there's even a television in first class those who don't like that can travel in third class for less money and with a little bit of luck experience some live music the musician Lou Shanta is actually a teacher but it's often the case in sri lanka that young well-educated people don't find a suitable job god please help me please help us please make us our country prosperous a country's very cool extend the offer United extend er I mean helped existence to develop our country that is the that is the meaning of the song Sri Lanka is classed as a developing country many people live by agriculture often 50 euros a month must suffice for an entire family that's not a lot here either 20% of the children are malnourished the gaps between town and country rich and poor are huge third class is correspondingly crowded some passengers aren't happy about the status quo at all we want to know what it's like in first class with the televisions we want to have the same services in third class we want improved comfort and greater security the people are dissatisfied with their economic situation that caused president Rajapaksa to be voted out at the last election we're stopping in ramble karna is just a few minutes by tuk-tuk to Sri Lanka's biggest tourist attraction the Pinnawala Elephant Orphanage the daily bath in the Maya aurilla River is a sensation baby elephants and injured adults are nursed back to health here in pinna Willa this is Neela one of her founder members he is now about 60 years old was first brought in to opine novella in 1975 so in 1975 was the inception of this organization it started off with five baby elephants and he was brought in here as a baby now he's a very big one and he has fathered about five babies for us we have his daughters and sons with us right now we are housing about 77 elephants all together there are four baby elephants making the tourists happy here at the moment they are bottle-fed six times a day getting up to seven liters of milk the animals are clearly happy some of them have been brought from the jungle some of them have been born here the six elephants are kept separate they have become sick because of certain accidents like train accidents and sometimes fights within the jungle so we keep them here treat them and give them a good life we start ascending the plateau an ox cart takes 12 days for this laborious journey by train it's around 9 hours building the railway line took place under severe conditions many of the 3,000 workers died of malaria and cholera mainline goes through very rough country it goes through ravines and George's and cuts cutting cuttings and fillings and embankments and tunneling they are afforded to tunnels from Colombo to Basel it was tedious work in the time the time of construction and the labor was not cooperative and we had no mechanization new modern I raw no kanata no kind of modern a modernized equipment for drilling on laying the tracks all by human labour so it was difficult however the soil that proved so tiresome during the construction of the railway line harbors treasures too there are lots of different gemstones in the ground they adorn the crowns of monarchs and the jewelry of adored women as a result Sri Lanka has a long and lucrative tradition of gold smithery these days it's mostly for tourists that brings in good money a goldsmith earns around 200 euros a month James came into the limelight of human life because each and every gem carries a power to heal certain disease this most medical medical medication at the beginning even though now it has become a fashionable thing or in this mud type thing sapphires in many different colors the design is also made in Sri Lanka we're about to reach candy we've travelled 130 kilometers in three and a half hours the climate is significantly more pleasant at 500 meters candy was once the capital of the single E's kings and the epitome of single ease culture the kings were able to defend their independence from the colonial powers for centuries here the station was opened as far back as 1867 the blue water lily Sri Lanka's national flower is sold here it's often used as a sacrificial gift at Buddhist temples one of the most significant in the whole of Sri Lanka Sri de la da Malaga WA the temple of the sacred tooth the most important Buddhist relic in Sri Lanka is kept here the Buddha's upper-left cuspid a significant symbol of national pride people come from all around the world to attend the daily services they donate and they pray the 19 minute puja starts at half past nine the word means something like worship and is an important ritual in everyday Buddhist life according to legend the sacred tooth is said to store the Buddha's spiritual strength this belief also turned this religious relic into a political instrument of power for the single East Kings Sri Lanka was ruled by kings there were seven royal ruling period in 1815 the British conquered candy and with it the temple of the sacred tooth as an important symbol of power and Sri Lanka pradhan deep initiative patiently waiting outside the chamber where the relic is housed visitors only get to see a container the tooth isn't on display it's said to be housed in an ivory capsule which is in turn encased in six further containers it's thanks to the temple that candy is on UNESCO's List of World Heritage Sites there's a further spectacle worth watching right next to the temple in the late afternoon as a rod on your batters bats otherwise known as flying foxes are getting comfortable candy is also known for its dance performances these men and women are just getting ready for one the tradition dates back to the time of the last kings of candy ah nice and with this dance troupe has performed since 1932 in the past the dance was for the entertainment of the king if the king was sick the dance was used to cure him we even had healing festivals today the dances are mostly for the tourists why d'ya Watty comes from a long line of dancers the dancing tradition is passed on from generation to generation the training is tough and starts every day of 5:00 in the morning performances take place all year-round with very little time off the performances consist of up to 11 different items balancing these discs is called the Rabanne dance the performance lasts for about an hour we've left candy behind the mountain landscape has some visual treats in store for us other treats or waiters on the train Neil Amy sells small snacks in the carriages he's done this for many years it provides a living for his family he has three children I'd prepare the food at home and bring it to the Train I've been doing this for 20 years vada is a small snack you take 2 or 3 pieces I make a living doing this my regulars like my pure vibe that's why I always bring freshly baked goods I have a permit and I'm allowed to sell it on the train the passengers liked it too we're gradually getting used to the gentle rocking of the Train the women's colorful clothes strikers again and again the mainline snakes its way higher and higher up the plateau [Applause] the working population up here mainly the women are employed in the many textile companies their goods are Sri Lanka's most important industrial export [Applause] with wages at just fifty euros a month manual labor is no luxury and it's cheap compared to purchasing a loom the women get to pick the colors we tend to use strong bright colors in a day you can weave a sarong that's around 2 meters long the thread is spun on the spindle they've made themselves the thin yarn of the sarong is very water absorbent it's made of cotton and very pleasant on the skin silk is less practical in the mountains where it rains a lot a cotton sarong is better we're apparently really lucky with the weather today we're told on the train that there hasn't been a single day without rain up here in two and a half years the British originally built the railway line to transport tea from the mountains to the port of Columbo at first tea was merely a substitute for coffee which had been affected by a fungus coffee rust the British recruited Highland Tamils from southern India as cheap labor to this day tea is harvested on the unimaginably large area of 2,000 210 square kilometers a safe job for many we work on the plantations picking tea leaves we thank our president for that it's good work the income from the tea plantation made the former salon the favorite colony of the British in those days the tea pickers only got rice as wages today they get a bit more than 3 euros a day working from sunrise to sunset but that's not something they like to talk about this is where the famous salon tea comes from we're in one of the countless tea factories and we're proudly told what makes it special young tender subtly maybe the better portion of the leaf and the coarse stalks and the metroid leaf can be the substandard material where you have less chemical compounds where the young leaf is concerned they have the better quality and the flavor by the way of chemical compound the caffeine amino acids polyphenol and some aromatics and essential oil are very rich when the leaf is young a hundred people work in the helper T Factory which is around a hundred years old after the tea leaves are dried they're broken up by being rolled and shaken after that they're fermented and dried the next step is to sort the tea by size sri lanka is one of the world's biggest tea exporters during the founding years the construction of the railway line had to keep up with the opening of new tea plantations in the highlands the railway has long since lost the significance it had in those days this time for the mainland was during the time of the British when they were transporting the produce and the tea is being produced over there with the changeover to road transport not a pound of tea had been transported by train today these days only around 1% of goods are transported by rail mr. Yan occur has made sure for the past 33 years that everything runs smoothly I'm the senior conductor on the train during the whole trip which makes me responsible for the lives of the passengers and for the railway property for everything that happens on the way a token is just being handed over it's in this brass ring covered in leather it ensures safety on this single track route and has done since 1901 when I pass on the token the train driver has the permission to travel to the next station I have to ring four times to get this token that's how they know at the next station that a train is coming they ring four times in response and block that token that unlocks my token I can get it out and give it to the next train which can then travel safely to the next station the token is unlocked and given to the train driver on the next train unfortunately there are no longer any train tracks from nanu Oriya station to the famous hill station of nuwara eliya the writer hermann hesse of Steppenwolf fame had an enjoyable stay here in 1911 it's pleasantly fresh at a height of nineteen hundred meters the British called the small town little England and indeed we can picture Miss Marple posting a letter here time seems to have stood still since 1876 in the time-honored Hill Club in those days the plantation owners relaxed here over a game of billiards the laundry might be drying there today but in those days that's where the colonial rulers watched horse races everything was to be like a home away from home it's rare for horse races to take place here these days things follow a slower pace on the racetracks these days another relic from the British period Sri Lanka's most sophisticated Golf Club actually this was started by the old British planters and and they kept on looking after it very well like it was the it was not mainly for commercial activity this is maintained like a mayor members club because the because it was maintained like a members Club it was not so commercially oriented people started loving this place so it's more than the tourist is actually the members who used to come to the pavilion and also to play golf as I say the survival I mean limited and also the people around this place they started loving this place visitors need temporary club membership to play the 18 hole course the club has shaped the life of Sri Lanka's highest town for the past 125 years entire families used to live here even children were born on club premises well can it be many white gentlemen lifts on the plantations back then they came here to pass their tongue when I was between 10 and 15 I worked for them as a cabman and was allowed to play – that's how I started in 1971 I became free golf champion of Sri Lanka we're back at nanu Orias station we listen to the music of Clarence V Govardhana the Sri Lankan King of Pop now long dead a change of vehicle we participate in an inspection on a trolley of course the token is a must on this trip to maintaining the railway is quite elaborate work in Sri Lanka particularly up here in the mountains I generally help the senior railway staff in their monitoring work the trolley is used for maintenance and if there's been a derailment or a landslide it takes railway staff to the sea the heavy rainfall during the wet season causes a lot of damage to the track then it has to be fixed we visit a British manor house but a slightly higher altitude it houses a monastery these days sent Benedict's father Michael has run it for 22 years he runs the school for the novices and takes care of the property too the fruit being chopped up here ready to make jam is called an elephant apple or wood apple we started this damn industry for the maintenance of the house in the beginning we started with the marmalade and strawberry jam and guava jelly so these three varieties we started in the beginning but later we develop into different other items and still we are continuing what we started in the beginning for almost 50 years now a long-standing tradition lunch is being prepared at the same time the fruits are also used as medicine before they ripen sixty-year-old Chandra is a master of his field he has stirred and stirred and stirred ever since he was 13 if I take the jam off the fire at the right time it will last for years you can keep it for up to six years there's a big demand for it despite the large quantity I make there's nothing left over it's the jams consistency that determines the right time here – everything's done by hand Chandra produces up to a thousand jars every season the Train heads into the mountains on the main line twice a day unfortunately the weather's becoming increasingly British the total length of Sri Lanka's rail network is around 1,500 kilometers the gauge is wider than the regular standard gauge it is thousand six hundred and seventy six millimeters engage or five feet six inches in feet and inches it is known as the broad gauge railway because they are the ideal situation for transport of wood is the broadest gauge because they can bring more load so they they have to delayed the religious LED broad gauge here in Chile's lon India Pakistan Bangladesh it's ideal for transporting tea the token is ready the next station is Patti Paula at 1891 meters it's real anchors highest station time has a different dimension up here the employees have to expect a number of difficulties appear roads can wash away it can rain sometimes we have dew or Frost in the morning saw animals get in the way of the Train such as the Sri Lankan tiger or wild boar or deer summers they can cause problems that take them we haven't seen any animals and it's no surprise in this weather but at last we reach the highlight of our trip quite literally thousand eight and eighty one meter height here at the railway summit here in particular which is supposed to be a Guinness world of records it is given John Marshall's Book of Guinness world of records feats facts and fix of railways it is given at the highest point reached on a broad gauge railway it's also quite inhospitable we're 224 kilometers from Colombo now the further away we are from the islands capital the fewer passengers there are on the train towards the afternoon our limbs become tired we notice the altitude we deserve a bit of relaxation the region around ala is known for its spa facilities the hard-working tea pickers can only dream of visiting them you have to bring some time with you when you come here a relaxing Ayurveda massage takes 80 minutes speciation it's a special massage all 107 vital spots that improves blood flow which influences the organs of insulting Aparna it gives you a lot of energy same blood circulation the Indian art of healing has a long-standing tradition on sri lanka to [Applause] the holistic approach of Ayurveda and a calming view of nature the steam bath with healing herbs is also good for relaxation it reduces cholesterol levels cuts weight and cleanses the skin it's paradise we are completely relaxed on our final leg to Ella this stretch is definitely one of the most attractive in the whole of Asia that's why it's best to think about its future mainline should continue as a heretic railway and it'll be by the it might be handed over to the UNESCO for conversion as a heritage railway and then again as a tourist railway I never say I don't say that it should be stopped for the local passengers the local passenger service should be maintained but whereas for tourism they must develop this area further a good idea because that would secure the continued existence of the main line allowing travelers from all over to discover a new world in just nine hours

Ancient History Documentary Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire Ancient War Documentary



Views:20571|Rating:4.76|View Time:43:11Minutes|Likes:59|Dislikes:3
This ancient Rome documentary, an ancient war documentary, is about the Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire and covers how Gaius Marius, a Roman general who had no connection with aristocracy won the barbarian tribes.

Ancient Rome from a small republic, it grows into one of the greatest empires ever known lasting for over six hundred years. As its height it stretches from London to Baghdad, projecting its power with the first professional army and creating the model of the Western Civilization. And yet when the Empire begins to falter, it collapses with shocking speed as it takes only a hundred years for the imperial edifices of Rome to vanish like smoke. Swept away by the barbarian invasions. How did this happen?

This ancient history documentary about the ancient Rome Empire is part of a thirteen hour series which focuses on the Germanic, Britannic and other barbarian tribal wars with Rome. These ancient wars and brutal ancient battles finally led to the decline and fall of the Roman Empire.

This ancient history documentary film focuses on the ancient war campaigns and ancient battles with the barbarian tribes and extensive examinations of the reigns of little known Roman emperors and generals. The significance and structures of key barbarian tribes and the roles their leaders played are explored in detail. Territorial changes to the Roman Empire caused by unrelenting wars, plagues, mass starvation’s and power struggles are presented in chronological historical context with extensive re-enactments.

This history documentary finally examines how the continuous ancient wars and ancient battles with the barbarians and depletion of resources became a core cause of the Roman Empire’s decline and eventual collapse.

This ancient Rome documentary has been created under the Creative Commons Editor. All rights belong to their retrospective owners.

This ancient history documentary about Rome covers the First Barbarian War.

By 113 BC, Rome has become master of the entire Mediterranean basin. Aristocracy’s failure to deal with the Barbarians has led Gaius Marius, a Roman general with humble background, to defeat the invading Germanic Barbarian tribes, for which he was called “the third founder of Rome. Gaius Marius was noted for his important reforms of Roman armies, authorizing recruitment of landless citizens, eliminating the manipular military formations, and reorganizing the structure of the legions into separate cohorts. His life and career were significant in Rome’s transformation from Republic to Empire.

This ancient history documentary, Rome- Rise and Fall of and Empire, uses Plutarch as a source.

Our Channel is dedicated to bring to you the most interesting history documentaries, Ancient Rome Empire documentary (Rise of Rome, ancient Rome history, history of Rome, Roman documentaries, fall of Rome, horrible stories, ryse Rome), war documentaries, civilization documentaries, ancient civilization documentaries, ancient war documentary, ancient war movies, barbarians movies, Epic battles documentaries, top documentary, full documentary, best documentary, history documentary and History Channel documentary.

If you are interested in the Ancient Rome Empire, the rise of Rome, ancient Rome history, ancient history, ancient war documentary, history documentary, ancient history full movies and ancient history documentaries full length, please subscribe to our History

Source

Tags-Please ignore

“ancient Rome empire”, “rise of Rome”, “ancient Rome history”, “ancient Rome documentary”, “ancient history”, “Rome documentary”, “history of Rome”, “ancient” “war documentary”, “barbarians”, “Plutarch”, “history documentary”, “history channel”, “romans”, “epic battles”, “war”, “war documentaries”, “great wars in ancient history”, “ancient civilization documentaries”, “ancient war movies”, “barbarians movies”, “epic battles documentaries”, “Gaius Marius”, “ancient Rome”, “Rome”, “ancient”, “ancient history documentaries”, ” history of ancient Rome”, “fall of Rome”, ” ancient battles scenes”, “best”, full”, “film”, “history channel documentary”, “great wars in ancient history”, “ancient battles of history”, “full documentary”, “ancient roman aristocracy”, “history”, “ancient war”, “war warfare documentary”, “Rome History”, “world history”, “Gaius Marius documentary”, “ancient battles”, “ancient battles documentary”, “history documentaries”, “Historical documentaries”, “ancient history documentaries full length”, full, length, “best history documentary”, “ancient history”

you grow from a small Republic it grows into the greatest empire ever known lasting for over 600 years at its height it stretches from London to Baghdad projecting its power with the first professional army and creating the model of Western civilization and yet when the Empire begins to falter it collapses with shocking speed it takes only a hundred years for the Imperial edifice of Rome to vanish like smoke swept away by the barbarian invasions it is late in the second century BC a hundred years before the crucifixion of Christ a decade before the birth of Julius Caesar Rome is facing a transition one that will change its fundamental character forever it comes at a time of conquest rome has come off 150 years of really successful foreign expansion they've defeated carthage their great enemy across the mediterranean sea in africa and they've begun to expand to the north and they've made big conquests that are hard to keep in spain but even as the Romans are carving out their place in the world through brutal conquest the Republic faces a cataclysmic event that will eventually force the Romans to abandon the rule of the Senate for the absolute dictatorship of an emperor it begins with the first barbarian rule by 113 BC Rome has become master of the entire Mediterranean Basin but with new lands come new enemies the Romans know that there are more people farther away especially to the north and that these people are if anything even more formidable than the armies they defeated before and they're worried about those people coming into it'll beyond the borders of Roman civilization the soldiers face an unfamiliar breed of warrior they call them barbarians a word meaning foreign and crude anybody that didn't follow classical customs speak classical languages Latin or Greek was considered to be very different other barbarian and Rome simply regarded them as much less capable much less civilized than themselves only the rugged Alpine mountain range keeps the northern barbarians at bay the Alps mountain chain at the top of Italy is like the cork in the bottle that keeps the bad guys away from the Roman point of view and the Romans don't control that cork and so they know that it could pop out at any time and the enemy could come pouring into Italy or at least that's their fear against this growing barbarian menace stands the Roman army a volunteer militia which prides itself on being well ordered well-trained and well-armed an individual Roman soldier would be wearing metal and leather armor helmet something to protect his chest all of this armor together could weigh as much as 60 or 70 pounds half his body weight the burden of Rome's expansion falls squarely on the shoulders of these battle-hardened men but back in the capital it's the wealthy government officials who reap the benefits Rome is not an empire yet but a republic ruled by the Senate at the top of the political ladder are two elected officers known as consuls they were the highest civilian and military officials in Rome above all their responsibility was to lead the army because national security came first but they were also because of their tremendous prominence very important in setting the agenda for politics for legislation for reform though the roman republic embraces democratic ideals all men are not created equal soldiers may win the battles for rome but they dare not hope to achieve the position of consul the highest office is reserved for members of Rome's most important families like Maia's poppy Ria's carbo a very small number of families dominated the elections to become consul this is part of the belief that Rome really needed the kind of honor that came from a long distinguished family history now as rome expands this honor is no longer based on merit but on money what's happening in Rome is as Rome conquers more territory more wealth is going to flow into the city and there's a sense that wealth is going to demoralize the citizen body and the aristocracy both that as wealth becomes more and more powerful enrollment Society more and more enticing that this is going to infiltrate its way into the political process by spreading around his wealth carbo can buy his places consul in terms of campaigning one of the things that you'll find is you go on later in the Republic is the system becomes extremely corrupt you have people bestowing all sorts of largesse any sort of little kind of gifts or remuneration in order to get your your vote but in the north a dangerous new tribe the Kimber II is on the move from their home in Northern Europe they journey south toward Roman territory completely uncivilized the Cimbri radiates terror according to the famous ancient biographer Plutarch they were believed to be German tribes based on their great size the light blue color of their eyes and the fact that their name Cimbri is the german nickname for plunderers led by the great warlord boy Rick's the Horde leaves a smoking trail of destruction in its wake they were characteristic Iron Age people's we don't really know exactly what it is they were after they may have been moving in order to attack and invade provinces that were becoming wealthy through trade with Rome they may have simply been coming to seek their fortunes in what they perceived as a richer land near the Mediterranean the Cimbri aren't the only ones lured by Rome's growing wealth on the way south to more barbarian tribes join them the Titone Eze and an bronies the combined barbarian armies are heading straight for an Alpine pass into Roman territory guarded by the simple villagers of Noricum the Laura come is not a Roman territory its proximity to the Roman border ties its people closely to the Republic nor commenced the area that we would say today is essentially Austrian the people who live there the nori key and therefore the territory is named after them the people they are the nori key controlled the Alpine passes Romans also rely on the no Ricans for trade as their skills working in precious metals and iron are well known within Oregon's actually have available no raw materials it's gold silver and salt mine abble salt in the Alps is a major industry there so the Romans truly needed large quantities of salt for preservative and it had to have that and they had to have it all the time the nuri converges provide an irresistible target to the merciless Cimbri warriors hungry for loot they are rapacious and heavily armed for the ray by the period we're talking about the second and first centuries BC the Cimbri had very effective swords spears shields helmets are rarer but they were fully equipped with very able kinds of weapons but the barbarians are after more than the murricans wealth northern barbarians who were migrating what they wanted above all was land they weren't there to raid and leave they wanted to live next to the Romans the craftsman of norica stand no chance against the warriors of the north the Norwegians send an emissary to their allies in the roman senate begging for help against the vicious Cimbri invaders they seek out the aristocrat carbo who's politicking has finally paid off he now holds the post of consul the most prestigious office in Rome carbo orders his aide to begin preparations for war he has just one year to win the glory and riches that come from battle we're talking about needing to show the qualities of leadership through a display of manliness and a display Emanuel s-mint success on the battlefield generals not only feathered the nests of themselves and their families but of all their supporters carbo takes the challenge leading his troops to Noricum despite an under lack of experience in the ways of war he is eager to prove that he is more than just a wealthy senator he arrives in Noricum backed by the men of the roman army after a century of victories they exude confidence the cambree claimed they didn't know that they were in territory that they shouldn't have been in they sent embassadors the barbarians have never seen such a well-equipped and disciplined force the warlord boy Rix tells carbo his people only wish to return home peacefully carbo agrees to let them go but there is little glory in a truce the Roman general devises a plan to force the victory he so badly needs carbo pretended that he was going to negotiate and then he sent his troops on a shortcut to attack the cambree before the ambassadors could get back thinking that his sneak attack would work carbo's plan backfires the Roman commander carbo outfoxed this group called the Cimbri but he did it in a way that smelled of disgrace a few of the cambrian ambassadors survived to carry a tale of treachery back to the barbarian camp furious the barbarians swear they will never leave until they exact bloody revenge classical biographer Plutarch the courage and daring what irresistible they rushed into battle with the speed of a raging fire nothing could stand up to them led by two warlords boy Rick's of the Cimbri and two debod of the Teton ace the barbarians advance in inexhaustible waves the archeology tells us that they had very good weapons not inferior to Romans it tells us that they had really real military organization with infantry troops with officer corps so we can talk quite a bit certainly we can tell much more than the Romans seemed to understand until it was too late consul carbo suddenly finds himself far from the comfort and privilege of Roman politics here the language of power is spoken and steel and blood as console chief war magistrate he fails miserably because the chief or magistrate is only out there for a year it's very frequently amateur hour out there on the field of battle so you end up with very frequently inept leadership in a very important position and an occasion results in disaster for the Romans the battle for Noricum is such a disaster Romans were in the end saved from being pushed over the cliff into the hell of utter destruction only by a giant storm lightning thunder and rain not from his horse carbo struggles to flee from the deadly chaos he escapes the battle only to commit suicide for he has disgraced himself and Rome in the eyes of the gods God saved the Romans but only just and only after many many had been killed what did that mean it meant the gods were unhappy at the way the Romans behaved and yet the Romans cling to the notion that only the aristocrats can lead them to victory the Romans believed that old meant good new meant dangerous so they were their politicians and their leaders they preferred people with a long distinguished family history over the next decade a string of nobles all armed with more arrogance than skill lead armies north to protect Rome's province in Gaul they meet the barbarians at Tolosa berta gala and finally a raw co-present a toulouse bordeaux and orange france in each instance the barbarians completely rout Rome's heralded legions the Romans had their particular formal ways of fighting if we think of the beginning of the film gladiator that's a perfect representation of how Rome liked to fight take hours to set up everything in the battle order and then launch the attack in contrast the barbarians counter-attack is unpredictable and devastating to the Roman lines you have these lines of men and if the person next to you goes down the person behind will step into that gap and and death would be much much more intimate the death toll is staggering at Orazio alone 80,000 Romans are massacred in a single afternoon when an Army lost its cohesiveness then the men were literally like fishing a barrel to be picked off at leisure by the other side so when a side has been defeated then the victors they just slaughter them one by one with no danger to the people doing the slaughtering it's not a battle anymore it's a mass execution by 105 BC the Cimbri and their allies desire much more than Roman blood and booty some members of the clan want to set down roots they were farming peoples they engaged in trade they lived in small villages people were growing wheat and barley rye oats millet a whole variety of different kinds of cereals they were raising lentils and peas and beans and other kinds of garden crops cattle were extremely important pigs sheep and goat we're all being raised this new domesticity alarms the Romans to their minds the only thing more threatening that a barbarian warrior is a barbarian woman the presence of women is a standard Roman way of communicating that this is an invasion for settlement in other words this is a group that's coming in to significantly alter the way we live to threaten our basic values if it's just a raid it's just a bunch of teenage guys we can deal with that but see when we throw women into the description we have the migratory feature and there it's a permanency it requires a sterner and long term solution it requires a general who can beat the barbarians back once and for all the hero Rome so desperately needs emerges on another hotly contested borderland nearly a thousand miles away in Numidia part of present-day Algeria for eight long years the Romans have tasted only defeat here until now the name of their savior is Marius with guts and cunning he crushes the Numidian armies of the robe King Jew Bertha well needed great soldiers and Marius was the greatest rome had yet seen both because he was a great commander Marius could pick the right time and the right place for a battle but also because he won his soldiers loyalty and affection by getting down and digging ditches with them by eating the same rough food by being in better shape than even they were and they were the best conditioned soldiers in the world he comes by his common touch naturally for Marius is no aristocrat still he speaks of his humble background with pride I cannot point to my ancestors but I can show medals and other military honors to say nothing of the scars on my body all of them in front these are my title of nobility now as the northern barbarians close in the Romans turn to Marie's their last and best hope he's a proven military commander and you don't want to fool around when you have to Tony's and Cimbri who have defeated army after army you really want to take care of the problem urgently and so you want to send a capable leader out on the field but even the great marius cannot lead without men to follow him devastated by a decade of war Rome faces critical troop shortages if you have as many men lost the German tribes in one 113 and 109 and 107 and 106 and 105 as the Romans did that's going to traumatized Roman society pretty severely despite a vigorous recruitment campaign Marius cannot find enough qualified men land holders who are willing to serve to be in the Roman army in the High Republic you had to have a property qualification you had to be a person of means and and this causes some problems for the Roman army because there's a problem with manpower Mariusz is solution is as simple as it is radical he sends his recruiters out to seek soldiers among the landless poor you don't have to be a property holder to the enrollment citizens so why should you have to be a property owner to be a Legionnaire many people wish to be soldiers it's a good job and it's probably an exciting job opportunities for booty wine women and song chance to see the world at government expense etc the same things that we see on our recruitment posters Marius said anybody can be in the army this then gave the Romans a much greater pool of men on which to draw to strengthen their legions because in Roman society there were many many many more poor than there were middle class the old guard judges recruits by their income Marius judges his by their fighting potential stand up against a legionary and you can stand up to the barbarians by extending the search for legionnaire's down into the plural terian what that rather quickly does is it makes the ordinary soldier even more dependent upon the success of the commander the general is expected to provide for his man and to provide for them as soon as he can and to be generous lured by the promise of wealth a new breed of Roman soldier marches to war Marius pledges to give them all the tools and skills they need I will teach you to strike down an enemy fear nothing but disgrace to sleep on bare ground and work hard on an empty stomach in 104 BC Marius and his army set off for Gaul to meet the Cimbri in a stroke of good fortune for the Romans the barbarians choose that very moment to leave Gaul and raid hispania instead it is a tactical mistake that buys Marius valuable time mariusz mold his new army from the ground up he not only hardens them to the rigors of a soldier's life he makes them love it Marius made lots of innovations in the army for example it gave each Legion an eagle a silver eagle as its standard he trained his men to carry what they needed on campaign so they could move faster but he weighed them down so much that they call themselves Marius his mules Marius didn't need pack animals for his army to go on campaign he already had his mules and they only had two legs but they were more effective they were more flexible and it's the flexibility of the legions that is enhanced by Marius military reforms including the standardization of equipment well equipped and unified in spirit Marius mules are transformed but untested two years passed with no sign of the barbarians still the fear they inspire remains panicked the Romans ignore their own ancient traditions about term limits and reelect Marius console the chief magistrate of war I think part of the problem is to deal with the threat from the north you have to give Marius this extraordinary command we're in 104 103 102 101 100 he's consul boom boom boom boom boom at last in 102 VC The Phantom Menace becomes real the Cimbri to Tony's and Umbro knees sweep out of the north and west on a collision course with Rome Marius builds of fortress near Arras EO he sends another army to guard Noricum for above all else the Alpine passes into Italy must be protected within weeks half of the hoard the two Tony's and Umbro knees swarm around Marius is fort a terrifying sight according to Plutarch their numbers appeared to be infinite they were hideous to look at their speech and their shouting were unlike anything that anyone had ever heard before and yet Marius forces his men to look and learn Marius was a brilliant military man he understood the life and the thoughts and the psychology of a soldier what Marius gave to the Roman Republic was confidence that Romans could defeat the fiercest barbarians in the world the fortress holds the two Tony's and Umbro knees cannot pass 150 thousand strong they head south seeking another Alpine pass the Romans pursue them at a distance in no hurry to engage till the right time in place for Marius has already picked out the perfect battlefield where he will at last unleash the power of his unconventional army he loses troops from his fortress at Arras EO to a qui sex di modern-day eggs on Provence France there mariusz orders his men to set up camp he chooses his position carefully the Roman camp is a singular military piece of machinery it would preferably be on high ground in order to see any kind of enemy maneuvers it's going to be laid out on a grid pattern you're going to surround it with a deep ditch and you're going to have a rampart dug heaped up above that ditch what's known as an auger and everyone would have their place there is one more feature that most camps have but this particular camp is lacking classical biographer Plutarch Marius chose a place that was not very well supplied with water they said he did this deliberately so as to encourage his soldiers to fight when people complained they were thirsty Marius pointed to a river running close by the barbarian camp there is some drinking water for you he said but you have to pay for it with blood on the banks of the Rhone River settled side-by-side in two great camps the Umbro neighs and tutto neighs have plenty of fresh drinking water confident that the Romans are no match for them the Umbro neighs lose themselves in feasting and making merry the Romans especially the ordinary soldiers were afraid of the northern barbarians the ones from the farthest north from the coldest climates tough climates made for tough men they were much bigger than the Romans they were much louder than the Romans and from the Roman point of view they were smelly not because they didn't bathe they probably bathe more than the Roman soldiers but they used shall we say a different Cologne bear fat the Romans were used to the scent of olive oil they never suspect the danger lurking in the forest as a small but desperate contingent of Marissa's troops creep up on the barbarian camp Roman soldiers were always afraid because they weren't fools they knew that they were going to be in danger of being killed just as easily as the enemy because Roman soldiers didn't do their real killing from a distance mariusz mules throw themselves into the skirmish but the barbarians swiftly rally in overwhelming numbers just as defeat closes in on the Romans Marius orders reinforcements into the fray re-energized the Romans pushed the Umbro knees back to their camp there the battle takes a strange turn as Plutarch reports the women came out armed with swords and axes and making the most horrible shrieking they threw themselves into the thick of the fighting and though their bodies were gashed and wounded they endured it to the end with unbroken spirits the Barbarian women always came to the battlefields sometimes the women would pull the wagons up right behind the men so that they couldn't retreat from battle they block them in the women were so aware of their sense of honour and liberty that they thought death was better than retreat the Romans thought that these women were unbelievably brave unbelievably courageous they thought these barbarians were the ultimate risk takers by bringing their family to the battlefield they're putting everything on that one roll of the dice we win or we die and that means all of us men women children babies but the Romans also have something to protect their honor and homeland with the skills that Marius has taught them they earned their first victory over the German invaders in more than a decade back at camp Marius prepares for the revenge attack that will certainly be launched by two debod king of the 2-tone ace pain quite sex the eye he faced a really difficult tactical situation as usual the enemy far outnumbered the Romans but Marius always able to choose the right time in the right place carefully selected the terrain he lays a trap with his trusted captain Claudius Marcellus Marius sends Marcellus with 3,000 men into the woods behind the tonus camp he instructs them to lay low until the fighting begins the Barbarian spoiling for vengeance charge up the hill to the Roman camp just as Marius has planned they meet a wall of swords according to Plutarch Marius himself fought in the front rank putting into practice the orders he'd given his soldiers for he was in as good training as anyone and in daring he far surpassed them all this battle was a real test of Marius is philosophy and creating his mules that were strong enough to stand up with all of their armor and to stay in position and hold their discipline even when the enemy was yelling and charging with a fantastic fierceness and being in full armor rushed them with their swords so that they could be like a flying wedge coming downhill and smashing the enemy as marius and his men forced the barbarians back Marcellus and his cohorts burst from the woods together they snuff out any hope of retreat for King to debod and his warriors the body-count defies imagination the roman slaughter more than a hundred thousand to tony's the rest they take his slaves spoils of war that will make marius 'as mules and all of his supporters rich his patronage is not just to the soldiers he is very generous to all Romans of all ranks marius by monopolizing power at the very top in in reality becomes the patron of even members of the senatorial class swept up by the barbarian fever the Romans once again elect Marius to Rome's most important office he will serve as consul for an unprecedented fifth term there was such an immense fear that the barbarians would come pouring in through the Gateway of the Alps which the Romans didn't control and lay waste to Italy in sack Rome politics has to take the hindmost for Rome is not out of danger Marius has only crushed half of the barbarian horde the Cimbri the most fearsome barbarians of all are still on the loose while Marius is in Rome the Cimbri break through the Roman fortifications at Noricum the enemy has at last breached Italy's borders and is ravaging the pole plane clearly only one man has the courage and cunning to meet this new crisis console Marius from Rome Marius rushes north to the pole plane vowing to eliminate the barbarians once and for all when Marius arrives in the Roman camp the Cimbri send him an envoy they come not to attack but to make demands the Cimbri come to him and say we want land that's what we want we don't want to fight we want land just like the land you gave our neighbouring tribe there across the mountains in France the Cimbri apparently haven't heard about the disaster that has befallen their Titone eight comrades so Marius with a crooked smile on his face a smirk maybe says to them oh you don't have to worry your brothers they already have their land we'd be happy to give the same land to you meaning your graves in the earth in disbelief the Cimbri demand proof according to Plutarch Marius Mont but your friend is right here please don't go without saying hello to him and he ordered to debod king of the to Tony's to be brought forward in Chains mariusz will cut no deal with the Cimbri their envoy leaves swearing to take revenge for their fallen allies despite Marius his recent victory over the barbarians the Romans are still vastly outnumbered by the fierce northern warriors with battle looming the great general calls for an animal sacrifice the Romans would always have a sacrifice before going into battle to see if the dodds would send them the message there's nothing wrong with your plan it didn't guarantee victory but it meant you had a chance and the Romans took that very seriously the Romans faith is their only shield in the face of overwhelming odds by the end of tomorrow a tidal wave of blood will flow whose blood remains in the hands of the gods Marius searches the goat entrails for a sign and finds that the heavens are with him in 101 BC all Rome holds its breath as to mortal enemies meet outside the hamlet of Vercelli Italy 15,000 strong the Cimbri cavalry rides on to the field of battle right behind them come the fearsome infantry like a cloud of locusts on the move as the Roman line is set Marius makes a final appeal to the gods classical biographer Plutarch Marius washed his hands and lifting them up to heaven vowed to make a sacrifice of a hundred beasts should victory be his all together the Romans number a little more than fifty thousand men they faced at least twice as many Cimbri it's the Romans worst nightmare but Marius outsmarts the enemy he gets his troops in position first so the Sun will rise behind the Roman soldiers when the Sun gets to its full power it reflects off the Romans shiny armor and the barbarians think that the sky is on fire like the gods have sent lightning bolts to help their enemies sensing the Camrys sudden anxiety the Romans attack the Romans do have slingers they do have archers but the foot infantry is the mainstay of the battle you're going to get blood on you you're going to get the groans of the person you're killing the person is getting filled next to you you can't tell what's going on behind you were to deciding because you're wearing a helmet you can hardly hear and you can only see straight ahead it required courage and dedication and overcoming your fear to an overwhelming amazing degree advert Shelley the Romans wipe out 120,000 Cimbri more importantly they cast out the shadow of fear that has terrorized Rome for 13 years mariusz returns home from the cambrian war a hero adoring crowds hail him as the savior of Rome despite their own long-standing rule that no one should serve consecutive council ships they clamor for him to once again run for console as Marius is doing this he is moving little by little toward becoming in the eyes of the people a permanent head of this enterprise so that we're approaching having an emperor it is exactly what the aristocracy has worried about all along now that the barbarian danger has passed many Nobles are openly hostile to Marius to stay in power Marius must find support elsewhere he seeks out corrupt politicians whose tools include bribery and murder as a politician marius was not good at choosing who should be his allies the battlefield of politics was one in which marius was not decisive and wasn't insightful the way he was on the battlefield of javelins and swords jealous of other rising military stars marius orders the assassination of many of his rivals under marius leadership violence not debate becomes the currency used to settle political differences he has saved rome only to cut out the heart of the republic yet marius never loses the love of the people in 86 BC shortly before his death they elect him to an extraordinary seventh council ship he left a legacy of power in the hands of the military he left a legacy of popular support for one man in power it's a hinge event because the balance of power will shift instead of 10 or 20 ruling families controlling the consulship you'll start to have just these grand warlords the power of money the power of having all of those men behind their back whether through actually a in the form of giving them political support or actually using it as a potential threat to go against their political enemies it's going to really be a problem for the Roman government down the road as the empire starts a long slow slide into dictatorship Rome is launched into an apocalypse of political and justice and endless war from which there is no return you

Attenboroughs and the Empire of the Ants 2018| Ant Documentary| BBC



Views:521771|Rating:4.89|View Time:59:4Minutes|Likes:5827|Dislikes:130
David Attenborough is in the Swiss Jura Mountains to discover the secrets of a giant. Beneath his feet lies a vast network of tunnels and chambers, home to a huge empire of ants. It is believed to be one of the largest animal societies in the world, where over a billion ants from rival colonies live in peace. Their harmonious existence breaks many of the rules for both ants and evolution, and raises some important questions. Through winter, spring and into summer, David turns detective to find the answers.

I have no rights to this video and make no money off it.

Lost Worlds: Forgotten Empire (Ancient History Documentary) | Timeline



Views:796401|Rating:4.56|View Time:49:24Minutes|Likes:3988|Dislikes:388
Check out our new website for more incredible history documentaries: HD and ad-free.

Lost Worlds investigates the very latest archaeological finds at three remote and hugely significant sites – Angkor Wat, Troy and Persepolis. Lost Worlds travels to each site and through high-end computer graphics, lavish re-enactment and the latest archaeological evidence brings them to stunning televisual life. From the 900-year-old remains of Angkor Wat in the Cambodian jungle the staggering City of the God Kings is recreated. From Project Troia, in North West Turkey, the location of the biggest archaeological expedition ever mounted the lost city is stunningly visualised and finally from Persepolis the city and the great Persian Empire are brought to life.

Content licensed by DRG. Produced by Darlow Smithson Productions.

lying in the middle of a plane in modern-day Iran is a forgotten ancient city Persepolis built two and a half thousand years ago it was known in its day as the richest city under the Sun Persepolis was the capital of the largest empire the world had ever seen but for over two thousand years after its destruction it was largely ignored the life and achievements of the Persians who built it I raised from history the Persians are still an enigma to us we don't know them as well as we like to think we know the Greeks or the Romans or the Egyptians so in a sense they are one of the remaining mysteries of ancient civilization it is one of the most undervalued periods of history in antiquity that you can think of but no longer through the archaeology the ancient texts and work by a new generation of historians we can build a picture of this remarkable civilization and it is this place Persepolis which holds the key to this Forgotten Empire until recently Iran was largely closed to Western visitors the political turmoil of the 1980s made it almost impossible to come here but in the last few years this has begun to change Iran is opening up you know it's actually welcoming people from the West so now was the time that our study of ancient Persia has to go out the gear I think we should seize the opportunity dr. Lloyd Llewellyn Jones has spent 15 years studying ancient Persia but this is the first time he's been able to visit Persepolis the heart of Persian civilization we can by coming to places like Persepolis begin to give the Persians a personality begin to give them an identity it is incredible boy any what they were doing it's incredible amazing you know in the stillness now the morning and just with the the birdsong it's it's just remarkable it really is remarkable Persepolis may be but history has never given it its due most of what we know about it we have gleaned from Greek accounts the Persians themselves left little written history behind but the Greeks were the sworn enemies of the Persians they defeated them in battle and it's the victors who write the history books the Greeks like to paint themselves as the creators of all things civilized and the Persians as cruel despotic and back we in the West identify with a greco-roman tradition we know the works of Greek and Latin authors and they are going to downplay the importance of Persia in its historical setting they're going to say that the Persians are barbarians and this is the theme that comes over time and time and time again in the sources yet the Persians cannot be dismissed so easily for 250 years they ruled the largest empire the world had ever seen it had humble beginnings among the nomadic tribes who lived on the Persian Plains in 550 BC cyrus a tribal leader set off with his army on a campaign of conquest with his charisma and what the greeks called the fear he inspired and the terror he struck in all men Cyrus took control of more and more territory in just 30 years he laid the foundations of an empire that would stretch from the borders of India in the east to Greece on the Mediterranean down to Egypt in Ethiopia and up to what is now Russia more than 30 different peoples were brought together under the rule of the man who called himself the king of the world and at the heart of this Empire stood Persepolis the greatest of all Persian cities and the key to understanding the achievements of the ancient Persians Persepolis was begun around 515 BC by Darius the great the 4th King in the Persian dynasty known as the up emanates but much of what we can see today lay hidden under the sands for 2,000 years it was only in the 1930s that many of the wonders of Persepolis were finally uncovered whole staircases adorned with perfectly preserved reliefs were seen for the very first time splendors which their excavation would reveal to the world for more than 22 centuries the capital of the Persian Empire lay neglected as well as the reliefs archaeologists found some less spectacular artifacts that would prove vital in uncovering the secrets of the ancient Persians 30,000 fragments of these tiny clay tablets were found among the rubble of Persepolis they provide one of the few sources of information about the workings of the Empire written by the Persians themselves the marks on the tablets are the ancient Persian script known as cuneiform dr. Maria Brosius is one of only a handful of scholars in the world who can decipher what is written on the tablets what we have here is an example of a clay tablet found in Persepolis a scribe would pick up a piece of wet clay and he would then hold it in his left hand and that's fits perfectly into the shape of your hand really and then he would inscribe it it's an extraordinary feeling to know that something like this has survived to tell us about life 2,500 years ago information that we otherwise would never have they tell me something about how people lived and how this Empire worked and that's what fascinates so what can the tablets tell us about Persepolis the tablets of the receipts and invoices of the Empire including those for the workers who built Persepolis one records one and a half shekels of silver for carpenters making sculptures another details one jug of wine each to the 74 Syrian laborers working on the columned Hall yet another two and a half shekels for the carryin gold workers the amount of gold that seems to be used here indicates that again you know the cost of the site must have been immeasurable from the information on the tablets we can deduce what materials once decorated these massive buildings for decades we have seen only the stone pillars and walls but now we can recreate the halls and palaces of Persepolis in all their dazzling splendor as we do so we can see why persepolis was once known as the richest city under the Sun access to the complex was through the gate of All Nations human headed bulls announced to visitors they were entering the heart of Royal Persian power it was covered with a cedar wood roof its doors adorned with gold fittings at the heart of the complex was the app Adana where King Darius received his subjects today only 10 of the original columns still stand in antiquity 36 columns 20 meters high held up another massive cedar wood see the walls were covered in sumptuous hangings this enormous hall could accommodate 10,000 people something that was built with columns 20 meters high I think it was awe-inspiring people were probably looking up when were completely stumped you can see how each of these columns rear up to the sky and they would have held up there an enormous roof of beautiful cedar wood given us this heady scent of cedar wherever we went as well King after king added Tudor eyes his creation Xerxes the Greeks grape foam built this the remarkable haul of a hundred columns and finally we can recreate the private quarters of derives himself a place that only the king's most intimate advisors would ever have seen would have been dimly lit might would have been streaming through window spaces and in fact we can tell from some of the highly polished don't around you that this would have been gleaming that's helium in fact some people have called this room the hall of mirrors the building sat on a 15 meter high man-made Terrace in terms of beauty it's difficult to find the right words really as a feature it's an architectural symphony everything is built to harmonize with one another each building is synchronized with with another one to make a beautiful harmonized whole Persepolis is one of the great architectural achievements of the ancient world but why did the Persian kings go to such lengths beyond housing the royal entourage what exactly was the purpose of these extraordinary buildings over two and a half thousand years ago the Persians built the greatest city on earth from which they ruled most of the known world but this was no ordinary City for it was built with a particular purpose in mind what the city was used for was an integral part of how the Persians maintained their vast empire for 250 years clues to the function of Persepolis lie carved into the walls and staircases of the city in the scenes depicted in its stunning stone reliefs they show the different peoples of the Empire coming to Persepolis to give gifts and pay tribute to the great Persian King Nubians from Africa Lydians from present-day Turkey back treants from what is now Afghanistan so what you've got here is a series of depictions of tribute bearers who have come to Persepolis and all of them bringing gifts from different parts of the Empire fine horses shaggy mountain goats it's all the wealth of the Empire being forced tribute to the Great King so much personality in the face wonderful curved horned sheep and depicted in such detail and they filled up it's a very stylized way that they do things like the way that they render curls in the hair and the beard in a very artificial manner and then as you come down to the shaggy fleece of the Sheep you can see that that's echoed again so you get these triangles ending in these perfect little swirls and finally this flick of a tail at the bottom as well the costumes for all of these foreign delegates are ended in such detail and it's clear that the Persian artist is fascinated by the variety the ethnic variety that you get visiting here so this is what Persepolis was for it was not a military capital it was first and foremost a symbolic and ceremonial place from all over the Empire subject people's came here to give their gifts to the king the formal presentation of tribute confirmed the loyalty of the subject nations and the power of the king the walk to the king followed a specific route through the complex intended to maximize the impact of the architecture coming up these stairs would have been an overwhelming experience if you look at the stairs they are not something that you walk up fast they're so shallow that you have to walk very very slowly that all heightened the expectation and I suppose gave you a sense of the Kings power you can't just walk into a room and there you are it is all to do with a procession to the king what you have here are the offering Baris leading their camels bringing their bowls and their jewelry and all the time you have to imagine an absolute cacophony of noise behind you so if you go all the time your heart is beating faster and faster you're hearing languages you've never heard before seeing sights you've never seen before and you get to this spot and I think your knees are about to give way because this is the so called gate of all nations this is the welcoming portal for all these visitors and straightaway they are faced with this image of kingship these human headed Bulls symbols of royal virility and strength and power he walks through these enormous full structures and now everything goes dark sunlights taken away from you and you're asked to stand and wait just here and then you turn and you are struck by this amazing Imperial platform and you know that somewhere in there you're literally going to meet your maker you're going to see the great king himself so you walk forward and you approach your hearts really go in some now if I seemed like such a long walk when you're doing this if you come from the far-flung corners of the Empire you will never have seen a structure like this every visitor in ancient times who was allowed to come up the Royal Terrace was in total or you have a perfection that is ups that they haven't seen anywhere else and people must have been absolutely stunned and you walk up the Imperial staircase and you find yourself in the heart of the complex okay in front of you now is a great app Adama now this is where the mystery really starts you can't get any closer to how the Persian kings wanted to present themselves and what they really do here is to show we have conquered the world we don't need to prove anything anymore and so you're offering bearer begins his journey towards the king he would have paused and here he would have done a specific act he would have fallen to his knees in front of the king and then immediately prostrating himself on the ground and then your gifts are given your job is done you back away slowly out of its the great throne room and your 15 minutes of fame is over with gift-giving at Persepolis was how the Persian kings reinforced the loyalty of their subjects but they had other less benign ways of exercising power the relief at Bisset tune in northwest iran shows the persian king at his most ruthless here King Darius the great enslaves those who threatened his throne it is a public warning to those who might try to resist him ancient Greek accounts also suggest that the Persian kings ruled with an iron fist one tells of how the Persians cut off the limbs and even noses of their prisoners and yet the reliefs at Persepolis seemed to paint a very different picture there you see these men holding each other's hand or one holding his hand against somebody's shoulder they talk to each other they sort of encourage each other the whole image that is represented here is an image of peace and of harmony there is absolutely no battle scene there is no violence depicted here it is one of a Persian piece Persian royal inscriptions found at Persepolis reinforce this image of benevolent rule they declare that the King loves peace not war and subject people's are allowed to practice their customs and religions but is all this mere Persian propaganda after all these are reliefs commissioned by the King and tablets written by his loyal servants the Jewish book of Ezra offers an independent account in Chapter 1 the Persians are praised for liberating the Jews and allowing them to practice their religion freely I think it's fair to say that the Persians are unique in the way that they envisage how an empire should be run generally in the ancient world there seems to be an idea of conquer obliterate and rebuild on our terms we don't find that with Persia at all if you paint your tribute if you paint your taxes to the Persian King that was fine that was all the King wanted from you any other form of life of cultural setting was accepted by allowing subject nations to live their own lives the Persians ensured that a multi-ethnic multilingual Empire flourished in relative peace for 250 years it is tolerance that has a completely political objective the Persian kings objective force if I leave people their ethnicity their religious cults then they have fewer reasons to resist my power yet it took more than tolerance to maintain this vast empire empires need an infrastructure 50 miles outside Persepolis carved into the side of the hill is an ancient Persian road leading to Persepolis the sides of the road are up to 10 meters high such engineering feats were repeated across the empire being in charge of an empire that stretches about 4000 kilometers just west to east needed to be controlled in order to control that you need a fabulous network a road system that allows you to get information from one corner of the Empire to wherever the king is as quickly as possible even the critical Greeks could not fail to be impressed by the Persian road system it stretched from Persepolis up to another Persian City souza and then 1,500 miles to the west to Ephesus on the Mediterranean roads also went east to India and south into Egypt the Greeks were particularly amazed by the messengers who traveled along these roads keeping the Persian kings at Persepolis informed of everything that went on in the Empire the great Greek historian Herodotus wrote at the time that no mortal thing travels faster than the Persian couriers such speed was possible because of another Persian innovation the staging post what you seem to have here is a system where a messenger rides on one horse gets to a garis and quickly changes straight onto a new horse a fresh horse straight off again and then maybe 20 miles down the road he's onto a new horse again so that the speed keeps going it seems that because the messenger has this pioneering spirit and can keep going as long as he has fresh horses he can do that you know right the way through the staging posts manned by Persian soldiers also ensured that for the first time in antiquity travelers and traders could move around a vast tract of land safe from bandits so from Persepolis the Persian kings managed their immense Empire tolerant peaceful and wealthy the Achaemenid Kings believed they were the Masters of all they surveyed and to prove their power they set out to create nothing short of paradise on earth the first ever formal gardens in the world two and a half thousand years ago the Persians created the largest empire the world had ever seen the Greeks said they were an uncultured and warlike race but here at the ancient city of posaga day the stones tell a different story posaga day was the palace of cyrus the great founder of the persian empire and first king of the accumulate dynasty and here there is evidence of persian culture at its most sophisticated and refined hidden among the undergrowth are irrigation channels for posaga days most stunning feature its royal gardens it would run all around the garden so that the whole area here in front of Cyrus's residential palace would be irrigated imagine that it was gleaming white it was polished stone it was glittering in the Sun you would have the water floating through it would refresh the area it would cool down the air here no archaeologist has ever found the legendary Gardens of Babylon so these channels are the earliest known evidence of a formal garden anywhere in the world King Cyrus called his garden Paradiso this Persian word meaning a walled garden is one we still use today paradise it was his paradise and it was the perfection of nature where life grew where water was the essence of life Syrus was famous throughout the ancient world for his love of gardens the Greek historian Xenophon wrote that in all the districts that he resides in he takes great care that there are paradises full of all the beautiful things that the soil will produce it was even said that cyrus gardened himself he told one greek visitor the arrangement is my own work I swear by the Sun God that I never sat down to dinner without first working at some task of gardening so what actually grew in these persian gardens the clay tablets found at the great city of Persepolis lists the different trees and plants that were planted here they showed that the composition of the garden was deeply symbolic the tablets tell us that there were thousands of seedlings for trees different kind of trees including olive trees mulberries dates which were collected to be planted in the next spring these were treats that he imported from all over his empire to reflect the size and the extent of his empire in this garden in this garden space ultimately the Persian garden was a political statement by making plants grow in an otherwise barren landscape the Persian kings showed all who came here that they were the Masters of the world the king was practically the king of the world and the garden reflected the power of the Empire what Cyrus did here was to produce an order in an unordered in a chaotic otherwise wild nature the garden in a way symbolized the Kings ability to control light the Persians may have built great cities and gardens but they were still essentially a nomadic people this kind of nomadic feeling always remained with the Persians despite the fact that they built these vast Imperial cities they were as at home in a city as they were in a tent for the Greeks the Persians nomadic lifestyle was a cause for mockery like modern nomads the ancient Persians spent the winter months tending their herds on the plains and the hot summer months in the cool of the mountains to the Greeks this escape from the summer heat was evidence of Persian unmanned leanness the Greeks like to criticize the Persians for this softness they see them as rather hot and moist creatures and the other thing that Greek sea is hot and moist are women this is the way that women's bodies works if women have our hot and moist and and therefore Persians are hot and moist they must be one in the same thing basically Persians are not real men because they can't stand the heat what the Greeks never understood was the traveling was part of the Persian way of life even around great centers such as Persepolis that would have been a city of tents as people came and went certainly within these tents we can imagine that ancient Persian life would not be too dissimilar from the kind of images that you can still see today so within these tents what you have is of course your whole lifestyle everything goes on there from cooking of course then there's the rearing of animals and the collecting of foodstuffs as well and also weaving carpets rugs and hangings the very essence of the tent itself but also weaving clothing and this is a traditional women's work of course this is all part of nomadic tradition today and certainly can be reflected back onto ancient Persian tradition across the ages fine colorful textiles have been central to Persian culture from the most remote nomadic people of ancient Persia to the shoppers and traders in a modern Iranian Bazaar textiles are a way to express status and wealth I've brought you to a place like the bazaar Shiraz just because there is this long legacy of an artistic tradition and a cultural tradition and one thing we know about life in the ancient Near East in general was that they loved color and textiles these are wonderful turquoises and blues and also wonderful greens as well so we know that these are the colors that they would have had and the colors and they would have loved this idea of a room which is completely covered in textiles is very much part of the ancient Near Eastern tradition and certainly something that the Persians would have identified with textile hangings on the walls are very much part of the ancient world culture textiles all over the floors textiles on couches as well so you know you are surrounded you're swamped by this idea of color and luxury and of course warmth as well now that's the real McCoy okay synthetic modern velvet butter perhaps this gives you a better than anything else sort of idea of the luxury that the Persians were renowned for its purple which first of all of course is the color of kingship throughout the ancient world because purple is so difficult to get in antiquity a good solid deep imperial purple dye you know this is a modern textile but does the job very well I think it kind of captures what the Persians are all about for me bit of sparkle really the smells sounds and sights of this Bazaar would be familiar to the ancient Persians spices gold and reams of fine brightly colored cloth this modern market reflects what the Persians were famed for in the ancient world their pursuit of luxury the purpose of luxury at Persepolis is mainly to do with the power and the propaganda of kingship because of course to have superfluous articles of clothing or to have your palace strewn with textiles that are really redundant apart from being you know Laurel dawn or something that covers something or a covering that is then covered by another covering this is all just to do with this idea of power and wealth expressed through material goods it's not just similar to you know the kind of thing that goes on in the West today the ancient Persians were the greatest power on earth their style and fashions were widely copied Persians take on the aesthetic side of life on the finer points of living everything from how you plant your garden and how you walk in your garden and to how you decorate your walls clearly had an impact on later world civilizations certainly through Greece and into Rome possibly into contemporary Western society as well the Persian approach to architecture gardens and textiles has survived to this day but there were those in the ancient world who despised everything the Persians stood for this hostility would one day lead to the destruction of the Persian Empire and of Persepolis itself 2,500 years ago persepolis was the sumptuous capital of the great Persian Empire but what the Persian saw as luxury their greek rivals saw as decadence one custom that both fascinated and appalled the Greeks was the Persian feast most of what we know about Persian feasts of course comes from the Greek sources because the Greeks are so interested or fascinated by this concept of luxury that obviously feasting is going to be an element of the luxurious lifestyle Persian feasts are going to be opulent all the kind of things which are always associated with luxury drinking was an essential part of the Persian feast Herodotus wrote the Persians are very fond of wine and no one is allowed to vomit or urinate in the presence of another person the Persians seem to live by this principle of telling the truth that's something that actually the Greeks regrettably admire in them and they use drinking as a rather a political system the Persians tend to get very drunk because only in drink do tell so you know you have your political discretion you drink a lot things get said now everybody goes to bed and mows it over wakes up the next day with a hangover and then everybody comes back together again to have the same conversation to see if they still have those kind of ideas like many Persian traditions feasting was not luxury for luxuries sake it had an important social role feasting brings you together as a community they are all partaking of the same food and of the same experience so it's a great uniting thing yet to the Greeks it was another example of why the Persians were an inferior race Alexander the Great warned his own soldiers that gluttony and opulence lead to much on manliness those that eat such enormous meals are far too quickly beaten in battles what the greek sauce is like to play up is this idea that the persians are luxurious a feminized luxury loving a feminizing race of no gooders really who are over there somewhere in the east and they are corrupting us and our morals and all that we stand for and it was Alexander the Great who was determined to end the corrupting influence of the Persians once and for all in 334 BC he began a campaign to take over the empire that had ruled the known world for the previous 250 years at the first pitched battle between the two armies and Issus in Turkey Alexander's Macedonian army scored a resounding victory over the forces of King Darius the third of Persia despite being greatly outnumbered a lot probably has to do with different military tactics that the Macedonian army used against the Persians Persians were used to fighting in a plane they were using chariots which were not used in the Macedonian army but it was also the Macedonian idea of immediate surprise attack that helped over the next two years Alexander's superior military tactics allowed him to take over lands that were once under Persian control in 331 BC he reached Persia itself by the time he arrived in Persepolis the Persian armies had been routed the 12th and last Persian King Darius the third was dead Alexander entered the undefended City unopposed the ceremonial center that for nearly two centuries had embodied Persian dominance of the world was finally in Greek hands Alexander told his soldiers they were now in the most hateful of cities you've got to remember where Alexander actually comes from Macedonia okay these are folks mounting thugs this is what Alexander Stock is all about and suddenly comes to this place which after all the Persians been accused for centuries have been a feat luxury lovers now this stuff is anathema to Alexander's Macedonian and Greek followers Alexander triumphant held a banquet for some of his troops at Persepolis according to the Greek accounts it was here that the city's fate was sealed it's a lot of drinking going on a lot of bad things get said Alexander has got in his company according to some Greek and later Latin sources a couple of courtesans one of whom is called face who is supposed to be one of the most beautiful courtesans in Greece now she I daresay is a little bit drunk and perhaps a little bit emotional we don't know but she decides to ask Alexander would it be okay if she burns down Persepolis Alexander in his drunken state says sure go ahead Alexander fully understood the symbolic importance of Persepolis as the very heart of the Persian Empire it had to be destroyed Alexander will destroy everything that could be a potential source of resistance and opposition to him Persepolis was that he wanted to make a point of destroying Persian power and so Alexander soldiers began burning and looting the city itself is described by ancient authors us being unprotected there was no military guard here to defend the population some people say that what he did was to pile up flammable material furniture curtains and from there the fire started and then of course spread through the whole Terrace it just burned by daresay this night there must have been chaos here so the carnage the chaos must have been horrific Alexander's soldiers just ransacked the city they looted everything that was there they burned the houses I think Alexander is the first recorded hooligan in history he used to brood to force violence needlessly destroying a site that had no military function that was indeed unprotected when he came here it was totally needless to to burn it down to destroy and kill the population of Persepolis the Greeks who claim to be the founders of civilization who call the Persians barbarians had committed a gross act of vandalism they had destroyed the greatest city on earth it's a sad death of this remarkable Imperial City this this this seat of culture and this seat of ceremony at the time it was the most magnificent city in the non ancient world and that Alexander had destroyed and with that an era came to an end but by burning down the city Alexander ironically helped preserve it much of it remained buried under the ashes produced by the fire protected from the elements for the next 2,000 years it was not until the excavations of the 1930s that many of the reliefs and clay tablets that tell us so much about Persian life could be studied for the first time and although the city had been destroyed the legacy of the Persians survived they're formal gardens they're ceremonial architecture and their sense of luxury were copied by other civilizations even the Greeks but their greatest achievement of all was the Empire itself the first global empire in history was built on a model of tolerance and respect for other cultures that few great powers have ever matched perhaps now at last the Persians will take their rightful place as one of the great civilizations of antiquity