Restoration Man: Derelict Windmill (Before and After) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

Former childhood sweethearts, Chris Kelly and Sue Hindle, fall in love with a tiny field house and plan to convert it into their first home together.

Each episode features a home owner who is restoring an unusual building by converting it into a residential dwelling. Architect George Clarke tours the British Isles and on his way discovers some of the finest examples of windmills, follies, gate houses, ice houses, towers, and churches. The series focuses heavily on the architectural and historical significance of each of these interesting and mysterious finds.

Welcome to Reel Truth History, the home of gripping and powerful documentaries. Here you can watch both full length documentaries and series that explore some of the most comprehensive pieces of world history.

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BBC Documentary "Andrea Bocelli" pt.5

Documentary about Andrea Bocelli, from childhood to international star….. This documentary gives you information from how he became blind to how he became a Doctor of Law and how he got the passion for music that he has. He is an international star known around the world by the sound of his magnificent voice that will forever be appreciated and loved by many generations to come.

If you want to see more videos of him visit my channel (AndreaBocelli77)

The Achievers Documentary Trailer

First there was a movie from the Coen brothers called The Big Lebowski then, there was an Explosion of the bizarre
What could have spawned a media frenzy over the course of 5 years, driving over 300,000 hits on the Lebowski Fest website alone and selling out over 17 events from Louisville to London giving birth to a sub culture correctly labeled as Achievers?
What could gather such an eclectic crowd together relegating the best time with one could have with a stranger in a bowling extravaganza?
With interviews from Jeff Bridges and Jim James of “My Morning Jacket”, Director Eddie Chung decided to take a shot on answering this question by creating this amazing documentary with the help of producers Agi Orsi and Cecy Rangel from Riding Giants and Dogtown and Z-Boys.

this thing is the biggest thing I've ever been involved in and it's big and it's huge it's just becoming real you know we have these fests where all these fans get together just like us and we all just like kind of create this strange world of lebowski with nihilus running around and people running around in bathrobes and giant Creedence tape and severed toes the last three years of my life had just been unbelievable housekeepers cured my cancer I am the real Lebowski Chicago trivia championships are coming true I just think it's a weird dream I'm having

BicycleDreamsTrailer (Documentary)

Bicycle Dreams is the true story of the Race Across America, a 3000-mile bike race that challenges riders to pedal across the country in just ten days. See and for more.
Winner of the following Film Festivals:
Best Documentary Grand Rapids Film Festival
Best Documentary Las Vegas Film Festival
Best Director Yosemite Film Festival
Best Documentary Red Rock Film Festival
Best Foreign Film Moscow Film Festival
Best Documentary Lake Arrowhead Film Festival
Best Sports Documentary Tiburon Film Festival
Best Documentary Breckenridge Film Festival
Best Documentary Los Angeles Sports Film Festival
Royal Reel Award – Canada International Film Festival
Best Documentary Solstice Film Festival (Minnesota)
Best Editing Solstice Film Festival (Minnesota)
Best Soundtrack Solstice Film Festival (Minnesota)
Audience Award Findlay Film Festival Ohio
Audience Award Breckenridge Film Festival (Colorado)

I think we have more people in society now that describe a feeling of missing something there's just something missing in my life and I don't know what's missing but yet they describe something very tangible very very close to them that they're missing and in desire true desire may very well be for for many people what is missing Lance Armstrong said that endurance athletes are running away from something inside of themselves and that's one of the reasons that they do what they do there is no way these people are normal they are the seekers of the new realm or plane we're heading up on 23 hours and Marco's been off the bike for eight minutes total guessing he's gonna go down at about 40 hours without sleep the biggest fear I have and I think most of the people have in this race is it not finish and yet half the people do independent desire is is something that's that that is tricky to tap into sometimes because it requires confidence if that desire starts to falter a little bit they'll crack this next 3040 miles or take you to 300 yeah for the day and that'll be 650 miles in two days you've got a damn good chance I cooked my penny miles and I'll be out because I can't sleep because my eyes are gone but how far the next time station while we go there no I did I don't want to continue this it's not a sporting event in the classic sense it's more of sending a gladiator into a pit with a lion people can say this is a bicycle race no this is nothing you can compare to anything is no bicycle race it's not a sport event this is nothing this is something completely out of this planet you

Restoration Home: Cassillis House (Before and After) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

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Six centuries of history drew Kate Armstrong to Cassillis House in Ayrshire. Originally from Australia, Kate has always had the dream of owning a castle, and she picked one that was in a desperate condition. Years of problems with the roof led to rotting rooms and damage to ornate interiors.

A four-year struggle began to restore 110 rooms – but not only was Kate attempting to save the fabric of the building, she took on the responsibility of preserving the story of the Kennedy Clan who called Cassillis their home for 21 generations.

While the new owner discovers waterlogged kitchens and hidden rooms, the historical investigation reveals the building’s transition from defensive fort to pleasure palace and a link to one of the greatest murder mysteries in Scottish history. But will the weight of history and the scale of the task be too much for Kate and her army of restorers to save it?

Crumbling, ancient houses are brought back to life by passionate owners as they restore and convert them into striking 21st century homes, unravelling the properties’ extraordinary past lives through their architectural and social history.

Grand Designs meets Who Do You Think You Are? Presented by Caroline Quentin, Restoration Home follows private owners of crumbling historic buildings as they save them from ruin and restore them into wonderful 21st century homes. With the help of architectural expert, Kieran Long, and social historian, Dr. Kate Williams, Restoration Home turns detective to unravel the properties’ astonishing lives. As the new owners transform the buildings into their homes, the family trees of these crumbling ruins start to emerge. Tales of Kings and Queens, murder, civil unrest, moments that shocked and shaped Britain are revealed as these buildings are brought back to life.

Welcome to Reel Truth History, the home of gripping and powerful documentaries. Here you can watch both full length documentaries and series that explore some of the most comprehensive pieces of world history.

The Bristlecone Project: Men Overcoming Sexual Abuse & Assault – Documentary Trailer HD

For more information and to purchase a copy of the film, visit:
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An emotional and informative 30-minute documentary featuring individual stories of men overcoming childhood sexual abuse. Through their participation in The Bristlecone Project, these men hope to inspire others to tackle the various stigmas surrounding this painful issue.

The mission of is to help men who have had unwanted or abusive sexual experiences in childhood live healthier, happier lives.

The Bristlecone Project, and awareness initiative of, gives a voice to those men who have suffered sexual abuse as children.

I guess start at the beginning it takes one victim to come forward and then when one victim comes forward other victims come forward and I find myself sitting here talking about having been abused as a kid and I didn't even have a clue that was true until two years ago I am 61 years old and why haven't they before they say because I thought I was the only one or I didn't think anyone would believe me when I was in the third grade there was this computer teacher who kind of took me under his wing he had taken me to his house and molested me for the first time I had accepted it for so long and internalized it and that I must be a blame or at fault that I'd wanted it in some way I had been treated by some people that I loved and told that I wasn't worth a damn thing but my view started when I was six it was a family member and I just felt so empty and ashamed like after those things would happen and those of us who were harmed were wounded as children have to deal with the conflict between those wounds and the message that we all receive as men thought there is something wrong with me you know it happened to me because I wasn't a man in that masculine or in a competitive world there is no room for vulnerability being sexually abused I can't ignore the impact that that has had on my life but it's not all of Tony's we are seeing in being completely open completely public about what happened to us we will communicate that it's possible to cast off that shame in that stigma and talk to somebody and a voice that said you know they can't hurt your spirit they can hurt your flesh but they can't hurt your spirit I'm looking for the aha moment and I found it almost immediately as soon as I acknowledge publicly what happened to me along this journey in life is gonna be just that one step within finally the love and the light had broken through all of the pain and the fear and that's when my life changed really I just asked each man to to tell his story exactly the way he wants to we have no plans to end the Bristlecone project at some number of survivors and we will continue on into the future for as long as they are men who want to volunteer

The Iran Job Documentary Film Trailer (Basket-Ball)

When American basketball player Kevin Sheppard accepts a job to play in one of the world’s most feared countries–Iran–he expects the worst. But what he finds is a country brimming with generosity, acceptance, and sensuality. With a charismatic personality that charms everyone he meets, Kevin forms an unlikely friendship with three outspoken Iranian women who share with him their strong
opinions on everything from politics to religion to gender roles.
“As entertaining as life itself” (Gloria Steinem)
“You will be on the edge og your seat” (IndieWire)
“Celebrating warmth , humor and tough complicated humanity” (Variety)

The Iran Job Documentary Film Trailer. In theaters September 28th, 2012.

The Iran Job Documentary Film Trailer (Till Schauder – 2012).
© Paladin

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my first response when I thought about Iran was hell no but God put something in my spirit and said you need to get away from the familiar and go to the heart family and Here I am [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] yeah a little better man let them talk maybe it won't pop I don't believe in a song because

The Snowman Trek | Official HD Trailer (2018) | Documentary Drama | Film Threat Trailers

Bhutan’s high Himalayan landscape is not known for athletic pursuits and its culture must be persuaded to let the elite ultra-runners, Ben Clark, Timothy Olson, Anna Frost and Chris Ord, pursue their dream. The result is an incredible shared accomplishment across 188.5 miles of foreboding landscapes, resulting in a once in a lifetime adventure that was always teetering on the edge of total failure.

“This documentary brings big mountains, a big story about mountain culture and exclusive shots all to the big screen,” said Ben Clark. “That’s why it should be seen in movie theaters. Audiences will experience the environments just as we did when they fly over the Himalayas, explore the landscapes and feel the team’s truest emotions.”

“’The Snowman Trek’ is an impressive tale of perseverance in the face of adversity. This event illustrates what a group of committed athletes, and people overall, can achieve with enough resolve,” Fathom Events CEO Ray Nutt said. “We’re proud to partner again with Blue Fox to bring this spirited feature to cinemas nationwide.”

Directed by Benjamin Clark
Written by Benjamin Clark, Darryl Lepik, James Huntsman
Cast Benjamin Clark, Timothy Olson, Anna Frost, & Chris Ord
Produced by Benjamin Clark, Derick Gallegos, James Huntsman, & Todd Slater

Please subscribe to the Film Threat YouTube channel for more videos. Thank you. We like it when you subscribe.

we're in Bhutan to hike and run a trail that many considered to be the world's hardest the snowman trek usually takes 25 to 30 days if the mountains let you through snowman we're gonna be going over a couple 17,000 foot passes yeah that's gonna be a challenge we don't know where we're going we don't know what we're sleeping in or if we're sleeping anywhere for keeping young guy and if we're lost like nothing else even myself I thought it is impossible I was right on the edge of not coming back from hypothermia I was so cold I specifically remember there being a lot of tension we were thin or heavy or frosty and Tim were quite frustrated like this is not killing me yeah we're gonna lower those emotional assists deeper but also why we came in so much my apology in the end the mountains make it and sometimes they don't let you pass he's got to be super grateful when they do you

National geographic – Life of Panda – BBC wildlife animal documentary 2016 Full HD


these Cubs are the latest additions to the largest group of captive giant pandas in the world around seven months old they were bred in a desperate bid to save the species from extinction but there are still too few pandas as the mating season begins at least 15 more Cubs must be conceived this year alone if the species is to survive and time is not on their side China's conservation and research center was set up at Wolong in Sichuan province in the 1980s at a critical time for wild pandas the precious bamboo began to flower and became an edible parts onions or you body girl okay so you need to change to camp hua and 20 good – mommy sure 300 be any freaking talent you see that we she negative connotation well woman the end you can join a group with a twig hello the work seems straightforward the plan was to rescue starving wild pandas and then breed more pandas from them but this seemingly simple task took a long time to achieve and it wasn't until 20 years later that we long witness the fruits of successful breeding in 2006 a record-breaking 18 panda cubs were produced the following year another 14 panda cubs were born there are now more than 60 pandas at the center and another 80 live at zoos and research centers in China and abroad but even though were long is filled to capacity there still aren't enough captive pandas minion to loose the South s silly Santa Masuda 10 yeah that's a tall wall when I can't home woman QWERTY could have 20 aa woman don't on time how the T ago I kinda saw warned me about him Tigger about to take a giant wooden bat ie guard when didn't don't have one Monsieur Perrier gas and pizza description Allison bans Assamese mental important ago water washing woman cited only when the super shower sang-hyeok up an incident but father you got somewhere to the surgeon so the race goes on contrary to popular belief wild pandas breed as easily as any other beer but captive pandas have always been a problem even here at will on only about a quarter of pandas are able to go into Easter Astatula and only one in ten male pandas are able to mate naturally and they have precious little time to do so overseer this your mojo position take a significant one then you can also a son can have begin negotiation more color so something visual memory no Congress intends to show more students how India position more peace ossified ratio more the Inupiat are inefficient Machoke Western currency the ambitious Sophie's a prison Tim Tschida as this year's meeting season starts at were long the pressure mounts it's almost the end of March there are sixteen females already any stress merely three mating males only eight breathing pens available and just a few days to get the job done and those aren't the only problems pandas are just as particular about their partners as humans months ago the Americas was either one you saw solution is your March every time you end up you're a sheep and a visual mark hoppus you tell me why you don't want what a payment doesn't take about worship time and this is your mother she checks this is phone viola your social mission Nations Association is solution and saving a species can sometimes be thwarted by the simple fact that some pandas can't stand the sight of each other it's day one of wolong's annual breeding bonanza when the male team are three wild caught pandas will Gong Ling Ling and of course will own star stud Lulu they're wild genes are crucial to the breeding program as many of the females are captive bred the three males are expected to service all the females currently in East hrus but the limited number of breeding pens means there's only room for five females at any one time they constantly have to be moved into position in and out of different pens while the male's stay put one of the first females to show signs of readiness as 13 year old Fifi whose name means concubine she makes her feelings and heightened hormonal state as plain as her name oh sure it's generally a fuzzy tiny little girl time yeah because you know hole a little bit for my yaojin as in any proper relationship the couple have to be formally introduced before matters can be taken any further we're gong as the first potential suitor is kept indoors initially so that both parties can have a risk-free mutual assessment fear phase behavior makes it impossible for anyone to ignore except it seems whoo gun his mind is clearly focused on higher things such as his stomach see my daddy right I'll tell you tomorrow you see my anxiety there's no hmm but Fifi simply doesn't have the luxury of waiting for we're gong to finish his dinner her estrogen level is peaking and will soon dip again she will be it a most fair tile and must find a more reliable me it quickly so Faustian just delivered about three engagement to see he hasn't but the first problem is to get Lulu indoors before Fifi can safely enter his den a seemingly simple task but Lulu has other ideas in the wild the higher a male leaves his mark the stronger and more varieties considered and the more attractive he is to the ladies with lulu safely indoors it's time to introduce fifi at first sight it seems that Lulu late were gong isn't at all interested in Fifi but the keepers experience tells a different story you think that's that way hi-yah heh-heh it may be early for the adults but for the products of last year's meeting it's well past their bedtime not that many of the Cubs make a distinction between sleep and activity as evening draws on Fifi's hormone level Peaks and as it begins to fall the pressure is on for one of the meal pandas to perform despite his earlier lack of interest the keepers decide to give will gone another goal at first things seem to be going well but then we're gong seems to lose all sense of direction Fifi and ton loses patience with him and veins are frustration disappointed keepers take an even more disappointed Fifi back to her own pain it's time to bring Lulu in Agana to everyone's relief not least Fifi's tonight's meeting is a success copulation lasts a highly satisfactory six minutes and 29 seconds having been up most of the night Lulu is in need of a little rest and recuperation Wu gong however still has a healthy appetite but his lackluster performance the previous day has serious implications half of the centre's female pandas East region levels are now peaking they need to be meted soon or there won't be enough pandas next year they cannot rely solely on Lulu despite a successful track record because they must introduce more meals to the breeding group and widen the gene pool where Kali eats her boy action didn't yawn yawn was all right you guys should mop y'all got a tight ball tiger yeah peanut oil there's a little bit of salt either Tony then Sonia is on the show yeah I didn't call either she doesn't know movie a woman infanticide poor Ling Ling the third male on the team is introduced to south south but things don't quite work out he appears no more adept at meeting than we gone reinforcements are required they come in the shape of Chung Chung his name means strong he's actually a 21 year old male panda and the process of losing his teeth and here Chung Chung might not seem an ideal solution to the problem but he's not expected to perform in the same way as the other meals with the female pandas biological clocks ticking away Chung Chung has a more indirect but vital role to play his semen has just been collected in the hospital and while he recovers from the anesthetic his contribution to the breeding program will be put to good use as has happened many times before Chun Chun has been a vital if unwitting participant in the plan to save the planet's precious pandas fefe having been successfully mated with Lulu will now undergo artificial insemination many of the breeding females a true long are artificially inseminated as well as being meted naturally so Jabba you hold the date on paddling so Jim took it somewhat hand you know it's in Japanese isotope yeah twinners have played a crucial part in reaching will long's breeding target and making it a success story before Fifi can undergo artificial insemination she needs to be anesthetized she must be thoroughly checked over and most importantly weed to ensure that the right amount of anesthetic is administered it today chime I won sedated she's raised to the hospital so that the artificial insemination can be completed before she wakes up the calculations were apparently wrong but for safety the erred on the side of caution too little is better than too much the artificial insemination is completed and Fifi is put in a quiet enclosure away from the breeding pens they won't know for sure if it was successful until late summer when the birthing season begins many of the other females in the block are also stimulated by the comings and goings and the other pens she she starts chirping and mourning very loudly and is decided to try wukong to see if she is more his type than Fifi shishi is visibly irritated by wu gongs apparent incompetence she turns on him then we're gong suddenly reveals another side to his character perhaps he's not the apathetic passive panda he appears to be despite his outburst the keepers nor wu gongs true character and easily tempt him away from shi shi with his real interest in life lulu meanwhile is being reacquainted with his very first love yin yang light lulu she was a wild caught panda but it eight years older more mature and experienced but Lulu's lost that loving feeling and shows absolutely no interest disappointed they move her through to Wu gong but no joy aware that yang yang's hormone level has peaked and is dropping there's a sense of urgency but persisting with Lulu backfires horribly it may look frightening but the Clippers aren't worried the centre's director is also unperturbed by the violence and points to an even more logical explanation for the aggression doesn't bother me yeah Joey you hope how many were had time a years ago the knee like it's tomorrow but there's you won't happen without me you're bad though so I'm moving with anti so Tyler never told you having a job in your corner ha ha yo yo yo Xiang don't receive my factory as is painfully evident when Lulu is introduced to long Shen me or send innovation this is what she loved the new consort oh boy Peola so you get a la la da la ya give a shot at its to you that's a Toyota so junk is so Kyla so you throw your doesn't me also I'm a crazy perhaps best illustrated when Ling Ling is introduced to me Cheng and the situation becomes even more violent she raised his next door to try to get away from him once safely indoors me Ching is clearly terrified but only suffers minor cuts and scratches nothing serious well Monday yeah well if I stumble on you and me or fight English Joel P Y shall Moe get back those song that's a meal competing the behavior of captive pandas and their wild relatives is an important part of wolong's work the long-term plan is to release some of wolong's pandas into the wild one of the reasons that are only eight breeding pens available out of a possible 10 is because two of the Pens are currently being used by the release team as more and more females start to come into estrus the breeding team thinks they should have priority over the pens once they've successfully reached the target of 300 pandas for a sustainable captive population the hope is to use those pandas to help reach a sustainable wild population of 3,000 but the centre's director is skeptical wasn't we fashion world telling you sometimes multiply the viewing pimples all over a certain way a woman jillian Barberie offense at all sometimes you must have been fighting with public comments on agenda which ends at Sandia even make a passion with my family too much time she won't go meet possible sue keep my gonna hire you before Department say said something about fun when we put cutting saw me 22 schemata mats on the other hand so you tell you some passion what you soon I mean yeah twice latekka super klenda sorry so what's the answer woman's ankle pants is she watching Tweedledee my mind would take a giant passion my sushi pattern so you so nice to dissident men kangaroos mega years in diameter is to deny or taro sanctions Tetsuo machine haha the real problem for wild pandas remains the lack of protected habitat this is part of our precious protected habitat 850 kilometers northeast of we long six thousand feet up in the Qinling mountains on the site of an ancient Buddhist temple a team of scientists at the Ching Ling giant panda research base have been studying the behavior of wild pandas for more than a decade the damp climate may be good for bamboo and pandas but it's not so good for humans trying to study them when there is a break in the clouds observing the behavior of wild pandas is considered easier here than in Sichuan total vanilla a canyon Talmudic pnina and they go pina has a bigger koto chanto is Susan and Susan a Vanessa since our day y'all kinda it's a time of isn't under the Attorney Italica did you guys teach in prisons in time nearly sure what don't you envy to prison go the density may be higher than in Szechuan but there are still only around sixty to a hundred pandas living in an area of around 300 square kilometres and searching for these elusive wild pandas to study requires long tracks sometimes for several days and climbing thousands of feet as it will long it's the spring mating season and the chances of seeing pandas in the wild are increased because the pandas come down to the lower slopes to mate until a female is successfully mated a number of males will congregate wherever she leaves her scent marks the task of finding and filming giant pandas is still far from simple but after a long and exhausting climb the sound of loud bleating and chirping raises hopes of a chance to get close enough to study them not too close like any wild bear they're very dangerous especially at a time like this that's a fight ensues I assume oh yes which is a human then Susan as you miss him so much so jealous you must call me my last and it's a nigga we're not even high consumer this is a very rare sighting of one of FIFA's distant wild cousins from the growls it's obvious the meals will have no energy left for fighting as Lulu does with the females Andrew long since the last National Survey of Panda numbers in 2001 which calculated that there were around 1,600 wild pandas scientists here have completed another survey of a number of reserves and subsequently come up with a very surprising result so yeah come on in which in Cheng hua he isn't – Madame Jeunet Coenen your young hunters Arjun Singh the wild panda population might have already reached the magical figure of 3000 but doctor zhang jiazhen still doesn't consider this to be a sustainable population and believes that the giant panda remains an endangered species and even if the future looks a little brighter for pandas another ominous threat to the survival of the species is emerging hi in the Qinling mountains research scientist he's on ball has been observing the pandas food as closely as the pandas themselves here the eat around 20 kilos of bamboo every day mainly by Sharna bamboo and he's discovered something very worrying to partner models for kennefa possum module can I could have a telephone so I heard issue module to where he was sure that here first of all the essentially passionately sutra nadu fastener that means the tooling haha Virginians sure that Shannon did you get to the melon relevant here ancient folklore says that when bamboo flowers death and destruction follow and modern science agrees the bamboo will die within three to five years after flowering then the seeds will drop into the soil but we'll take another seven to ten years to germinate and become edible once more if panda numbers really have risen to 3,000 the rabbit of plummeting again much highlighted a woman Elega woman a young fellow I do her sure we'll miss our gate and eager to servitude energy ago ship on the tabatha young inclusive okay harder to the attorney the attorney could share what I had to the to the car she got dopamine Atwater you banjo sure sure sure lucid or even yeah – you go to see women do it here to the CEO I said that maybe the tweet that in live while he struggled to avoid the same fate that befell the pandas and we long ultimately scientists here are absolutely clear about what needs to be done to protect giant pandas whether there are 1600 or as many as 3,000 was Iranian government you go for – powerful Senior Day isn't a fashion faux pas for her activity seniority and so to achieve it in CCTV PN codes of wire use the candle me when I go for Mina Majesty she charged I dream and talking with her she helped answer make a charge how you can use and touch more funk we found in the Korean to easily go to the ramen to be going to countryside children decision the king hi Jenica Jenna documenting with tingling the fun without yucky bakit will long they're getting on with the first part of that task making more pandas it's now a chrome the peak of the breeding season and as more and more females come into East hrus the keepers are under increasing pressure whether they'll reach this year's target depends a great deal on Wu Gong who seems to have no sense of urgency despite his hopeless history the keepers are encouraged by wiggins burst of energy during his earlier encounter with shi shi they've decided to reintroduce him to yang Lin Wu gong however seems to have reverted to his old ways suffering from an apparent lack of coordination things seem to be going in ever decreasing circles as Wu Gong looks around as if he's desperate for encouragement or support disappointed keepers decide to cut the meeting short and tempt him away Wu gong obviously interprets the Apple as sustenance and hangs on well yang Ying is clearly unimpressed with the entire performance after yet another disappointment the last chance is the other meal in the group ling-ling but Ling Ling isn't being very cooperative the reason for Ling Ling's obstinate behavior is in the voluptuous shape of a new female in the pens she may which means happy and lucky girl she may send drives Ling Ling crazy and her appeal isn't limited to him she may appears to be a source of passion and delight to all the boy bears most of all Lulu she successfully meted with both Ling Ling and Lulu in 2006 and subsequently gave birth to twins but last year she may mysteriously came into East hrus six months late which was a source of concern for the keepers and Lulu awake and resulted in the latter banging against the side of his pen for weeks on end XI Mei has now returned to a normal cycle and it's having a big impact and all her neighbours there's something about this panda that drives wild pandas even Wilder surely even we're gone will faint her charms impossible to ignore alas not with Lu Lu gazing longingly at the love of his life things between Schumi and will Gong follow a familiar path at one point the rules are even reversed finally the moment arrives for lovesick lu lu to sha woo hyung haven't done but instead of leaping on shimi and his usual domineering way lulu romps about with her and they play like small Cubs both behave like meeting is just a big game it's hard to believe that Lulu is the same panda that was so aggressive with the other females she made or may not be the love of his life the coupling looks likely to succeed without any of the drama and violence that marred other meetings but whether their relationship will result in Cubs capable of being released into the wild it's impossible to know Wheelan will probably reach the target of 15 pandas this year in spite of Ling Ling and Wu gong slow start these are some of their offspring from last year the Cubs early ancestors lived around two million years ago the decline is due to us whether these pandas will become part of a sustainable population and survive for even a fraction of that time isn't the responsibility of lu lu Ling Ling or even whoo gun it's also down to us just rolling our own place what yeah

Why does Belarus Exist? (Short Animated Documentary)


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Why is Belarus a thing? By successive governments slowly giving in over time.


Understanding Belarus: Belarusian Identity by Grigory Ioffe

Russification: Word and Practice 1863-1914 by Theodore R. Weeks

there are many questions which keep us up at night is there an afterlife why are we here and why is Belarus a thing so Belarus is a country in Eastern Europe sandwiched between Poland Russia Ukraine and the Baltics it's also an exceptionally young nation having only become a fully independent state in 1991 so the name Belarus comes from the term Belarus which means white Russia historically much of modern-day Belarus is lands were located within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania here the Belarusians were often referred to as Ruthenians but this term was often a broad one which applied to both them and the Ukrainians in fact the people who lived there were often refer to his evil it's veneer or poly gastric the first traces of a consistent Belarusian national identity don't spring up until the 19th century roughly when all of the other nationalist movements were picking up – during the 19th century Belarus was a part of the Russian Empire after the partition of Poland Lithuania and they saw many changes brought about firstly the ruling polish Catholic class were removed from power and replaced with the russian-speaking Orthodox one secondly intellectuals within the Russian Empire began to study the Belarusian people to determine just how differently were covertly that is because the imperial government outlawed the notion the Belarusians were distinct people from Russians in the latter half of the 19th century the Belarusians led by constantiy Kalinowski revolted against the Russians asserting their own identity but this revolt was soon crushed of course this doesn't invalidate the belarusian claims of the unique identity though it existed whether or not the saint-petersburg government wanted it to so as you'll know world war 1 kicked off in 1914 and this saw the status of belarus and its people changed massively in a very short period of time after pushing the russians back to here the germans created a puppet state the Belarusian People's Republic this was short-lived in the Russian Civil War in the following polish-soviet war soared the land divided like this with some of the Belarusian lands going to Poland and the rest going to the USSR the Belarusian lands here were known as the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic the B SSR was enlarged twice the first was an internal enlargement which reflected demographic lines the second came with the USSR's annexation of eastern Poland in the lead-up to World War two after the dust from that conflict had settled Belarus's modern borders were established and affirmed that said belarus wasn't independent in any way barring some politicking by stalin because as many of you will know belarus along with ukraine had their own seat in the UN whilst being a part of the USSR the reason West hourly managed to get these was that he refused to join the new UN unless he was granted extra seats since he was concerned that he would be consistently outvoted by non communist states this concession was granted in the be SSR held its own seat until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 when it's seat was transferred to modern Belarus so in conclusion the origins of Belarus are blurred and wrapped up in difficulties concerning names and which state its culture is rooted in was Belarus another successor to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania or was it a newcomer whose identity was forged in opposition to those around it be aware though that Belarus and its people shouldn't be seen as some offshoot of Russia and that their history is long and varied Belarus is in many respects a young country but its people and the many names have existed for much longer I hope you enjoyed this episode and thank you for watching with extra thanks to my patreon supporters which you can see on screen and with an extra special thanks to James Bissonnette David archaeologist Ozark a flash Party Boyko Rob Waterhouse Chris wicker Michael Reynolds Gustav Swann David Silverman spinning three plates Maggie packs Kowski Christian check' Anthony Beckett Ike Skye Chappell and Winston K word you

The Rothschild Family Power and Money Full Documentary

The Rothschild Family Power and Money Full Documentary

Rothschild dynasty — European dynasty of bankers and public figures of Jewish descent, founded in the late 18th century. Meyer Rothschild one of the most influential businessmen of all time. Forbes magazine also referred to him as a «founding father of international finance»

17 golden rules for Business Success by Mayer Rothschild

LOVE ANTOSHA Trailer (2019) Anton Yelchin Documentary

LOVE ANTOSHA Trailer (2019) Anton Yelchin Documentary

From a prolific career in film and television, Anton Yelchin left an indelible legacy as an actor. Through his journals and other writings, his photography, the original music he wrote, and interviews with his family, friends, and colleagues, this film looks not just at Anton’s impressive career, but at a broader portrait of the man. Born in the former Soviet Union to a family of artists, Anton and his parents came to the U.S. when he was six months old. He started acting at nine. He had a genuine curiosity and love for people, for art, and for family. And a willingness to explore, and be open with, the darker parts of himself. Love, Antosha explores his successes and his struggles, and let’s viewers get to know this extraordinary person the world was cheated from seeing grow old.

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the thrill of making movies and studying characters and getting to work with people that you respect and admire is so far superior to everything else a mark at least for me you know it's how I how I think about things the actor Anton Yelchin is with me and you are shooting yet again something yeah it was like the first thing I consciously said to my folks I want to do this I want to make movies really the last number of years you've done so much next tonight here to the stunning death in Hollywood police are saying it appears to be a freak accident that killed the 27 year old actor the random events that had to occur for this to happen we're just can't act reasonably unfair my parents came to this country not knowing a word of English and just started to work my mom I owe her everything for believing in me he had a curiosity that with most people degrades over time I was so kind of baffled by how good he was I wanted to be better smarter cooler but couldn't even hang with him who he was as an artist was so far beyond acting because he could like do everything he started doing these photo shoots in the valley on the side I mean he was the kind of guy that did everything inside certain images I can't get out of my life for Chris Pine to be freaked out about what and I did mean things out there there's always a courage to go into the darker parts of himself we always confident that you have good enough to make it in the industry he was always going further than the rest of us I don't think he gave himself much of a break he was so intent to find situations that would challenge him I want to make things and I want to express a particular point of view that I have when he was little every day he would read cards dear mommy I love you so very much levantese it's no gifts there are the DOS

The Devil You Know Ep3 – Pazuzu Algarad – True Crime Documentary

Episode 3 of 5. This is the bizarre true story of a local Satanist, his house of horrors, and his reputation as a suspected cannibal murderer.⁣

The Devil You Know investigates the story of Pazuzu Algarad, a suspected cannibal murderer who used an Islamic Satanist persona to terrorise his local community and manipulate those closest to him.

Pazuzu Algarve and a woman who calls herself his wife Amber are both now charged with murder doctor actually diagnosed and was kissed the type of personality disorder guys clinically psychotic at some point he had used something to sharpen his teeth I just wanted to get away from the drugs and get away from the Zuzu right when I got back from my deployment I went to the police heroine really was always an escape but it quickly becomes a requirement it's all-encompassing pair of bodies were found buried in a backyard of a Clemens home a lot of questions were created from that rather than answered bullets the story from right here in the Piedmont that's actually making headlines around the world tonight at 10 o'clock channel 9 just obtained this video shot inside the home of an accused devil worshiper charged with the murder of a father with ties to Salisbury investigators say Pazuzu al garage killed Joshua wetzler and then buried him in his backyard for years neighbors say Pazuzu algorri transformed a nice home on Nob Hill Drive and Clements into a domain for the devil the pure evil Pazuzu al garage took part in satanic rituals all garage tongue was split like a snake moving in different directions licking his own face he picked up two prostitutes at two separate locations before he killed and ate them and you can tell when his demons you needed something from him because they took over Antichrist seyton cells was along for the rumor mill to cut the charge cuz there's a tongue is split in two his teeth are filed down two points he ate the beating hearts of the rabbits he sacrificed but no one was really bothered to find a fee this stuff was true this is if that didn't really matter I don't usually you can and then lose yeah commit commit feeling there we go it's about the same size as that kids penises sent you to picture it's a whole lot easier to look at pezoo Xue and his jacked-up face and all his stuff and his sharpened teeth and go wow that's not me that's not my kid it's a whole lot harder to look in the mirror and then look over at your kid and go ahead could Mike it go that way what am i doing to my kid that could possibly create another John Lawson we started writing eight six seven thousand word piece and was a profile it's trying to get personal background manners and every second of John Lawson's life led up to the moment that the police find bodies in his backyard there's not really too much there we know yet cuz I mean a lot of the people close to pursue so afraid to talk here's what we do now he's born in California to young parents these young parents don't really get along all that great they're bouncing back between California North Carolina and finally mom and dad split then when John's about five he ends up the Clements with his mom Cynthia who takes on the job of raising him on her own he was very very sad he was a buddy sock kid Cynthia she was my best friend and my son become very best friend Johnny he come Friday Sunday and something he stay at the house six o'clock in the morning there he is in the morning you know I love that little boy because to me he was very nice he was a good kid the city you know the thing that he does that he wants to be a vampire you know he was a vampire in his mind he was now I met Johnny he was weird you were this big cape like a with his teeth he was so leader and so tiny you know he was very skinny and he loves the movies you know like he watches Jason Freddy Krueger the vampire movie he was all those people sometimes he don't sing sorry what kind of out of place when Johnny was probably eight years old Johnny was very abusive you know her behavior and stuff like that so she put in a mental hospital I me and her went to see Johnny on my heart broke because I say you know that little boy he didn't need to be there the one that needs to be there is some woman the mama she drinks a lot for once and she go with all these guys I mean she lived joining me and she does she go Johnny see all that stuff and you know the little kid you know get in his mind you know like my mama do that nobody knows but the little boy went through when you get this Bulldog that their main what the reason they're mean because you just hit him hit him the dog so they had to be mean to his Oh Nina Antoine lived together three times so I was kinda just going back to start early we both see our ups and downs at different points you know in the end these guys are more family to me than we're sort of an actual family really i'm anton hardy brother of met flowers almost married his sister have a kid with her and he and I go back like car seats I feel like people take advantage of Matt and his his idea of wanting to be a protector I've really honestly did like I said I've seen people call him up for you know shit they've gotten themselves into and one of him to have their back and you know put himself into a situation where he can get in trouble zhuzi being one of them Pazuzu always talked about like building a legion and like habits like army of like people were like he like tried to push me a manipulate me into like do it some cities like him I'm happy he's in prison the things he did is unforgivable the further I got were searching his kids background the more I realize how skilled he was bringing other kids into whatever he was up to he made everyone an accomplice Pazuzu really liked that idea of a family killing people I think he felt powerful in bringing in other parties and I think he felt a certain sense of power by stripping that last shred of innocence by involving them in something that sinister I find it very odd that yeah I do kind of I do kind of miss him didn't they tell you about how he paid for all the floors I had really good credit for my mom paying off my student loan so I took out a load line so I could buy hardware and go pawn it for cash to get drugs and azusa and amber came to me one day saying we want to start cleaning up the house so I was like well shit I'll buy you guys some some floor and we'll rip out the carpet we'll put it in helped him install it and everything and then a few weeks later that was when I first heard the rumors about the murders and I was like I just no but I I don't I think I just brought the flooring over I think I came back later after they had ripped the carpet out I don't think I was actually there to pull out the carpet yeah yeah every day Frank at school people call them turd boy you know good boy he dropped out of school there's a mail which our self-proclaimed mail which is I'm writing about the zoo doing all of this research into his past I'm coming up against a lot of dead ends this is the South things move at their own pace but even so this story's proven particularly difficult the police aren't talking the families not talking and I mean I'm drowning at rumors but I'm still trying to get to the actual facts of the matter West Forsyth yearbook 93 to 95 well we can go what are the odds of us actually finding that I don't know if they're probably not very good the deal was trying to ferret when this boy was in school because he kept failing from what I understand he was not exactly your models oh yeah ah class here's Mike here he is like I reckon you put all the tattoos on his face that's the same Joker all right so now it's set up for a quick scan and we just click and watch what happens I love that little sound like and hey boy is John Lawson any cute now this is another year but he's he's kind of in the same class he's still a freshman this year not a lotta I need people who were in sixth grade for three years not like or moving on that career John Lawson year two same grade looks like somebody between I was a ball-peen hammer right before they took he looks stoned yeah I guess he's this is year two freshman year yes what people have glommed on to his the simplistic story this is a guy who is dealing with the dark arts he was dealing in the dark his depth of you know and then any murder people and now we understand it because we can get her head around it and what you missed with the people in the human beings he was a nice kid every once in a while I'd give him a ride home from school my name is Stephanie Seidel I actually live three houses down across the street from Pazuzu people called him turd boy and they would you know turn boy I could see it in his face how upsetting it was I don't know why but he smelled like human excrement he was an eighteen year old freshman every day Frank at school the teachers just turned a blind eye my name is Aaron I was a classmate at John Pazuzu whatever you want to call him I showed him some things a few guitar lessons he dropped out of school when he realized the reemerged as a male witch or self-proclaimed male witch I think that would ever hurt someone is what he wanted to be they wanted to be the bad guy this is the suburbs it is fundamentalist and they're serious about it but I think at some point John Lawson realized living in the suburbs of Forsyth County he was never gonna quite be the top guy so he decided if I'm will be bad bad as I could be he even talked about his father didn't want him and that being a factor in why and he wanted to kill himself oh he had a hundred ways he wanted to do it you know shotgun my Kurt Cobain or you know he talked about well you know when you slit your wrists in the bathtub you just get real dizzy and then you die yeah is this Johnny James yes sir my name is Chad Nance I'm the owner and one of the journalists at the camel State dispatch what I'm calling you about is the Pazuzu or garag case and if now I do understand but part of the reason I want to talk to you was let you kind of clear some stuff up because we got your name on the deed of the house I'm a I'm a stepdads I mean I know what it's like you know he did did you think he hated you because you take him mom away from him her it was he just hateful hello that's a bummer man Johnny James we're going to record with me and I understand I can't really blame you whoo let's talk about all this awful stuff all the time but at the same time you know if we don't look at the uncomfortable truths we may never really get beyond it I heard him scream if'n hate you I want you to just get out of my life I wish you weren't here this is him screaming to his stepdad according to the rumors that I've heard when pazoozas in his early 20s he demands his mom Cynthia in her relationship with stepdad Johnny James choosing her son over her husband Cynthia convinced Johnny to move out of house I mean he sort of did whatever he wanted to do he was not ever bound by any authority figure just like a logically John she scared little boy so I had a really hard time seeing him putting a gun to somebody's head and pulling the trigger major findings at autopsy included gunshot wounds of the head and torso so that's eight gunshot wounds it's easy to sit back and wonder how how the neighbors didn't know something was going on it's been six months since officials discovered human remains buried behind a house in Clements and it will be at least another six months before any trial can begin a judge rescheduled Pazuzu algorithm's case to October 29th Matlock in Birch cases are expected to be postponed as well this is a rite of passage around here Lobo feature the beach phone everyone call it a zoo zoo always talked about people up hurting people and doing all this crazy shit he was like a really good actor he would be one guy around me and then a completely different person around other people he was cool to hang out with but like he really was schizophrenic been like 2 years since I've been out here Society live in ten watch your step right there I think I kept in a straight line people been painting down here since like the 90s like we did like jackass shit is the dumb shit we spray-painted but while I'm spray-painting like anarchy here but I was doing I was kid Pazuzu spraying like inverted pentagrams and 666 and he's like yelling like where is your god no and I'm like oh I guess you're having fun like kind of stupid said that but I think he took that shit too seriously you know reverb in here is awesome look at this but some drums right here at the end actually Pazuzu in our back when he was like kind of cool we had like a little bonfire or spray paint and we took the spray paint cans and put it on the bonfire we like ran that way oh like the gas flames I can just hear like oh I can't leave no one came down here for that one mmm jelly jelly Avenger armor doesn't think about it you know it's like I feel like if I didn't leave them like leave for the military that they've never would happen never would happen so the first time Pazuzu al garage mother was in front of our camera cynthia james met with county officials over the fate of her house a Nob Hill Drive County originally told the homeowner al guards mother that she had until Christmas day to decide tear it down or fix it up ms James had nothing to say during the hearing or to us Pazuzu smother would have been the first person I picked up there are legitimate questions like how could you allow this to go on were you intimidated and scared of your son to the point that you know dude or did you just love your son and we're you know catering to him to the point where these things are allowed to happen Cynthia James she's somewhat of a cipher I graduated from high school in 1996 the house was beautiful his mom took care of it they had cream-colored carpet when he walked in you took your shoes off I moved down here in 2010 and it was a completely different scene the house was an absolute disaster you know kazoos he's living off his mom turned her like shit she was paying all the bills buying him a case of beer every day buying him you know bags are rolling tobacco every day it's not doing anything good for anybody you know as a parent what do you do in your situation spirals out of control when a kid drops out of school when he starts abusing drugs when we start sacrificing animals Pazuzu used to sacrifice a rabbit split and rabbits throats and dump in their blood and rubbing blood all over his face he felt like it would give him higher power there was a cat hanging in his tree I thought I know that it was a cat hanging from his tree at some point you know you just figured he felt he had to take his animal sacrifice to the next level to human sacrifice these are the autopsy reports for Josh this is the first time I've seen this and you know we just never heard anything back from the DA or from the detectives the cause of death for this 37 year old Caucasian male Joshua Frederick wetzlar is multiple gunshot wounds major findings at autopsy included gunshot wounds of the head and torso with recovery of multiple bullet and bullet fragments three gunshot wounds involved the head for possibly four and possibly five gunshots both torso so that's eight gunshot wounds and so you know it just it seems like that somebody would have heard that it's easy to sit back and wonder how the neighbors didn't know something was going on the neighbor to the left I mean you could be on their back deck and see into Pazuzu sawed yard fine you know I'm just glad I wasn't as neighbor his name was John Lawson I knew a guy that was just locked up with him recently he said that they had locked down the whole jail because he had his teeth filed he did into an artery in his arm and I guess they locked down the whole jail because of that thing night came around with Jenna not that long ago and we just clicked so he started hanging out and basically since we are you that kind of like a little like everybody that Oh God says that he feels so bad oh I'm wearing guys to Marty's dick everyday my seth has a much harder habit than you do and he still gets up and goes to work I know I'm safe I know darling just notice I know I want to quit altogether as soon as I get my financial aid disbursement I can get my – we thought about going to clinic you don't the rehabs around here are so shitty I don't have insurance and nice ones like then like people in Hollywood go to or like sixty thousand dollars a day I mean I don't know who can afford that but I damn sure can elgar odd was transported to central prison on a safe keeping order I sent Sheriff Department like three emails I got nothing I've left voicemail there got nothing there's the East such warrants from 2014 and then we found out that the search warrants were sealed there's something in those search warrants that law enforcement didn't one out Elgar on was transported to Central Prison in a safe keeping order as part of a joint request by both his defense counsel and the district attorney's office meaning I sent Sheriff Department I said at this point I'm sending like three emails I got nothing I've left voicemail there have nothing we got no details on anything oh my guys what is room or injection where people said we got all those comments that people leave and that's all I know do you think he's good actually tell us don't say anything don't talk you got this we end up having to do dirtbag research because none of the authorities are talking the people who probably actually know the real story are going to be people that were his teachers or counselors at school or gonna be a psychiatrist or someone like that they cannot talk about this stuff they're not gonna go tell us stuff that's that they cannot release we gotta get something I mean because they're only gonna find out about these searches is used to talk to miss Cynthia talk to somebody that was in the house when these searches took place I mean we don't have enough so we've hit a wall let's just get on with I just don't see how we can do it without access to the courthouse we can't get access to court have a lawyer it's incredibly frustrating because how do you tell a whole story without all the facts and I know that there are people out there who need some real answers there today is Mother's Day and I'm moving I had lost my job I was a contract employee so I wasn't paid any kind of unemployment I'd worked really hard there but I never made any money when Josh was found jared was able to start receiving Social Security payments but the date that he started receiving money was based on the date that they found Josh which is the official date on his death certificate so for those five years that Josh was missing Jared did not receive any Social Security money we had no financial support at all Jared receives about seven hundred dollars a month over a five year period we're talking about $35,000 with that amount of money we could have made a down payment on a house unfortunately Michael Hewitt found me on Facebook and took an interest in the case he's told me a whole lot more than the DA or the Sheriff's Department I'm Michael Hewlett I'm the legal affairs reporter at The Winston Salem Journal there was a Facebook page dedicated to Josh wetzler and Stacy was the administrator for that that site what I find is that a lot of victims they don't understand how these criminal cases go they think oh you know it's like Law & Order oh the investigation and then oh there's your trial all of a sudden before the hour is over and that's not how it happens in real life then in real life at how you know particularly for a murder case you're talking about a two three year process unfortunately journalists our job is to port there's relevant information to a particular case that people should know about we need to fight to get that information out when the remains were found I immediately went to the courthouse to see whether or not there were search warrants search warrants can provide a lot more information than law enforcement are willing to say publicly I was looking for the search warrants in the average case we were told yes there's the e search warrants from 2014 then we found out that the search warrants were sealed there is something in those social norms that law enforcement did them one out on behalf of this whole street I just want to apologize to anybody involved we let to and be missing for five years it's actually somewhat of a mixed bag of emotions right now sit properties company known as 2749 Nob Hill Drive in Clements North Carolina have a bit of 123,000 798 39 cents going once twice that's with the whole neighborhood wants we just want the house young will it return the neighborhood to the way it was yeah I think so I think so it's just that you know everybody's been upset for the last six months it just needs to be gone good afternoon thanks for joining us crews started tearing down the former home of Pazuzu al garage around 8:45 this morning it's actually somewhat of a mixed bag of emotions right now we're celebrating this is party we are very excited we're have we at the picnic spread already ready the neighborhood is having somewhat of a neighborly gathering here celebration they're trying to keep it positive see some of that dust coming out of the house neighbors were saying was almost as though that dust represented all the evil spirits and the bad memories which this house was holding and just releasing them in a way I'm relieved we'll get back to our nice quiet very wonderful neighborhood hopefully this provides some closure for them as well guys they condemn the house they take bulldozers out there they push it all into the basement tear up the swimming pool cover the thing up fill it all full of dirt and wipe it clean from the face of the earth all this happened in a matter of a few months they wiped it from the face of the earth they don't want to talk about this anymore they want to move on move on meaning not examine what caused this don't look into my own heart and see how I might be responsible let's just move on and pretend it never happened when people think that you can put somebody in jail you can take down a house that that somehow clears it they have no idea didn't make anything better for my child it didn't make anything better for me or Tommy's family it did not fix anything you can't bring somebody's daddy back on behalf of this whole street I just want to apologize to anybody involved because I wish I wish that we could have done something and I'm so so sorry that we let you down we let two men be missing for five years I think Josh his death was totally preventable but nobody took responsibility when Pazuzu was young there were people that were well aware that there was a problem how did he fall through the cracks as a society we are fed and I mean the answers our needs to become by one thing I do know is that when you see someone totally self-destructing or destroy themselves or others you got to face it head-on Jenna's parents let us move in with down and since we don't have to pay bills or rent or anything right now it gives us a lot more money to take it hi well I just got enough work last night wanted to go get some drugs so I was on 485 about 15 minutes out from here and wake up and I'm drifting over onto the left side of the I guess I was in a fast lane and I'm shocked back over and so of course I fly across the road and straight into the grass on the other side and there's like steep-ass ditch that goes straight down it I was freaking out I'm not gonna lie I'm crying man I just got a bunch of work done on a car my mom spent $1,200 on the car yesterday and you know I was freaking out because I was afraid someone was gonna pull over and see me on the side of the road and call the cops and you know I got drugs in my system I mean I probably should have just park the car and slept somewhere but I had a bag for Jenna and I wanted to bring it to her Hey nothing I just got up I totaled the car last night no I I just had Jenna pick me up i I mean no I was just I mean that's still technically a DWI isn't it if you fall asleep at the wheel okay yeah like as soon as the Pazuzu finally got busted everyone came out the woodwork I knew him we were we had the spit mask on I mean it was straight up like this but feigned you know the thing like the thing that you never believe is real like in movies like it was real it was real then the mainstream media in this case went the sensational sangil chemistry dispatch did what we do at heart we are humanists and we took the humanists angle because for us it boils down to human beings and how they behave towards one another and how they are affected by the behavior of others by all accounts John Alexander Lawson began life uneventful II on August 12 to 1978 over the next 20 years Lawson done everything he could have to make himself seem evil powerful and frightening this kid from West Forsyth looked in the mirror one day and decided to what he saw wasn't good enough what he wanted to see was the boogeyman by all accounts he succeeded in spades Pazuzu murdered people he destroyed lives can't explain that away with Satan evil do anybody any good in a first position search warrant seal didn't say keep it over sealed and again you know I get the feeling that it's just like we don't wanna look at this we don't want to talk about it we really don't want to face our collective responsibility for what happened here Pazuzu saw me as his brother literally literally as a brother I really miss my friend man I mean I remember sitting there talking to him sometimes like what you talk to me about life and we were friends dude and like all this shit happened stupid shit hit me man hit me [Laughter] he wasn't Pazuzu to me I was in for first and second-degree kidnapping and under a bunch of faulty charges you know what I mean but I lost my shit when I first went in so they sent me to the hole you know and so was in there and this month just like in between crying and shouting and yelling and reciting like whoever the lyrics he was out of his time you know what I mean we all were like looking out and like he's like this tall he's shorter than him he ain't nothing you know what it means whatever I mean he was restrained you know like here and it did it looked like they were bringing Hannibal Lecter and the jail you know what I mean and we were all watching he had the spit mask on I mean like it was straight up like the the thing you know the thing that like the thing that you never believe is real like in movies like it was real it was real Vince it like as soon as the consumes you finally got busted everyone came out of the woodwork I knew him we were most things ever heard people say about Pazuzu never really forget some cool shit over here word up hmm gotta get this one too yeah I get this one that one it's like the best artist wants to say this is a good buddy Mon I feel really sad that I've lost someone that I cared about but this time not just lost that he did this but lost completely to me that he did do this you know I mean like his life's over I know this I know his life's over he's suffering but at least he's not dead because of me she was charged with murder in connection with the deaths of two people now Pazuzu al garage is dead early this morning he was found unresponsive at the Central Prison in Raleigh found with a wound on his arm the State Department of Public Safety confirmed calling it an apparent suicide we had heard from corrections officers off the record and from other inmates that the Pazuzu had been trying to bite through his arm there was something about all the investigation they just didn't want us to know about very disturbing that his mother saw it happen and proceeded to get ready for work the government used me the government me I wanted to be the one to kill Pazuzu Zuzu's death doesn't leave a lot of unanswered questions and the people he left behind are now just left to pick up the pieces it's like I don't feel shit I PTSD I drank my sleep I hate being a junkie I have to do shit that I really don't want to do this is a prepaid collect call from

The Real Sopranos Documentary

Rick Borgia portrays Vinny Ocean
*Vincent “Vinnie Ocean” Palermo, a former New Jersey mob boss turned FBI informant.
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fuckin things to play like these are actual FBI recordings of four men talking about a mob TV show they love they're discussing whether the Sopranos is based on them the men belong to a real New Jersey crime family called the DeKalb County family these recordings were later used in court to convict them of murder racketeering extortion illegal gambling bribery organized crime they would rather break your arm off and beat you to death with your own arm rather to make love to a woman you stopped the guy in the eye with a fork full violence and intimidation is why they survived this is a true story of extreme violence brutality and fear these guys aren't just like The Sopranos these are the real Sopranos and this is the intimate tale of their rise and fall in the TV show The Sopranos Tony Soprano is the head of a modern mob family violence brutal and ruthless but there's something that's different about his family until the Sopranos came along the mob had always been a New York thing a show established the idea of the small-town mobster living in the epitome of suburbia New Jersey but there was a real New Jersey crime family before The Sopranos the de Cavalcanti family were based on the wrong side of the Hudson River they were the smallest and oldest mob family in America they called themselves the Jersey mob the world now knows them as the real Sopranos whether the scriptwriters have listened or read the tapes of actual conversations by mafiosi and they know that every other word is laced with profanity no fucking way so in the mob vernacular you profanity serves both as a noun a verb fuck all of them an adjective and adverb it's every part of grammar the similarities between the Sopranos and the real New Jersey mob don't stop at the way they speak both families hung out at a pork store and the fictional Santana's is less than 200 yards from sockos where the real mob could be found most mornings you can walk around the corner you can walk go to the real gangster pork store and then walk down the street and go to the TV pork store Tony Soprano reveals his caring side when underboss Jackie Aprilia dies of stomach cancer in 1992 realtor Cavalcanti underboss Jake Amari died of stomach cancer but in the real New Jersey crime family there was one man who could claim the most unbelievable parallels with the fictional New Jersey crime family Vinny Palermo known as Vinny Ocean has the strongest claim to be the real Tony Soprano Tony Soprano owns a strip club the badda-bing vini ocean and Wiggles a strip club in Queens Tony and Vinnie are both Capo's both their crews are murderous and often incompetent Tony Soprano lives in a mini mansion vinnie Ocean lived in this mini mansion both Tony and Vinnie take over their family without officially becoming boss and both of them have trouble spelled with a capital F be the world of the real Tony Soprano Vinnie Palermo was just as brutal and sometimes funnier than fiction at the mob isn't a career you retire from for both men there's only three ways it can end you either die you go away or you cooperate there's really no other way out of it the rise and fall of many ocean began in 1989 the decouple countries were what they had always been the poor relations of the New York Mafia if you listen to Bruce Springsteen he'll tell you everything you need to know about New Jersey New Jersey is the place you want to get out of and you aspire to come to New York it's the place next to the power it's the place next to money it's the place next to celebrity no one took them seriously if you asked anybody who was in the five families in New York I don't think they want to be a member of the Jersey mob I actually know of some cases where you know guys couldn't get made in New York and as a last resort take Jersey the New York families look at the New Jersey family as a pathetic stepchild the New York families call them farmers and they really hate that they were a branch office of the american mafia and they didn't like it but this was the family Vinny Paloma was trying to get into he started at the bottom he got his nickname because he at one point was involved in selling fish at the Fulton fish market so they came up with the brilliant nickname of any ocean Vinny wasn't just working the fish market he was hustling and he'd married into the mob the daughter of the underboss of the real soprano family I think he was street smart and willing to do things that other people were not willing to do he was also able to kind of see other people's weaknesses his very corporate guy basically you know he would have been a great CEO it was that willingness that got Vinny Ocean his big chance it was time for him to make his bonus in 1989 John Gotti the biggest boss in the New York Mafia wanted the Jersey mob to do him a favor this is very important for our family it'll give us some credence make us look good with the other five families John Gotti always kind of looked at the Calvin Candie family as a jersey mall or something and so gaudi reached out to the de Cavalcanti family the farmers and asked them to do a little piece of work that's the phrase they use but to basically shoot this guy who is a real estate developer in Staten Island the developers name was Fred Weiss it was a Sunday morning 1989 four cars drove in convoy over the bridge to Staten Island Vinnie was one of a crew of 12 men staking out fred wises house comes walking out of his house September morning September 11 1989 he comes walking out his door and two guys walk up and shoot him in the face Vincent Palermo at James Gallo jumped back in the car James said go go go so I pulled away not too fast not too slow that was a big deal because that was doing a favor for John Gotti therefore finis Palermo could do no wrong in the de Cavalcanti family from then on a few days later Vinny ocean became a made man in the de Cavalcanti family when you remember that the Calvin Candie family you had no choice about being second second banana or second place of New York families but that was about to change for Vinnie Ocean and the real Sopranos the 1990s would be a time of murder extortion and fast quantities of cash in The Sopranos Tony lives the high life always flush with cash provided in brown envelopes by the men in his crew Marty this is lifted directly from the real-life mob Vinnie Ocean the real Tony Soprano became a made man in the Jersey mob after the Staten Island hit now he too was part of that money-making machine getting into the family was as hard as getting into the most exclusive Country Club in America it was an honor that easily was stolen organized crime he is organized Vinnie was joining a carefully structured business you have a boss you have an underboss you have a consul year and I would be called the administration of the family two three highs people the family the boss was the only one who could appoint that captains the kappa's were people captains who control the real work includes their units each capo had at least 10 people who are known as soldiers people who were formerly and underwent the blood induction into the family then he was now a soldier a made man he had taken an oath never to reveal the family secrets on pain of death he moved up a rung from being an associate you start off as an associate and if you're a great earner or if you're somebody that they can depend on to do dirty work that they need you know it's gonna push your chances up to become a member in the modern mob it's all about cash flows associates have to keep money up two soldiers soldiers two Capo's and kapos to the administration vini was given his own scams to run his to make as much cash as he could from as long as he kicked some of it upstairs these were the classic mob schemes money lending and illegal betting as long as it's gambling and loan sharking mafia will be alive and well Frank Santa solar spent 20 years as a cop infiltrating organized crime he knows better than anyone else how mob scams work because he's done them himself this is the Park Hill section in Yonkers South Yonkers it used to be a club here right here I used to turn in work this was a certain guys club now I don't know if it's still in operation but I also used to buy homemade wine in the basement Frank was working as a numbers runner the bottom of the mob hierarchy most of Vinny ocean's crew ran some sort of gambling operation it's changed you know it's not it's not what it used to be the numbers was the unofficial mob lottery people would bet on what three numbers would come up as the total gambled at the Brooklyn racecourse different outfits have different payouts like the outfit I work for they were paying 550 to one people love to gamble now you didn't have to twist their arms everybody Gamble's anyone who knows anything about gambling in America would prefer to wager with the mob they give you the best odds there's no taxes a lot of guys who gamble end up borrowing money and if they can't go to the bank and say I want to gamble $450,000 so what you do is you go to Vinny and they say yeah no problem I'll give you this money ok no problem and then you gamble it and what happens you lose just like Tony Soprano Vinnie Ocean put money out on the street that jaw clenching ly high rates of interest good cocksucker with my fucking money I'm saying bark $500 so you know it's like if I guard five I'd have to pay eight back so can you imagine if I borrowed five and I could not pay the principal back and I have to come up with 300 bucks a week to give you every week the sopranos betrays a world where violence is the simple solution to every problem that's just as true of the real mob for most of the 20th century the mob was an invisible government and presence in the New York metropolitan area including New Jersey and Connecticut and Long Island and they were into everything but the Catholic auntie's controlled one of the important laborers unions in the construction industry they were involved in drug dealing they extorted stores auto crimes medical fraud insurance fraud Bank burglaries murder salts you name it day if there was money in it they they found a way to turn it into something the alleged members of the Colombo crime family were indicted for loan-sharking labor corruption extortion the 90s was a good time for the Jersey mob the FBI hit the New York family's hard taking them down one by one in a series of huge cases but the real Sopranos continued to fly under the radar they live basically two lives they have their little suburban scene going on with wives and kids and then they also have their social club thing going on where everybody's hanging out and paying no attention to their family and scheming and making money and gambling and having a good time with their girlfriends and of all the members of the dekappa country family Vinnie Ocean was having the best time of all he was living upper middle-class Long Island existence with a wife two kids who go to private school and they would go to Disney World once a year Vinnie had a unique money-making Enterprise a main supply of clean cash Wiggles yes just like Toni the real Sopranos owned a strip club his old nude cloth we're not serving alcohol and girls dancing around stage Thursday Friday decided it was a big proudest and girls danced mute on stage so that's the best thing you can see Wiggles was his wonderful source of what he calls legitimate money it was a perfect place it was a cash business widows was meant to be Vinny's source of legitimate cash but all it brought in was problems with the law the new mayor of New York also an italian-american wanted to clean up the city and he wanted to start right here like Queens Boulevard be Giuliani it decided that it was really bad idea to have strip clubs in neighborhoods so they come up with a law that would essentially eliminate any strip club that was within 500 feet of schools and churches he had a lot of problems because they were trying to close down the nude bars he was just incensed about it didn't have better things to do with their time the strip clubs claimed they were just enjoying their constitutional rights to freedom of speech the city came up with a rule called 60/40 6040 is a strange rule if more than 60% of your business is a strip club then you're a strip club and you can't exist within 500 feet of a church but if just a little bit more a little less than 40% is a strip club you're all set you're not really a strip club the 60% of the club is empty right now the 60/40 trick enabled wiggles to stay open but it was still the constant subject of police attention it's funny how that's an assignment that a lot of the officers really seem to covet but they they they send in undercover officers to see if it's really a strip club which is a really tough assignment and they would kind of see what was offered in the VIP room some people talk to the girls some people sniffing them here for 50 minutes and some people enjoying the dance you know watching girls dancing in front of them and a little lap dance Wiggles is still open today under new management but there was one thing even more important than cash respect on TV Tony Soprano is prepared to kill his oldest friend over a matter of respect it was even more true for the real Sopranos a mob family with a collective inferiority complex terrified that New York didn't give them the respect they deserved they cultivate an image of cool guys that that's how they recruit it's not you know I mean can you can you imagine that you'd be able to walk around a neighborhood in Brooklyn and say hey let's let's all become heroin dealers that doesn't really work even though they're heroin dealers the Jersey mobs inferiority complex at a body count and that gave Vinny his chance to step up to the very top those guys were sociopaths but they would rather break your arm off and beat you to death with your own arm rather than make love to a woman I notice and you know I'm used to concern me because I used to drink with the meet with them you know party with them weddings wakes funerals the Jersey mob were prepared to murder their own acting boss John D'Amato to protect the family honor tomato his girlfriend let something slip to another member of the family Anthony couple she told me John D'Amato and her were going to sex clubs in the city and swapping partners that John was engaged in homosexual activities his chakra I knew John for a long time he was the boss of an organized crime family couldn't be acting that way Anthony helped he just had to tell other people about this because supposedly the Mafia has rule says you can't be gay in being the Mafia I've met Anthony capo once he came down from his house in a bathrobe and looked like he was snoring his brains out all night that's very impression I got of him is just a coked-up guy he is sort of the psycho you go to when you need to get money from somebody the guy owes your money have the Anthony go talk to the guy with a baseball bat he called a meeting of the Capo's and it was decided that for the sake of the family honor D'Amato had to die nobody's gonna respect us if we have a gay homosexual boss sitting down and discussing Cosa Nostra business with other families I don't think any family would be too pleased to hit and that boss was actually found in a gay bar I don't think they'll go over too well at all a car was waiting outside de Matos house D'Amato came out and got in car boat turned and shot him twice in the face they shot him in the back of a car and drove him to a garage and rolled him up in a rug and set him upstate word gets back in two seconds you know you guy like that gets killed you know you're gonna find out about it real quick and the rumors are gonna fly and who you think that it as with most mob hits they gotta wait it most of them are pretty clean job you probably know exactly who did it but in order to prove a murder case you know you need evidence corroboration with D'Amato dead the family decided not to appoint a new boss instead they appointed three Capo's to run the family one of these men was Vinnie Ocean Vinnie had reached the top of the mob he was a rich man but the icing on the cake for the real Sopranos was yet to come it was 1998 and a new TV show hit the screens the story of a New Jersey crime family The Sopranos perfect thank you it was the biggest audience and critical hit of the year above all when the Sopranos hit the screen it put the New Jersey mob on the map The Sopranos made that account the county's famous nobody knew about them before so The Sopranos in effect were terrific public relations boost for the the Calvo counties and gave them some kind of aura of pride something they never had before actually real Jersey mob would take a break from extorting construction sites to watch The Sopranos do the same thing and they loved it it kind of gave them this almost romantic aura their TV stars that's the way they act about the thing they talk about it as if of course they make a TV show about us a lot of these guys are barely making a living and when they see something like this on TV they feel much better about themselves I think that they were thoroughly entertained by it it's like anything else they they they felt the thrill of being not imitated but portrayed Tony Soprano and the badda-bing might look like they were based on Vinnie ocean and Wiggles but the creators of the TV show insisted they hadn't copied the real Jersey mob in fact they did a PR job on The Sopranos made the real mob seem more successful than they were The Sopranos is good entertainment but it's terrible history it's lousy facts anyone in the mob who lived the lifestyle of Tony Soprano wouldn't last one day he begins his day by walking out of his mini mansion in his bathrobe he walks down to pick up his newspaper he's totally exposed if anyone wanted a hey the more welcome they could all the mobsters that I've met in my lifetime I've never met anybody that was a good guy all they're interested in is their own self survival making money and if necessary murdering everybody in their path soprano is not your typical mobster and in a bizarre mingling of fact and fiction The Sopranos would play a role in the downfall of the real Jersey mob on TV it's a source of dramatic tension the FBI are watching The Sopranos in the real world FBI surveillance tapes showed the de Carroll counties comparing themselves to soprano characters and this word damn them when they eventually came to trial so what you have is a kind of art imitates life imitates art and and you have gangsters sitting around watching in The Sopranos and learning from them and imitating them one of the arguments was you know the government can't prove that they're a crime family and I said what are you kidding they've compared themselves to a you know a make-believe crime family vini ocean and the Jersey mob thought they were Untouchables but the show they loved would make him famous in all the wrong ways the real Sopranos were about to find themselves top of everybody's on TV the FBI are always on Tony Soprano's case their dream scenario is to flip one of his men big pussy is a central figure in Tony's tightly knit crew but with a drugs charge hanging over him there's nothing else he can do he agrees to wear a wire with the fictional New Jersey mob making their headlines the FBI were forced to do something about the real Sopranos their number one target was acting boss Vinnie Ocean at the end of the day you need a break you need somebody who's gonna do more than just offer you confidential information you need somebody who's willing to make tapes Maria got her break and Vinnie met his nemesis in the unlikely shape of a land called Ralphie Guarino he was a short guy medium build salt-and-pepper hair Pekka bleed rest you know a little bit of an olive complexion you know had to talk Ralphie was gambler he is basically not a tough guy he's not gonna go around killing people but what he's going to do is he's gonna have his schemes and he had this guy's like lives to scape he schemes the way I dream Ralphie's big scam was a delivery of cash coming to the World Trade Center on the 13th of January 1998 a security van with the money arrived in the underground car park at 11 a.m. two guards but bags of money on a trolley and took the lift to the 11th floor where pull some guns out grab these bags that were being transported by bank employees and take the elevator down and get out of the building with bags of cash they walked out of the building with three million dollars in bags as nonchalant as you like and as the elevator doors opened on the 11th floor but the heist didn't go exactly as planned as Ralphie later put it and the three guys he chose for the job turned out to be morons they forgot that there were cameras all over the place and in one particularly beautiful moment they still hooked right up into the camera which ended up on the front page of just about every newspaper the next morning I don't know within days they had all of them they got off the lift at the wrong floor even worse they'd taken foreign currency useless to Ralphie it was very amusing to the general New York population because here they were they hate war all these ski masks and they covered themselves up and then they went out in the hallway took everything off and Shh the robbery was linked back to Ralphie almost immediately a senior FBI agent turned up at his house and offered him one chance to stay out of jail he was able to talk him through and basically laid the cards on the table and said here your options and you're doing yourself a lot of good and everybody else a lot of good if you you know join Team America and he did he persuaded them so what we did was rather than make a big publicity we just recovered the money and we kept it quiet Ralphie was now a rat his job was to wear a wire and get close to Vinnie ocean if somebody suspects you and they do realize that you're taping them you know you're gonna you're gonna get killed there'd be some occasions where I wear Ralphie was shown how to tape his friends Frank Santa Sola is one of only a handful of cops who have ever infiltrated the mob I tape it to my chest between my in the breast area by the solar plexus because it indented there and you know these guys are pretty smart they're always bumping into you for a reason to find out if you're if you're Wyatt so there was a few few ways of doing it you know as you're doing this for me going through my mind is my mission I knew that I had an hour and a half of recording time so whatever ever information I had to get it within that hour and a half and that's plenty of time hit the record button you see the red light go on so now you know it's recording and then I always would say to myself you know I saw the red light because you know what emotions come into it and you sometimes your mind plays tricks on you did I put it on didn't I put it on now I know it's on now I'm alive I'm ready to go nobody's gonna look naturally just like Frank even once he got on the inside Ralphie would never be sure he was safe I remember walking into the social club there was no movement and everybody's somber so I walk up to the bar nice tie Frank goes hey Cheech we know you're a cop now we want you to take this money and get the fuck out of here you know you gotta sort of like think pretty quick so let the grab the money as I'm grabbing I'm saying well I know you know I know you think I'm a cop I ain't but I'm taking your money and the guy puts his hand on mine and says well Cheech we just have to you know we just got to make sure we just got to make sure this was the bar right here when did they flip you tell me don't lie what Ralphie had plenty to fear the way The Sopranos dealt with their rat was realistic enough no one saw the FBI visit Ralphie at home as far as the family was concerned he was a guy who had just pulled off a massive heist and that made him welcome in the Jersey mob Ralphie Karina became the newest member of Vinny oceans crew Ralphie comes into the family because he's making money it's always about money forget the rest of the stuff forget about honorable guys at all us it's about money it's a business Ralphie was put with Vinnie's driver Joey mesilla novenas Joey Oh Joey was really poor schmuck he was an errand boy collecting large amounts of money for Vinny Parma most guys in the modern mob were more like Joey than Vinny scratching a living from disorganized crime they managed to combine extreme violence with comical incompetence a guy like Ralphie looked to Vinny like a godsend how could they not have known that Ralphie would possibly become an informant after his genius scheme exploded onto the front page of every newspaper in New York it's hard to know except I would point out that Ralphie kept bringing the money in and as long as that money's coming in the incentive to just put you know whack Somebody it's just not there Joey on the other hand had debts up to his eyeballs problems with his wife problems with his ex-wife problems with his girlfriend he was one screw-up away from some serious trouble he was trying to run his own gambling business and he had terrible luck always I mean running an illegal gambling business is very very stressful you got to pay off your pabts and if you don't have money and if you haven't calculated correctly you're always owning money and it's a huge problem he is always desperate for cash and constantly try to come up with ways to make life Joey had been waiting half a lifetime to become a made man finally Vinny gave him his chance Vinny wanted his rival big ears Charlie Maggiore Dead Missouri lived with his mother in this house in Linden New Jersey at the point that you're asked to do it you basically have two options do it or you better turn yourself in somewhere because it's not as if you have any other choice spent hours parked in front of this guy's house trying to figure out how they could get him when he's coming out killing big ears would get Joey back in the families favor instead he achieved nothing the guys he was with didn't really seem to have much of a plan it was pretty much go up to the door if he answers that will shoot him sort of thing the cops gonna come they spent hours till they realized that there was a state trooper like park-like next door who happen to live next door I figured that probably might not be a good place to do that finally they just like all gave up and drove off and that was the end of that and and Joey miss Ella flew down to Florida and he just just said I'm not doing this this is just you've got to set it up better than this and that was Joey's big chance to be a made guy but you have to ask yourself this question have you ever shot anybody what's it like how do you do it how do you do it right go to schools learn how to do that Joey went back to his version of everyday life this is the business end of organized crime two guys in a car driving round trying to think of ways to make money Ralphy had to keep Joey thinking he was another guy looking out for a scam the FBI would create scenarios for him blonde jewelry or other valuables for him to pretend to steal you pretend you have stolen property what you do is when when you do make recoveries of stolen property you use it to set it up and you offer to sell it all the time Ralphy was pumping Joey for information what he and his handlers were getting was a picture of criminal incompetence one of the things that happens with a lot of FBI tapes is they're supposed to turn a tape recorder off when people start talking about personal stuff they don't they leave it on all the time most of the talking is really boring because it's mostly how are we gonna make money who's making money well how can we get a piece of that so far no one suspected Ralphy wasn't what he seemed at least of all his boss Vinnie Ocean it was Joey he was getting himself into deeper and deeper trouble the Jersey mob could come over like the Keystone Cops that these clowns packed real guns I can't imagine what it would be like to get up every single morning thinking that some psychotic guy I owe $450,000 to could be parked outside my door he old lots of money to people and he owed money to people that were in other families and whenever there's an issue about that then the person that they're gonna go to with their beef is your boss then he had had enough he told Joey he should have him killed it's probably not the best idea to kill somebody who owes you money because probably if you don't kill him they'll pay you something so you'll at least have some money coming in in his case it just I think he became kind of an embarrassment it was October the 10th 1998 Joey got a call from a bookmaker who owed him money to say he'd got $10,000 for him he was called to a golf course way out in Brooklyn they lured him out to a parking place and somebody just pulled up and blew him away and that was the end of Joey oh they were all trying to kill each other because everybody thought everybody else was becoming an informant of course there was an informant the FBI were listening all along but they weren't getting what they needed they didn't have evidence linking Vinnie Ocean to the crimes his crew was committing you can't go to victims no victim wants to come in and they'd rather pay the loan sharking debt they used a tactic that had worked this was pretty sure any plan on money and so our cooperator offered him a cell phone set I've got this connection and take it in as many minutes as you want and that was the cell phone we had both after Joey was killed Ralphie was put with tennis glove Fani a gangster of the old-school Joe ten-year squaw funny so named because he's deaf in one ear it was former Marine who is a tough guy he's the guy that pulls the trigger tanea might have been more frightening than Joey owes but he was just as incompetent he wanted Ralphie's help with a hit he was another I mean we always got stuck with people who who were not very productive financially he was always looking for for things to do and so one don't you know one of the things that we investigated was that scoffing he had agreed to take the hit and he was trying to to get at him and school Fani he was obsessed with trying to kill the guy in a motorcycle but he didn't know how to drive a motorcycle and I was just like these endless conversations about getting a motorcycle and how he and our cooperator going to ride on it and what they were gonna do other members of the crew was starting to suspect that Ralphie might be the rat after all these were guys with a stack of bodies between them they ordered a hit on him we began to worry that they were suspicious of him we were worried about the safety of our cooperating witness we were worried about whether or not Vinnie Palermo would flee the FBI was closing in on Vinnie Ocean Ralphie's grave had already been dug but the real Sopranos case was about to take a turn unprecedented in the history of the mob in The Sopranos Tony is always waiting for that unwelcome knock at the door Calva candy crime family is one of the oldest and most entrenched crime families in Villa Costa reference on the 2nd of December 1999 the police and the FBI arrested 40 members of the de Carroll County crime family in the biggest ever swoop on the mob the press called it the real Sopranos case Vinnie Ocean the real Tony Soprano first thought about flight on the day of the arrest Vinnie Palermo was found under circumstances that would indicate he was leaving home data was supposed to take down the first case I think six or seven of the top defendants warrant home he had a bag with him and money with him and he was you know he clearly was ready to take off but Vinnie didn't get away like the rest of the family he found himself in jail the FBI had come for the de Cobo counties just like the five families in New York they tried to emulate they effectively brought the whole family down and they arrested almost everybody which is kind of unprecedented then he was facing serious jail time they included murder murder conspiracies loan sharking extortion fraud the interstate transportation of stolen property all manner of charges it was a very strong case and there were very strong charges and when you're facing that the stronger the charges the more difficult it is to to roll the dice Vinnie Ocean was on the ruling committee of a mob family it was meant to be a man of honor to go down and do his time but Vinnie Ocean wasn't entirely happy with that option for somebody like Vinnie Palermo who who led a nice life and who had a business that he enjoyed and like the legitimacy of being a business guy and do you know it's a very hard thing to then settle in to prison for life then his lawyer did a deal with the prosecutors Vincent Vinnie ocean Palermo agreed to cooperate he flipped and once Vinnie had flipped the floodgates were open you couldn't put the number of informants that came out of that case on a school bus you couldn't fit him there were so many of them they were they were rushing to get in there everybody's trying to get you know get their deal as fast as possible a few old-timers like Tania's Kafani shows to do that time but something fundamental had changed in the mob don't forget years ago guys went into that life because they really had nothing else if they went to jail sometimes it was almost an improvement today a lot of these kids who become made guys are driving if fathers brand new car at 15 years old grow up in a million-dollar house of course when you throw them in a Cell they're gonna cooperate they'd never been tested and they've really been pampered most of the life it was the end of the line for the de Cavalcanti family the Jersey mob thought they were the real Sopranos they aspired to be on the same level as the New York families and they blew it listen you look at a guy like John Gotti whatever he was whatever he was and you got to give the guy a little bit of credit because he was really treated like the lowest form of dirt in prison and he never broke if you admire that kind of quality in somebody because he backed up what he said the endgame would play out very differently for Vinnie Ocean well Vinnie Palermo ends up in WITSEC the witness protection program moves he'll move in next to you he who become your neighbor you have no idea who he is yes a new name his name's not have any Palermo is that I'm sure he doesn't you know go by the name Vinnie ocean when he moves into some suburb and in Phoenix the best days of the mob were well and truly over Tony Soprano is always thinking about the good old days when he thought that mafiosi were more Spartan they were more loyal they obeyed the oaths of omertà how to conduct themselves as men of honor but the so-called men of honor broke even their own way in real life they noted to be much getting it pictures taken they got to watch their phones aren't apt I got to watch that the club that they hang in it isn't bug they got to be afraid now if the guy that talking to her and a wire on them they're absolutely paranoid but you have to be there is no way there is powerful today as they was saying 3040 20 years ago today they'd been lucky they can get a reservation at a restaurant now really literally the mob looks finished as a viable career option but as one opportunity ends another one begins tony sirico the actor on the left is convincing his Paulie walnuts for a reason before he became an actor Sarika was arrested 28 times and jailed for 7 years let's whack this cocksucker will be doubled in noise because he was shot the kind of guys who used to join the mob now play mobsters on The Sopranos while the real Jersey mob do that time or hideaway in witness protection there's one Mafia family that's alive and well and living in New Jersey for now the subproblems [Applause] you

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Inside Bill’s Brain: Decoding Bill Gates | Official Trailer | Netflix

Bill Gates. -Your favorite animal?
-Dog. -Your favorite food?
-Hamburger. -Eat breakfast?
-Nothing. What is your worst fear? I don't want my brain
to stop working. Bill is a multiprocessor. He'll be reading
something else but then processing
at the same time. It's chaos! He thrives on complexity. He makes a framework
in his mind and then he starts
slotting in the information. If something doesn't line up,
he gets really frustrated. It's scary. But when Bill stills himself, he can pull ideas together
that other people can't see. At Microsoft,
I worked night and day. That was how I made sure
Microsoft stayed ahead. I could be so extreme. You never understood
the first thing about this! Microsoft hit a new
record high on Wall Street. Rivals paint a dark picture. He'll do whatever he can
to capture more of the market. Our mother wanted him
to focus on community and family. I gave my mom a hard time
not following what she wanted. You don't raise a family hyper-focused in your head. Each one of us has to start out with developing his or her
own definition of success. I had the wrong way
of looking at things. In life, you have to decide,
what's important in the world? I will look at energy,
climate change, and disease eradication. It's important that we start
deploying solutions unnaturally fast. We are running out 
of time here. He tends to look at problems
from unusual angles. There hasn't been innovation
in nuclear energy for 25 years. What are the odds
of getting the job done? If you want to make
a dent in this, you better think
in wholesale magnitudes. He's at his best when the deck is stacked
against him. There's many challenges. This is harder than I expected. Ultimately,
it's not what you get… it's what you become.

The House That Was Erased / True Crime Horror Documentary

if you have any information regarding what happened here please contact us privately. this paranormal true crim documentary has taken us down a rabbit hole of twists and turns and its still not over. this is our story

of all the things that I have accidentally stumbled upon in my life I believe that this is probably one of the most impactful in the last 48 hours me and Olivia have delved into a rabbit hole deeper than we could have ever imagined and still not even over yet I think sometimes we turn a blind eye to the reality of our lives that evil does walk amongst us and that sometimes truth can be stranger than fiction I guess the best way for me to tell this story would be to start it where the story began for us it's crazy honestly like seeing all this and knowing what we know now that this was all of their stuff just left here I mean I honestly cannot believe that this happens okay so I was literally just discussing with Olivia about about looking through some of this stuff just to see if we can find any clues and literally the first thing I see is this horrible blood-stained shirt I don't have gloves but I'll pick it up pick it up with this oh my god that is it's a kid it's a kid's garment though do you think she picked up her daughter or something or do you think what do you think happened you guys just look at that you can see how certain parts are thicker red then others like as if stab wounds would have been there obviously this is a kids garment I mean I could imagine a mother holding the child close to them or something like that but that literally was in this pile of clothes I've been left here what's up everybody it's a boy Andrew proving demons ain't a girl Olivia from India she's having a bit of a lie from now I hope you enjoyed that son now I'ma just wait for some people to pop in started off like any live stream you're in high spirits Olivia was cracking up that a silly thumbnail I had made for the livestream it's just Ross pointing behind him saying get a load of this cracker you know we were just having fun and we were on our way to a mansion I was tipped off to that we knew nothing about all we knew is it was abandoned and it was worth about two and a half million pounds walking into the house that had a very eccentric style it was it was fun to explore but we wouldn't know if it was haunted until we started the ghost hunt the atmosphere did start to turn dark though when we found a scribbled note stuck to the wall and one of the abandoned rooms down in the girl's best friend yes all fashion if you tell anyone I'll kill myself what kind of Dark Dimension nose and you tell that it was it had something over it if you tell anyone I'll kill myself so to start the still hunt I decided we would open with a spirit box now I know a lot of people aren't used to the idea of using a manual tuned radio as a spirit box as opposed to an automatically sweeping spirit box so I'm gonna let myself from that live stream at night explain to you why I choose to use a radio get a proper spirit okay welcome guys how are you doing I love you to death and thank you for watching our videos I'm gonna explain something to you guys first of all I'll tell you I do have a proper spirit that was me I do him a proper spirit box on our channel we do things a little bit differently now I'm going to give a very very quick sort of explanation is why I choose to use a radio right before spear box were invented right this is how spear box was done I want you to understand a spirit box like this again there's nothing more than a radio that I can flip through channels just like on this right but on a spirit box when you hold down the button it flips through the stations for you okay same difference except I choose to do it manually okay and I seem to always get better responses with my radio that's why I prefer to do a manual tune spear box or a radio session literally the same thing I personally get better results like this some people might get better results of the spirit box there's a weird voice coming through [Laughter] just had the Harvard RIT we received several spirit box responses all using these words as well as including knife I mean the string goes on for quite a while but this was just a start this is where we started realizing that there was something really bad that happened in this house so we started doing some research I guess this brings us into Chapter two right now is that the place for it I don't know if this is the place where this is known as the murder mansion and where we are someone killed the wife in the hearse and it's been empty ever since okay so all right we're just solving it we found an ad about the house run after knife killing a knife killing oh wow let's say guys we're here honestly I have done no research on this place whatsoever but it's right there in the Daily Mail hold on let's see if I can focus for sale Victorian mansion blinded by horror two million pound property empty seven years after a knife killing that and that is without us doing any research that is solely spirit box well now we know what the problem is here now I feel this says a lot about paranormal investigating for detective purposes if you were in our livestream and if you haven't seen any of our live streams I would say definitely check it out subscribe and hit the notification bell because uh crazy things happen all the time but I think this says a whole lot when the audience the viewers were picking up on these words as well and then doing our research after the fact to find out this revelation the precise numbers of blows Kristopher Lumsden knifed is 53 year old wife Allison around 30 times after she announced she was leaving him for a family friend he slashed her face and neck so many times that the pathologist could not count the precise number of blows yeah well now we have a name and now we know where we are everybody welcome to the murder mansion now from this point on the story gets quite deep it kind of goes down a rabbit hole but I'm telling the story in the order that have happened for us just stick around and see how strange things start to get you told the jury how myself getting out of bed with the word burning in my brain and grabbing the knife out the drawer next to the bed I walk around the foot of the bed up behind her she saw me and started to stand in the turn I brought the knife and went blank that is the story of this house figured half that story out just through spirit box alone we have the spirit of Alison here with us who was again last time I'll say it you guys figured that out just by listening just by listening to my radio you guys heard all that and told us what you heard and you know what turns out you were right so there you go is your name Alison can you say the name Alison if that's your name so they put new windows and things like that that's why it looks new they were try selling it for 1.4 million million willing walker there's a shout out right let's do it then I'd like to know what room it happened in but well I wanted in the bedroom in her bedroom so I assumed the master bedroom yeah this is true the Christopher and Alison lumsden house was purchased for 1.4 million after being derelict for several years by company called Green link they started renovations on the on the house and they went bust before they could finish that went completely broke so the house continues to remain derelict we'll talk about what happened to the house after this grisly murder in just a bit because that rabbit hole goes quite deep but for now knowing that this murder took place in the bedroom we decided to head there and see if we could find any evidence of this brutality that took place and I think be honest or something about that before I missed it though so beyond we put that back in there but it's I don't know what is blue Santa's luminol so what's luminol luminol for it's used to highlight I'm assuming luminol that meters or illuminate so is it to illuminate stains it detects blood used to highlight flood under black light I don't want a black light on me but there's definitely blue stains on the hardwood it's right here that I'm gonna need to see but I can't really I can't rip up the carpet you're not allowed to do that she looks like the one bit I think it looks like somebody's already attempted to turn this to see us on the plane but they didn't get all the way through somebody's already cut the floor sweet they're I'm not breaking anything but the carpet is not exactly attached to the florist someone says it is only seen under a blue light so it wouldn't be seen like normally well look here stains stains yeah the stain goes through the carpet there but good again new carpets so oh oh my god look look at that guys I'm not even joking this is not a joke I just pulled the carpet up this is not a freaking joke I just pulled the carpet up and this is what's under it all the carpets in we just we discovered through spirit box that a stabbing took place here we then looked at the address online and found out it's true they said it happened in the master bedroom it said that they have placed new carpet down is said they placed nucleon I have chills I actually have chills it's fine it's just dried blood it is fine it comes one more time do you guys want to see it a better look at it they put new carpets down but we pulled up the card or the carpet wasn't even attached and we just saw that yes all right this is no joke I pulled up the carpet it's all here there's splattered around but it's all there right in front of the drawer cover it up right this is not a joke I can't make this stuff up and the way you get sick and tired of people saying we're fake they could shut their freakin mouths right there you go this is absolutely crazy I wasn't expecting this tonight oh my goodness I just wanted your soul to rest in pieces home amen you okay you're having a moment you weren't expecting the side that were you it's gonna be okay it's gonna be all right right Olivia it definitely brings to life how real this is are you being affected or is this all you it's just you I I'm just stunned that night after we ended the stream and we went home we just did research all night we were just so fascinated by this turns out christopher Lumsden basically got away with murder he was only sentenced to five years for manslaughter though he did stab his wife over 30 times on top of that he only served two years out of a five-year sentence and on top of that in Alison's will she left him two million pounds and the house we decided we had to go back in the morning it was too surreal that night we had to make sure that we really discovered what we thought we discovered all right so it's the morning after we've come back to the house after we made the discovery last night I think part of us part of the reason why we've come back is just to I don't know see it a day time to make sure that it really happened like we weren't dreaming it's really surreal the other thing I've been thinking about is the fact that he's the the husband he is out of prison in his will I believe that this house and a million pounds was left to him meaning technically he could come back at any time and I think me and Olivia were kind of discussing this morning like what what would we do if we were in there and he just like showed up I mean I figured my initial thought was I'd interview him I tried to interview I definitely want to interview him inside the house I'm a little concerned about his mental state and well-being but I think we're gonna go in and we're just gonna get some shots and get a clear view on camera for you guys something clearer than with the live stream could provide of the bloodstains and everything all right so it's still wide open this morning Olivia are you coming said are you coming I can't believe I forgot a torch still wide open this morning like I said I feel a little more uneasy now about being in here knowing what we know now but we'll just make this a really quick trip upstairs and just make sure that we're not crazy that that is indeed the blood in the master bedroom by the board waar I know I know we're not crazy but like I said it all just feels so surreal I can't believe we were here just last night and we discovered this all right here we go all right I love you hold this while we're not crazy as you can see that is 1,000,000% blood it is brownish dark red stained into the floor it needs the boudoir exactly where it happened see what it's been smeared a bit you see splatter it's all here it does Olivia now now knowing all this how how do you feel just knowing that this is his house I know justice was not served a million percent I mean he what he walked away with only two years in prison and a million pounds and the house this is still his house and we're in it and he is free he is not in prison right now he got out and yet the stains will always remain the other part is quite daunting is the fact that we spoke to her spirit last night what was that there was a noise come on we gotta look there was a noise just now I want to make sure that we are the only ones here I just want to get out I honestly the fear that he could come back at any time where the noise we just heard was literally we're just jumpy is all did you imagine if he just walked in here right now what would we say what would you come on let's just get out of here this has been surreal enough for a lifetime there's no way that could be the same house I mean it if it didn't happen here whose what was that so we're getting really confused here we're doing there's another house nearby like not even two minutes away that's the murder house at least that's the house that all the news reports are pointing to meaning what is this house there's no record of this house even existing and the supposedly Murder House has no address online it's big cover-up alright guys so we have done so much research over the last 48 hours obviously it was literally last night that we made this discovery and that we're filming this it happened last night we have done so much research and we have been trying so hard to figure out where is the Oakley house the the house named Oakley that doesn't appear on any Maps and why is the house that we found slightly different but still most of the features match up but there's absolutely nothing online the only thing we can do when we're back up north in a week let's continue the search and do everything we can completely pound the pavement and try and find if this is the house and if not we need to find the house by the way everyone real quick if you are fascinated by these documentaries click on that right there it'll take you to another awesome awesome documentary of ours all paranormal and in the same sense and as always do you believe yet you

The Fergie Story: Paradise Lost? (British Royal Family Documentary) | Timeline

With her informal style and sense of fun Sarah Ferguson seemed like a breath of fresh air sweeping through a somewhat outdated institution. “The Fergie Story” provides a unique glimpse into the life of the woman who could have been one of the most influential members of the Royal Family.

Content licensed from Kew Media. Any queries, please contact us at: [email protected]

Sarah Duchess of York never quite fitted the Royal mold even the nickname Fergie persisted reflecting her determination to remain herself the flying lessons the frequent skiing holidays her appearance and the design of the new home given to her by the Queen all excited comment and controversy it had all started so well a strong character she was one of the most influential women to become Duchess of York but as an adventurous contemporary woman with an independent outlook her attitude and ideas didn't sit easily with the rigid protocol of royal life her clothes reflected a lack of judgment her over familiarity with the press raised eyebrows she seemed extravagant with money and managed her own affairs badly as a member of the royal family the artificial constraints and strict scheduling of public life went against her own preference for spontaneity enthusiasm and easy laughter for a while Fergie was a breath of fresh air but when the story broke that her marriage was on the rocks it was amidst reports that she and Andrew were often heard shouting at each other behind the stuffy walls of Buckingham Palace it was soon obvious that their relationship had moved beyond repair Fergie had been crushed between a hostile press and a roll system that had failed to give support her need for company while her husband was away at sea had damaged her own reputation and reflected badly on the royal family but what does royalty do when the wife wants out is the British monarchy itself under threat in this Democratic age royalty has had to widen the circle of potential marriage partners to include commoners but the Duke and Duchess are yet another example of an experiment that's failed so where does a royal family go from here Sarah Ferguson had seemed the perfect raw material for a royal consort someone who embraced her new status with determination and enthusiasm but somehow she fell foul of the media and the royal system where did it all go wrong the British royal family is a tightly knit group with its own unique lifestyle its members of very wary of outsiders but like the previous Duchess of York now the Queen Mother Sarah Ferguson's entry into the ranks was welcomed for them Prince Andrew couldn't have chosen a better wife they admired her sensible attitude and strong personality the Queen immediately began referring to her as my daughter and the Queen Mother summed her up by saying she's so English so free of all those airs and graces we can't stand with an ancestry rooted in the land and services her family background was also impeccable the Queen had known the Ferguson's for three decades and had watched this high-spirited redhead grow up Sarah's enduring interest in horses polo and other country pursuits particularly endeared her to the Queen and from the beginning they were often seen at equestrian events together horsemanship of any kind is a central interest for all the royal family but when the press gets in the way the Queen is not amused the relationship between these two women was always very relaxed they they're both outdoor horsey doggy sort of women and the Queen's also likes people with personality and she finds Sarah and amusing companion they get on very well far better in fact the Queen gets on with Diana who she finds more difficult and more restrained when she's with her Fergie quickly became known as the action princess her mother had taught her to ride almost as soon as she could walk and at a special fun day at Ascot she gave an impressive public display of her own equestrian skills but she was perhaps best known as the flying Duchess determined to learn all she could about her husband's work as a naval helicopter pilot chatterbox won as she was dubbed by a traffic controller was the first royal lady to get a pilot's license and then took less time than a husband to win her wings helicopters as she herself explained I now know exactly what he's talking about when he comes home from a day's flying but her most controversial activity was skiing she was first put on skis when she was four years old and it remained an obsession but the Prince and Princess of Wales were also keen skiers she rivals Charles in skill and speed and both enjoyed competing on the slopes for Fergie skiing was a vital outlet for her energy and love of speed she's certainly outclassed Diana despite these joint holidays fergie skiing exploits were singled out and the sports image as the elite pastime of the Jet Set soon added fuel to the media's growing criticisms of her leisure pursuits she was portrayed as a parasite shirking her public responsibilities in favour of personal indulgence because they are sort of so-called glamour sports women she once said to me if only I was it if any it was tennis no one would mind but because I want to go skiing people feel that it's it's a glamorous thing and perhaps not something a duchess should be doing all the time but when other members of the royal family do it and don't get criticized it seems that everything she does is open to criticism but her commitment to public duties seemed real enough as a naval wife she could have got away with only the occasional public appearance but she took on a heavy schedule and launched into crowds with a bustling enthusiasm eager to make contact her early career in public relations stood her in good stead unlike Diana she needed little coaching before being confident enough to go it alone but this maturity created problems in itself the Duchess of York who arrived in the royal family when she was quite matured 2526 had been around the world you know she didn't hitchhike but she traveled widely the way lots of young and women do and to suddenly step inside this great institution this machine that swallows people up and and decides what they will do must have been very very difficult to adjust to especially as instead of having a sort of gentle introduction to it she was dropped straight into and she began doing a lot of official jobs almost immediately after the honeymoon at 26 she wanted to bring her own ideas to the job as one departure from the norm she chose to support Tracy Edwards and her all woman crew for the Whitbread round-the-world race in 1989 with their yacht maiden she admired their courage and determination and such a challenge appeal to her own sense of adventure but one of the most unexpected and frustrating aspects of her new royal status was the sudden lack of personal money supply she'd been used to earning her own living and spending her own cash if you want to go out for lunch with your girlfriends you need 50 pounds or something where is it going to come from well the men in the Windsor family don't understand that because they don't go out for lunch like that I mean the Prince of Wales never goes out to restaurant that I know of for meals at all Prince Andrew lives on a navy base most of the time works on in navy establishments he doesn't pop out very often occasionally he takes his wife out for dinner somewhere in a nice restaurant but that would be the bill would maybe will be sent or a policeman will pay with an American Express card or something it's it's they just don't deal with money so they can't understand why a woman would want to have some readies the irony wants that despite this behind-the-scenes cash flow problem turkey was gaining a reputation for extravagance again it was her skiing that gave rise to these accusations of being spendthrift it's pretty not very wise with her money but she doesn't have a great deal of it to be wise with I mean she's made money out of her writing which is she's perfectly entitled to do it in indeed when she came into the family when she first got engaged to Andrew Prince Phillip as she said it's nice to have someone in this family that makes their own living and then it seemed to be everything she did that was good to start with seemed to go against her before fergie became part of the royal family she'd had a four-year love affair with a millionaire entrepreneur from the Formula One racing world Patti McNally was still an enduring influence paddy McNally was a sort of father figure to her and he was sort of man he'd always tease her his tease her about putting on weight he'd tease her about eating chocolate he'd tease her about her hair he'd tease her about everything and she'd loved him very much actually and I'm sure marriage would not have worked between them I mean he was 20 years older than her but he was a sort of a rock for her although he undermined her confidence tremendously by always having an eye for the you know someone else somebody younger and prettier so he knocked confidence but he was there for her and is still there for her as as a friend and I respect the way he's never ever said a word to anyone about his relationship with her say there's got to be some good in him there Fergie's mother Susan filed for divorce in order to marry Argentinean polo player Hector BER antes four years later Ronnie Ferguson also married again and started a new much younger family Fergie was fond of both her step parents and although newcomers to the royal family usually found their own relations pushed into the background she was determined that none of hers would be left out it helped that her father Maj Ferguson was already Prince Charles's polo manager and the increased press exposure soon made him into an internationally known media personality such notoriety had its flipside though in September 1988 stepmother Susan and Fergie were at Smith's lawn to give public support at major Ferguson's controversial departure it was a brave show of solidarity for a crowing press a ceremonial stick marked the end of his many years as deputy chairman of the guards Polo Club after tabloid newspapers revealed details of his visits to a massage parlor in London's West End it was an emotional farewell under a cloud of scandal the club committee had voted him out and the message was clear for the 57 year old father of the royal Duchess it was a humiliating rejection despite Thresh's to distance herself Fergie was there to give her support for both of them it was a case of putting on a stiff upper lip [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] Fergie felt very responsible for what had happened and stuck by him throughout the ordeal I think that's one of the qualities I admire about her her loyalty to her father and her sister when they have had unpleasant publicity and I think she feels that if it weren't for me they wouldn't be the focus of all this attention who would be going around checking up on her father or her sister if they weren't related to the Duchess of York and so she feels that it's in a way her fault they've had these these problems and she would like to help them as much as she can and so she stays very very loyal and devoted to both of them but it was her relationship with Andrew that most interested the press the Prince had first been attracted by her lack of reverence towards him and enjoyed her no-nonsense attitude to life to begin with they seemed perfectly matched as Fergie once said he's my main right arm he's the one who gets me through their arrival in clusters for the wedding of friend and Swiss ski guide Bruno sprecher brought the world's press to a private celebration on a less happy occasion this same man had saved Prince Charles's life during the Avalanche that killed major hue Lin Zi but the York's were still behaving like newlyweds themselves and their own marriages physical warmth was there for all to see how much in love they both were I mean to be with them sometimes is almost embarrassing they were so you know tactile and and they just couldn't leave each other alone and it was something it made you feel quite warm and happy just to look at it them and I don't think that sort of thing goes away in a hurry this personal happiness also showed in their public duties to begin with they carried out a lot of official engagements together businesslike but with their own brand of informality they made a good team Fergie seemed determined to make a go of her new life and that included creating a new home sunning Hill Park five miles down the road from Windsor Castle is rumoured to have cost almost five million pounds it was the Queen's wedding present and took four years to complete incorporating staff quarters and nursery wing Plus running pool tennis court and stables the 50-room mansion looks more like a Texas ranch than a traditional English stately home and was nicknamed Palace Dallas and South York by the press Sarah's first pregnancy was a difficult one she expanded from a size 12 to a size 16 and felt continually sick with Andrew away at sea she also had no husband by her side to comfort her and had to cope alone but with the arrival of the Queen's fifth grandchild Beatrice Elizabeth Mary the discomfort and long wait seemed worthwhile born at 8:18 on the eighth day of the eighth month of the 88 year of the century the new princesses timing according to Chinese astrology heralded great good fortune my daughter's gorgeous but I'm biased was the proud father's verdict while her mother immediately nicknamed this new redhead baby beetroot even the press celebrated this latest royal edition but Fergie as a mother was soon under attack andrew had to leave on a six-month naval tour of duty to Australia immediately after the christening Fergie soon flew out to join him leaving behind her six week old baby I think she was really dropped right in it and she was floundering that for a while you know especially after she had Beatrice and she went to Australia and left the baby for six weeks people thought that was appalling now the truth behind that story is that is what the Duke of York asked her to do and she felt as a good wife and the fact that he'd been away from from home for most of that year she felt she Oded to him to give him a total undivided attention you know tender loving care etc he'd been home a very very short time that year and so she thought the baby wouldn't miss me but basically she was putting good face and I'm sure she didn't really want to lead the baby but he wanted her to that's the main thing and so that's what she did back home her public duties continued her visits distinguished from those of other roles by a relaxed chat even in the most formal surroundings she'd mastered the fine art of small talk to total strangers determined to be professional she hid a basic shyness behind a supremely confident manner often disregarding protocol she relied heavily on her instincts to guide her always trying to cover as many people as she could her transparent eagerness was frequently off-putting to those who expected a more reserved royal family but she refused to become more aloof as she said herself I'm not going to change why should i but she seemed easily distracted if things bored her even during a long and tedious speech a ladybird by her feet should have been ignored but she couldn't seem to leave it alone and keep her attention on the job in hand it was a telling episode if there was a Charm School for moulding royal duchesses this was one pupil who'd failed to conform to the straightjacket of royal fortune Fergie's girlish exuberance persisted it was a straightforwardness at odds with the carefully structured and often monotonous nature of royal duties such non-royal behavior had been excusable in the beginning but her learning curves seemed to have taken away would turn when it came to patience and standing still on parade but when a bit of action was required she was in her element audience participation was what she was good at and if some balloons needed to be cut loose she would wrestle with the wind and wield the scissors with enthusiasm to get them airborne the press were becoming more and more critical of her excitable behavior and her lack of decorum generated an air of disrespect at ground level to one awkward situation occurred when she was taken past Worman scrubs prison and had to acknowledge the wry bald comments of inmates before embarking on an official visit to a hospital being royal certainly does involve submitting to a bizarre range of public appearances sometimes it really is just like a children's party crowds of overexcited on lookers sports personalities clowns cartoon characters the role demands considerable versatility as well as polished performance skills when on Form Fergie seemed more than equal to the challenge but more often she never quite seemed to find the right tone the right level of involvement at times her enthusiasm led her into picking the wrong event inviting ridicule and even contempt far more popular abroad where her feisty independent manner was admired at home she was considered over the top the press had now definitely singled her out as the Royal to put the knife in Andrew wasn't around to help so we're worthy advisers to assist a commoner through this public relations minefield there is no job description for people coming into the royal family there's no job description for a for a princess there was no job description for Mark Phillips when he came into the royal family or Antony armstrong-jones when he came in and we all know what happened to those marriages and I think with the Duchess of York she if somebody had said to her well don't you think you might do this you might do that you might curtail things and the I believe the one person who could have done it would have been the Princess Royal because she was born royal she'd never been anything other than royal and she knows exactly how to behave at all times but sometimes she did manage to turn her enthusiasm to good effect all the bad publicity her love of skiing had received ignored her valuable support for the combined services Winter Sports Association and her particular interest in their disabled skiing program she was a major factor in this charities fundraising and despite being pregnant with Eugenie and unable to ski herself she made the trip up the mountain to watch the races but first an unscheduled stop to sign a plaster cast such frequent acts of impulse created havoc with the carefully timed official schedules causing irritation and resentment amongst royal staff used to a more ordered way of doing things but despite all her gaffes and upsets such spontaneity revealed a warm heart the Association organizes many events and here at Meserve in the French Alps there were the full range of races including the slalom for disabled skiers at the final prize-giving Fergie's role as president became more formal including much to her amusement the provision of an exotic li coloured throne as usual her relaxed manner and humor cut through the stage e setup of the presentation ceremony never at a loss for words she would always rise to the occasion when an off-the-cuff speech was called for I just sound so pleased to be here today I mean a fantastic but her main charity interest was far from the glamorous environment of the ski slopes motor neurone disease was little publicized before Fergie took up the cause as yet incurable the disease leads to total incapacity and is often fatal on a visit to a group of people with the disease in Australia her sincerity and determination to be their voice was very obvious nice to see you go to keep strong so I'll just keep just got to keep on fighting that's what we've got to do and as I said to raise you know we're gonna we're gonna knock it on the head one day but I think I think people are beginning to realize little bit when I know when I get up and make the speech that I normally mention it beginning to connect the two they are beginning to start you know because I found this I find that when I start talking about it they say what is imaginary when you're feeling isolated and alone I haven't forgotten you and I'm at there fighting for you so we're gonna get there we've just got to keep going but such work got little press coverage this was due both to media bias and also the unfettered genic nature of the causes involved I feel she hasn't had a lot of the credit she deserves for charity work because unlike the Princess of Wales she's not involved with cute little babies who look gorgeous and snuggly and cuddly they may be dying of AIDS but it doesn't look like it when you see them in the pictures the Duchess is involved with people paralysed people suffering from motor neurone disease I mean that the motor neurone disease association is probably her main charity and these people don't make pretty pictures but yet she does some magnificent work with them I remember in Australia we went to visit a clinic where there are a lot of people in wheelchairs and one of the men there was at such an advanced stage he could no longer speak and he felt so frustrated and not being able to talk to her when she came around to sit with him then he began to cry and she held his hand and she said don't worry I'll be your voice and I'll make the world listen to us I'll keep on shouting and telling them until you know they listen to us and we find a cure and it was magnificent stuff and there was a television crew there practically in tears that there also moved everybody in the room were so moved and a lot of newspaper photographers and I said oh we can't use that that's too upsetting for the breakfast tables of Britain they wouldn't use the pictures they said oh no if the man doesn't look very good and you know it's not nice and so she has that problem repeatedly the press always seemed far more interested in making unfair comparisons between Fergie and the Princess of Wales's appearance she was portrayed as a laughable contrast to the tall elegant Diana a dumpy figure of fun who light flashy colors and over-the-top outfits that seemed totally unsuitable she just didn't conformed of a stereotyped dress code of a royal family judged for its shows of restraint and good taste in her previous life clothes had never been a priority and high fashion had always bored her such an individual mode of dressing could have worked just as the Queen Mother's unique star became part of her public success but Fergie's vibrancy berated she just seemed too theatrical and as ever she was facing a hostile press her whole appearance became a constant target for ridicule she was also up against some stiff competition in Diana but the image-conscious Princess of Wales had known exactly where to go for good advice I mean Princess Diana did have the people at Vogue to help her and just as I was saying I would there are no royal lessons and perhaps somebody should have drafted probably not the same people but some other people as well versed in fashion to help the Duchess of York it's not that she doesn't have a good eye or a sense of style it's just that different things photograph differently different things are suitable for different things there are problems when you get out of a car and the world's press is waiting just waiting to take the photograph there are problems when you've got to look sort of elegant for hours at a time so then shouldn't crease thing was like putting sort of la at the back of a hat was probably meant to be very sweet to the people of LA but of course was immediately pounced on by the sort of style experts here as being very declasse I think that the Duchess of York's very lively and buoyant and thinks that life should have her funny and witty and amusing side and I think that the establishment and the fashion establishment once fashion taken terribly seriously and perhaps didn't agree with her ideas the popular press didn't seem to agree with any of her ideas they swarmed around her ready to catch any unguarded moment no matter what she did or how she looked the story was always a negative one in some ways the press perhaps have been rather difficult when it came to Sarah because I think the the Duchess of York came along she was so different from the Princess of Wales I think the press was so terribly sizes to know so that every time she at the house she must have felt I look the wrong size no they criticize her fashion sense they criticize everything about I think that it's very difficult to have an image when you're not sure perhaps what your own image is and perhaps you're not obsessed by it as some people in the limelight her pregnancy proved particularly difficult a time when choosing clothes for public view became even more of a nightmare and often looked as much both time she expanded to alarming proportions with a huge accompanying weight gain even afterwards she found this extra weight difficult to shift and the tabloids pilloried her unmercifully such unrelenting personal comment was difficult for anyone to cope with and she took it badly she had figure problems figure faults that got publicized heavily and that kind of thing makes any woman terribly embarrassed and upset and I think nobody realizes how upset she used to get and how she's to sit at home and cry about the cruel things are written in newspapers and people thought she was a figure of fun and because she she wasn't so close to the throne they thought that they could more or less say whatever they liked about her in the press I mean you wouldn't say such things about Diana not only because she's slim and gorgeous but but because she is right up there you know the next Queen of England and a bit of a sacred cow I needed his tread very warily around Diana but Fergie well she's you know she's never going to be queen she's she's way down the young pecking order and so I think they decided that once they could get away with it they kept doing it and she didn't have the clout or the influence to get it stopped it's very difficult to stop things on it so all this freebie Fergie you know fun-loving Fergie all the the other ones you know the Duchess of pork etc all these names became gospel Andrew of course wasn't around much to offer advice or support against this press onslaught his naval commitments frequently took him away leaving his wife to face the music alone but would this freewheeling self-centered prince have really understood her problems anyway what kind of a man is he spoiled difficult but charming very naive and very immature compared to the other men that Sarah's known in her life but I think you know he has got some guts in him and I just think if you just sat down and you know considered there are there other people in the world besides him you know his life is gonna be a lot happier I think he has to stand up to his father which is difficult and he has to communicate with his mother I mean life hasn't been a bowl of roses for him it's been very protected and that hasn't really prepared him for the rigors of everyday life I'm not talking about his life in the Navy I talking about emotionally he's immature I think most people when they meet Prince Andrew for the first time they think he's a very physical person which he is he appears to to rush at you if you go into a room you're being presented to him you know you normally give a neck but when you remember the royal family he holds his hand out and he's aggressive almost like an American Americans are quite aggressive when you first meet them they appear to be as if they're trying to dominate you and he does this he also shouts he appears to bark quite a lot as his father does whereas Charles and Edward are extremely quietly spoken and a little bit retiring quite reticent I suppose they're very reserved he is not in the least bit reserved he's very exuberant very high-spirited andrew has also been called arrogant too aware of his own position he often lacks patience particularly when people get in his line of view marriage did seem to broaden his outlook but as one friend said imagine what it's like being married to a man who's never eaten a Big Mac been into a pub or been shopping in a supermarket the Windsor boys are are not generous with their money because they haven't had to live like you or I have they haven't had to go out into a pub or a supermarket buy a round of drinks they don't know the price of food or they certainly don't know the price of clothes so you don't know the price of women's clothes although I'm sure Prince Charles got quite a good idea by now because he must have seen enough bills but they are not renowned for their generosity and I don't think that's really an inherent Scottish meanness I think it's really that they just have no idea what things cost as wife to a prince Sara suddenly had to look the part now in the public eye it was expected that she maintained a smart well-groomed appearance for every occasion something that inevitably costs a considerable amount of money Diana could draw on her allowance from the Duchy of Cornwall Fergie hadn't no such fund by the end of the marriage her overdraft was well into six figures in the early days the two sisters in noir grew to be close friends both were commoners and both had married men who were the products of the same very unusual childhood I think there's a variant to support the theory that these boys will never ever be able to have what is regarded as a normal relationship with with their wives not what most people regard as a normal relationship with their might because of their relationship they were brought up by nannies they have the nanny mentality and they're always looking for another nanny because they didn't have a mother in the real sense of the word this is this is not to blame the Queen in any way it's mainly because she's had to be the head of state enacted screen and head of the Commonwealth throughout the the lives of her children and I think it has affected the relationship that the boys have had with her with the rest of the family and with relationships that they've established outside the Queen herself feels very responsible for any new additions to the family when she was first married Prince Philip had also been away at sea for periods and she sympathized with her daughter-in-laws difficulties in trying to build a home life with an absent husband it was a big send-off at Portsmouth docks the Queen was taking her 1 year old granddaughter for her first cruise on the Royal Yacht Britannia Andrew for once was on leave from his own ship so it was a chance for them to be together as a family the Queen admired Fergie for maturing her most wayward son the Queen was very devoted to Sarah but first she was fond of her because she had taken that playboy Prince Andrew we've forgotten now that he was he was Randy Andy once upon a time now he looks like a very boring sober family man you know in the suburbs and she changed him Sarah Ferguson changed him from being a problem Prince into a nice settled family man so the Queen would love her for that she liked her for what she is which is a very charming person but I mean I hear all the time that the Queen goes over to stunning Hill Park for afternoon tea and to play with the children and she adores to begin with they seemed the perfect couple besotted with each other and unashamedly tactile in public their family life appeared relaxed and open despite the constant attentions of the press Beatrice soon had to face the spotlight too but she'd obviously inherited her mother's sociable disposition and was a natural for any photo call on Mothering Sunday 1990 Andrew became father to a second daughter and the first visitor at London's exclusive Portland Hospital was Beatrice come to see her new seven pound one ounce sister Eugenie another early visit who was Diana the sisters-in-law had now managed to produce the perfect balance of boys and girls royal cousins for a dynasty that seemed to be going from strength to strength Fergie soon emerged as a radiant mum with a new baby the York's happiness seemed complete for both of them marriage had provided a strength and stability for Fergie this was something she'd craved ever since her own parents have split up when she was still a school girl the future seemed very rosy but history was about to repeat itself not many months later cracks began to appear in the fairy tale facade Andras duties were still taking him away for long periods for a naval flying officer family matters have to take a backseat left at home the loneliness of being a naval wife was beginning to take its toll a situation only exacerbated by her growing isolation within the royal family she was struggling with the mounting problems of trying to build a successful public role while rumors were rife that she was finding support and even romance elsewhere she needed help and there was none around there's no Charm School for princesses or duchesses there's no one that sort of stands up and a guru that advises them I mean Fergie didn't have anyone like that desperately needed someone I think she had the advice of her father which sometimes wasn't the best advice and her mother was away and she had the advice of her friends who didn't really know there was no one really to help her no one that she respected enough to listen to and I think this is probably one of the problems of people marrying into this family there's no one to tell them what to do and what they can and can't do because you can't your former life just doesn't come into play when you marry into that family you just cannot do any of the things that you did before perhaps that had been her first mistake her refusal to forsake her skiing holidays ruffled feathers both inside and outside the palace horse riding was another interest she persisted in but at least this pursuit fitted more easily with the Royal Family's own obsession with horses but she can hardly be accused of not taking an interest in her husband's activities she took on the challenge of learning how to fly specifically to bring herself closer to him as she said herself flying is his life and I want to be a part of his life not many wise would have carried their devotion to such lengths chameleon-like she was willing to take on another's interests for the sake of a more understanding relationship the effort was all there and yet the marriage failed perhaps it was because she wasn't a typical windsor woman the fact that she can go on places like abroad and do speeches in French in German which the other winds of women can't do she is she is so different in a million different ways more like an ordinary woman career woman of today and they are really like women of a hundred years ago and I think that sums up basically the problem there's no way that that Fergie felt she would be beaten by the system but I think in the end it did beat her and I think you can't marry into that family and retain very much individuality which is very sad because that's what we all like the pressures of an unhappy marriage were clearly beginning to show for such an exuberant personality she seemed uncharacteristically withdrawn and depressed I think she needed time on her own to think also she was so stressed out I mean even the last time I saw her which was last year at the end of last year she was so stressed I couldn't believe it she was really thin and pale and she she just didn't know what was happening and then she had this terrible turmoil and the announcement and the separation and then the absolutely horrific press intrusion and she just had to get away us I think she would have burst when rumors of problems within the marriage began to leak out the newshounds scented blood and went in for the kill as ever personal problems were suddenly considered public property there was nowhere to hide it's just the media basically I think you know that has really destroyed Sara's happiness in a way and when she's getting attacked from the outside by the press the palace began to see that you know that she was very unpopular then she began perhaps to be getting attacked on the inside from the family or the palace and that was the end for her she couldn't cope with being attacked on all sides and she just wanted to go away but the show must always go on for generations the ceremony and mystique of royalty has been carefully maintained the myth is perpetuated that the roars are a world apart something removed and unreachable all the pomp and circumstance is just a part of representing stability and continuity of giving the public what they want a cleverly orchestrated management system creates this facade most of what the world is allowed to know about roiled goings-on is channeled through an extremely reticent press office in keeping with modern trends isn't it time that the presentation of royal family matters is made more open your dangers then that the the members of the royal family will be seen to be media fodder a rental royal if you like and the the public the press office will be seen as a public relations office which they're very anxious to avoid they don't to be seen as being in the public relations business so at the moment they have to handle essentially what is their main function which is looking after the public duties of members of the royal family but more and more of course in the last couple of years they are being asked to handle all surly the private family affairs the the state of marriage of three of the Queen's children I mean because as you know there's a constant spotlight and there is constant speculation about the state of the marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Princess of Wales prying eyes into her family's personal lives is a phenomenon the Queen finds difficult to understand like many of her subjects the British monarch is typically restrained when it comes to inquiring about other people's difficulties keeping up appearances no matter what happens is a vital part of the royal family firm as a mother the Queen finds it difficult to face up to family problems okay we'll go to almost any lengths to avoid confrontation she simply doesn't like confrontation with family business at all she leaves most of that sort of thing to Prince Philip anyway who doesn't avoid it he doesn't mind confrontation at all but the Queen will avoid it and she is very likely if somebody went up to her and said look don't you think it's time you had a word with Diana or with Sara about the state of their marriage she would be just as likely to say I think it's time the Kogi's had a walk in the garden and she would walk away and she'd walk away and leave it hope and believe that it would have disappeared when she came back she did she simply would not involve herself in any of the private squabbles relationships of her family at all but with the York's breakup coming so soon after Princess Anne's the Queen now faces a possible threat to the future of the monarchy itself The Prince and Princess of Wales are still together but what if royalty ultimately proves to be a role you have to be born and bred for the difficulty is that in previous generations they've they would have married they would have had arranged marriages they would have married somebody from the european royal houses and their Brides would have known what to expect they would have known the form and had there been any private disagreements between them these would have been kept strictly private and certainly wouldn't have been aired in public they couldn't have dreamed of making announcements to the press or going to the media in general and I think this is the difficulty that now they are having to look wider for their partners they're marrying commoners and it doesn't seem to work by the year 2000 fergie together with the Princess of Wales could have been one of the main influences to take the royal family into the 21st century fergie seemed to have all the right attributes but as it turned out she possessed a stubbornly independent spirit that was just too much for the Windsors and the royal system they don't particularly want women like that in the family they are too independent and and free wills for the powers the palace wants somebody who's willing to be content with just will charity work can be very rewarding very satisfying but where is the the talent that she's got being expressed if you just do charity work you know she she wants to find her own avenues to express herself I don't think perhaps perhaps that the Sarah Ferguson was the right type of woman although it appeared to us she was because she was too independent to vibrant too lively I mean if she'd been more subservient and sort of the little woman at home it wouldn't have been so many problems because she wouldn't have expected so much from the marriage I think but then obviously these boys are not attracted to this little women at home so here it's a dilemma there yes they don't really meet enough of the right sort of woman but then what is the right sort of woman it's very difficult I think for to be a prince of the royal blood and and find the right woman it all began with great expectations outside this charm circle is new territory what will happen to the first female ex-royal what does the future hold for Fergie everything she does is going to be wanted by the flesh it's always going to be an object of ridicule and if she gets close to anyone I think it's going to be very difficult for her to form another relationship she is the mother of the Queen's friend children so I think it's gonna be very hard

Making "Lost Cause" pt.2 • Full documentary movie (French w. English Subtitles)

Watch how a wacky band of Canadian indy film-makers made a feature-length film with just 15,000$!

Watch the French version without subtitles right here:
Watch “Lost Cause” (full movie) here:

0:00 Production: A Retarded Plan
5:18 Production: Just Shoot Me!
In the other parts…

Part 1:
Beginning: The Origins of Lost Cause
Pre-Production: Let’s Get to the Beezness
Part 3:
Production: Cine-Cucina (The Kitchen Studio)
Production: The Good, The Bad, and the Spaghetti
Production: That Kung-Fu Ninja Shit!
Part 4:
Post-Production: That’s Art, Man!
The End: Future of a Lost Cause
#documentaryfullmovie #comedy #englishsubtitles

[Musique] vu qu'on avait jamais fait dans le long métrage puis vu qu'on savait que c'était impossible de bouquets toutes nos amis tout non lieu en deux ou trois semaines on s'est dit ok mon reprendre la technique des courts métrages on va leur faire un petit de temps en temps exemple si on tourne la scène cinq ans et cinq semaines lol le film devient la scène 56 on se concentre uniquement la fin quand il ya un petit morceau ça nous a aidés à c'est moins stressant on avait moins par faire des gaffes qui au début c'est comme si on oublié quelque chose on peut faire venir dans deux semaines pour tourner le petit bob cone au maroc et puis ça nous a permis de gagner en confiance en faisant des petits seaux pleins de petits sauts au lieu de faire comme un gros soupe de se présenter mais admettons il faut qu'on se serait planté mais c'est bien moins un parent de force en petits morceaux que le choix d'une chute merci c'est historique c'est fantastique donc dans trois ans sur macdiarmid a parlé d' amis mais moi j'avais l'impression que ça prendrait justin et et je pense que c'était quand même ce début je me disais que dans le dos non à l'infini ça a pris deux ans à tourner mais si on rajoute l'écriture au début la post production à la fin puisqu'on fait présentement c4 est cette fois que nous aurons même si au départ on planifiait tourne à toutes les fins de semaine bah ça marchait pas ou même que l'on tournait pas à toutes les deux semaines sont en règle générale c'est une fois ou trois semaines maintenant contourner fait durant ces temps là on l'avait toujours le temps de revenir sur le scénario reid et de la fille les choses le scénario avec le temps ces raccourcis un petit peu des scènes qui ont été épurés des saints qui ont été détruites et écrire des nouvelles scènes et ça va quand même évolué sur 2 1 puis en même temps ça nous a permis en tant que comédien qui sont pas vraiment des comédiens ils sont deux à onze on est devenus de mieux en mieux pour nous placer dans ceux consentis futur c'est un vainqueur dans le temps passé dans le temps d'évaluer un petit peu tu vois le projet qui prend forme sur deux ans à ce jour pendant le temps où on tournait pas moi je pourrais faire du montage dont je peux prendre ce qu'on avait déjà tourné puis l'assemblée puis voir un résultat concret il partagé avec le 2big pour nous aussi ça nous permettait de raffiner notre technique puis d'anticiper des problèmes sur les prochaines fois qu'on a détourné était est-ce qu'on est obligé de faire plus de plaire ou moins de place que l'on réalise bien est-ce qu'on joue bientôt retourner sur longtemps ça nous a permis de repenser à tous les niveaux devenir meilleur c'est évident que tourner longtemps comme on le fait sur la porte certains des avantages surtout dolls dans le plat de la continuité toutes ces affaires le fallait que tout le temps que je garde mes cheveux un certain certaine longueur parce que c'était les personnages de bob effet y en a pas fallu que je mange trop de gardes ou que je devine ultra faire non plus et c'est ces gens d'affaires que oui et échelonné sur deux ans faut faire attention à ce qui est déjà arrivé des fois que ça pouvait mal tourner comme ans qui l'ont retourné là ça fait au moins qu'on n'a rien fait affirmé face aux pêcheurs sont trop courts les parrainent d'essayer de mettre quelque chose fabre et dames erreur parce que ta coupe de cheveux est pas pareil quand même la capote c'est qu'un certain moment donné il y avait tellement plus de notion de temps de restriction de temps que j'avais l'impression d'aller tourner pour la vie parce que 10 c'est pas comme si tu as une restriction et créatif genre de 24 jeunes qui sont finies pour nombre de films de monstres les choix 8 tu coupes des trucs parce que l'on pouvait juste tout autre à 11 42 plants faire aujourd'hui pour les frappes au fait qu'on voit les jeux super une autre jolie tournage de plus près en bois dont une journée totalement différente même chose à la voiture et préfère exactement la même appareil – honore les morts je sais que oui c'est le démotiver des gens mais mois estivaux ont noté des moteurs certains points parce que qui dit ça va se finir s'était fait mal à se suicider de tout ce que je trouvais un but dommage qu'à la balle si on avait fait ce projet là comme en 30 jours en 24 jours d'affilée il ya comme une espèce de sentiment des arts le fait qu'on est arrivé au bout tandis qu l'heure on en est venu à manager car il m'en veut mourir pour garder les gens motivés par un montant quoi faire à part le dit écoute c'est le fun je compte en dessous ici merci beaucoup merci beaucoup et puis justement tu es nourris ou données de la bourse les plus souvent possible on la remet entraînez-vous différents pour qu'ils voient l'évolution du projet prend girl in potro temps pendant le tournage que dans la paix dans la postproduction juste de garder tout le monde au parfum de ce qui se passe les gars d impliquer une plus possible c'est pas mal je sais qu'on faisait pour garder motivés parce que quoi d'autre que je vous demande quoi d'autre oyez ben comme ça [Musique] lorsqu'il tombe en dessous ils vont travailler pour toi t'en tenir à 749 la reprise de action en tant que réalisateur dans un film était responsable de tous décident avec le directeur photo très mal éclairée joie et la shoah va être fréquemment qui veulent placer une qui tue adéquat que l'intensité était en charge de garder toujours l'histoire du sumo en tête parce que chaque petit détail compte c'est le producteur donc tu penses toujours ou budget je pense toujours à l'horaire a quant à elle sera menée l'équipement est ce que tout le monde est content ce que tout le monde est à l'heure donc ce fait 8000 tâches en même temps et en plus tu joues notons firme fait que c'est un plaisir à tous ces problèmes le sur le dos de foot je pensais bien joué à te rappeler de temps après portant la taille fait de le faire à deux avec caro meilleure chose au monde ok c'est impensable de pau avoir quelqu'un globale de la caméra qui dit ce quelque chose ce serait mauvais entoure la première femme avec quelques [Musique] [Applaudissements] pas de faire la coupure entre les deux c'était assez difficile parce qu'un temps en avant de la caméra si tu diriges toi même quand tu joues quand tu joues avec lord pearson se regarde comment que l'autre personne joue puis dans ta tête tu la dirige dans ta tête pour être capable de personnes quoi faire quoi changer sa vie automatiquement quelqu'un gameiro fermer le tourment qu'est-ce qui t'arrive et le cadrage et technique s'est tu moi je sais que je tiens vraiment tout tout tout tout tout est une actrice là je prendrai slash this way à chkouk c'est sur la forme mais si c'est plus compliqué que juste à être honorée de caméras c'est ce qu'a fait on découvre alors on est 200 m la caméra tourne tout seul présentement le cas au pinceau demain le plus de personnes connectées sur le plateau le plus de techniciens et en même temps ça a été je pense six blessés on compte technicien myopie caveau parce qu'on réalise au fait que ç'a toujours été des petites petites équipes alors fait qu'ils prendront c'est l'arbre n'est merveilleusement bien micro et se plaignait jamais cédé par facebook comptera deux mois qu'est ce que je vois sur un micro qui donne à la main de quelqu'un qui opère la caméra par les crs du coup d'arrêt perles ça fonctionnait bien c'est juste que tout est un peu plus lent le directeur photo il ya pour 4 go pour l'injecter tabriquet one man show oui au niveau des désavantages nous a fait tous et sur le niveau de l'équipement il ya quand même eu je te dirai il ya eu des moments où du dessin effort de fait on avait quand même l'éclairage qu'il fallait malgré que ce soit c'est une petite caméra hd c'est les psy ces tops d'éclairage des petits trucs mais je pense que la nature du projet et à cinq ans pour espérer ça que ça et là de londres donc clair une scène de nuit avec une sao paulo avec une 63 points 40 watts pouvez-vous donner à ces professionnels afin tout avec deux bâtons de popsicle d'une chandelle mais ça sent bien [Musique] il ya un moment où ça doit vraiment lui le son que je me suis toujours et il sait martha lisez sur l'internet retourner dans le vieux port un dimanche matin je pense ce n'est pas vraiment le nom dans le centre du dieu pardon vaudra d'être tranquille au programme monde où c'était c'est résister un peu traumatisant liées ont promis une fanfare et sa voix [Musique] il ya aussi un véhicule et en chine tiens qu'on ne voyait pas ce genre demi heure des touristes dont dario de des petites filles qui m'ont rendu fou exprès pour choisir quelque chose qui les sports puis cech désolé je n'ai justement je pensais que ça faisait plus importante il que ce dramatique [Musique] et donc ils voient la direction artistique film c'est à dire tout ce qu'ils décors costumes tous que dans l'univers visuel du film ça allait être accompli par tout le monde vous avez personne qui dit moi je suis directeur artistique saint jean avec une grosse partie de tous puisque lui et comme le pire c'est lui qui est arrivé même avec l'idée de faire une table avec des boîtes des choses comme cela parce que les cavs 65 et iphone sont des bois qui pensent pas subir ou le monde réalise post évident cuisine nous devons répondre au téléphone ont assuré qu'un camion bien que montant de boîte ben ça reste c'est assez drôle de répéter plusieurs fois parce que chacun on était quelque chose comme quatre dents saines à aller prendre des voix des amplis comme il faut mais tu as bien ci-dessus plus steve revenus vont à vérité très fins de copie de coop on a travaillé sur des enfants avait dit il comme quoi voler litres qui lui font envie de vivre ça mais ça donne un résultat on va faire flotter un livre d'enquêté legault s'il était capable de go c'est grâce à n'importe quoi ils prenaient pas le malin et plaisait à gas electric jours [Musique] 4 on aime les effets spéciaux mais on a pré budget pas confie t on pas de caméra de votre moto du sac qui va rentrer à travers huit noms savez je sais le cercle flop la cuisine faut que les effets spéciaux soit croyable mais qui soit drôle en même temps c'était ça notre philosophie un peu le fait partie gros ce que sinon ça c'est de faire quelque chose de malade avec du feu du 3d puis ça va ça va finir par se savoir un épisode de capitaine par les années 80 très juste un autre studio quand même eu le temps de faire le fantôme du vieux paul c'est devenu un petit peu plus compliqué on a loué ce qu'on appelle un cours maths ça nous permet de faire du green screen sauf que au lieu d'être comme un carton vert qui est dans l'erreur de thouars l'écran vert a marre de toi c'est une couverte grise qui réfléchit la lumière puisse être le merlot provient d'un anneau qui a tranché après la caméra avec ça on obtient les seuils de win win [Musique] pour les personnages du vieux paul on voulait avoir quelqu'un de connu dans ce rôle là et puis on le fait on l'a tourné les scènes avec jantes l'heureux la comédie qui fait passe montagne juste jusqu'à la fin du tournage d'un combat avec ideo pour savoir si on arrive droit de servir de sa performance qui même s'ils lui voulait faire du d'ailleurs les points qui fâchent mais on sait pas à qui on a fait les mêmes versions de ses seins de l'homme est avec moi dans le rôle du fantôme aussi part aux effets spéciaux y avait beaucoup de doutes au sein de l'équipe à savoir ça fait marcher ce que voulait faire ce que vous avez capable d'avoir laissé un ordinateur j'étais un peu le jeu tend un peu je dois dire que j'étais comme s'ils croyaient pas taxe mais en même temps oui mais peut-être pas si je comprenais pas tout la structure la chose ça computer pas dans mon salon danger le doute ouais mais ces ambassades d'allemagne à trois du marché [Musique] [Applaudissements] [Rires] au niveau de la marionnette moi je me disais qu'un jour je vous pour en faire un film onf aussi essayer de le faire autre chose on entend que chaque américain compte non mais c était la fin d'un équipement comme comme projet suscitait pas été couché à terre avec mon brouillon d'un sac à dos pour faire le phare de marionnettes la place au sein de voix beauté noire poteau puis vous senti mon brevet sakho dévissé puis selon les lignes ou si c'est juste je savais pertinemment que c'est quelqu'un d'autre qui à la fin de vos rêves fallait quand même je fais les lignes en même temps aussi même si c'est pas ma voix mais juste pour au moins donner donner le timing qui donne essayé de donner la bonne expression va combattre [Musique] [Rires] j'étais très sévère parce que j'avais lu le scénario et puis je y avait des idées vraiment saugrenue de banvit de l'autre qu'après que c'est steve kimba roux était d'abord de l'autre qui faisait ligne les mouvements nécessaires à ce qu'on comprenne bien ce qui se passe [Rires] [Musique] ça arrive c'est un club c'est juste drôle du tout très malin avec les making of du test or une bonne fin et forêts

Wendy Williams Is Producing Her Own Biopic and Documentary

Wendy Williams talks about her Ritz Harper book series and her plans to produce a documentary and biopic about her life.
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Wendy Williams Is Producing Her Own Biopic and Documentary- Late Night with Seth Meyers

Late Night with Seth Meyers

-What I like about your show
is it's very honest. It's this kind of thing.
You don't lie to your audience. And they know that.
-I was talking to Eric Holder behind the scenes back there.
-Yeah. -He's coming out a little later.
-Yeah. -So, he was like, "Oh, my gosh. You're like you are
on your show." I was like,
"Well, what do you want?" -Yeah.
-Nobody has time to act. -Yeah. Also, this —
I would — It would be very — I feel like you can only be you.
Is that accurate? -Seth.
-Yes. -Believe me.
-Yeah. -I can only be me.
-Yeah. And I'm so glad. What is this? Season 11?
-11. -Amazing.
Congratulations on that. -I never thought
it would last, honestly. -Yeah, 11 is a big deal.
-It is. Well, it's not — I mean, 10 is a good number.
11 is kind of a weird number. -Well, don't make me feel bad
about saying 11 is a big deal. -But 11. Yeah. Yeah, yeah. -You also — I don't think
people fully appreciate how multitalented you are. You've written a series of books
before you had your show. -Yes.
-Ritz Harper was the character. And I feel like Ritz Harper
was maybe slightly based, inspired by Wendy Williams?
-Certainly. -There was "Ritz Harper
Goes to Hollywood." -Well, that's me posing as Ritz.
-Yeah. -Mm-hmm. [ Laughs ] -This is another
Ritz Harper book. "Drama is Her Middle Name." -That was the first one
of the Ritz. That's correct. -I got to say,
this made me laugh so hard. -Okay.
-I haven't stopped laughing. -That is me with
ketchup sprayed around me. -And the title of
this Ritz Harper book is "Is the Bitch Dead or What?" [ Laughter ] [ Cheers and applause ] I mean —
-The thing about Ritz — Ritz is a fabulous New York City
disc jockey who happens to get a talk show. -Oh, wow.
So it's really close to home. -But — And so I have this —
I'm in bed with Lifetime. Not in bed, nut, you know.
-Yeah, yeah. -With Lifetime right now. And I would like to see Ritz
either as a series or a movie. But my first project is
going to be my own life story. -Oh, you're going to do a
Lifetime movie about yourself, your life story?
-Oh, believe me you. -Are you gonna — Is it
gonna be a documentary or is it gonna be a narrative? -Okay. Okay, okay, okay.
Okay, okay. They're doing two hours
for the movie and then two hours
for the documentary. -Oh, my God. So who's going to
play you in the movie? -Four hours of me.
-Yeah. -On Lifetime. -Are they — How can they cast
Wendy Williams? Are you going to play yourself?
-No, no. No. I'm producing.
-Yeah. -I got no time to act.
-Yeah, of course. Hands off. -Yeah, yeah.
But here's the thing. No. I want to hire actors
that no one knows. Because, really, you know,
there's a message in it. I mean, we can laugh
and joke all day, Seth. -We can, yes.
-But in actuality, I've been doing this — I've had
a microphone for over 30 years. -Uh-huh.
-You know what I mean? And I've done the best I can
with what I had. And what I have is, you know, my parents don't come
from, you know, nepotism, you know, like, making a phone
call, getting Wendy in the door. I've fought for everything.
And I've never been MeToo'd. You know, I —
Respect to all the girls who, you know,
are going through that. I've never done that.
I don't even know what that is. You know,
I fight, punch, hustle. Even right now, you know,
going through a public divorce while I'm still a big mouth
doing hot topics. I'm talking about people
when I'm being talked about. It's me against the world. -Well, I feel as though the
world is getting a beating. You've been doing great. Congratulations
on all your success. And let me tell you,
it is always such a pleasure to have you here. -You're kicking me out?
-I'm kicking you out. Wendy Williams, everybody.

From rainforest to charcoal | DW Documentary

Huge areas of tropical rainforest are being destroyed to make charcoal for barbecues. The global deforestation is leading to growing problems. Nigeria and the DRC Congo – two of Europe’s main charcoal suppliers – are also affected.

Every year, Europeans use approximately 800,000 tons of charcoal for barbecuing. Seventy percent of the charcoal comes from outside the EU, and the bags often contain remnants of tropical woods. Officially, tropical woods are subject to strict import conditions. But when it comes to wood charcoal, these do not apply.
Worldwide, 2.7 billion people cook and heat with wood or charcoal. The related emission of greenhouse gases is enormous. 55 percent of global wood is used as fuel per year, and much of it is cut illegally in Africa’s bush and tropical forests. Nigeria produces most of its charcoal for export. Especially during dry periods, local Nigerian farmers use coal production as a lifeline to make money and feed their families. At the same time, charcoal mills travel the countryside in family groups, charring all the trees they can cut down. The consequences are hair-raising. Nigeria lost 36 percent of its forests between 1990 and 2005. At present, twelve percent of the country is still covered with forest – but charcoal production continues to rise, eating up 350,000 hectares of fertile land here every year. According to the UN, charcoal production is one of the main causes of deforestation in Africa, which in turn is closely linked to massive deterioration in soil quality and a growing risk of crop failure. But African legislation has been slow to respond to the problem. The coal business is highly lucrative business, and rakes in some 7.4 billion US Dollars a year. According to recent estimates, the current illegal trade in charcoal is worth almost three times as much as the trade in illegal drugs.


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put this on South Korea hardly anyone knows how non-transparent this market really is for that one ton of charcoal requires five to ten tons of wood this has an enormous impact on the environment done the way the wood comes from there's often terrible human rights abuses there's poverty this deforestation is desertification in places of Africa alas no go it's completely unacceptable that tropical rainforests are being destroyed just to produce cheap charcoal this shouldn't be happening it's madness Nigeria with 186 million inhabitants it's the most populated country in Africa this is where most of the charcoal imported to the EU comes from it's a huge business not only in Nigeria Paraguay in South America is another big global player according to the UN over half the trees cut down worldwide are burned to produce charcoal with severe effects to the climate Nigerian merchants praised the high quality of charcoal derived from tropical wood it's particularly durable and its embers last much longer but these traders don't have to certify where they get their charcoal the wood could be from one of the few sustainable plantations for tropical timber in Africa or it could have been illegally logged in the rainforests Kingsley a canoe specializes in export ready to be filled with choco merchants who want to import tropical timber to the EU have to certify its origins the process is strictly regulated but those guidelines don't apply to charcoal 88% of the charcoal used in Germany is imported Nigeria alone supplies 31,000 tonnes a year but most consumers have no idea what they are using to grill their sausages these goes to Germany in part on packs the Germany when it'll be forming into yeah yeah aggressive Jeremy hey fill up one container all these feel about 40 feet container charcoal from Nigeria made in Germany made possible because there are no restrictions on importing charcoal made from tropical timber to the EU the spoke Agard and trade fair in Cologne this is where the outdoor grilling industry comes together many distributors can't see any problem with charcoal from the tropics the trade association however would rather not comment yeah Olivier what's her from France has been fighting against imported tropical charcoal for years he works for the NGO the forest trust or TFT they want charcoal to be processed only from sustainably cultivated forests and for consumers to easily see if they're buying charcoal from native or illegally logged tropical wood there is no transparency to tell what is the real prediction because some importers pretend to be producing but we are producing are not there we can create a European working group on that part because if we don't do that it will not be clear so for the crystal it is actor Bob Dora Mae MC the detector for a cast there are distributors who keep importing but the market will force their hand the moment we changed the market everyone who wants to carry on as usual will be left in other choice in France TFT has already managed to change the market most buyers for large retail chains have come to reject charcoal from tropical forests Peola VA is meeting a belgian who imports african charcoal the man is convinced of his products quality and even has a seal to prove it's been produced responsibly he can't understand the concern about tropically sourced charcoal you have to realize that there are also sustainably managed tropical forests I don't see why these products should be banned you can't forget that the charcoal market is helping feed thousands of people in Africa we'd be making things too easy on ourselves if we suddenly decided to just ban everything sourced from Nigeria we need to actively deal with the problem in Nigeria it's true that many people depend on the charcoal business in places where qualified jobs are hard to come by there they often live in the humblest conditions people like Kobi he and his family make charcoal for a living they travel across the country as nomads and log trees wherever they can in the wild not unsustainable estates the process is simple enough the wood is stacked covered with dirt and then lit these so-called kilns seal off most oxygen allowing the wood to burn down slowly in about 11 days it's reduced to charcoal 500 cuts that are strong it can produce about 200 dogs within a month we don't enjoy the work to BCCI we don't enjoy the work is a hard job it's a hard labor most times when you come back you're retired and that's why most of us use drugs after coming back from the work you know that to regain your strength for one ton of charcoal the workers need up to 10 tons of wood most of the energy escapes as excess heat exhaust leaks from the piles and the surrounding soil is contaminated with toxins deforestation is a huge problem in Nigeria a study by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization found that four hundred and ten thousand hectares of forest were cut down each year not only does that have a major impact on the climate it also leads to erosion and the forming of new deserts but the forests aren't being destroyed just to make charcoal they're also being cleared for farmland and yet 87% of all trees logged in Nigeria are used for firewood or charcoal Harry Hoffman is a scientist for years he's been concerned about the charcoal production in Africa to some it's the only way they can make a living during the dry season or towards the end of the dry season before they return to their fields there's nothing left to pay for school so they go to the forest and cut down trees to make charcoal they can sell on the street corner even if it is illegal when they do they risk their fields drawing up back to Germany Johannes sannen is a wood specialist at the World Wildlife Fund today he's brought bags of charcoal to the TuneIn Institute in Hamburg he too wants trade restrictions for charcoal and he's backing up his arguments with facts if it were up to him importing illegal timber into the EU would be banned as with the charcoal produced from it so gay I'd call and his colleagues want to see just how much wood from tropical forests these bags contain there's a lot of pressure from consumers not just for these products coal in particular is almost a cultural asset for Germans finding a legal wood in their charcoal would leave a bad taste in their mouths businesses can't afford that a few months or years ago this product wouldn't have gained such broad attention some consolation forum to date importers don't need to show that the wood for their charcoal was legally sourced and any product information on the bag doesn't show the country of origin either for kaha is one of Germany's leading specialists in determining wood he can't say where the charcoal is from but he can discern which type of wood it was made from even if it isn't printed on the bag he instantly recognizes some native tree species before before I put it under the microscope I do a pre examination sometimes I use a magnifying glass to determine what type we're dealing with the Scottish moss I've already dug a bit out from the bottom of the bag and as you can see what makes charcoal so special is that unlike wood it's brittle when I break it up it creates these clean edges I can look at those with my magnifying glass here for example we have an ash tree this bag doesn't contain any tropical timber but other bags do women in the tungsten encircles kulikov do you swing by the nearest gas station to pick up a bag of charcoal of course you have no idea how far it has traveled already and what ecological footprint it has left behind the entire forests are being cut down in countries like Nigeria or in Eastern Europe sometimes even protected forests are being plundered when that has an immense impact on the ecosystem or biodiversity and on the climate overall we need to act here we have briquettes here we have a product that we're looking at yes WWF this is pure charcoal here we have a different product with the slogan for the sake of the environment that's the co2 neutral Foca hog inspects 20 bags of charcoal that johannes sanan had bought in various hardware and grocery stores in many cases it's evident the wood isn't native before I've had a look at the man to the microscope I can't say for sure these samples are definitely of tropical origin it's not that simple but I can say that the ones I've looked at are definitely not from regular wood so we know for certain that it isn't oak ash Elm birch or Beach compressed briquettes are especially hard to examine they consist mostly of coal dust and starch but even here the expert is able to find traces of wood amid totem identifying wood species is called wood Anatomy we identify types of word based on their anatomical structure people have been examining plant structures for two or three hundred years what's important is to have reference material the island that's why the TuneIn Institute of wood Research stores thousands of samples of various trees but instructor mahes illness structural features we can see here we can definitely say this wood is not from a temperate or even boreal region that a boy we are in swinish dumps that means this charcoal was definitely tropically sourced eight of the 20 bags they examined did contain wood from rainforests that amounts to 40% of their samples five bags even contained red list species of endangered or restricted wood the findings are upsetting for Johannes Sonnen of the World Wildlife Fund not the omission Sophie this has been a topic for so many years us to find such catastrophic results here in Germany with shopkins it can't go on like this many distributors won't take responsibility for their products origin sustainable cultivation Environmental Protection labor laws none of it matters production costs are much much lower than operating a Congaree here in Germany so that makes it attractive transporting it over the ocean from Nigeria to Germany or Europe is a fairly small portion of the total cost most Germans have no idea that their charcoal is sometimes produced with people's bare hands and Kobe would never have guessed that his charcoal was used to grilled German sausages many industry make use of charcoal apart from hookahs there are some industry to them make use of it like those people that have a poultry farm they also make use of charcoal also people take it from different industry but I don't know what they use it for but we just produce it for them and they take it to town Kobe and his workers get $3 for each bag of charcoal even in Nigeria that's not a lot of money but the supply chain in Africa is long transporters sorters distributors everyone wants to turn a profit the jobs are highly sought after most jobs provided are at the urban level at a city sentence what charcoal the Chuckle does is one of the few jobs and actually brings jobs down to the rural areas to the local women through people who order otherwise they have no education I have nothing to fall back to they have nothing for them here is a lifesaver there's really no major industry here they cry they call me the same boss bring bring charcoal let us walk we need to work because there's no other thing and this sector is growing one study estimates the market could be worth up to 12 billion dollars by 2030 with 12 million people working in it that's a shadow market most of the money made in that sector will stay with the powerful distributors the money isn't made in Nigeria it's made in Europe over here we have the products we're ready to ship to places like Poland this is ready whenever the container comes in we ship it out in 2015 alone exports from Nigeria to Poland grew by 51% and buyers from Africa most times they repackage and then sell to other European countries here supalen is a very big hope they buy a lot of Nigerian markets the charcoal is shipped to Europe in containers the TFT organisation has seen to it that less Nigerian charcoal is imported to France but exports to Poland are on the rise here conservationists say charcoal from tropical wood is simply repackaged and distributed throughout Europe peer only ba what turn continues his search in Poland we're here to see if this factory really does produce charcoal we want to know if all the wood was locally sourced and processed on our previous visits to Poland we learned that some only pretend to be producers actually import charcoal repackage it and then sell it and then they claim it was produced here in their factory today prae and his colleagues are visiting europe's largest charcoal producer the company greece gand has three factories that produce fifteen percent of all the charcoal consumed eu-wide the managing director is guiding a tour through the facilities the conservationists want to find out if all the charcoal is truly produced here in Poland or if it's mixed with charcoal from tropical woods for kog the most important clue is a look in the business books he's interested in the amounts of charcoal and wood coming and going so far he's been acting on behalf of French chains that have committed themselves to offer only sustainable charcoal the forest trust checks that no tropical wood finds its way into the bags their biggest difficulty is figuring out how many tons of wood the company needs to produce one ton of charcoal based on the method employed the amounts can vary greatly now it's ple B's job to estimate how efficiently the plant works and compare the wood purchases with the charcoal sales competition in this sector is fierce as is the temptation to cheat with illegal African charcoal its countries keep production costs down and companies managed to buy raw material from dubious sources who presume they can earn higher profit margins on import and trade important hunter if a demon while importers pay very little for their raw material European producers must dig deep into their pockets for the wood producers traders everyone looks to cut corners to make sure that they can meet those price reductions that are forced onto them by the market by consumers in fact and unfortunately that often leads to the cheapest wood the illegal wood getting into the system the largest producer in Europe states that its wood is purchased from native forests that's a big cost factor there's lots of wood what's important is that the wood is actually from this region cultivated sustainably and it's so that it can be labeled as responsibly produced charcoal shovel boss boss native wood from responsible forestry that means the amount of wood that can be logged is limited to how much can regrow european foresters have known this principle for centuries that's how they responded to the massive clearing of forests in the early 18th century they call it sustainability to make sure the charcoal is as sustainable as the managing director said it was their next appointment is with the Forester again ple bhx the production the books and the woods origins he makes sure the forests are large enough to supply the amount of wood the manufacturer needs he takes careful note of the numbers of hectares the age of the trees and the amount of wood extracted cut down from the forest the plant or he hasn't found a bug in the system yet but he keeps asking the manufacturers Quality Manager and the Forester both take all his questions unlike in Africa the amount of woodland in the EU is growing in Poland it went from eight point eight million hectares in 1990 to nine point four million hectares in 2015 that only works with truly sustainable methods PL on TV what time is very pleased with what he's seen here so I'm prone to stone for it's just for these don't count they have a forest cultivation plan set up for ten years with a registry for each logging so that way they know exactly how much wood they're allowed to take from each plot this means traceability right back to where it was felled and we know they've been cultivating sustainably for years this wood here for example is 60 years old biomes acidity working space on top would four guilt-free charcoal thanks to traditional forestry guidelines modern technology and careful documentation this forest will continue supplying as much wood as it does today for centuries to come this naturalness Fidelma there's plenty of wood right here in Poland you don't need to buy it in Africa that add there's enough deciduous trees to cover the demand for charcoal Pia Olivier hopes to someday find charcoal in supermarkets that is only produced from sustainable wood but in Europe there aren't many sustainable manufacturers like this one in Poland and companies that produce charcoal and electricity are the exception to the rule and so he sets off for France one of the most modern charcoal factories in the world is here in the Champagne region the region is also home to vast deciduous forests and yet France still imports most of its charcoal this manufacturer wants to prove that producing charcoal in France can in fact be profitable what it lacks in size the business makes up for in innovation the French government supports it with subsidies the managing directors were even invited to the world climate conference in Bonn in 2017 to talk about eco-friendly charcoal production at home and in developing countries here comes from the forest buggies so son thanks to modern technology they only need 2 and a half tons of wood for each ton of charcoal they produce that means they can preserve 40% of the wood in comparison the earth mounds in Africa only have an efficiency rate of about 10% meaning their kilns require four times the amount of wood the charcoal is dried in huge baskets with the excess heat given off during production here is proof that we're able to make renewable charcoal all it takes is sustainable forestry and today's technology using this method we can produce charcoal electricity and heat three products at once from one single resource that's what makes this product competitive and profitable in Europe this site provides 10,000 homes with steady electricity the tropical charcoal producers can only dream of having such a modern plant worldwide we're experiencing the deforestation of several million hectares each year that is so much in so relevant that it makes up about 15% of manmade carbon emissions consumed by Tate satellite images reveal that 30 percent of Africa's oldest national park has already been destroyed the national park is very old and has been particularly affected by people illegally extracting wood to produce charcoal the Virunga National Park lies in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo the charcoal produced here isn't exported 97% of the people in the region use it for cooking and heating the areas surrounding the National Park have already been cleared according to the World Wildlife Fund ninety percent of the trees felled here are used to produce charcoal four years ago this whole area was full of trees now four years later all the trees have been cut down and not only that even the roots have been pulled out of the ground the World Wildlife Fund foresters are shocked the demand for charcoal is so high in this region that even digging up and charring tree roots is worth the effort nearly three billion people on the planet cook with wood and it's not just cooking they use wood for heating – it's essential to them and there's no way of replacing it producing wood sustainably requires space space they don't have the population in Africa will quadruple by the end of the century capacity limits are often exceeded now one big problem is the lack of infrastructure only three percent of the people living in the huge city of Goma and its surrounding villages have access to electricity cooking with gas would be easier healthier and more eco-friendly but charcoal is often the only source of energy they have people need to be certain that they'll have gas when they need it otherwise they can't cook it's a crucial source of energy for many people and it will be for a long time to come the last 10 years have seen huge forest areas vanish the WWF workers are certain the ongoing political conflicts in the region are contributing to the deforestation here this all used to be forests monkeys lived here now there aren't any left to save the national park the WWF workers want to turn around their charcoal market and are reaching out to all parties involved even the transporters they ride their bikes 30 kilometers to the next city here they say it costs $20 and in Goma it costs $23 we asked them if they produced the charcoal themselves but they just buy it to resell it in Goma it's legit boo alle vongole mo the destruction of the V Rangga National Park is immense the region is one of the most densely populated in all of Africa the conflict in neighboring Rwanda have only made matters worse countless refugees are seeking shelter and using charcoal for cooking the World Wildlife Fund in Goma is very engaged in the topic of charcoal chili Lesage and his team hoped for lasting peace in order to save the national park since 1996 this region has gone through a lot of unrest before that there were the looting wars from 1992 onwards and then came the first liberation war in 1996 that forced many to flee all that had an impact on the environment in Goma the number of residents has nearly doubled in the last seven years especially due to the many refugees who have come only eleven kilometers separate the city from the national park so it's no wonder that 80% of the charcoal used here is illegally sourced from Virunga like in most places in Africa the charcoal business here is also a shadow market the dealers by their charcoal in villages and then sell it here the price range depends on how old the tree was that's used to make the charcoal charcoal from young trees costs 20 US dollars the older the tree the more energy it supplies and the higher the price nike lawyer can I be retailers prefer cheaper softer charcoal because they can sell it in small portions some households buy the higher quality tougher charcoal and I personally delivered to the wholesale dealers just as in Europe here too it makes a difference where the wood for charcoal is from but it's also just as important to reduce the charcoal consumption the men and women of Goma stove are contributing to just that with direction from the WWF they conducted several tests and studies that helped them develop a particularly energy-efficient oven it only uses half as much charcoal as a traditional oven under the metal plating is a clay core that is baked the first time the oven is used a la première the first juste should be for something that needs to be cooked for a long time that's the case for most things cooked regularly here such as beans zombie or corn fufu that long first use bakes the clay core the demand for efficient cooking is huge Goma stove has produced and sold more than 80 thousand ovens since 2009 they've even delivered their product to the capital Kinshasa we produce a lot we used to make seven ceramic inserts today now it's 30 35 even hundred fifty this customer just bought her second Goma stove the savings have made a noticeable difference in her household budget the oven manufacturers smart marketing water over straightaway Muscovy demonize some households were uncertain about how they would cut their coal consumption in half zowie ask them how much they used with their traditional stove they'd answer two bags so we told them to go and buy two bags and when they do we give them our stove as a credit and tell them to use it and pay us at the end of the month to use then by the end of the month they realize they still have one bag of charcoal left bread em what you know Gloria stuck it in my color one bag lasts a month each family can save one and a half tons of charcoal over the two-year life expectancy of the stove and it's affordable the cost can easily be paid off in a month at the end of the month families are left with more money with efficient cookers it's possible to drastically reduce per capita charcoal consumption sustainable charcoal production on the other hand is more difficult outside of the national park hardly any trees are left and inside armed rebel groups from Rwanda have a tight grip on charcoal production they wouldn't dream of giving up this critical source of income papow Houston lives in a small village on the edge of ruin ganash '''l park he still clearly remembers when the Rwandan rebels came into his village and turned everything upside down they invaded the park and cut down all the trees since then the environment has been out of balance we don't have any rivers or streams and then the dry periods have become longer well that's when we decided we need to plant trees and we started looking for partners who would help us Felicia she taught a part in a 2v2 stem as a companion a separation bosie palooka became their trusted world wildlife fund partner he's a forester and knows what it takes to create a plantation you need to keep a close eye on the seedlings LaPlante so they reproduce at the right time tree must be planted at the beginning of the rainy season if you miss your window even by just a few days your plantation might not survive the WWF support plantations across the region with their eco makalah project Busey knows the people here well and understands that close contact with local chieftains and mayor's is just as important as a tree nursery FASTA is also an advocate on the hills this will help us fight erosion water there flows down the slopes and destroys our fields it even tears houses down the advantages are already visible after just a few years the WWF was successful now 100 tree nurseries 13 thousand hectares of plantations and nine thousand farmers have joined the project Jeff village chief is also convinced of the advantages ever since the project began he's been working to persuade the six thousand seven hundred families in his tribe to plant trees in order to secure the villages future at the eco makalah plantations they taught us a different way to cut down trees and build kilns that way we can produce higher quality charcoal that we can sell in Goma for a higher price so we have charcoal we can cook with ourselves we can sound chunko and that will pay for our children's education and the medical treatment and also for food today he's showing others how to plant trees to protect the fertile soil from erosion and landslides in five years these little saplings have become fully grown trees perfect for producing charcoal when they're ready for harvesting they provide a clean legal alternative to trees from the National Park lafon so this we can save the Virunga National Park if we plant more trees and at the same time we reduce our consumption our use of charcoal do you it like oh so much improve methods for coal making have doubled the amount of charcoal we can produce combine that with our improved stoves and we're saving on both ends on the one hand we're improving charcoal yields while on the other we're using less charcoal so basically we're raising supply and lowering demand demand the charcoal makers have learned that drawing the wood for two months before charring it is more effective this dense pile will be covered with dirt later and set on fire ventilation shafts to light the pile and a chimney made of old barrels will double the amount of charcoal this kiln can produce in addition the quality will be much higher fifteen percent of the charcoal used in Goma is sourced from the WWF's eco Makana project the long-term goal is to raise that to 30 percent the farmers have already begun to notice positive effects on the environment the proposed ever since the project started we've noticed an upward trend for example the times for planting used to be messed up as we risked losing our crops thanks to the plantations we planted with the Eco McCullough project we've seen the ecosystem restoring we can now go back to planting based on the old calendar a donkey lucuma saw respectfully calendar paratha but 30% is all this plantation can cover anymore wouldn't leave enough room for farming the project has helped slow down the destruction of the National Park but it can't stop it altogether further solutions still need to be developed and new energy sources tapped into back to France the charcoal pioneers are working on making their method more attractive for developing countries lower wood requirements reliable electricity and quality charcoal together these three things might be able to save the Virunga National Park the charcoal visionaries and Pia LED owatta are convinced that all it would take is enough political will to reach a sustainable solution for africa's charcoal problem without the correct circumstances however they don't want to introduce their method no Graham Duplantis plantation programs are a necessary condition for setting up the factory like ours in Africa Mayor Victor for growing schedules supported by the government or local groups would make that absolutely possible one particular advantage is that they'd not only have charcoal but electricity – too many people in Africa charcoal is a necessary energy source in Europe it's central to the grill culture efficient production and sustainable forestry can make charcoal a renewable resource only the combined efforts of governments businesses and consumers can stop the destruction of our tropical forests you

Journey Inside Chernobyl’s Exclusion Zone | Short Film Showcase

Christiaan and Kseniya Welzel ventured into Chernobyl’s exclusion zone on the 27th anniversary of the plant’s nuclear disaster and documented their experience. “Beautiful Ghost: A Filmmaker’s Look at Chernobyl” attempts to capture the location’s eerie beauty and convey the feelings the Welzels felt there. “Yes it’s scary, it’s a little eerie, but at the same time it was very peaceful,” Kseniya says.
30 Years After Chernobyl, Nature Is Thriving:
Footage available exclusively at Dissolve:

Read Christiaan and Kseniya’s behind-the-scenes account:

Footage shot by Christiaan Welzel:

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Journey Inside Chernobyl’s Exclusion Zone | Short Film Showcase

National Geographic

when we first walked into that room the first thing that we picked up was the sound of dripping water you can see it first dripping from the ceiling large puddles accumulated on the floor and there's a sense of fear that comes from that because they tell you that if there's anything you should stay away from do not touch the water there is nothing that is more irritated than the water itself what was some going through my mind is is how did this mask get to those rooms it was really shocked and just to see so many of them because he walked into the room and we didn't know what to expect and you kind of you know he turn around and see of these masks and it was terrifying I think that you'd expect when you create footage like this that you want people to feel somewhat depressed or you want people to feel like that there's a place that time forgot or you even want them to feel sorrow for the people in a subject matter that happened in general and that's not what I'm aiming for I'm actually aiming for the opposite so I want them to find the beauty in the apocalypse I want them to find the beauty in the dilapidated and the derelict I thought the place would feel really sad to me it would feel really eerie I didn't want to have expectations I just wanted to see for myself and have the feelings once I get to the place and once I got there yes it's scary it's a little eerie but at the same time it was very peaceful it was very nature is starting to take back the buildings and I didn't feel that I needed to be sad think bad things have happened but if anything it just seemed very quiet and very peaceful and just yeah nature taken everything back you

Young Jeezy – A Hustlerz Ambition (Documentary)

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Music video by Young Jeezy performing A Hustlerz Ambition (Documentary). ©: The Island Def Jam Music Group

Sudan’s Secret Hit Squads Used to Attack Protests – BBC Africa Eye documentary

These are images Sudan’s government does not want you to see: teams of masked, plainclothes agents chasing down protesters, beating them, and dragging them off to secret detention centres in Khartoum.

Who are these hit squads? Where are these detention centres? And what happens inside their walls?

BBC Africa Eye has analysed dozens of dramatic videos filmed during the recent uprising, and spoken with witnesses who have survived torture at the hands of the Bashir regime. Some of these protesters tell us about a secret and widely feared holding facility – The Fridge – where the cold is used an instrument of torture.

Investigation led by:
Benjamin Strick
Abdulmoniem Suleiman
Klaas Van Dijken
Aliaume Leroy

Produced and Edited by:
Suzanne Vanhooymissen
Tom Flannery
Daniel Adamson


These are images the Sudanese government does
not want you to see… …teams of soldiers and secret agents chasing
down protestors in the streets of the capital, Khartoum… bagging them over the head… beating them… …and dragging them off to secret detention
centres where they are held without charge, and in some cases, tortured. Sudanese activists fear these hit squads. In this film, we’ll show you who they are… …how they operate… …and what happens inside the walls of buildings
like this. Sudan’s uprising began in December 2018. At first, people were protesting a hike in
fuel and food prices. But the demonstrations quickly turned into
a revolt against President Omar al Bashir. Crowds chanted slogans from the Arab Spring
revolutions of 2011 The government has responded with violence. Security forces have used live ammunition. According to human rights groups, they have
killed more than 50 of their own citizens. But they’re not just dispersing protests. Sudanese activists have recorded dozens of
videos that show the abduction of individual dissidents. We have now analysed more than 200 videos
from the uprising. In order to protect the people who filmed
them, we cannot share the exact locations at which they were recorded. But we can use them to show you the hit squads
in action. This is what they look like: teams of around
six men in white Toyota pickup trucks… …sometimes with the number plates removed
or covered up. Some are in military uniform. Others in plain clothes. Many are wearing masks and carrying weapons: from automatic rifles to crude lengths of plastic pipes used to beat protestors. So who are these masked, plainclothes agents? Sudanese activists describe them as low-ranking thugs in the pay of the National Security and Intelligence Services, or NISS. This video doesn’t look like much, but it’s
important because it corroborates that view. We see soldiers in military fatigues, policemen
in blue uniforms, and plainclothes agents all working together. The clip also captures six of the white pickup
trucks, and a building that is easily identified: the al-Kalakla police station in the south
of Khartoum. This evidence, in combination with the footage
of these men in action and the testimony of Sudanese activists, points towards the obvious
conclusion: the plainclothes agents are part of the government’s security forces. These squads have been deployed since December
to clear demonstrators from the streets. Here’s an example of one crew in action… …filmed by a group of demonstrators who kept their phone recording even as they came
under fire. The agents are working around this block,
clearing away protestors . Notice the plainclothes agent at the front… … and the man in red in the back. Around the same time, just around the corner,
someone else captured the same team in action. Here’s the man in red… and here’s what looks like the same lead agent, firing at protestors. But this is not just crowd control. These crews target one person… on the streets… or at home. The victims are beaten…. …dragged into the car… …and disappear. We do not know where all these people end up. But some of them, at least, are brought to
a secret holding facility here, just south of Asia hospital. How do we know this? On January 11, this photo was posted to social media. The post claims that the street contains a
detention centre run by state security. Since the 1990s, local activists have called
these places "Ghost Houses" because people disappear behind their walls and because when detainees are tortured, you can hear the screams. We confirmed that the photo was taken here. A second activist told us about a detention
centre in the same neighbourhood. When we asked him to show us the exact location,
he sent us this screenshot, which also places the Ghost House just south of Asia Hospital. The same source took these photos, which can
be located precisely. We have since spoken with eight different
witnesses who said they were detained in a building close to Asia Hospital. Five of these witnesses said that protestors
were beaten so badly that they could no longer walk. Some told us that people’s hands were broken
as they attempted to fend off the blows, and that the floor was covered in blood. But the Asia hospital Ghost House is not their
final destination. Two sources told us that this is just a holding
facility where detainees are interrogated and sorted. Many activists deemed to be a threat to the
regime are transferred to a larger detention centre here, just north of Khartoum’s Shandi bus terminal. We have no photos of this place. One witness told us that you cannot get anywhere
near this block with a phone or a camera. But we spoke to seven former detainees and asked them if they knew
exactly where they’d been taken. Using their phones, they marked up screenshots, identifying a row of four buildings as a torture centre
run by Sudanese security. One of our sources added a crucial detail
– an arrow pointing to The Fridge. Activist said that The Fridge is a series
of chilled holding cells in which the cold is used as an instrument of torture – an instrument
that leaves no marks on the body. We also spoke with a second person who had
been detained here. The Fridge is not new. We spoke with one dissident who was held in
a cold cell as far back as 2009. Activists who have been detained here also
describe being beaten, sleep deprived, and held in stress positions. We put these allegation to the Sudanese authorities. A government spokesperson denied the existence
of secret detention centres, and told us that nobody in the security services had ever heard
about The Fridge. He said that Sudanese law prohibits the beating
or torture of detainees, and that police are forbidden from pursuing protesters into narrow
streets or into their homes. He said the protests had not been approved,
and were therefore illegal. He also claimed the protesters were not peaceful,
that some had used firearms, and that the police had to defend themselves. On January 29th, Sudan’s security chief, Mr Salah
Ghosh, ordered the release of all detainees held during the recent protests. Some detainees – including people we are in
touch with – have been released since then. But many remain in detention. And other demonstrators are still being targeted. A week after Ghosh’s announcement, protesters
were back on the streets of Khartoum, calling for freedom. This man raised the Sudanese flag. He was still holding it ….even as he was
hauled away.

06 – Circlemakers: Interview to Rob Irving (a documentary by Matthew Williams)

This interview is part of a documentary by Matthew Williams:

The whole documentary (3 hours) has been transcribed into english and translated into italian by Francesco Grassi and other collaborators.
You can listen to the interview switching on the english or italian subtitles.

Francesco Grassi is the author of a new book about crop circles.
Here you can see the booktrailer and other details:

To buy the book, please email Francesco Grassi:
[email protected]

The song of the booktrailer “Painting circles in the corn” has been written by Jim Chorley. Jim is the son of Dave Chorley who started making circles with Doug Bower around 1978 so creating the crop circle phenomenon. This song is dedicated to his father Dave who left us in 1996. The album is “All in good time”:

Italian notes
Per acquistare il libro scrivete un’email a Francesco Grassi:
[email protected]

Il portale dell’autore è:

Titolo del libro:
Cerchi nel grano: Tracce d’intelligenza
UFO, Alieni e Incontri Ravvicinati del 2° Tipo

Dal retro di copertina:
I cerchi nel grano sono sicuramente un fenomeno incredibile. Chi lo segue in maniera superficiale oppure non è molto addentro non può riuscire a comprenderne le mille sfaccettature e i paradossi logici che esso continua a proporci fin dalle prime formazioni documentate intorno al 1980.
Arte o burle, believer o circlemaker: c’è veramente un confine fra gli elementi in gioco? E se sì, qual è? In un perverso gioco circolare, ciò che può essere chiaro se osservato di notte, col chiarore del giorno invece diventa molto oscuro. Ma allora è possibile dipanare in qualche modo questa matassa di corda così ingarbugliata?
Forse, ma farlo non dipende da altri perché lo strumento principale è nelle vostre mani, in questo momento.
Tutto ha inizio con un UFO, l’anno è il 1966.

Descrizione del libro:
Formato 15×21, interamente a colori per un totale di 530 pagine con più di 170 fotografie, immagini e disegni. Nel libro l’autore spiega fra le altre cose, l’arte e i trucchi del circlemaking (come si fanno i cerchi nel grano) raccontando inoltre come creare opere ritenute impossibili. Ad esempio la famosissima formazione di Milk Hill del 2001.
Il libro contiene tutta la corretta ricostruzione e visione storica del fenomeno con fotografie e documenti inediti, fonti storiche, indagini scientifiche, 3 ore di interviste a circlemaker trascritte (le interviste video con sottotitoli in inglese e italiano saranno disponibili gratuitamente sul canale YouTube dell’autore), esercizi per aspiranti circlemaker nonché il capitolo finale in cui viene raccontato nei minimi dettagli l’intervento dell’autore al Convegno di Volterra del CICAP dal 5 al 7 ottobre 2012.

Edizioni STES

Collana Red Pills of Mystery


La canzone del booktrailer “Painting circles in the corn” è scritta e interpretata da Jim Chorley. Jim è figlio di Dave Chorley, il mitico Dave che insieme a Doug Bower dette vita alla storia dei cerchi. La canzone è dedicata al padre Dave venuto a mancare nel 1996. L’album da cui la canzone è tratta si chiama “All in good time”:

Le splendide tavole presenti nel booktrailer e nel libro sono state appositamente disegnate da Paolo Vallerga e Giacomo Rinaldi:

Video editing di Marco Morocutti:

well the word hoaxes is is a bit of a misnomer hoax implies somebody wanting to go out and deceive to other people deceive other people and I don't think that it's I think it's misused in that context the thing is we we have we've set up this black and white thing where where you see the hoax tour it's genuine and if it's genuine that implies it's some sort of unknown force aliens or or some some aspects of the invisible world and if it's not that then it's hoaxed and i think that's a completely wrong language to use so I don't think I've ever really hoaxed I've made I've made crops but I've never really hoaxed originally my interest was in finding out who was making circles I I decided that it was most probably people so in the process of finding out who it was involved hanging around in a lot of wheat fields and it it it seemed sensible at the time to try it oneself hmm so I once once that stage had been gotten over it became quite compulsive but it became more more to do with the creative compulsion well they require trouble they the the the size and designs you you choose to make require trouble they take a lot of effort and that's the effort that needs to be put into it I in a very arbitrary so very arbitrary way I tend to regard the the products of people who don't go to the same trouble as as hoaxes I tend to be dismissive of that word but the people who do go to that a button and take that trouble to me they're there they're the the product they come up with is a genuine product in the same way as a painting would be if you if somebody had gone to a lot of trouble creating a painting there would be no question of its authenticity or that he would have some respect for it and as the language we're using is genuine or fake or hoax then to me that's that's genuine and there's no question of it it's it's a better answer would be well conscientiousness that's why we go to all that trouble because it requires trouble because it inspires people it because it's the nature of creativity it requires to be done in the same way as anybody anybody creating anything is required to be done and some people are prepared to do it and some people perhaps aren't well ask me it again I insist because it's required to be done of course I think the world would be a better place if the circle makers made a bit – – but but there again they do and you know it doesn't know doesn't anger me at all well the thing is there's no joke being played it's it's as far as we're concerned we're creating new new aspects of the same thing yes it in the same way as you I mean somebody somebody said once the that an artist paints the same painting over and over again writes the same book over and over again and sure you're you're making circles over and over again but you're not really making the same designs yeah it just it just needs to be done every year well well I guess it doesn't really but but but some might think it does because it's it's good that it does it's it's it's beneficial that it does to admirers of the landscape that's me why the sky is blue grant because it's required it's required that it's blue am i perpetuating a myth yes but it's not my myth it's other people's myth so so to me I'm perpetuating something else you know I mean you might ask if it is it important that there's a mystery that would be a very interesting question to ask and yes it is important because because of the the values and the meanings people place on these things they decide that it's rubbish if it's man-made and it's brilliant if it's genuine so mystery does play a fairly crucial element in how it's valued the I hate to live in a world where there was no mystery I would suggest that there was some somewhere if someone said there wasn't phantom hitchhiking you know people who are seen on the side of roads and later reported Hispanic MIB visitations I mean I you know I've been described as that you know purely from existing somewhere you know how your scene I've been sitting at home watching telly in London and have been seen in wheelchair as this somehow paranormal phenomenon so so there is this tendency of people to contribute to other people's expectations which which is a side of the paranormal which needs to be looked at do I do I write and have credits for my writing yes what I mean and do I insist upon a credit for my photographs of course but do I crave publicity no I don't think I would say no I circlemakers tend to shy away from publicity being a retired circle maker I feel immune from any such questions I mean I have no control over whether people pull the wool over their eyes or not I certainly wouldn't I don't relate to the question right I'm used to seeing them do it no I don't enjoy I find it kind of boring a lot of the time I don't really I can't say that I enjoy it I mean we live in a world where you know internet access and everything and I I'm on the internet and I read about this and that and not sometimes it involves me and and I don't go away thinking oh I've enjoyed that I kind of think the word sheesh a lot an internet thinking God you know so no I don't enjoy it I tend to sort of get quite disgusted by it because it's not the phenomenon isn't owned by anybody so I can't control what other people what meanings and values other people place on it so so so just because people say that it's made by aliens it's not my fault they think it's made by aliens you know so I'm not controlling it and all I'm doing is giving people the opportunity to see I guess to think what they like you know I was the risk of being prosecuted and being caught for trespass worth it wasn't it was never really a risk to be frank I mean there was never really a risk of being caught I mean there were a lot of threats made but but there was never any risk I mean obviously if played percentages you didn't you didn't put yourself in a risk situation if you saw somebody walking into a field you'd make off the other way I mean there was no risk about this you can't you can't keep pressing home the same point I mean that lasts maybe a month or two months and you realize that people aren't going to actually that the key to all this is that people aren't actually looking for answers they're not interested in answers and once you realize that they're interested in a sort of a social habit you know if there was an answer then they wouldn't be able to come – it would be no reason to come to the barge every year you know so once you've got the gist of that then then it becomes something else and you wallow around for a little while and then it becomes art you think ah Charles SAR cheese into this stuff yes that's that's a good way of looking at it it's art and III wholeheartedly believe now that it is art it fits the complete criteria of of art in the sense that artists is supposed to fill people with experience and people are supposed to get an experience of what their their observing or looking at or or being in and yes it fits that criteria perfectly so yes one becomes an artist and it's brilliant I have absolutely no right or I'll give you another answer I have every right in the world I'm decided which one year besides of threatening mail the physical threats the abuse no not no no no not much trouble be that the damage to cars the the hassle you know they all seem to phone up when I'm watching a good football match apart from that no trouble at all the the the most common which I've also experienced a bright bright flashes of light in the in the direct vicinity of your activities the other ones have been mental more mental I thought I've made a circle and I've made an avenue and then I'm down at the bottom of the Avenue and and as I'm making my way up back up the Avenue I think what if there's a devil sitting in the circle you know and I'll start doing my head in a little bit and I'll get there and there isn't one so so I realized well maybe that's why sit people see Devils you know oh oh well that's something interesting to think about over par from that no occasional meteor odd meteorological anomalies I would say bright flashes or a bit of a mystery there talked about amongst circle makers in pubs over beer let's make a circle a couple of people large pictogram 400 footer one and a half hours and do you feel you can do this in complete darkness full moon makes it very very difficult you'd call something off it's too bright so yeah people would say yeah sure yeah because people eyes are just to the line everyone everyone who lives in the country knows this so a lot of people say possibly do this five hours of dark Nursing well a lot of people say a lot of things but they you know I mean the objects of this exercise with me initially was to try it and once I've tried it you found that a lot of the these statements are not true to people following order I would say lately in the last year or so you've had more than two people working on and I would say often it goes wrong yeah I mean there was a very large formation in this vicinity last year very large probably the largest one you can think of which went wrong and if you look at it from a purely aesthetic point of view didn't go wrong if you look at the photograph if you look at it from the position of being there you can see how it kind of did go wrong most of these jobs are done by 2:00 in the morning and people are at memory service station by 3:00 there's a obvious sense of denial somewhere and I get accused of having a strong sense of denial and that's that explains skepticism the skepticism is denial because these things are true and from my point of view the denial is on the other side I mean evidence has been put forward bla bla bla this that and the other and still seven years later you get people saying well people couldn't do this because and to me that's a sense of denial to me it's all about it's this weird twisted kind of wrangled thing about human potential yeah how how I say yes people can do this people can go out and they can create this thing and there's a bit ok there's they go off in secret and it's dark and there's a big mystery about it and that is to me as humor potential but there's this other side which says that's denial saying that human potential is about communicating with these things and and believing in this kind of invisible world that that no one can kind of quite put their finger on and and there's the there's the line you know who's right I think this is it's very interesting the the line I like looking at the line well I I come here and apparently I do walk it to me I'm just coming in for a drink and Here I am do you feel like being part of the phenomenon is actually helped perpetrated yeah yeah I kept it going for a few years during a sticky period but I mean 91 between 91-94 we're kind of myself and a few others kept it going when it was like there was a feeling during 92 93 that the thing needed to be kept going after the debacle of Doug and Dave and it was a good phenomenon it needed it needed to be continued and then was that a bit of that feeling and looking back I think that's probably true if you do feel like some parts of it are I think they come from somewhere you can't explain I think that if if you assume for a moment that they're all doesn't matter how they get there if they're all say they're all man-made all of them experiencing things and being healed and feeling good that that to me is very very interesting and needs needs investigation science doesn't look at that so even at its basest level if you strip the form if you strip the phenomenon down to nothing you know to complete numbness you know no kind of paranormal reasons that things are appearing the fact that people are interacting with them in a way that they do is I think very interesting very important and and there's a lot to be learned and I would say that that that as it stands is you know sufficiently paranormal so I mean you can you can kind of have me or not have me you know my you know and it's still paranormal I think that's interesting the effect people don't people have got to complete the wrong idea of art I think they think it's something they viewing in terms of objects but it should be viewed in terms of experience if you look at a painting it's not the painting that's got any value it's the experience you get from it which is which is the art it's the value and the meaning mother died because they have this completely false way of placing value on stuff and it's all coming out isn't it about what's fake and why you know it's ridiculous it art is about the experience you get from something so therefore art could be anything in theory anything that you get an experience from and there's nothing greater than a massive formation that even as a bonus symbolism attached to it you know it's in the shape of something but even just a simple circle you know larger the better much as you can manage in a night it's gonna create it's gonna be like this temporary sacred site and you're gonna get more bars than you understand I mean I'm not complete kind of Philistine when it comes to understanding that because they seem to say that they a lot of people will say what what what suits and because I I am I am I embody a threat to them because they're trying to place their own meaning in their own value on something and they are all trying to be important you know you'll notice a lot of people in this industry a lot of the people in this part we're all trying to be it's all about how important they are you know but I'm just proving each other here in disproven arguing rubbish well you're asking you're asking some sort of leading questions I mean there is well I'm interested in questions because because the way you ask them mean something when you say to me why is it that you felt the need I mean you're assuming that I did feel the me well that's not true I didn't I didn't but it's not true because I didn't feel it interesting question yes but but my my publicness isn't down to me it's down to what other people have imposed upon me to me whether they publish I don't write and send anything people ask me to write things yes I mean I mean somebody somebody's just asked me to write the potted history of crop circles for the for a well-known newsstand magazine now you ask me why they ask me I don't know why do they ask me the best story let me think well it was a great one about I don't know the the shootout at the ok wagon and horses I mean that was when there was all this sort of photography about other people I think I think the best one was when the police came around to my house demanding to know information about circle making and and and Jim and I were about to publish a story in the independent magazine about circle makers and we kind of felt that we knew who was this was years and years ago we felt that we we knew who was kind of doing these jobs and that let's slip and the police came around and I had to explain to the police that it was really a it really needs to be sorted out journalistically rather than legally you know it was a police problem it was a journalistic it required some understanding of how some young people were desperately trying to communicate with aliens and there was not really anything not only kind of rule of law about that and there's nothing that they should be troubled with that was a good one and I found up Pusey police station and they said I don't want to get into a philosophical argument about this mr. earthy so that was

Peter Lindbergh – the supermodel photographer | DW Documentary

Peter Lindbergh was the only German in the select group of photographers who have found international acclaim in the worlds of fashion and advertising. His black and white photographs are highly distinctive. His snapshot of models in white shirts was named the best photograph of the 1990s by Vogue magazine. But few people know who Peter Lindbergh actually was.

Peter Lindbergh was inspired by expressionist German films of the 1920s and the free dance of that era. He combined avant-garde aesthetics and a down-to-earth stance to create something new and distinctive – what he called a “verité approach.” Peter Brobeck, as he was then, was born in today’s Poland in 1944 and grew up in the Ruhr region after being forcibly displaced. He started off working as a shop window dresser, but then – more than 40 years ago – he bought a cheap secondhand camera to take snaps of his brother’s children and discovered his love of portraiture. His first pictures appeared in the cult magazine Twen and in Germany’s national news magazine “Stern.” Then suddenly international magazines such as Vogue, Rolling Stone and Vanity Fair became interested in the German view. We talk about Peter Lindbergh with film director and photographer Wim Wenders and photographer Jim Rakete.


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Second World War photo thriller | DW Documentary

A box full of photos from the Second World War serves as the starting point for a historical thriller. It was found by a Polish filmmaker whose grandfather had served in the German army. But what does it mean for Michal Wnuk’s family history?

The photos show prisoners of war in France and Russia – and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 from a German perspective: Snapshots of the war in black and white. On closer inspection, however, it becomes apparent that Michal Wnuk’s grandfather could not have taken the photos himself, because he never served in those theatres, so Michal sets off to find out where they came from. He discovers that the box belonged to his great uncle, who was in the Polish Home Army. How did he get them? Booty? Evidence? And the films are also puzzling, showing an excursion in the summer of 1939. But who are the people in the pictures? Michal’s search finally takes him to Germany. This German-Polish co-production is a historical thriller, full of riddles and surprising twists, as a hoard of private material turns into a sounding board for great historical events.


DW Documentary gives you knowledge beyond the headlines. Watch high-class documentaries from German broadcasters and international production companies. Meet intriguing people, travel to distant lands, get a look behind the complexities of daily life and build a deeper understanding of current affairs and global events. Subscribe and explore the world around you with DW Documentary.

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let me introduce myself I'm McAuliffe nuke a polish filmmaker my grandfather was an ethnic German from Silesia I recently found a small treasure trove in our house in Katowice and it changed my life that's my grandfather alloys couldn't store we had a special relationship he was an obstetrician in fact he brought me into the world there was one thing about his past that really fascinated me he served four years in the vert mock during World War two in school we heard about the atrocities committed by German soldiers and every Sunday I ate potato soup was one of them it all started when I found this orange box 120 old aqua photos and two rolls of film I thought these must belong to Grandpa and I wondered what secrets they might hold I decided to talk to my mother Anna she is a Louise's daughter she's a doctor like everyone in our family did you see all his photos from the war or just the ones with him yeah not just the ones with him group photos with other soldiers standing next to cars and maybe a tank and there was a photo of a field hospital I want to find out what grandpa did during the war what do you think about that you know I don't know maybe some people need to do something like that but I certainly don't I didn't pester my parents with questions about the past well my mother maybe but not my father he hated that that's not unusual my mother belongs to the generation that was raised to not ask questions about the war he didn't talk about it much and when he did it was usually after a few strong drinks traumatic experience and it really affected his character I think that if you start digging up the past it could be a sobering experience maybe it's just better to forget it but if you really are that curious and then you'll just have to go ahead doc Tula jabo systems at Oh peach well then I'll have to do it on my own my grandfather pasted most of his photos neatly into an album but not these why what's the story behind these pictures here's a list of the places where he served during the war and a 1939 map of Europe French helmets a field hospital it says here surgical training in France why did he photograph this Russian girl did he like her or was she the first prisoner of war he saw a rabbi being taken away Jewish gravestones as tank traps a burning synagogue images of war and war crimes I can see why he didn't put these into the family album there are nearly 60 pictures of the Warsaw Uprising in 1944 but Alois could not possibly have been in warsaw at that time he was in a military hospital 600 kilometers away recovering from shrapnel wounds that's confirmed in a letter that his mother sent him My dear son I have sent you a rosary because you have lots of time to pray now may the mother of God heal your wounds and give you comfort because your own mother cannot be there with you my father's family is polish some of them refused to come to his wedding they'd fought against the Germans and now my father was marrying one he's kept track of the family history on both sides when Grandpa signed up for his military disability pension my father helped him with the paperwork did you and Grandpa talk about the war sure I think I was the only one you talked to about it have some photos from Poland in France which photos nothing it's the ones in the orange chocolate box what are you talking about octa box there's nothing to do with your grandpa on toys belongs to my family for life Otsuka Wow I got it completely wrong this is my great-uncle at leadership on ski Alec for short he's my father's uncle he fought on the Polish underground the kind of hero that we read about in school the uncle who fought the enemy who sent secret messages and bravely led his troops his codename was care or heart like in a game of cards snapshots from the war from the German point of view but what do these photos have to do with Alec did he steal them did he take those photos from a German didn't steal them I don't know how he got them just about to find out fortunately Alec sister Christina is still alive my father calls her and tells her I want to meet her at all maybe she knows something about the photos and can tell me more about Ellen she lives in Czestochowa the city was occupied by the Germans just two days after they invaded Poland Alex resistance group was based here I think I'm on the right track now some of the photos were taken here I only see great-aunt Christina had family weddings and funerals this is the first time I have been to her house my hips hurt I've got sciatica and my back is killing me just get harder bones and I go Shay Richard and Christina my father said I should come talk to you the chiyan know movie photos my sister Kristen oh yeah yes I'd like to talk to you about Alec what he did during the war his main task was to keep track of the parachute drops that were organized by the Polish government in exile in London he'd get the time and place usually a forest and then organise the pickup look here's a piece of one of the parachutes the materials had great colors we used to make clothes out of what was it like back then yeah he doesn't once I was on the way to school it was a secret school set up by the underground Polish Home Army I was crossing the square and suddenly the Germans showed up it was a raid they shoved me into a truck and took us to the old school Anya's in the Gorka street they were going to deport us to Germany as forced laborers I cried my eyes out I was 14 years old and I was being sent to Germany I cried like a baby one of the Germans took pity on me he brought me to another room and told me to stop crying he said they wouldn't take me away they'd make me a waitress at the Gestapo canteen yeah coke America door dog s dog estoppel and are you and then naive dot then my brother gets me for the home army I kept the aprons as a souvenir they're all faded a tailor made them for me because you couldn't buy things like that anymore dummy I've still got a few days when you worked at the Gestapo canteen and you kept track of the prisoners after the Germans arrested someone I tried to find out as much as I could incredible my great-aunt was forced to work for the Gestapo at the same time she was working for the Home Army and she was just 14 Cristina told her like what she could about the prisoners he passed along the information encoded messages less yaks denis suave Morosky Ches wofe news in ski Henrick Alec also sent his sister on missions through the city carrying messages or weapons if she been caught she could have been executed which it is I came here to talk to you about this box of photos so when you need to give the inch a Samba I know when Alec was in the resistance he lived with a married couple who'd agreed to hide him the man called Stefan offski worked in a fotomat he took the photos and develop them so Stefan Oskie worked with ellic in the resistance 75 years ago this was the largest photo store in Czestochowa everyone had their photos developed here including the Germans Stefan offski and a man named Feder ski made unauthorized copies of their photos and passed them along to LA now I'm going to meet shredder skis grandson pavel statelessness this photo which the rabbi is from the Chester Homer ghetto this is the school on your snag Orchestra Brian it's taken in the same place that you have this photo to write yours and this one's mine look there's an X marked on the back of both printed on the same paper they're both a bit overexposed this one's over developed see my grandfather used to make two sometimes three copies for the German customer for himself and for the resistance what is this Russian girl thinking and did this woman realize what was going on around her the rabbi looks afraid probably for good reason this classroom was converted to a jail cell on the wall there's a quote from Hitler's Mein Kampf in an age of racial poisoning a state that preserves its best racial elements will one day become master of the world the box has pictures from all over year I figured out that this is the school in yashna corsica Street police battalion number 310 from Iranian Bork was stationed there but they were not traffic cops they were there to impose German law and order with deadly results I did some research on the web and then decided to visit the police college at Oranienburg just north of Berlin Berlin makes– is an expert on battalion 310 that looks like Russia maybe he can tell me more about the photos yeah that's an input that's definitely a police officer you can see that German eagle insignia rings by oak leaves that's just a big question I'm trying to find out how this box and up my family and how it survived the war and why as they think of me up fine there are lots of photos of prisoners and detainees and scenes of deportations that's one scene that's why I think the photographer was recording events for posterity that would give information to the relatives about the person's fate document en void and then these photos document war crimes and the unbelievable destruction that took place perhaps they were intended to be used later as evidence and to help bring the perpetrators to justice Batali's bond should have foreign to him why did he take these photos why he collected them knows we're using I have no idea the ones that show the Germans deporting people from Warsaw are valuable as evidence but 7 if they shipped people off to the camps boozing and a lot of them never came back after some new Japan Jena novice MK IV genius was never cheated on you german troops both SS and ver mark put down the Warsaw Uprising in just 63 days more than 200,000 people were killed 100,000 were deported for forced labor and 60,000 were sent to concentration camps somewhere in this crowd is my grandmother Hanyu my mother's mother her brother was killed in August 1944 just after the uprising started in an air raid in September her husband was shot and killed in October she was deported after the war she married Heloise my grandfather Elek was just 30 years old when the war ended younger than I am now there was something else in that box besides the photos I still haven't been able to watch the two rules of 16-millimeter hog for film I've taken it to a photo lab to see if they can help me I wonder what the film will show amateur pictures of German soldiers scenes from the war its marked agfa 1939 which means it was probably developed in that year but it doesn't show wartime scenes these pictures may have been taken in the summer of 39 shortly before the war started four minutes one second snapshots in time who are these people why are they smiling and what are these pictures doing in Alex collection I'll show them to aunt Kristina and see whether she knows this is from Alex two rolls of film I don't recognize any of these people I don't know who shot this film the film end up in the box maybe he took them from a German possibly my aunt has lost none of her secret agent skills let's see if we can make out the license plate number that could tell us who owns the car my license plate starts with SK s for Silesia and K for Katowice 75 years ago in Germany it would have been I K the original vehicle registration lists no longer exist but there are copies at the National Library in Leipzig there are probably thousands of registrations with the Silesia prefix the number I'm looking for is I K 7 8 6 0 I found a copy of the list but everything is filed by the registration date finally I find it the car was owned by the Schroeder brothers they lived at brow plots one here sparing the car was an 8 cylinder horse a pretty cool car at the time today here sperg is called Yelena Agora I still can't confirm that the photos were actually shot there and I still don't know why elack had this roll of film I need to do some more research evil aberrated she is the director of the National Archive here that's the old posture tosser it's not far from here these days it's called Home Army Street obviously on a trip of some sort it's a Czechoslovak bunker in the mountains near torn off built to protect against the German attack the Germans annex the Sudetenland in 1938 later took over the rest of the country and the bunkers ended up his tourist attractions and he thought of the invincible-attack co-decision that's an unusual development but I still want to find out who those people were and what they were doing there is a Elizabeth II the Germans annex the Sudetenland and turned Western Czechoslovakia into a protectorate so those people are visiting the new German territory are these the Shorter's I want to find out what happened to them after the summer of 1939 evil helps me to track down the construction files for bra plots once we've got a blueprint and his sketch for building a toilet the so like it's a pub that adjoins the city brewery some of the shredders owned hershberger we can't find any more documents after the war a lot of East German territory went to Poland including hair sparrows now Eleni agora avoid if the shirt hers survived the war and wanted to hold on to their brewery they'd have had to become Polish citizens but I wonder whether either of the brothers applied for citizenship I didn't find an application for them so I looked at some documents filed by others we Fritz and Clara of barska Strasse hereby apply for polish citizenship as my last name indicates my ancestors were of Slavic origins and joined the Nazi Party in 1937 he says he signed up only because he had a government job and was never an active member he adds that he has no polish blood the authorities gathered information about the applicants by interviewing neighbors both German and Polish this application was rejected not as yet there are no files on the shorter brothers it seems that they had to leave their property behind probably in 1946 the poles had vivid memories of the atrocities carried out by the Germans and they were in no mood to forgive Yentl poo style German civilians leaving Poland let him back up their things and go back home get the key we put heaters in their trucks and gave them blankets and our food we were taught me to do it good rings second ominous upset what would have happened if my grandfather had not been granted citizenship in Poland he would have had to leave the country he'd never have met Hana the young woman from Warsaw and he never would have delivered me I wonder whether the shooters have ever come back to visit their brewery today bra Platz one is broach not one and today 10 families live here instead of just one took a coin I'm trying to find out what happened to the people who lived here in 1945 oh you know idea I've only lived here for 20 years one of the neighbors might know recognize anyone that one over there maybe I don't remember much from that time I would let the shredders in no because they spoke German what do you mean back then when people heard German they thought Hitler was just around the corner yeah the doorbell rang see an interpreter asked whether I'd mind talking to a couple of Germans who used to live here I said okay and invited them in so it was a man and his wife they brought me some trousers I still have them a pair of black trousers yes I'm Vanya but that isn't fucking each other the problem is that the shooters did not leave a forwarding address so how can I track them down I've decided to try the German federal archive and by roit Germans who were driven out of the eastern territories after the war could qualify for compensation if they renounced all future claims they had to fill out an application and provide an address Stephanie Yost works at the archive maybe she can help me as a mother mm-hmm I've seen him in Nagoya okay okay says he owned a car a horse it was a used car he bought it in 1937 for 3,000 high marks he says the veer mocked confiscated it five years later here's a list of everything he says he lost we've seen that car in the film so maybe we can find a record of the car here in the file does thisis Otto oh yeah and you know in the documents he describes the cars he owned it could be that the Shwetha bet family went with one of the family cars into a weekend trip even with friends or relatives or whatever but the other possibility is of course that there was it was not their own card so and and you know the car is quite prominent in this little film so maybe they made the film because they were so proud of the rented car damn a rental car so it may not be the Schroeder's in the pictures after all but Stephanie keeps looking there is no further biographical information I should say but there's a name up here this is deep man and this is really interesting the 18 year old son is named he's named with Itamar yeah it makes sense yeah Dima didn't appear in any other files and there is a kind of logic in it because because he would have been too young at the time in 1945 or 46 he would have been 10 years old he has no property so he didn't fill out an application so this might be your missing link to your person that's the one mm-hmm if deep Marsh order was 10 years old in 1946 he still could be alive maybe I'll be able to find him online I'll see if he has any other relatives the files show that deep Maher was born in bod farm brunt today it's called chip Lisa a district of yelling Agora I've managed to track him down the date and place of birth match perfectly that is definitely deep Marsh shirt he's an artist hello my name is Michal fluke your deep Marsh shirt I'm looking for the shorter family from here speck I have something that may belong to your relatives I'd like to show it to you if I could is this finally the family I'm looking for nice to meet you say marry that's incredible amazing did you stop for a second so I can see the people yes right there those are the deepest ein relatives I can't really identify any of those people they're really much too small for me to recognize and besides he was pretty young at the time that the film was shot this could indeed be you – whoooaaa but I can't say for sure she gained more weight later on but it could be her she bought the brewery and his back was huge and old there were two vaulted cellars they bought the brewery and my grandmother and uncle and some other relatives lived there in front there was a park and the taxis and buses used to park there I made a lot of money didn't have enough my family but the hairs backside after the war all the shorter 's left Silesia you have a family photo album nobility here this here we are in the mountains that's me my dad my mom the war had ended by that yeah we spent a year under occupation unclick beef cheeks first the Russians then the poles that was our collective fate things were pretty bad I had no idea why this was happening to us I was just a kid so I didn't ask mine gate to Lois I just ordered us out of the house hands up and we had to find a new place to live with Danny Tanner a year later in 1946 they went through the district street-by-street and order all the Germans to come out and so they loaded us onto a train I thought it was a great adventure if I'd ever seen anything like it it was a freight train I said right up front Isis was hanging out over an iron bar the Train moved really slowly and I just watched the scenery I thought it was quite a pleasant trip bother me at all a lot of people are really sad some were crying there was just straw to sleep on the sanitary conditions were appalling then we cross the nicer river we were still wearing the armbands that the polls had ordered us to where we took them off and through the Moy we were going to the West Loida he bowline or the local farmers and residents didn't want us to stop there they told us to go back where we came from we slept outside for a while and then found a place to stay stall in the barn after that things got a little more normal deep Mars family had to leave my family wanted to like many with German roots in the 1980s it took a long time to do the immigration paperwork and then the iron curtain came down so we stayed where we weren't tomorrow I'm going to meet deetmore sister hon assured her Powell maybe she can identify the people in the film better late than never surely I'm late sorry I'm really sorry I'm late she was ready to leave but I trusted Iran okay okay so I'm gonna explain to you the story of why I'm here baby oh oh no Hitler no that's not Hitler it is not Hitler at a different nose just that's in mind you think so it's a dead ringer there's no doubt about it Miss Austen off Stan he was from from this we can see that he was in nsdap Nazi Party out the shorter is party members they weren't interested in politics my father joined the party because he had to he worked for the state he wasn't a true believer just a member but nice gamma-gamma and he kept asking my mother to join but she refused my dad's money motel in deep attacking she had more courage than my father did my no madman would command father what sort of car is that a horse oh right yeah yeah and an IKE a license plate for Silesia hmm yes those with the shorter brother's cars it was their company this film was shot while they were on a trip to the mountains in 1938 or 39 you know who owned the camera yeah they always had the latest high-tech gear absolutely they were obsessed with their toys demands of the profession do you recognize anyone yeah return please what's tinder look at that it seems Martha you can see it or more clearly here no doubt about it you host with that high forehead she was always having headaches so it's Aunt Martha who had a high forehead and suffered from migraines a real person not just an anonymous figure in a brief film clip Hana and deep Mars suggest that I visit their cousin dieter who lives in the Vassar uplands region he's the last surviving shorter from the brewery the horse car belonged to Deiters father I think I finally solved this case here is this there's this post office in the capital cinema was just a few steps away yeah right I still remember 70 years he certainly can remember the old part of Harrisburg his Aunt Martha even their phone number at the time have you ever been back there four times the last time was three years ago mine's on my side want her to see the place so off we went my wife comes from the so we visited by snow here sparingly and there we think about mountains this is beautiful it's my homeland I felt at home again right away so it's a lot of fun though it's time for me to head back home I've solved the aqua puzzle it started with a simple family story and turned into a German Polish polish German saga a complex history full of sorrow and personal loss the shorter brothers survived the war but they were forced to leave their homeland there were many victims in my family too after the war the Communists took over in Poland and started eliminating potential opponents keep going straight here's the house where he was killed there's the gate do the secret police had a jail here he was arrested for being an anti-communist he tried to escape to the courtyard and they shot him which cemetery is straight ahead that's meant that we'll be there in a minute Alexander le gosh lieutenant of the Home Army codename cure born in 1916 murdered August 2nd 1945 by the Polish State Security Bureau actually it was August 6th they got the date wrong I still can't believe the grave is empty they never told us where they buried him he just disappeared the file on him is closed so you can't search for him we spent long days and nights at the cemetery whenever they buried someone my mother would take a look to see if it was Alec doughnuts they never gave the body back to us we don't know where they buried him please it may be here maybe they're all we can do is guess favor the fact of the matter is but he's gone they mostly showing up Oh Shiva said you should you

National Geographic Documentary – Full documentary 2017 – Animals Mating Amazing Wildlife

Views:43117|Rating:4.34|View Time:47:6Minutes|Likes:53|Dislikes:8
National Geographic Documentary – Full documentary 2017 – Animals Mating Amazing Wildlife

the driving force of life its sex every animal on earth has descended from a four billion year dynasty of successful breeders urge to breathe comes from genes that compel creatures to fight and even die for sex the evolution of sex has been the driving force behind the history of life it's a battleground where only the sexiest will triumph many of nature's bloodiest battles are fought for the sake of sex the reason for this passion is obvious but if I do so many creatures suffer so much for sex the benefit is not the act itself but continuing the family line sex is life's gateway to the future a way for genes to pass from one generation to the next and these genes drive both males and females to behave in extraordinary ways this quest for immortality can be life's ultimate challenge [Laughter] but in pursuing this quest one sex usually pays a higher price than the other often females are burdened with bringing up a babies while for the male's the only chore seems to be the act of sex itself sex aside it often seems that females could raise families on their own it's often the females that do the work and take the greatest risks who you hunting is always dangerous even when caught pre can still injure the hunters but sometimes it's the male rather than the female that makes the ultimate sacrifice this male Redback spider has found a female's lair but will she see him as a potential suitor or her next meal his footsteps vibrate the wave in a particular way that he hopes will identify him she gets the right message and stays still tentatively he maneuvers into place one false move and he'll be dead the spiders palps are packed with spelled he drums them against her abdomen as they play Lou to an extraordinary sexual act he plunges the pulp into the female and begins to transfer sperm but then he makes a bizarre move he flips his body over into the females jaws he forfeits his own life all for the sake of sex but there's method to his madness while she eats he continues to inject spam and more sperm means more babies to carry on his genetic line genetically it makes perfect sense he has to die sometime and by trading in his life early he ensures a bigger stake in the next generation amazingly suicidal strategies such as this are not uncommon in this river sockeye salmon are reaching the end of their lives over the past few weeks they have swum 1600 kilometers upstream from the ocean instinctively driven in search of sex it's the journey of a lifetime finally they reach the very gravel bed were they themselves first hatched but alone that exhausted by the struggle they have one last mission they must know compete for mates Emile's jostle one another for the chance to fertilize a females eggs the stakes are high those that win will breed and their genetic line will continue while those that lose are destined to evolutionary oblivion every salmon will die but some will live on through their offspring within each egg lie the blueprints of life genes inherited from both parents instructed by those genes a shapeless egg turns into a baby salmon a salmon with the genetic pedigree to breed successfully the secrets of breeding success are also passed from generation to generation within these genes but there are easier ways to pass on genes ways that don't require the sacrifices of sex these sea anemones can reproduce without a partner they don't need sex the anemones simply split themselves down the middle to create two identical animals clones to the it's a very effective way to breathe there's no need to expend time searching for meat and the process itself is quick in just a few hours one anemone can divide into babies able to reproduce in exactly the same way the young anemone is a perfect clone of its pimp sharing identical genes and cloning as a means of rapid reproduction is a method also used by more complex animals in the wake of a tropical cyclone a raft of vegetation drifts in the ocean on board is a small passenger a female gecko the raft runs aground Noren more thailand it's a safe haven but there are no other geckos here so no chance of her finding a mate but this gecko is no average castaway isolation isn't a problem for her it's an opportunity because she's fully equipped to reproduce alone once in the shady interior of the island she wastes no time and starting her own colony she lays eggs but she doesn't need a male to fertilize them the embryos that develop inside each are identical to the mother perfect clones several weeks later their baby geckos hatch that all female and can also lay eggs without needing to meet soon the island will be crawling with geckos all descended from a single mother in this species that are no meals breeding without sex might work well on an isolated island but it can be a perilous strategy elsewhere in the world where predators and disease are rampant in the Australian outback cloned geckos have a much tougher time they must be constantly on the lookout for danger the guana is one of the predators to avoid but other threats are much harder to hide from tiny parasitic mites are on the geckos I suck her blood unseen diseases can also kill them and if one gecko falls ill the whole population of identical clones is at risk like their Island relatives these geckos multiply rapidly each gives birth to numerous female clones but here cloning is a double-edged sword if a parasite finds a weakness in one gecko it can infect all the others the population can crash even faster than it grew but living alongside the clones our other female geckos that do peer with meals and multiply through sex the process takes twice as long since the male's don't have babies but sexual reproduction has a distinct advantage it mixes genes and creates unique offspring each with its own unique defense against infection parasites have a tough time spreading through this population by shuffling their genes during sex these geckos are better equipped to survive this key advantage helps explain why sex is so widespread but the advantages of sex may extend far beyond merely shuffling genes sex revitalizes the genes themselves the two sets of genes that come together during sex each have their own imperfections because genes get damaged from time to time sex actually repairs these faulty genes by replacing them with good copies from the other partner with sex constantly rejuvenating genes each generation becomes stronger than the last genes have been intermingling throughout the two billion year history of sex and it's the new combinations that result that propel evolution forward the amazing diversity of creatures on our planet today is a direct result of sexual evolution sexual animals must swap genes when they breed and in the mating game the challenge is to find the best this is how Alberto si do it after spending months apart alone at sea the birds are now compelled by their sexual urge to spend hour after hour in this ceremonial dance but this is not frivolous flirtation this is how they pick sexual partners Oh the female already carries a single large egg a rare and valuable contribution towards the next generation but a male produces millions of sperm tiny inexpensive packages of genes this difference in size is key to the evolution of sex for two billion years ago when it first evolved sex was a simple matter cells simply bumped into each other and then swapped genes but for an average cell living in a big ocean this wasn't always easy smaller more agile cells were better at finding partners enlarger fatto sells well stocked with energy were more easily found combining their talents these odd couples paired off faster than the rest soon the seas were filled with fills specialized for sex large eggs and tiny sperm were here to stay today the difference in size between eggs and sperm can reach amazing extremes from the outside the female Kiwi looks almost identical to her male partner but inside is a truly enormous egg she'll only produce a few in her lifetime the male on the other hand produces millions of sperm every time he mates enough to fertilize every female Kiwi on the planet quantity versus quality meal versus female each sex as its part to play in this game but some curious creatures play on both sides some of the animals here on Australia's Great Barrier Reef are hermaphrodites both male and female these flat worms produce both eggs and sperm but they don't fertilize themselves they need new genes to mix with their own so they search for partners just like any other creature but when they meet they first need to determine which will play the male and which the female they do this by penis fencing each flatworms stands at the other when it's harpoon-like penis trying to pierce the other worms skin the rules of this battle are simple the first worm to successfully stab the other wins and gets to flee the meal these flatworms even have two penises twice as effective in battle and capable of injecting all the more spam their sperm are small and they're plenty to spare while they keep their large valuable eggs in reserve but in this contest there's triumph and defeat the eggs from this union will be fertilized by the sperm with the winning genes and asset to the next generation for male animals spreading their genes is cheap and relatively easy the hard part for some is finding females in the first place like when they live in the vast tangled swamps of Venezuela here all eyes are on the lookout for a dangerous predatory female she's an anaconda the largest hunter in the swamp she can eat a caiman or a capybara with ease she's five and a half meters long and weighs almost a hundred kilograms and the larger she is the more young she can have her fertile body acts as a beacon to male anacondas she doesn't need to make any effort to find them niall anacondas are tiny in comparison at a quarter of her weight but he's sleek and agile and up to the all-important challenge of locating the female eventually he finds her but she's not alone eight other male anacondas are already wrapped around a female sometimes they remain entwined like this for more than a month each male has a pair of mating Spurs he uses to stimulate the female and persuade her to mate the male's wrestled to be the winner in this serpentine battle for sex the big female seems passive but her job is simply to attract the males while they fight amongst themselves she conserves her energy for later tuna her eggs female marine iguanas are sharp eyed and on the lookout from mates they choose partners based on the territory they possess so the larger males compete for the best spots until clear winners have emerged eating rather than mating is the females priority foraging is best when the tide is out and the females all race for the shoreline but for males food is off the agenda if they want sex they must stay and fight these often bloody battles sort out the men from the boys important information for females looking for strong mates but for now the females gods themselves on fresh seaweed food is vital to nourish the eggs growing inside them no matter how hard it is to reach the battles between males continue through the heat of the day eventually the winner will take center stage ready for the females return as the females travel up the beach they are watched by smaller meals not strong enough to win fights their tactic is to jump on passing females but this female wants a male that has proved his strength and battle she continues on towards the rocks a winning meal welcomes the females onto his patch he sniffs them to see if they're ready to meet but even this is no gang T of sex the male's still have to wait until the females accept them female iguanas pick their partners from a crowd of meals but how do other females pick the best when they only meet one meal at a time surprising answer has been found in the woods of Ohio in spring wolf spiders start to look for mates the female stays hidden wary of predators but she leaves a trail of silk for males to find when one locates it he detects the presence of a potential mate she senses his tapping signal then sees his waving legs but why does she choose this meal above all others something about him attracts her he has long bristles on his front legs Tufts that seemed to serve no practical purpose and he shows them off by giving her a weave could it really be his hairy legs that catch the female spiders eye to find out the spiders viewing habits have been analyzed on videotape a mini TV screen plays life-sized images of courting males to a female but this male has no hair Tufts on his legs and the female is unimpressed but when she sees a male with normal leg tufts she's interested and if he has huge leg tops she gets very excited if females by in theory leg sexy so will the daughters and they'll also have sons with hairy legs for these spiders healy legs are here this day battles between males have led to extreme displays of flamboyance especially among bards you and throughout the board world females carefully choose the best meals they can find but for some females the search continues even after they found a meat blue-footed boobies live in densely packed colonies they mate for life but that doesn't mean they're sexually faithful each female has a regular partner she can depend on to feed her chicks but when he's away she's not averse to a new romance when a female is home alone other males are more than happy to keep her company and file her mates away she's free to play the field infidelity makes sense she already has a committed partner but he may not have the best genes it's possible that another meal might have more to offer their brief courtship leads to an inevitable end like all meals this one's trying to spread his genes far and wide and the real bonus of this affair is that you won't have to bring up chicks meanwhile for regular partner goes on fishing in blissful ignorance but on his return he reclaims his partner it's to his advantage to do so repeated mating will keep his sperm in the race to fertilize her eggs competition amongst males often breeds dirty tricks and to further his own cause a male can use all manner of cunning ploys in the mountain meadows of Poland another male does more than cheat a few rivals he can exclude all his rivals it's the Apollo butterfly the males appear before the females ready to mate quickly when the time comes down below a female is about to emerge from this pupa she'll be mated just once by the mail fast enough to beat the competition as soon as she emerges something probably has sent alerts males to her presence and the race to find her is on before she's even taken her maiden flight she's discovered by this male but how can he make sure that he's the only lead she will ever have after successfully mating he fits her with the insect equivalent of a chastity belt to ensure that his will be the only genes she receives and then he leaves victorious no other male can mate with this female because he has sealed off all access with an impenetrable spiked plug that has now set hard the female had little choice in this meeting game but sometimes females have a surprising amount of influence this harem of female elephant seals has been won by a single male known as the beachmaster and it would seem that the females have no choice in the matter but the females discriminating tastes will soon be revealed when a visitor approaches the harem sneaking in from the sea a young bull is looking for an opportunity yes he's intent on seduction but the females raise objection to his advances [Applause] the commotion wakes the beachmaster who chases off the upstart bachelor [Applause] clearly size does matter but it was the females protests that led to his eviction [Applause] these females won't settle for second best the Hadean master is dominant but only because he gets a helping hand from his having of winning concubines female lions are also the willing subjects of powerful males females do the hunting but males defend the pride against attack from other lions if the males 'no pride die the females and Cubs are left extremely vulnerable there are always rolled males on the prowl ready to take control and an invading male will kill any Cubs he finds you you the death of the Cubs may seem brittle but it is not senseless killing the new male does it to make sure he won't be wasting his time protecting Cubs that aren't his own the female will soon bear his own young and he'll stick around to protect them from other marauding males in doing so he also protects the females new family despite their conflicts males and females must cooperate they need each other to bring their genes together in a vital combination a renewal of life and then tomorrow all around us live the descendants of a four billion year battle for survival at the heart of that battle is sex despite its cost and its complexity sex is here to stay new life is born every minute equipped with the right combination of genes from both parents ready to survive in an ever-changing world the triumph of the mating game is the future of life Oh ah Oh

Screaming Eagles – Battle of the Bulge – Sabaton History 026 [Official]

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When the Germans launched their last western offensive through the Belgian Ardennes in the winter of 1944, it was up to the American 101st Airborne Division to defend the key city of Bastogne. Surrounded by camouflaged German soldiers and endless artillery bombardments, the 101st, a.k.a the Screaming Eagles, endured.

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Hosted by: Indy Neidell
Written by: Markus Linke and Indy Neidell
Directed by: Astrid Deinhard and Wieke Kapteijns
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Creative Producer: Joram Appel
Executive Producers: Pär Sundström, Joakim Broden, Tomas Sunmo, Indy Neidell, Astrid Deinhard, and Spartacus Olsson
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© Raging Beaver Publishing AB, 2019 – all rights reserved.

Jeg er Hannes fra Sabaton og jeg er Freddie Mercury og dette er Sabaton Historie! "De Skrigende Ørne" Du ved, ørne skriger faktisk ikke det er mere sådan et "Ourhhg Ourhhg" Og vores sang "Screaming Eagles" handler om enheden "101st Airborn"
og kampen ved Bulge Jeg ved godt, at folk kalder enheden 101st men af hensyn til flowet, vil jeg kalde dem One'O'First så jeg kan fortælle historien
mere flydende Humøret var højt,
blandt de almindelige tyske tropper mens de bevægede sig forbi geledder af tanks, kugler og ammunition, på Deres vej mod frontlinjen i Frankrig og Belgien i de tidlige decemberdage i 1944. Det havde været et katastrofalt år for
Værnemagten udsat for nederlag efter nederlag
på alle fronter, men pludseligt, blev der samlet
en stor hær i vest klar til at gå i offensiven
endnu en gang. Målet; intet mindre end at rive de
allieredes tropper fra hinanden i vest i et skeldsættende fremstød. Det føltes som 1940
endnu engang. Men, dette var ikke den samme tyske hær som var blevet sendt i krig i Polen, Frankrig eller Rusland 4 eller 5 år tidligere. I den tidlige vinter 1944, bestod den tyske hær delvist af kamphærdede tropper, og delvist af helt unge og gamle mænd som var tvunget ind i den nu,
så hårdt prøvede krigsmaskine Det tredje Rige
skrabede bunden af tønden med hensyn til rekruttering af
nye soldater og logistik Forsyninger havde altid været den tyske hærs svaghed men i 1944, manglede den helt tydeligt de nødvendige motorkøretøjer, brændstof og ammunition,
til at forsyne et fremstød som det nye tiltag i vesten. De pansrede mandskabsvogne,
var et sammensurium af forskellige modeller,
det samme gjorde sig gældende for artelleriet. Enkelte "Panzer" og Jagdpanzer" men mest "Panzer IV" og modificerede Halftracks.
(forhjul og larvefødder) Men "Pansergranat troperne"
kørte på tankene faldskærmstropperne var forstærket af unge mænd fra flyvevåbnet og Volksgranadiers tropper bestod af splittede enheder. Så på trods af det imponerende antal tropper så hæren ud til at mangle de egenskaber som det krævede at fuldfører Adolf Hitlers ønske
om at bekæmpe sine fjender. Så da angrebet endelig startede,
d. 16. december fejlede de ret hurtig i,
at nå deres mål. Den 6. Panzer enhed,
som skulle lede angrebet blev stoppet af ihærdigt amerikansk modstand ved St. Vith, Malmedy og Elsenborn
bjergkamme. Selvom hovedangrebet havde fejlet havde den supporternede tyske
5. enhed betydelig succes længere mod syd da den havde fundet en svaghed i de
amerikanske forsvarsværker i Arden Planerne ændrede sig på stedet. Den 5. enhed skulle presse hele vejen til floden Meuse og indtage byen Bastogne undervejs. Bastogne var ikke kun et trafikknudepunkt men også hjemsted for de allieredes brændstofdepoter og opbevarede næsten 11,4 mio liter brændstof. En værdigfuld ressource for de tyske tropper
hvis de blev erobret men selvom det blev ødelagt,
ville det sætte en stopper for en amerikansk offensiv til foråret. Hvis Bastogne blev erobret hurtigt ville der måske stadig være mulighed for at
avancere forbi Meuse og videre mod Namur Før offensiven, blev området omkring Bastogne regnet for at være, en ret stille sektor af frontlinjen
af den amerikanske officerstab. Den lå mellem de operative sektorer af "1st army" som havde kæmpet sig igennem et skovområde og "3rd army" syd for Luxemburg som kæmpede imod de tyske fæstningsværker ved
Sigfried linjen. Så Arden var anset for at være et hvilested for slagne enheder, eller et øvelsesterræn for nye enheder, som skulle bruge erfaring fra de små ildkampe, som fandt sted. For at angribe Bastogne
ville tyskerne være nødsaget til at sende et stort antal pansrede enheder, gennem den tæt bevoksede Arden, med kun et fortal veje tilgængelig. En sådan manøvre, blev anset for
usandsynlig af de Allierede især i vinteren. Jeg mener, et overraskelsesangreb
gennem Arden hvem havde kunne forudset det? Det var selvfølgelig præcis det, tyskerne gjorde i 1940,
man da ikke igen, vel? Så Arden sektoren var kun let bevogtet af 3 amerikanske divisioner da den tyske pansrede spydspids
viste sig i området. De overløb hurtigt de amerikanske enheder. Elementer af 5. panser hær,
skyndte sig at udnytte den splittede front De vidste, at de kun havde et lille vindue måske 4-5 dage, før de allierede ville sende forstærkninger. De amerikanske i Arden, havde ingen muligheder
for at stoppe den tyske fremfærd, men kunne i det mindste forsøge at tage brodden af de tyske styrker,
og stjæle kostbar tid Så i et kæmpende tilbagetog forsinkede de tyskerne med anti-tank
og bazookaer. De forårsagede trafikkøer ved at ødelægge den
forreste tank på de snævre skovveje. Generalløjtnant Omar Brandley,
med det overordnede ansvar for sektoren var blevet lovet store forstærkninger,
men det ville tage tid. De eneste tilgængelige tropper i nærheden var "82nd" og "101st airborn" enheder. P.t. i en genudrustningsface ved Reims efter deres dyre angreb,
ved Operation "Market Garden" Enheden 82nd blev sendt mod nord til St.Vith blev 101st "Screaming Eagles" sendt til Bastogne. "101st" var et hærdet kompagni, men de havde ikke tilstrækkeligt vinterudstyr og heller ikke rigtig nok tungt skyts. Efter 2 dages kamp mod
det tyske angreb ved Arden var det amerikanske tilbagetog totalt, og tropperne strømmede tilbage mod Bastogne, væk fra de tyske tanks. Vejene mod Bastogne var frie, men vejret var blevet værre. Det var skift for amerikanerne, da regn og tåge,
holdte det amerikanske luftvåben på jorden. Ved Bastogne klargjorde
mændene deres forsvar. Feltartilleri og M7 selv fremdrevne Haubits kanoner, forskansede sig i en halvcirkel, mens ingeniører gjorde byen til et fæstningsværk. D. 19. tonede tanks frem i udkanten af byen. De amerikanske tanks der var til rådighed,
kørte ud for at møde dem, og forsinkede den tyske fremrykning endnu engang. Den nat, ankom "The Screaming Eagles" endelig til Bastogne. Det samme gjorde den tyske eliteenhed
Panzerlehrdivisionen Den næste dag, var "The Screaming Eagles"
midt i kamphandlingerne. Mens de tyske tanks og anti-tank kanoner angreb og ødelagde de flygtende eller fastklemte styrker lige udenfor Bastogne, angreb "101st" de tyske infanteri enheder. Med støtte fra feltartilleri kæmpede "The Screaming Eagles"
for udkanten af byen og lokale landsbyer, og belejrede ovenikøbet et gammelt chateau og skød de tyske "Panzergranadier" som
kæmpede sig frem, for at tvinge dem ud. Denne hårde modstand, kostede tyskerne
endnu mere tid og det var ikke før d. 22.
Bastogne langt om længe var omringet. Hitler gav ordren: Bastogne skal indtages, koste hvad det vil! På den dag, blev to tyske officerer fra Panzer Lehr
med bind for øjnene, ført til hovedkvarteret for Anthony McAuliffe, som havde det overordnede ansvar
for de forskellige tropper, som var fanget i byen. De tyske officerer
bad amerikanerne om at overgive sig Konfronteret med tilbuddet,
udbrød McAuliffe: SLUDDER Korrekt; Bastogne var omringet men de seneste dage
havde tyskerne i flere forsøg prøvet at trænge ind i byen og var gang på gang blevet presset tilbage. Og lad os bare indrømme:
At være omringet var nærmest en del af jobbeskrivelsen for "101st Airborn". Af mangel på bedre ord, skrev McAuliffe også bare SLUDDER på
overgivelses dokumenterne. Til de undrende tyskere som spurgte: "Hvad skal det her betyde?" Svarede amerikanerne blot at de skulle:
Skride af H til og at alle tyskere,
som forsøgte at trænge ind i byen ville blive dræbt. Så de tyske tropper forstærkede sig endnu engang forstærket af endnu flere hærdede
"Panzergranadiers" fra Italien og flere tanks og anti-tank kanoner. Men himlen klarede op,
og det amerikanske luftvåben kunne igen sørge for forplejning
til den belejrede by. "101st" havde Juledag forskanset sig
i skovene mod nordøst for byen. At grave skyttehuller i den frosne jord var vanskeligt men hvert eneste skyttehul kunne redde liv når de tyske granater slog ned,
overalt omkring dem. I den isnende kulde, infiltrerede tyske Panzergranadier i hvid kamuflage skovene, men blev mødt af riffel og maskingeværskud og de fremadstormende tanks blev mødt
med bazookaer og Haubits. Bølge efter bølge,
angreb de tyske soldater fra forskellige retninger men gang efter gang, jog faldskærms-
og glidertropper angrebene væk, i en række grusomme kampe
gennem skove og landsbyer. Inden længe faldt specialammunitionen
"Træ smadrer" over de tyske positioner og flåede modstanderne med træ- og granatsplinter. Det tyske angreb i julen
var en katastrofe med store tab af mænd og tanks. Belejringen fortsatte,
men den største trussel var overstået d. 26. lykkedes det endelig
dele af Patons "3rd army" at etablere en korridor ind til Bastogne. Det ville dog stadig tage flere dage
at sikre den, da tyskerne forsøgte at afskære den igen. Små kampe fortsatte, men ikke engang nyligt tilkommende SS divisioner, kunne genetablere en ny belejring. I januar, af frygt for at miste grebet over frontlinjen, beordrede den tyske højkommando, et fuldt tilbagetog. Den overordnede strategiske initiativ i vesten tilhørte nu amerikanerne. På nuværende tidspunkt kunne det
amerikanske luftvåben endnu engang angribe og d. 12. januar da nyheden om en sovjetisk
vinteroffensiv kom frem brød Hitlers sidste gambling i vesten sammen. "101st Airborn" hvad er der med dem? Vi besøgte "101st Airborn" ved Fort Cambell Og først og fremmest til dem der var der, og alle dem
der er i "101st" og ved Fort Cambell, tak for at I tog jer
så godt af os. Besøgte I også Bastogne? Ja det gjorde jeg, vi så den dejlige "Sherman" tank de har i centrum
-Jeg har aldrig været der. -Har du ikke?
-Nej Det kan jeg anbefale.
Skovene udenfor Bastogne hvor alt det vilde fra nåh ja – "Kammerater i Krig", kan man se der. Fortæl os om sangen, hvordan opstod den? Faktisk, en smule anderledes med den her. Jeg sad, helt alene, i vores gamle studie og jeg skrev musikken, og jeg havde ingen anelse om hvad sangen skulle handle om på det tidspunkt For at være ærlig;
Jeg ødelægger måske nogens illusion, om sangskrivnings processen Jeg var så tosset og sur på mig selv, for jeg havde skrevet en masse til
albummet "Coat of Arms" og jeg havde endnu ikke fundet den der "spark røv adrenalin pumpende" sang endnu. Formentlig, kl. 1 eller 2 om natten sagde jeg bare "Fuck det her lort, nu
skriver jeg en sang, og går ikke hjem før den er færdig Og i det tilfælde,
blev den aggression jeg havde mod mig selv kickstarteren til den intro og som også blev til omkvædet: Et guitarriff og jeg var helt "ja sådan, der er den – Næste" – Cool
– Og jeg gav bare ikke mig selv chancen for at sætte farten ned,
og over tænke det og lavede sangen fra begyndelsen til slutningen og kl. 7 eller 8 om morgenen var den færdig. Så det er faktisk et af de hurtigst skrevne Sabaton sange, du ved, fra sangskriver synspunkt. Og naboerne ringede og sagde at de var rigtig glade – Ja, ja de nød det
– De nød hele processen, – Vi glæder os til at hører jeres nye album Fortsæt med at arbejde om natten,
det kan vi li' Men hey! Noget du sagde tidligere
som jeg gerne vil tilbage til. – Du nævnte "Kammerater i Krig"
– Ja
– Jeg elsker "Kammerater i Krig" Det samme gør jeg det virker måske oplagt for mange
som elsker historie at alle har set serien De ved måske ikke at "Kammerater i Krig"
handler om de her gutter. Ja undskyld, serien handler om "101st Airborn" og der er også en fantastisk bog
som hedder "Band of Brothers" af Stephen Ambrose hvis jeg ikke tager helt fejl. Men serien "Kammerater i Krig" Den er næsten 20 år gammel nu,
og det er noget jeg tror man måske har misset hvis man er under 25
eller måske under 30. Du bør ikke misse den. Hey folkens,
hvor fed er "Kammerater i Krig"? (Jubelråb i baggrunden) Og de jubler ikke bare fordi de skal, for vi kan altid
tilføje en masse skrig efterfølgende Vi bliver nødt til at tilføje nogle skrig, for de var ikke entusiastiske nok! Vi vil også have folk til at tro vi har et kæmpe crew! Er det ikke sandt Sergey, George, Heraldo Men helt seriøst, så er "Kammerater i Krig"
helt fantastisk hvis du vil have en ide om, ikke blot kampe,
men hvad der sker i en soldats liv på alle områder så bør du unde dig selv at se "Kammerater i Krig" Ja perfekt sammenblanding af dokumentar og Hollywood film 10 afsnit af 1 time Ja de lavede også serien om Stillehavs krigen,
som jeg ikke har set -HVAD?
-Nej ikke endnu Den er fantastisk Den første gang jeg så den, synes jeg ikke den var
ligeså god som "Kammerater i Krig" men anden gang, tror jeg faktisk jeg bedre kunne lide den. – OK, det var det for "The Screaming Eagles"
– Og det var alt for i dag! OURHHG OURHHG Jeg ender i helved Okey allesammen, husk at tjekke vores Patreon husk at tjekke disse videoer,
"Time Ghost" og WWII og også på gensyn

Ancient Mesopotamia – The Sumerians – Full Documentary

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General Knowledge History Quiz:

Mesopotamia is considered the cradle, or beginning, of civilization. Here large cities lined the rivers and many advances took place. Mesopotamia at first glance does not look like an ideal place for a civilization to flourish. It is hot and very dry. There is very little rainfall in Lower Mesopotamia. However, snow, melting in the mountains at the source of these two rivers, created an annual flooding. The flooding deposited silt, which is fertile, rich, soil, on the banks of the rivers every year. This is why Mesopotamia is part of the fertile crescent, an area of land in the Middle East that is rich in fertile soil and crescent-shaped.
The Sumerians were the first people to migrate to Mesopotamia, they created a great civilization. Beginning around 5,500 years ago, the Sumerians built cities along the rivers in Lower Mesopotamia, specialized, cooperated, and made many advances in technology. The wheel, plow, and writing (a system which we call cuneiform) are examples of their achievements.

for nearly 5,000 years the scorching sands of the Iraqi desert have held relics of the oldest known civilization the Sumerian our world owes the Sumerians everything they invent in writing and the wheel they divided time into minutes and seconds they tamed nature and built gigantic cities they loved culture and the arts their caravans crossed the desert opening up the first trade routes their stories inspired our founding myths and their memory lives on in the old testament they wrote the history of the birth pangs of mankind yet 4000 years ago this brilliant civilization died out for a long time it's very existence remained a mystery but today the desert sands are at last yielding some of the secrets of this fascinating civilization and a river went out of Eden to water the garden and from thence it was parted and became into four heads the name of the first is Pisan and the name of the second river is Jehan and the name of the third river is Tigris that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria and the fourth River is Euphrates and the Lord God took the man and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it in southern Iraq a crushing silence hangs over the dunes the temperature is around the 50 degree mark the climate has not changed for thousands of years yet men and women once lived here sandwiched between the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf is the region that the Greek historian Polybius called Mesopotamia the country between two rivers it was irrigated by the Euphrates and the Tigris in the mid nineteenth century all we knew of ancient Mesopotamia was what we read in the Bible French and British archaeologists competed to discover more and their finds were amazing they uncovered an unsuspected buried past Mesopotamia had once been the cradle of a civilization but what was so special about these fines and why did a civilization develop in that part of the world at all so keyed exceptional nada covered receives a sincere Mesopotamian a key the sofa codepen sake let me Fabiano upon conscience circuit exceptional seeker OC top equipo de semana que si si si de mood extra more diversify extrema develop a iki Oh phone Ave experiment a deja vu coup de madhuri beaucoup de experience social Danza univer Kanu no Konishi oppa loss avian oppression co2 c'mon say avec les obsession wreck yo set apeksha KO la ville calcio shows evo a cassette album Ave you nephrons souvenir Dora's de la civilisation a repo classic lestrade de la serda socio Mesopotamian correspond Ottoman yoga fixico Mesopotamian cetera domain key drain a palette of flavor latigo elephant Mia yeah Auto Show cenepa supremo Lupo level Oh por aquí te lo paula zahn setosa low pour etre SPO eso Sunday domain razaaq's de flavour Sun divinities actual it has poor in Ossipee come namizo pata me ooh Illya the production agriculture may will ya da cunha fundamental multiple Hmong the play omok did demeanor a metallic las navas Boswell on walls on quiver if yeah it does Abby come Selena Lafleur that the veneer lacks a little Sport privilege or to do the man the economy difficulty compliment ale our journey begins in the mountains of Armenia where the Tigris and the Euphrates both rise fed by melting snow from the high plateaus the rivers tumble down the mountain slopes tearing away tons of silt as they go they run parallel for over 2,000 kilometers then merge to form the Shatt al-arab waterway the rivers are calmer in the wide desert plains to the south they deposit fertile soil all the way to the Persian Gulf but the Tigris and the Euphrates could also be a terrible enemy the spring floods would sweep away everything in their path how were people able to settle a land that was so vulnerable to the whims of nature that question takes us to Baghdad the Iraqi capital on the banks of the Tigris in the narrow streets of the old city the visitor is steeped in the scents of the Orient dense crowds and a cheerful tumult are all around in the colorful bazaars Iraqis display their ancient talent for commerce the heritage of the Sumerian civilization is everywhere Oh the markets have sold the same varieties of fruit and vegetables for thousands of years in the call of the arcades you can buy pomegranates from northern there are and the yoghurt that the Mesopotamians were specially fond on on street corners there are earthenware pots of drinking water the water beads on the surface of the jar and in evaporating keeps the water within cool a Sumerian invention 5000 years old but who were the Sumerians where did they come from on the Fertile plateaus of Anatolia several thousand kilometers from Mesopotamia archaeologists have solved one part of the Sumerian puzzle they discovered what made it possible for the population to expand and found a civilization it was einkorn wheat which grows wild throughout eastern Turkey people have lived in this fertile region at the crossroads of great migration routes since time immemorial tribes of hunter-gatherers found everything here that they needed for their survival the Kurds keep up the age-old traditions every day the women cook such Acme a weak pancake that forms the whole family's staple diet [Applause] in 1958 archaeologists discovered the nine thousand year old ruins of the village of Chora new 3500 years before Sumer people settled on this fertile land they didn't yet make ceramics but they were builders their houses had mud brick walls on dry stone foundations one day the people of China made a discovery that would change the world los gayo sucre vera gas mill Ave Oh Jared daun ceragem deca Lindo Sarah John Doe low fat ass oh not really los que Sucre you said situation play particular typically : deceleration Segundo sin Kamini so var Kiva permit Azam dosa Delta se set even Minnelli more extreme on oovoo Corazon de cuerpo Sangamon upon VZ n grin keep over T DT DZ k a basic tool enormous otar conserve a la conservation repoed really Montara Azria whole essence el parque zoológico arruda to Bushido Guatemala Nicaragua pay our Hobbit in bed via improver Sudhir : Ave pop we saw so many Oklahoma dough reserve divorce whaa me ah potatoes nominally conditions or a lung condition conky la SOPA de la bestia gotetsu padre monotony so padrino's record gamma motor proceed lani me on paypal transport a infra con la recoleta full gardeners Isetta stock ful protégé so stoic officially soto de ve lo Porto don't Lhasa dr. haddassi Oh Sophia mama Donna Dorsett razuna poon recent retail prices CD la cosa version dystopia Motel you know public art a ansata vamos lá B&O todas las Primera's we evolved on immortal Oh Oh Papa Lido deck avert accidental aquacadets Prima issue comes Tomasulo des observations shielded I covet exceptional in foie de fois repete serene horshack's decks Picasso's phenomena Cisco Momo alica publié par women Delhi Ola into real easy quelque chose de nouveaux a second sake and Allegra to do as I set about mastering their environment these first farmers were full of invention they developed their tools they bettered their daily lives and they left behind a legacy of immense importance writing cereals were the main source of wealth for the Sumerian civilization this alabaster vars more than a meter high depicts the Sumerians gratitude towards nature it also expresses their religious further the vegetable and animal worlds are represented as ears of wheat and herds of sheep the procession of men bearing offerings approaches the sanctuary of Inanna the goddess of heaven and earth the pilgrims are welcomed by the high priest in his robes thanks to these successes in agriculture the population grew the first groups began to colonize land along the rivers all the way to the Great Plain of Mesopotamia the main preoccupation of the farmers was finding ways to boost their production of crops this clay tablet shows a device for more economical sowing the seeds are deposited via a funnel that ensures regular even distribution in the furrows the Cimmerian secret lay in taming they're unpredictable sources of water for in Mesopotamia the balance between man and nature could easily tip against man to take control of their water the Sumerians invented the wheel and they dug hundreds of kilometres of irrigation canals reservoirs and dams irrigation was the mainstay of the Cimmerian civilization by subduing the turbulent waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates they turned the power of nature to their own use the farmers reap the benefits with bountiful crops from hundreds of thousands of hectares of fertilized land in some areas wheat millet and barley were harvested twice a year in the oases along the irrigation canals millions of palm trees grew as far as the eye could see it's the same when the Tigris and the Euphrates merged to form a single body of water the shut arab waterway on each side of the Shatt al-arab an agricultural province prospers thanks to the bountiful water from the two great rivers only barges can reach the heart of this maze of tall reeds the Sumerians built fishing villages here the people still live as their ancestors did they still build reed huts just like the one seen in ancient bar relief the huts stand on a foundation of layers of soil interlaced with braided reeds the floor roof and walls are made of interwoven stalks the supporting columns and beams very strong are made of tightly packed Reed bundles five thousand years ago forty thousand fishermen and farmers and entire people lived in the marshland around the port city of Earth in their frail Reed boats they had made a huge area habitable one meter at a time and they said one to another let us make brick and burn them thoroughly and they had brick for stone and slime had they for mortar and they said let us build us a city and a tower whose top may reach unto heaven the first archaeologists to see the ruins of Earth must have been speechless before them lay narrow streets squares and the remains of houses granaries and temples five thousand years ago when Western Europe was still in the Stone Age this was a city of 34,000 people when they built cities like her the Mesopotamians were shaping the world in their own image lattice for monsieur de modo de la fille homo parlays a bitola Mesopotamia Etta phenomen fundament an incessant possible cantata decreed evil are ESOL plotted a Sunday Cuchillo Paris with a Lepik de Ville so some picante delicious see de Ville ESO a menage elevation a la mode to Vicki so develop a editor Madhavi the domination planet u.s.a secure castle to the fetanyl most part to rule isn't terminal learn that you to carve a Alamut oh service deluxe over he made to last with fire bricks covered in tar the ziggurat of ur is impressive it's estimated that it took 1,500 men 5 years just to build its base farmers up to 20 kilometers away could see the house of their God drawings done by the British archaeologist Leonard Woolley in the early 20th century help us imagine what I looked like four thousand years ago this immense city was surrounded by 4,000 hectares of cereal fields traders from the Persian Gulf sailed into its harbor and exported food to the Arabian Peninsula several thousand kilometers away the daily life of the cities centered on the temple weather people prayed and political and economic decisions were taken behind an 8 meter high city wall the houses were haphazardly piled up the streets were narrow winding and unser word garbage was burnt outside the house when it wasn't simply left on the road three-story buildings jostled with single storey ones and none of the houses was aligned with its neighbors their facades have no openings just low doors and a few air vents in order to keep the interior cool and to keep the dust clouds out you for a long time little was known of life you know leonard woolley had spent years excavating the ruins when in 1926 he discovered what was dubbed the death pit it was the tomb of Queen puabi and of more than 20 servants and soldiers who were sacrificed and buried with her in order to serve her in the afterlife among the skeletons covered in gold and silver Willy found this the so called standard of Earl it's mother-of-pearl figures show sumerian fishermen slaves and soldiers walking for eternity against the sky of lapis lazuli you like stills from a movie it's amazingly detailed panels show war chariots crushing the enemy or the frozen smile of a scribe having a drink with friends in the arid desert that now surrounds the site the traces of the past are still visible when they found the ruins of Sumerian dams on this barren land several kilometres from the rivers 19th century archaeologists faced an enigma how had people lived in this desert so far from the source of water the desert city of Nepal 250 kilometers south of Baghdad the ruins of a temple rise above the dunes it was during excavations of this site that archaeologists found the key to the enigma this clay tablet is a map of Nepal it shows the exact locations of the temple and the city wall the Euphrates ran to the west of the wall it had been diverted to supply the city with water the cities had therefore been built beside the water but changes in land form and the sheer force of the floodwaters changed the course of the rivers satellite images helped us reconstruct the map of this part of the world as it was 5,000 years ago Nepal Luke EW and all the main cities of the Cimmerian civilization evolved in a vastly different landscape at that time the Tigris and the Euphrates ran through much of Mesopotamia as a single River they separated only downstream from Nepal sunrise over ancient earth it is midsummer and the day will be scorchingly hot slowly the city comes to life people slept on their rooftops which were much cooler at night than the small rooms of their houses ancient texts listing real estate sales show that the houses floor space was less than 70 square meters in the early morning people come onto the streets merchants try to entice the passers-by they try to do business while the day is still cool a new nigga in the courtyards of some houses men relax and drink beer through strong several ancient texts refer to the Sumerian temperament the Sumerians exposure to the hazards of nature made them conscious of the brevity and fragility of life you in the streets men often wear Canucks wraparound sheepskin skirts that go from the waist to the knees or ankles depending on the season and fashion the wives of dignitaries wear colorful lighter garments both men and women wear jewelry earrings bracelets and necklaces archeologists have discovered that forgers operating in the walled city could replicate gold and turquoise people who couldn't afford real jewelry could buy and wear fancy fakes this neighborhood was home to merchants shopkeepers and traders the homes of the scribes Mason's and carpenters and the slaves houses were all within a short distance of the temple you the treasures discovered in our are enormous ly important for archaeologists they revealed Sumerian customs and they demonstrate the quality of the craftsmen work Sumerian Goldsmith's had mastered the techniques of chiseling and soldering gold the Bulls head on this harp has eyes of lapis lazuli turned towards eternity the harp itself is decorated with shells and precious stones for their last journey with their queen the servants wore a spectacular diadem of gold bands and precious stones a braiding of beech leaves covered the brow and above the head Rose three golden flowers the gold used also in cups and ceremonial weapons as well as the lapis lazuli and turquoise all came from the east the mother-of-pearl and the shells came from Bahrain the raw material used to make this billy goat shows how prosperous I was and how thriving its trade archeologists have traced the origins of some of its materials to get the lapis lazuli the Sumerians sent their caravans 3,000 kilometres to the Braxtons mountains in what is now northern Pakistan beshal wa the merchant city in northern pakistan this rough lapis lazuli has been shipped from Afghanistan splashing water on the stones brings out the intense blue that fascinated the Cimmerians archeologists have established that the lapis lazuli trade began with a Sumerian civilization 3500 years before Christ 3,000 years before the Silk Road the Sumerians had opened up the trade routes that crisscross the East with the development of trade the Cimmerians invented the concept of the contract cylindrical stone seals were carved and finally engraved with a negative ba relief when a contract was entered into or goods needed to be identified the cylinder was rolled in clay the market left on the clay sealed the transaction that was also how the Sumerians who held contracts in great esteem began to make laws very few legal texts from the Sumerian period have been found but in the early 20th century in the Persian city of suzhen archaeologists discovered the stone of Hammurabi king of babylon it had been seized as a trophy by the illa mites who went on a rampage through Mesopotamia in the 12th century BC Hammurabi had the legal code that bears his name drawn up in 1694 BC it enshrined all of some areas laws and all 282 articles were carved on the stone they mostly relate to aspects of everyday life to commercial transactions marriages and inheritances as a judge the king ordered investigations protected the people from abuse by officials and oversaw a great public works the Code of Hammurabi proves that the Sumerians were precursors in many areas on the back of the stone article 196 warns and eye for an eye a principle repeated in the law of Moses to build their Garden of Eden the Sumerians roamed the world in search of commodities they lacked for example there was no wood in the Mesopotamian desert to get this rare commodity which they used exclusively as a building material the Sumerians ventured to Syria Turkey and the mountains of Lebanon today cedar forests a few and far between after the Sumerians all the ancient civilizations used cedar and gradually they cut down almost all the cedar trees legend has it that some Cedars are over 4,000 years old and grew in civilizations now vanished they could testify to the efforts of the Sumerians bar reliefs found in temples show Sumerian loggers felling hundred-year-old Cedars and loading them onto their ships before sailing down the Euphrates these expeditions lasted several months and show the enormous achievement of the people living in a hostile environment some discoveries made by the Sumerians 5,000 years ago are still used by Iraqis today tar for instance is used for waterproofing boat hulls and sealing the roofs of houses this is hate a small town on the banks of the Euphrates six hundred kilometers from the Cimmerian city's tar and sulphur erupt from the earth here tar floats and archeologists believe the Sumerians could have collected tar from the riverbanks as it floated down the Euphrates the people have hate still collect our by methods that haven't changed for thousands of years before taking the tar out of the water you have to cut your hands in sand the Sumerians too used tar for waterproofing boats but they mainly used it for sealing bricks and for waterproofing the foundations of public buildings this precaution reflected a major event in their lives floods George Smith a 19th century Londoner who studied Sumerian tablets in the British Museum deciphered some legends about devastating floods the wickedness of men so displeased Enlil the supreme god that he decided to swallow man up in a huge flood Enki protector of men pleaded with him but in vain so Anki decided to preserve a remnant he asked sue sudra to build an ark and to take animals in pairs on board with him after six days and nights of storm the world was submerged on the seventh day the storm abated Zeus Sutra released a dove that finding no resting place returned to him on the eighth day he released a raven that never returned mankind was saved you new niveau Auto V limit Mesopotamia CUDA PA paper de siècle Dali text Chianti debt over a particular bibliothèque de Nieva poor Claire de Luz sorry le t to to Lhasa recession Occidental to location is moxie totally terribly detector public aid omelet extra public Illya demet give Ian direct amount amount Mesopotamia a total Estrada christianism proxy Dalton Idomeneo paho cemet concrete pecan pre reinterpret observable pas Santi potato doll significant some poor food color Accord le seems a bit only Mesopotamia Mason Missoula a eurozone complete Malini the gods instilled fear and respect they symbolized the Cimmerians mistrust of nature each divinity in their pantheon played a role each one ruled over a city Enlil god of wind ruled over air and earth in the city of Nepal Enki god of water and the world was worshiped in era do-do-do god of justice and truth was worshiped in lhasa inanna known to the Babylonians as the fertility goddess Ishtar was worshiped in ruk she inspired both love and war to the Greeks she was Aphrodite and to the Romans Venus the smooth curves of this alabaster statue reflect the skill of the Sumerian artists their art and their religious devotion are highlighted by the statues finish and their expressive faces SOT Emily Judy Mesopotamia see geckos KGC rescission no – hallelujah the top no7 paratext de meat no Devon divest well today ho sake few accompli Lord o tell you tell ceremony may los últimos oh ho a tremolo Quneitra Malik's preemie yeah down whenever Mesopotamia concept a general dope reasons Davina Ella divorce allama a to service disposal dois de faire avec l into a composite of akela set religion which in religion the lung Oh service did you say service sexiest Rao's own existence Oh cotillion Sidonia Maugeri Dena blog called Pedrosa Cronus a derivative avec des Beaux vet mongrel te llamas a statue de medical headless olvido genres from Rijo Peter zoton solid you know the confetti Loma not available Eva found a seizure a year prior Vienna so top sin regard only fetid glory cannula whole resume is about the Mian Sita professor prayer was part of daily life for the Cimmerians the upkeep and ceremonies of the temple required a large body of priests and other staff and every day the faithful brought their offerings the archives of the city of Uruk described the daily meal of its four main gods as follows 250 loaves of bread a thousand tarts fifty sheep eight lambs two oxen and one calf celestial food that was offered to the gods and later fed the temples 1200 priests and staff the scribes recorded the hopes of the Sumerians in exchange for the devotion their virtue and their respect for the established order the Sumerians hoped for eternal life in the next world the neverending struggle to tame nature made them conscious of the fragility of life and inspired their most beautiful myths gilgamesh v king of Uruk in the third millennium BC was a historical figure he was the sumerians hero and the stories of his adventures were famous throughout Mesopotamia they sum up the history of the Sumerian civilization Gilgamesh was a just king and a great builder who also challenged the gods he tamed savages and he went to the distant forest to fragrant cedar to confront the fire eating monster Humbaba during their fight Gilgamesh cut off the monsters head he returned to orc in triumph to punish him the goddess in Anna sent the celestial bull to destroy the city the bull dried up the meadows and rivers and opened deep crevices into which people fell to their deaths so the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth and they left off building the city the Sumerians vision was prophetic after ruling Mesopotamia for 3,000 years their civilization attacked from all sides collapsed the pomp of their cities was over and so was their influence the irrigation canals gradually dried up the walls of the houses collapsed the temples themselves collapsed under the combined assault of the Sun the rain and the wind the clay of the bricks turned to dust leaving only a shapeless mass above the dunes the last vestiges of a civilizations grandeur how can we explain the complete disappearance of such a brilliant civilization or the decadence of a people who left behind only ruins and the remains of a looted temples es como parle de dikhhla dodging satin Maggiore me potato puto Deus clay hos trot segunda 8 reales a paha le rendez-vous Catalan millionnaire Dhokla passe G so concrete is Paha de manifestation chorizos dezadore ricardo de religion – taeho's la evil a view elongation on sap xwiki Lea de mas Amedda Liberty possible don't Lex patientís at Inova – rose par example la Mesopotamia yet Athena Moberg diva prefer floors Oh Oh twas a millionnaire coup oh poor me milady Casey space vatos overdose on said a grand affair low ferritin a tool effectual Pacifica's creep we're a parsec I cut em professor de travail immense avant Oberto preferred a day application Cochrane impose don't set a name elevation may love even more Lama Zopa Tammany Parish affair a problem de saucé Vasa Posey packs cry forever cuckoo one epic oosik o leary junkie on human rate fair wounds where whole book before cuz lamb is a pata be for almost a century in the tablets archived in the temples scribes patiently recorded the decline of crop yields from 2350 BC wheat production fell by 40% only barley production remains stable how could a people who had developed such advanced techniques be powerless to keep their resources from dwindling for decades archaeologists poured over texts for an answer but the answer lay in the field the irrigation system made the Sumerians powerful but it also contributed to their destruction as 3,000 years of irrigation water evaporated the salt buried deep in the land rose to the surface in the end of white cover of salt hardened by the Sun made the soil sterile and the wheat could no longer grow the local people are still plagued by this problem today in some areas the earth is cracked it resembles uncultivated desert this is what the great fields around the cities look like faced with climate change and desertification Sumerian farmers could find no solution but can one speak of the decline of a civilization Paulo da declare de Paco Hecht Satan presses key KC develop a insipid seok TV us o for assault Irma aunt oh no de Patri SuperVeloce a pas de cette pase el mapa TV set in Passaic Eva at trois miss Lily gray clip X key so Mendes integrity become completion de Mesopotamia Ribicoff a certain categories a Tanzanian Voe trans-med sets a slow ciose cosmetics agua es se Vasu Ferro particular planet olio direction Monica a paramour Greg Sabah so hot we de la méditerranée atoll basa méditerranée da l ET de set civilization Mesopotamian mesa prefer reference absolute as a former men decisions the weakened Sumerian cities were unable to face the economic competition from the large cities to the north of Mesopotamia other civilizations inspired by the Sumerian example planted their standards on the conquered land by 2004 BC Sumer was finished the Assyrians dominated Mesopotamia the epic of Babylon could now begin beneath the pitiless Sun the Sumerians wealth returned to the dust it's their story that the Bible tells like the builders of the Tower of Babel the men and women of Sumer were scattered upon the face of all the earth the water the Sumerians feared brought on their destruction having controlled the floods of the Tigris and the Euphrates having drawn their life force from their waters the Sumerians were swept away by history and disappeared they left mankind the legacy of their wealth traces of their creative genius and a sense of the extraordinary fragility of civilizations Oh


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Go on a voyage of discovery that leads from the oldest known temple in the world to a prehistoric cave map, to a common belief shared by key ancient cultures, all of which were aware of the star system Cygnus’ unique place in the cosmos – and it’s significance as the spirit path to heaven. Most surprising is the fact that the Ancient Advanced cultures of the past were aware of cosmic rays emanating from Cygnus, and for their being the spark which ignited evolution – the same spark which continues to alter our DNA right through to the present day.

NOW ON DVD: The Cygnus Mystery, Cat# U679, Go to

American History: The Greatest Speeches (1933-2008)

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America’s major events told through the words of its leaders, since the widespread adoption of the film camera as a communication tool.

Through the speeches of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Martin Luther King, Jr. to Barack Obama, a look at the major moments that have defined the modern history of the United States.

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Watch the full speeches:
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
March 4, 1933
“The Only Thing We Have To Fear Is Fear Itself”

December 8, 1941
Pearl Harbor, “A Date Which Will Live In Infamy”

Harry Truman
August 6, 1945
The Bombing of Hiroshima

Dwight Eisenhower
January 17, 1961
The Military Industrial Complex

John F. Kennedy
January 20, 1961
JFK’s Inaugural Address

June 26, 1963
“Ich Bin Ein Berliner”

Martin Luther King, Jr.
August 28, 1963
“I Have A Dream”

Lyndon Baines Johnson
March 15, 1965
LBJ’s Voting Rights Speech

January 12, 1966
Vietnam War

April 3, 1968
“I’ve Been To The Mountaintop”

Robert F. Kennedy
April 4, 1968
RFK Announces MLK’s Passing

Richard Nixon
August 9, 1974
Nixon Resigns Amid Watergate

Ronald Reagan
January 28, 1986
Challenger Disaster

Ronald Reagan
June 12, 1987
At the Berlin Wall: “Tear Down This Wall”

George H.W. Bush
January 17, 1991
The Gulf War Against Saddam Hussein and Iraq

Bill Clinton
January 27, 2000
The 2000 State Of The Union

George W. Bush
September 14, 2001

Barack Obama
November 4, 2008
2008 Grant Park Victory Speech

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[FDR]: So first of all, let me assert my firm
belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Nameless, unreasoning,
unjustified terror which paralyzes needed us to convert retreat into advance. Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the
United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
air forces of the Empire of Japan. A short time ago an American airplane
dropped one bomb on Hiroshima and destroyed its usefulness to the enemy.
That bomb has more power than 20,000 tons of TNT. The Japanese began the war
from the air at Pearl Harbor, they have been repaid many-fold. And the
end is not yet. With this bomb, we have now added a new
and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing
power of our armed forces. We have been compelled to create a permanent
armaments industry of vast proportions. In the council's of government, we must
guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence—whether sought or
unsought—by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of
misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this
combination endanger our liberties or democratic process. I do not believe that any of us would
exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the
faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will
light our country and all who serve it. And the glow from that fire can truly
light the world. And so my fellow Americans ask not what your country can
do for you, ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world, ask not what America will do for you, but
what together we can do for the freedom of man. And there are even a few who say that it's true that communism is an evil
system, but it permits us to make economic progress. Lasst sie nach Berlin kommen—let them come to Berlin. [Cheering] All free men—wherever they may live—are
citizens of Berlin and therefore, as a free man, I take pride
in the words ich bin ein Berliner. I have a dream, that my four little children will one day
live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color about skin, but by
the content in their character. I have a dream today. Let freedom ring and when it happens, we allow freedom ring, when we let it
ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will
be able to speed up that day when all of God's children—black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics—will be able to join hands and
sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "free at last, free at last, thank God Almighty, we are free at last." There is no constitutional issue here. The command of the Constitution is
plain. There is no moral issue. It is wrong, deadly wrong, to deny any of your fellow
Americans the right to vote in this country. To know war is to know that there is still madness
in this world. They are poor to be lifted up, and there
are cities to be built, and there's a world to be helped. Yet, we do what we must. I'm hopeful—and I will try, best I
can, with everything I've got—to end this battle and to return our sons to their
desires. Yet as long as others will challenge America's
security, and test the dearness of our beliefs with fire and steel, then we must
stand or see the promise of two centuries tremble. All we say to America is be true to what you
said on paper. But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of
the freedom of speech. Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right
to protest for rights. [Cheering] And so, just as I say we aren't going to let any dogs
or water hoses turn us around, we aren't going let any injunction turn us around. I don't know what will happen now. We've
got some difficult days ahead. but it really doesn't matter with me now
because I've been to the mountaintop. [Cheering] And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long
life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's
allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over, and I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you, but I want
you to know tonight, that we as a people will get to the promised land. [Cheering.] So I'm happy tonight, I'm not worried about anything, I'm
not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. [Cheering] I have some very sad news for all of you,
and I think sad news for all of our fellow citizens and people who love
peace all over the world, and that is that Martin Luther King was shot and was
killed tonight in Memphis, Tennessee. Martin Luther King dedicated his life to
love and to justice between fellow human beings, he died in the cause of that effort. For
those of you who are black and are tempted to be filled with hatred and mistrust of the injustice of such an act against all white people, I would only say that I can also feel in
my own heart the same kind of feeling. I had a member
of my family killed, but he was killed by a white man. But we
have to make an effort in the United States. We have to make an effort to
understand, to get beyond—or go beyond— these rather difficult times. My favorite poem—my favorite poet was
Aeschylus—he once wrote 'Even in our sleep, pain which cannot
forget, falls drop by drop upon the heart until in our own despair, against our
will, comes wisdom through the awful grace of God.' What we need in the United
States is not division, what we need in the United States is not
hatred, what we need in the United States is not
violence and lawlessness, but is love and wisdom and compassion
toward one another, a feeling of justice toward those who
still suffer within our country, whether they be white, or whether they be black. Throughout the long and difficult period
of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to persevere. To make every possible
effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me. In the past few
days however, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough
political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort. Therefore, I shall resign the presidency
effective at noon tomorrow. Vice President Ford will be sworn in as
president at that hour, in this office. Today is a day for mourning and
remembering. Nancy and I are pained to the core over the tragedy of the shuttle Challenger. We know we share this pain with all of
the people of our country. This is truly a national loss. We've
never had a tragedy like this and perhaps we've forgotten the courage it
took for the crew of the shuttle. But they, the Challenger Seven were aware of the
dangers and overcame them and did their jobs brilliantly. We mourn seven heroes. And I want to say
something to the schoolchildren of America who were watching the live
coverage of the shuttle's take off. I know it's hard to understand, but
sometimes painful things like this happen It's all part of the process of
exploration and discovery. It's all part of taking a chance and
expanding man's horizons. The future doesn't belong to the
faint-hearted. It belongs to the brave. The Challenger crew was pulling us into the
future and we'll continue to follow. There is one sign the Soviets can make
that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of
freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek
peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you
seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall. Just two hours ago, allied air forces began an attack on
military targets in Iraq and Kuwait these attacks continue as I speak ground forces are not engaged this
conflict started August second when the dictator of Iraq invaded a small and
helpless neighbor Kuwait a member of the Arab Lee and a member of the United
Nations was crushed its people brutalized five months ago sediment
saying started this cruel war against Kuwait tonight that battle has been
joined this speaker mr. vice president members of Congress honored guests my
fellow Americans we are fortunate to be alive at this moment in history never before has our nation enjoyed at
once so much prosperity and social progress with so little internal crisis
and so few external threats never before have we had such a blessing
opportunity and therefore such a profound obligation to build a more
perfect union of our founders dreams we begin the new century with over 20
million new jobs the fastest economic growth in more than
30 years the lowest unemployment rates in 30
years the lowest poverty rates in 20 years the lowest african-american and Hispanic
unemployment rates on record the first back-to-back surpluses and 42 years and
next month America will achieve the longest period of economic growth in our
entire history good evening just moments ago I spoke with George W
Bush and congratulated him on becoming the 43rd President of the United States
and I promised them that I wouldn't calling back this time now the US Supreme Court has spoken let
there be no doubt while I strongly disagree with the court's decision I
accept it I accept the finality of this outcome
which will be ratified next monday in the electoral college and tonight for
the sake of our unity of the people and strength of our democracy I offer my concession this nation stands with the good people
of new york and the jersey and connecticut as we mourn the loss of
thousands of vs I can the rest of the world hears you and the
people and the people who knocked these
buildings down will hear all of us yeah yeah yeah and all those watching tonight from
beyond our shores from Parliament sand palaces to those who are huddled around
radios in the forgotten corners of the world are stories are singular but our
destiny is shared and a new dawn of American leadership is at hand to those to those who would tear the
world down we will defeat you to those who seek peace and security we
support you and to all those who have wondered if America's beacon still burns
as bright tonight we proved once more that the true strength of our nation
comes not from the might of our arms or the scale of our wealth but from the
enduring power of our ideals democracy Liberty opportunity and
unyielding hope yeah that's the true genius of America that
America can change our union can be perfect what we've already achieved gives us
hope for what we can and must achieve tomorrow this election had many firsts and many
stories will be told for generations but one that's on my mind tonight's about a
woman who cast her ballot in Atlanta she's a lot like the millions of others
who stood in line to make their voice heard in this election except for one thing and Nixon Cooper is
a hundred and six years old she was born just a generation passed slavery a time
when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky when someone like her
could vote for two reasons because she was a woman and because of the color of
her skin and tonight I think about all that she's seen
throughout her century in America the Harding and the hope the struggle and
the progress the times we were told that we can't and the people who pressed on with that
American creed yes we can at a time when women's voices
were silenced and their hopes dismissed she lived to see them stand up and speak
out and reach for the bailout yes we can when there was this fair and
the Dust Bowl and depression across the lamb she saw a nation conquer fear itself
with a new deal new jobs a new sense of common purpose yes we can when the bombs fell on our
Harbor and tyranny threaten the world she was there to witness a generation
rise to greatness and a democracy was saved yes we can she was there for the buses
in Montgomery the hoses in birmingham a bridge in Selma and a preacher from
Atlanta who told the people that we shall overcome yes we can a man touch down on the moon a wall came down in Berlin a world was
connected by our own science and imagination and this year in this
election she touched her finger to a screen and
cast her vote because after a hundred and six years in America through the
best of times and the darkest of hours she knows how America can change yes we
can America we have come so far we have seen
so much but there's so much more to do so tonight let us ask ourselves if our
children should live to see the next century if my daughter should be so lucky to
live as long as an mix and Cooper what change will they see what progress what we have made this is our chance to
answer that call this is our moment this is our time to
put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids to
restore prosperity and promote the cause of peace to reclaim the American Dream
and reaffirm that fundamental truth that out of many we are one that while we
breathe we hope and where we are met with cynicism and doubt and those who
tell us that we can't we will respond with that timeless creed that sums up
the spirit of a people yes we can thank you God bless you and
may God bless the United States of America yeah

World War 1(BBC Documentary)

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on the 5th of October 1915 my great-uncle leftenant Aubry Hastings of the 7th East Surry regiment was killed in France blown to pieces in his trench during the Battle of loose I grew up with his story reading the unhappy letters that he wrote submit the poppies of the battlefield along with those of a grandfather and another great-uncle who survived but this is the first time I've visited the cemetery at Fukien Libeccio where Aubrey's buried one of some 900,000 British Empire dead of the First World War almost everyone in this country shares such links with that catastrophe for our forefathers and for you look it's a funny business looking down at the last resting place of one of my own family whom I never met who died in a struggle that I've spent decades reading about its horror is not in depth but where I part company from what we might call the Black Adder take on history is to believe that it was all so futile that it didn't matter which side won in the 21st century the British people are deeply wedded to the idea that the Second World War was our good war the first or bad one but what have we stayed out what if Germany had one in my opinion the deaths of Aubrey Hastings and hundreds of thousands of his comrades were assuredly a great tragedy but they were not for nothing many British people honor the men who fought and died with a mixture of sorrow and the sense of waste a belief that no cause could have justified so horrendous a sacrifice but a hundred years after the outbreak it seems time to revisit the reasons we went to war in 1914 I want to argue that far from Britain having plunged into a bloodbath we could have stayed out of our part in the first world war was tragically necessary any exploration of why Britain had to go to war in 1914 must start on the continent of Europe the spark was ignited in the Balkans on the 28th of June when Gavrilo Princip a Bosnian Serb shot dead Archduke Franz Ferdinand heir to the Austrian throne the Empire's rulers immediately determined to exploit the outrage to justify invading neighboring Serbia where the murder weapons had come from but the Russians were Serbia's close allies and they made it plain they would fight to protect their fellow Slavs through July 1914 the great continental Parrs waited ever deeper into crisis but from the outset the key player was Germany on the 6th of July its rulers pledged the Austrians their unconditional support to smash Serbia promising to deal with Russia and its owner live France if they intervened day by day it became plainer that none of the big players would back down and thus began the countdown to the First World War some historians have argued that once it became clear that Austria and Germany were going to war with France and Russia we the British should simply have left them to get on with it stayed out but all that would have come out of a German victory was a fast forwarded version of today's European Union I don't buy that the people who are running Germany cared nothing for democracy or other people's freedoms once the shooting started it became claim that their war aims were little different from those of Hitler 35 years later excepting only the Jewish Genocide you the Reichstag dominated domestic affairs it was the Kaiser the so-called all-highest wilhelm ii who still made every key appointment and controlled decisions about war and peace phil helm was a weak man who sought to masquerade as a strong one chronically unstable and prone to violent mood swings he wasn't at heart a war monger as of course Hitler was but he loved to play at soldiers he offered threats and blandishments to other powers which he always got in the wrong order professor John role has spent a lifetime studying and writing about the Kaiser how personally influential was Kaiser Wilhelm in the decision for war Kaiser Wilhelm took over the reins from his father in 1888 and inherited Bismarck's immense power himself when he threw Bismarck out but not content with that he then went back to an almost eighteenth-century notion of monarchy in other words he insisted on ruling personally with the result he appointed all ministers all the Chancellor's all the generals all the Admirals himself personally according to his likes and dislikes he was an extremely assertive bully well it was an extraordinary situation that you had a socialist majority violently anti-militarist majority and the right type and yet exercising no influence at all really over this regime and foreign policy yeah one of the reasons I believe behind the German generals decision to go to war around about 1914 was the rising tide of democracy at home the thinking was well if we leave it too long we will not be able to get our way and do what we really need to do to make Germany great so we better go before that time comes the most powerful institution in Ville Helm's Empire and indeed in all continental Europe was the German army the Kaiser was also eager to extend his power across the seas and personally promoted the creation of a big-gun Navy this thoroughly alarmed the British who feared Germany's fleet as a threat to their global trade routes and Empire as Queen Victoria's grandson Vilhelm retained some respect for her people but he was determined that neither he nor his empire should defer to them it's almost as if he feels obliged to be more military and more masculine than any other monarch perhaps because there's always the width of Englishness about him his mother being English he was always very keen to say no no I'm not English I'm Prussian I'm extremely prescient so there's this autocratic side to him there's extreme militarism but some of it does come from England for example the love of the Navy is the idea that he has a mission to become the superpower in Europe in place of Britain he feels he has a right as leader of this new energized Germany after unification fear of Germany's might and which aspirations to dominate Europe prompted Russia and France to forge a close military alliance although Britain's government made no firm written commitment it posted an option on supporting them in the event of war many British people recoiled from the idea of joining an alliance with tsar nicholas ii whose people had been britain's enemies through the 19th century but the fears of europe's rulers that a general war would result from their rivalries caused every nation to huddle close to its friends the Germans to the Austrians the Russians to the French with the British as cautious maybes Germany's warlords were haunted by fears of Russia's growing might some of them were convinced that challenging the Tsar's armies sooner rather than later offered Germany the best chance of victory this is one of many German memorials to Prussia's 19th century military triumphs instead of perceiving big Wars as we do today as universal tragedies the kaisers generals and sometimes Wilhelm himself believed that trial by battle was an acceptable instrument of policy all Germany's leaders were insecure even paranoid about threats of home from the socialists abroad from Russia and France probably backed in a showdown by Britain in those days not many people thought seriously about economics the Kaiser and his generals counted soldiers they fail to realize that their country was achieving dominance of Europe without firing a shot through its industrial power by 1914 cemani Germans have come to believe that a European clash in arms was inevitable but their fatalism contributed mightily to bringing this about the Kaiser who was almost certainly clinically unstable was one of three men in Germany who took the key decisions which resulted in war to this day historians argue fiercely about which pulled the levers to precipitate disaster the others were the Chancellor Theobald vom bethmann-hollweg appointed by Wilhelm and general Helmuth von Moltke head of the army you knowing that Russia was committed to protect press the Austrians to hurry their invasion to preempt the Tsar this has become known as Berlin's blank check keystone of the argument that Germany was most blame worthy for the horrors that followed professor so he was strong has been studying and chronicling the war for over 30 years he agrees that Berlin took a huge gamble the Germans actively encouraged the Austrians not merely to invade Serbia but to get on and do it even more quickly than they were ready to do this partly because I think if they do it quickly you'll get away with it you'll be able to crush Serbia the available calm waters they were so quick that nobody will have time to intervene so the presumption here is speed and what Berlin is doing is constantly taking best-case advice you know will Russia stay out of this war because they're worried there'll be a revolution in Russia the best answer is that yes they will because there has been a revolution in Russia in 1905 and there might be again so they work with that assumption where it's in fact of course as ours going to be put under tremendous pressure to back South Slavs in Serbia but throughout July the one nation surely that had the power to stop this process if the Germans had said to the austrians stop do not invade Serbia there would have not been a general European war would them that's right I think they have the power to say no I mean after all the blank check is central and and the blank check is issued by Germany and Germany then seems to show remarkable insouciance as to how that check will be used you know austria-hungary still has to cash it it's austria-hungary that has to initiate war but absolutely the balance then shifts to Berlin and if any power has the capacity to stop it it's Berlin particularly at the very end of the crisis army chief of staff Helmut Volker who answered only to the Kaiser also played a pivotal role on the 28th of July vilhelm and bethmann-hollweg experienced a brief panic attack the looming war now looked far bigger and graver than they bargained for but Malka on his own initiative telegraphed the Austrians and urged them to hasten their attack the chief of staff had long argued that if Germany must face a European showdown it was better to have it before the Russians big armaments expansion program was complete at an imperial council meeting in December 1912 he's reliably reported as saying war on the sooner the better Annika mom bar is a German scholar who's written a biography of the chief of staff which emphasizes his role in the July crisis where did Mach fit into the decision for war well Moltke very much advocates war he thinks that war is inevitable in the long run he thinks that eventually Russia will become too strong to militarily powerful for Germany to defeat her and therefore he creates an atmosphere in which war seems a good solution out of a perceived problem one thing that seemed extraordinary to us about how dysfunctional the German government was in July 1914 is that here you've got Malka who's supposed to be just the head of the army and at a critical moment July the 28th he sends a telegram to Vienna to the Austrians telling them to get on with invading Serbia and it does him extraordinaire reflection of both how reckless mulkear could be and of how partly what well you're right he does send that telegram and in Vienna they end up saying well it's got a Bateman or was it in fact the Kaiser so yes you're completely right he exceeds his authority if you like by sending this telegram Germany's leadership in July 1914 was extraordinarily reckless in accepting the risk that by promoting a small Balkan war they would trigger a huge European one when he became plain that the Russians would fight rather than see Serbia go under the Germans refused to take the one step that could have prevented a general European catastrophe telling the Austrians to pull back instead they themselves prepared to mobilize against Russia and that's why I believe they deserve most blame for all that followed on the 28th of July Austria declared war on Serbia and two days later the Tsar ordered his army to mobilize Germany then issued two ultimatums one to Russia and another to France it's a lie neither was expected to accept and few of the kaisers generals wish them to Berlin then set in motion its hugely ambitious war plan designed to crush France before turning on Russia created almost a decade earlier by mockers predecessor count alfred von Schlieffen the plan required an invasion of France by way of its backdoor through neutral Belgium it was the German commitment to overrun Belgium which suddenly propelled Britain hitherto a mere spectator of the Continental drama to the forefront of the stage under a treaty signed in 1839 this country was among the guarantors of Belgium neutrality I'm one of those who still wonder whether Britain really would have come in if it hadn't been for the invasion of Belgium mohkumat is dead wrong he did he did he was in an impossible situation militarily speaking or strategically speaking because Germany is in a sense encircled by France in the West and Russia in the East and the only way he thinks he can win this war is by implementing the so called Schlieffen Plan and that plan can only work if France is defeated quickly and that means invading Belgium but interestingly in France the chief of staff similarly thinks our best chance would be to advance through Belgium but the politicians that the diplomats tell him we can't do that because of British British thoughts on their account exactly and so had Germany also respected Belgian neutrality there would have been all sorts of possibilities right at the end of July and early in August perhaps to come to a different outcome thus in the first days of August 1914 Germany prepared to invade and crush France in a campaign of 40 days before turning on Russia Europe had a war but must the British be in it would they fight basking in the balmy summer of 1914 and preoccupied by industrial turmoil and threatened Irish Civil War the British people had scant appetite for a continental conflict but liberal Prime Minister Herbert Asquith and several key cabinet colleagues were appalled by the prospect of Germany achieving dominance of Europe they doubted that Britain could merely remain a bystander while this happened one such was the Foreign Secretary Sir Edward grey who played a critical role Sir Edward grey is traditionally seen as a reticent English gentleman whose grand passions were fly-fishing and bird-watching both of which he wrote good books above but more recently he's become a focus of fierce controversy some historians claim that grey made rash secret commitments to the French which dragged us unnecessarily into war for centuries it had been a British article of faith that a balance of power which denied absolute dominance to any one nation must be maintained on the continent between 1908 and 1914 when grey was not casting a fly on bright waters he held secret talks with the French about British support in the event of a German attack the Foreign Secretary was less clever and less of a statesman than his admirers thought but the claim that he should be damned for dragging Britain into an unnecessary war doesn't stand up I suggest that gray was a realist about the difficulty indeed impossibility of Britain simply standing by doing nothing while Germany conquered Europe if the French and Russians have been beaten as they almost certainly would have been if Britain hadn't come in who can imagine a victorious Germany allowing Britain to continue ruling the waves and the world's financial system any more than Hitler would have done if Churchill had tried to strike a deal with him in 1940 nothing gray said beforehand could have deterred the Germans because they had weighed Britain's military power and discounted it the little British army seemed incapable of influencing a huge clash of continental ptosis the Royal Navy was thought irrelevant because in the kaisers gone forwards dreadnaughts have no wheels the Foreign Secretary's secret and unwritten assurances to France seemed to me to have reflected not warmongering but prudent and essential precaution in July 1914 by proposing an immediate European conference graded all that he could to avert war sir Michael Howard is Britain's most distinguished living historian he and I have spent many hours discussing the vast puzzle of 1914 and crucially whether Britain could have done more to avert disaster things Gray's proposal which they rejected out of hand to address the confrontation between austria-hungary and Serbia by having a peace conference one the contemptible proposal was it if they wanted it I mean it was absolutely typical third typical great thing to do a typical sort of liberal solution and the Germans ridiculous rejected flatly because this will remain letting down the Austrians and they were not going to let down the Austrians the world since throughout all classes in Austria it is time to finish with the Serbs if we don't finish with the Serbs they will nibble us to death this is the moment to strike the Germans no name this was a case we're not going to being in the Austrians to debate about what their future was going to be so to that extent also would say that the the Germans were responsible for not letting there be a peaceful settlement on the 2nd of August the Germans issued an ultimatum to King Albert of Belgium demanding passage for their armies he flatly refused and appealed to Britain as a guarantor of his country's neutrality thus it fell to Sir Edward grey to convince a still reluctant British Parliament of the necessity for Britain to join the war on the continent on the afternoon of the 3rd of August Gray delivered the most important speech of his life to the House of Commons by now most of the cabinet believed that Britain must fight in the name of Belgium's rights could this country great amounted stand by and watch the darris crime that ever stained human history and thus become participators in the sin he added we should I believe sacrifice our respect and good name before the world and shall not escape the most serious and grave consequences this was one of those extraordinary parliamentary occasions that changed history he persuaded much of the Liberal Party hitherto bitterly hostile to intervention now to support it as the conservative opposition already did thus on the 4th of August 1914 after Berlin rejected an ultimatum demanding its withdrawal from Belgium Britain declared war on Germany was Belgium the real reason that Britain went to war in 1914 or as some historians nowadays try to argue oh it was just a pretext that the British government really wanted to fight anyway yeah well I would tend to say it's both and it's there there are two there are two arguments here one is the security of Belgium and the absence of a dominant power on the mainland of Europe is seen as central to Britain's strategic position they can't be the equivalent in Napoleon facing Britain across the channel and dominating Britain's routes to the rest of the world the second issue is does it matter that Germany disregards its international obligations enters Belgium which is a neutral state and fails to reflect both international law and the rights of small nations and the answer is it does matter and it matters because for Britain international law and what we might now see as morality also matters but it's more fundamental than that because Britain is is an economic power of trading power a power that depends on its shipping actually international law is more than just a sense of legal or moral obligation it's also a matter of economic necessity you need to respect international law to make sure that Britain can continue to exercise the degree of leverage it does as a neutral itself well some people say now oh it was incredibly silly for Britain to get involved in this horrific experience the first world war just because of the German army marched into Belgium but actually it seems to me it was a pretty good reason for going to war it was an excellent reason for going to war and it did something which at the beginning of the July crisis seemed unimaginable to many you know a united people United the cabinet and United the people you you within days the first reports appeared in the world's newspapers describing the extraordinary brutal conduct of German troops towards the Belgian people you or in seven when the Herero and nama tribes rebelled against german colonial rule in south-west africa the kaiser soldiers killed or deliberately starved to death almost a hundred thousand native people you in Flanders the destruction of the medieval university town of Luva today rebuilt from ashes became a symbol of the excesses of the kaisers soldiers endorsed by Berlin you John we're here in the University Library Lavar what happened here well on the 25th of August there was the sound of fighting German soldiers shooting but what they claimed was a civilian insurrection round about 11 o'clock in the evening this beautiful University library was broken into by the German soldiers and deliberately set fire one young jesuit father julia had written in his notebook that he thought the Germans in burning down the library had done something as barbaric as the destruction of the Library of Alexandria in antiquity this was seized by German soldiers and he was summarily executed and by the 29th or the 30th you have to imagine Hoover as an almost empty town the population that hadn't been deported gradually straggling back in to find between 1,500 and 2,000 buildings destroyed and well over 240 of their own townspeople had been killed all armies in all walls can behave very badly one seems different about what happened in Belgium in 1914 was that it wasn't just a question of of the odd soldiers brutally murdering a few civilians they were systematically shooting them in scores and sometimes in hundreds as hostages you're quite right but what we've just described in Luva was terrible incidents and it immediately grabbed the international headlines but it was typical of something that happened across the whole invasion front in Belgium and also in eastern France and it wasn't the worst case in terms of the death rates Dino was destroyed as a town in six hundred and seventy four of its inhabitants executed a two days before cold blood in call in in cold blood in the first weeks of the war nearly six and a half thousand civilians were executed by German troops in Belgium and France Berlin claimed that they were merely exacting legitimate reprisals for resistance by civilians so-called prompt areas but John Horhn rejects this you found no evidence at all to fracture our activity to do with guerrilla activity against the John no it was apart from the odd very isolated incident but nothing which justify the German accusations which was that there had been what they caught a fox Creek a People's War a mass uprising and the Kaiser already by the 9th of August only a week into the war is accusing the king of the belgians of fermenting such an uprising it didn't happen that was the institutional response of the German generals and right up to the Kaiser that seemed striking and it does seem to say something about the character of the regime that's right because very quickly what starts out as panics and localized responses by German soldiers is immediately endorsed by the whole German command structure and then what swings into play is a series of very brutal reprisals which are justified in terms of German military doctrine as to what you do when you're faced with civilian uprising for years apologists for Germany claimed that the Belgian atrocities were figments of allied propaganda some of the stories that made headlines in 1914 for instance claims that thousands of babies were maimed by German soldiers were indeed fabrications but a big truth persists the German army behaved with systemic barbarity during its advance across Belgium and France its actions persuaded many a hitherto doubting British people that they had chosen the right side in the ghastly conflict that was unfolding some historians today claim that the British government's decision to go to war in defense of Belgium's neutrality was simply a fig leaf a pretense when really it was all simply about supporting the French against the Germans I put it a bit differently yes it's true that some key ministers wanted to fight anyway but Belgium provided a tipping point all sorts of British people who care nothing for Serbia or Russia could easily get their minds around the notion that it was outrageous that the most powerful army in Europe proposed to crushed beneath its boots a small state simply to serve the convenience of the Schlieffen Plan and wasn't that indeed a decent and honorable reason for Britain to go to war had Germany had been victorious on the continent Britain would have found itself in a desperate and lonely a predicament if the Germans had won an hour hypothesize there would have been an anglo-german war within a matter of years the fear in Griffin was that a power which unified the continent would then be in a position to challenge Britain's command of the sea if she commanded and challenged and successfully overturned Britain's command of the sea not only where we no longer have an empire we will be at the mercy of whoever commanded the whole of Europe that was what the British feared that was war they were right to fear and they were right to fear it was a substantial element in Germany led by the Kaiser who one objective was to challenge Britain as a world power to build a great Navy which would then defeat the British and Germany would then become a world power at the expense of the British so if the Germans had won the war I see no way in which they would not have used their dominance of Europe to bring the resist on so we would not have avoided a war we would only have postponed one by early September the German army had swept through Belgium and into France with Berlin believing that its victory was imminent chancellor bethmann-hollweg drew up a list of his country's demands at the peace talks they included seizing large swaths of land from both France and Russia annexing Luxembourg making Belgium and Holland vassal states the September plan as it became known was designed to secure Germany's absolute political and economic control of Europe but in the second week of September the French army achieved a historic victory in the Battle of the Marne driving back the Germans from the gates of Paris what followed in the autumn of 1914 finally wrecked Germany's dream of swift victory it also witnessed the first big and seriously bloody battle of the war for the British in October the British Expeditionary Force marched towards the old Belgian cloth town of ich wipers as millions of British soldiers came to know it they arrived there just in time to clash head-on with a massive enemy offensive the last great German effort to win the war by Christmas what took place in the five weeks of battle around eeep set the pattern for the vision of the First World War which has been etched into our national culture ever since former soldier Clive Harris today guides visitors to the battlefields of the first world war and especially those around eat he's brought me to polygon wood one of the most famous or notorious landmarks of the desperate struggle in 1914 it's right at the edge of the Menem Road which runs back towards each which is about five six kilometers behind us now it's it's right at the center of the battlefield as well so from the moment the Germans attack us on the 18th of October right through to the last knockings our first leaps on the limb for November this this wood here and the two woods just to the rear of us were key as part of the batteries where other Germans made their last huge push of 1914 to try and win the war before course they did yeah they now realize that they needed to knock us out at the war and by doing so they needed to capture the Channel ports and therefore they moved away from the French life and plan to a degree and the capture of each this is the last thing other side of each there is no defenses it was our last chance there is nothing behind us but the Channel ports and there were battles all over the shop small battles they were all over the woods they were yeah we tend to think that the British line would be a continual line when in fact it was more a series of outposts and quite often units found themselves isolated and having to make small unit charges into Germans as opposed to a larger cohesive defense here in western belgium the war of maneuver ranging across thousands of square miles that have been waged through the late summer of 1914 gave way to a stalemate across the Western Front the technology of defense and destruction artillery and machine guns had achieved a dominance which confounded the generals of both sides but each cavalryman's saw their horses almost for the last time before being obliged to join a death grapple on foot over here this is the site of the Horse Guards memorial and it marks an area where the Horse Guards fighters infantry pretty much on this spot we're just on there so they came charging up dismounted yeah initially but this actual spots where one of the machine gun positions because it's a great arc of fire over advance in enemy but what seems important here Clyde it wasn't just that the British threw back the German army it was also the whole character of the war changed for all the armies that yeah was where they first came to terms with what everybody now understands as the full horror of the Great War trench warfare and this is the end of that war of movement that starts in the August all the way down to the Marne all the way back again and it's here that we start to dig dig dig so yeah we're on the spot where it changes and when it started to rain yeah they weren't on the earth they were on the mud yelling you have to learn to cope with things such as trench fur and how to get around that and reinforce your trenches to withstand bombardments we're no longer than sea artillery now in front of the infantry foreigners field guns they're going to be behind the lines or certainly in sunken lanes and that sort of thing nobody dare show his head above the parapet no this is we go subterranean from now on us right and any movement by day would have been suicidal yeah but the British paid a devastating price for their narrow victory a deep 56,000 British soldiers were killed or wounded in a month the old professional British Army was largely destroyed thereafter it would be civilian volunteers and later conscripts who were counted for the overwhelming majority of the six million British soldiers who eventually served but however terrible the sacrifice it seems mistaken to imagine that there was ever an easy means by which the war could have been ended Wow huzzah hurrah the hugely successful Blackadder series epitomizes the enduring popular view of the first world war that the British Army fell victim to idiot commanders devoid of brains or courage best of luck to you all sorry I can't be with you but obviously there's no place at the front for an old general with a Dickey Hart and a wooden bladder most of the wars commanders really were pretty unlovable and unimaginative men but once the most powerful industrial states in Europe were locked in strife it seems wrong to imagine that even of Willington or Napoleon could have found an easy road to victory George Orwell wrote a generation later that the only way to end a war quickly is to lose it he was right the trench stalemate on the Western Front posed intractable problems which no commander proved able to solve generals needed to be able to control their forces by telephone I could only do so from behind the front rather than at the head of their troops as on history's battlefields but the price of long distance command was to create a divide between the top brass in their shutters and their men calf deep in mud which has made enduring and bitter impact on posterity's view of the war in the summer of 1918 Allied forces finally broke the stalemate on the Western Front and pushed east across France with the British army taking more prisoners than all their allied partners put together the Germans exhausted and demoralized fell back in growing disarray until an armistice was signed on the 11th of November around 10 million competence 900,000 of them from the British Empire had lost their lives two months after the shooting stopped the victorious Allies convened a peace conference at the Palace of Versailles outside Paris their task was enormous their purposes the most ambitious in history the Versailles Summit has often since been branded a failure which condemned Europe to a further generation of strife Prime Minister Lloyd George French premier Georges Clemenceau and American President Woodrow Wilson led the negotiations involving delegations from many other interested nations which lasted for six months between January and June 1919 their intention was to produce a treaty that would not only reshape Europe but also ensure that there could never again be a great war by disarming the Germans and making them pay the costs of the conflict historian Margaret Macmillan is the author of the most compelling and vivid modern narrative of what happened at Versailles what was at stake for the Allied powers at Versailles I think they had two things yet to think about they were deeply concerned about the state of Europe and indeed their own countries included there was real fear of revolution and they were worried that the situation might deteriorate what was also at stake of course is they were democracies and they had to think of their publics and the public's had been led to believe and had been kept going in the war by the promise that it was going to make a much better world and so what they had to try and do is create a better world two incredibly ambitious objectives it was very ambitious but then of course the first world war is so unusual compared to earlier was because it was so exhausting that you couldn't just say at the end of it well that's it done we'll make a few border changes we'll go back to normal you couldn't go back to normal I seem to remember that the Germans eventually paid less than they had made the French pay after they beat the French in 1871 what the Allies couldn't say to their own people was look there's no way Germany can pay what really we need to rebuild because they their own people had suffered so much and so they had to put a bill in but what they did was they fudged it they divided the total reparations bill up so the Germans only paid a fraction once they paid the fraction they pay the worst which of course the Germans never wanted to do the Allies really failed afterwards to convince their own peoples that their calls have been just in there well I suppose the problem with the first world war is it that the expectations are so high the promises are so great and he all sorts of promises we know made during the war to try and keep people in the war but there's no way that all those promises can be cashed in after the war is over abuse fell upon the Versailles Treaty almost before ink was dry on the signatures the economist John Maynard Keynes one of the British Treasury delegation published a scathing broadside entitled the economic consequences of the peace a strong German sympathizer Keynes made a case that the terms imposed upon Germany were both morally unjust and economically foolish how influential was Maynard Keynes and his book the economic consequences of the peace which absolutely damned Versailles it was very influential I mean he wrote it very quickly it became a best-seller immediately it's been in print ever since and it's a brilliant polemic it's not fair he paints this picture of these greedy selfish hurt hearted cynical meant dividing up you're punishing Germany and they're just making a complete mess of it I think there's also he represents a whole generation of younger people who have supported the war believing that the world was going to be a better place and when they saw it wasn't going to be they reacted and blamed the people who are trying to make peace for everything I was thought one of the huge unfairness is of Kansas book is did he never set it in the context of saying all right even if the Allies have made a fumbled bungled piece if the Germans had won and if the Germans have been making the peace it would have been a vastly crueler and worst one for Europe I think there's plenty of evidence that what the German High Command they were basically in control of Germany by this point by 1918 you had a military dictatorship in Germany and what they were planning were pretty extensive annexations of other people's lands in the West and in the East they were planning to extend their influence they in the Treaty of brest-litovsk they had forced the Bolsheviks who were desperate to give over whatever gold they had left they'd set up an independent Ukraine I mean the evidence is unless they've had a complete change of heart it would have been a very harsh peace today an awful lot of people have come to feel a real guilt about the Treaty of Versailles oh it was an unfair treaty to Germany that it contributed to the rise of Hitler got it well was it the harsh spending tip treaty they claimed the trouble with the treaty I think is that it appeared to be harsher than it actually was and of course it was all about implementation and in the end those clauses which limited German power and forced Germany pay reparations were not really implemented fully and so I think there's a perception of the treaty is very harsh my question always is is what would you have done otherwise how would you have treated Germany if you felt it had caused the war and caused this catastrophe for Europe what would you have done wouldn't you have tried to limit its power because Versailles failed to deliver a lasting peace it has become unjustly blamed for the fact that a second world war had to be fought in truth so many violent forces and crises shook Europe between 1919 and 1939 but it seems absurd to blame the peacemakers for having failed in their ground purposes you erosion 1945 vet country run by Labour government committed to creating a welfare state after 1918 the old gang remained in charge of an unreformed British society those who had fought felt that they had been sold a full spill of goods I own grandfather a writer who won a Military Cross as a gunner officer in France became one of those who within a few years of the Armistice asked himself what it had all been for here's an essay my grandfather wrote for a literary magazine in 1923 after meeting a group of fellow veterans who served with him in France they now felt he said that they had gone not as heroes but on a fool's errand to fight in a war that was not worth fighting they'd endured the unsightly dirty life of the battlefields with a cheery and modest sense of Merit with a belief that they were making some contribution to a good cause but now it transpired this had been a stupid article of faith which was exploded my grandfather and his kind felt themselves strangers in a strange land divided by the horrendous trench experience from those at home who knew almost nothing about it the poets of the Western Front such manners Wilfred Aaron Robert Graves siegfried sassoon vividly described its Horrors on the sense of military futility in a fashion that later generations have found irresistible here was the world's worst wound and here with pride they're named liveth forever more the Gateway claims was ever an emulation so belied as these intolerably nameless names well might the dead who struggled in the slime rise and derived this Sepulcher of crime but Sassoon and his kind never addressed the huge question of how on earth Britain could have escaped from the war except by conceding defeat it's a weird British thing that while we're hugely proud that our forefathers fought Hitler we seem almost ashamed that they fought the Kaiser how was the overwhelming perception developed in Britain over the last hundred years that there was nothing worth fighting about in the First World War well the interesting point is not so much that after the war opinion changed or opinion veered to the point when he said that was a bad war it was bad to conduct it it was a waste of time to waste of blood and it should never have happened nobody thought that in 1918 I think nobody thought that for another ten years until about 1920 8 9 the poet's did but the interesting thing is whether people would have been interested and affected by what the poets wrote they became expressive of a public opinion in 1928 they weren't expressive in in 1918 at the end of the 1920s there's this worldwide slump total catastrophic unemployment everywhere especially in Germany the situation seemed to be far worse in 1928 than it had been in 1914 and by 1933 also it has become generally accepted that the war is an unnecessary war that had been bungled etc etcetera so I think that what was very very important was not so much the fact that the war had been terribly expensive and bloody and the losses were awful it was that nothing seemed to have come out of it of any good europe's descent into the turmoil and privations of the 1930s caused many people to view the Great War as bungled the peace shambolic some perversely blamed the victors for the rise of Hitler and Nazism while many people today still think of the First World War was a bad war ii has come to be seen by contrast as a virtuous crusade against the Nazi architects of genocide nobody went to war in 1939 to stop the Germans massacring the Jews I mean sad though maybe you've said that partly because of course the serious massacres hadn't yet begun but principally because Germany might be doing awful things Nazi Germany domestically but in those days nobody saw that as an obligation to go to war in the way in which we would today so in some respects both wars break out for similar reasons great power rivalries and the concerns of the balance of power within Europe and what is happening within Eastern Europe they're remarkably similar in their causation and it is perverse that we have closed that the Second World War is the good war in the First World War is the bad war and and of course we have not remained sufficiently I'm talking we as British now have not remained sufficiently independent minded or sufficiently historically aware to put these things in our own and a proper context no sane person believes that Britain wanted a war in 1914 all the great powers bear some responsibility for the carnage but the Germans seem to deserve most because they refuse to use their almost indisputable ability to prevent it they failed to see that nothing they hope to get out of the war could justify its horrendous prospective risk an actual cost Britain emerged from the first world war was little to show save a few worthless colonies and a host of public memorials but the right questions to ask about the conflict and the nation's sacrifice today are whether we could just Lee or sensibly have stayed out of it and what would have befallen Europe if the kaisers Germany had won I'm imagining Whitehall as it was on the 4th of August jam with expectant people about to be swept away by the most dreadful Cataclysm in European history nobody in their right mind would suggest to making the centenary of 1914 an occasion for celebration but we should have the courage to tell our children and grandchildren though the wartime generation did not fight and die for nothing but if their enemies had prevailed Europe would have paid an even more terrible forfeit you you

Science & The Swastika: The Wrong Stuff | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

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Looks at how after the Second World War the American military recruited dozens of German scientists. Amongst them was Professor Hubertus Strughold whose subsequent development of space medicine made a large contribution in the ability to send astronauts to the Moon. However, as a Nazi doctor he was involved in inhuman experiments at Dachau concentration camp, using inmates in experiments on the effects of high altitude and extreme cold. Looks at how far the Apollo moon programme may have been tainted by Nazi war crimes and criminals.

Germans are known for their high standards and attention to detail. From early progress in the link between smoking and cancer, to triumphs in aviation – their scientists have been among the greatest in the world. This four-part series examines the effect Hitler’s Nazi regime had on the scientific progress in the country – from world leaders to crumbled ruins.Science And The Swastika investigates how biology, medicine, physics and aviation fared during the Thousand Year Reich. An uncomfortable truth emerges – while some scientific work was carried out to morally repugnant ends, many German scientists actually did ‘good science’, rigorously conducted in a dispassionate and rational way. This troubling legacy demands that we continue to question our understanding of science and the moral responsibilities of scientists.
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Life Inside Mafia – Biggest Mafia War in The History – Documentary 2019

Life Inside Mafia – Biggest Mafia War in The History – Documentary 2019

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you when you join the will cause a nostril you're in it for life you have to have honor and respect but when somebody does something wrong I mean you know they're going to get killed Louis DeMarco was a junkie who was stinking got a made member of the floor laughter La Casa Nostra so Angelo Bruno's told us find them and kill me and Vincent Falcone hid in the one of the rooms in the hotel and we waited for the luis de Marco to walk to his car when he came out I ran out first and shot him in the back of the head the power of the blast of the bullet pushed him so much forward it looked like he was running away after he fell down and ran over him auntie Mike gone into him after we shot him being Vincent Arcona ran through the alleyway and when we hit this certain spot we threw both guns up onto this roof and we continued running to my uncle where he picked us up in the car when I committed my first murder it felt like I was doing a good deed for our family I was killing a bad man mob warfare is on the rise all across the nation it's just the latest sign of organized crime in America becoming more and more disorganized it's 1980 and the United States government is locked in a battle to the death with New York's five major mob families that sends the message to these people that they cannot be above the law and that they will be brought to justice and they will be convicted but the secret society known as Cosa Nostra still remains immensely powerful throughout the country a force for corruption and extreme violence especially in the city of Philadelphia police say that calibrates was ambushed by two gunmen and ski masks as he walked to his car home to the most violent crime family in the history of the mob these men are witnesses to that secret history stepping out of the shadows now to tell their stories firsthand a few remain in the shadows fearing for their personal safety afraid of an organization with branches all over the country like Philadelphia what happens here in the 1980s will have a direct impact on the heart of organized crime in New York as one of the most prominent figures in the Philly mob decides to cooperate with the United States government this man Philip Leonetti still with a bounty on his head has come out of hiding to tell his story to protect his identity his face must be blurred at all times in Philadelphia he's known as crazy Phil I got a nickname crazy Phil from a radio announcer and I told my uncle said can't I do something about this and he told me no pun intended says are you crazy he said guys would pay money to have a nickname like that you're told you that you need two things in life my uncle Nick Scarfo always told me you always have to use your brains in this thing and you always have to use the gun leonetti's uncle Nicky Scarfo is a captain in the Philadelphia mob but the mobs rule in Philadelphia isn't autonomous they're overseen by the governing body known as the Commission run by the bosses of the five families in New York the Commission was formed in 1931 in Atlantic City were started by a guy named Lucky Luciano Luciano decided that he was going to organize this into a business the New York Commission which truly governed the five families in New York City and had very specific powers with regional bosses sit on the Commission to and some of them are independent outfits not under New York's influence but others are directly under New York's control and Philadelphia is one of these it's been overseen by the Gambino family for decades thanks to the influence of legendary old time Gangster Carlo Gambino there's always been a strong connection between New York and Philadelphia it's only 90 miles away and Philadelphia's always been in the shadow of New York if you look at organized crime at the Mafia Cosa Nostra's New York is the major leagues Philadelphia is a triple-a franchise the Gambino Philly connection goes back to 1959 when Carlo Gambino personally backs Angelo Bruno as the boss of Philadelphia their relationship goes back to when they were young guys they were bootleggers together and all Angie's power as boss was because of Carlo Gambino Bruno's satella Commission and Carlo Gambino had Bruno's proxy vote whenever Bruno couldn't be there Bruno is known in Philadelphia as the docile Don he'd like to keep a very low profile he was more like a CEO of a company he wasn't too much of a gangster I mean he ordered murders and all the athlete he wanted everything done quietly he wanted everybody buried he didn't wanna leave anybody in the street this was a almost an hour of relative stability and peace in the other world Angela Marilla I did there was a time when my great-grandmother died and we went to the week and Angelo Bruno came in to pay his respects and I said who's that guy because when he was walking in he had what kinds of look like security around him my uncle he told me that's Angelo Bruno he's the boss of our family so from a very young age realized that he was the boss but then Carlo Gambino dies in New York in 1976 and the two cities relationship changes when Carlo Gambino died Anja lost a lot of power without the personal backing of Carlo Gambino Phillie boss Bruno is vulnerable and his long and relatively stable reign ends in 1980 on a night that sends shockwaves around the city he had going to a restaurant in South Philadelphia for dinner that night was driven home he's parked in front of his house his driver was sitting next to him Bruno smoking a cigarette the driver pushes the remote control the windows go down and then out of the shadows comes this guy in a raincoat pulls a shotgun out shoots Bruno in the back of the head law enforcement left the body in the car for about two and a half hours it's on a Friday night all the neighborhood comes out all the media comes out and there's this Bruno leaning back his mouth wide opening it kind of a death screen the murder of Bruno changed the game everybody New York was going crazy like here's a boss of a full L feel Cosa Nostra family getting killed what's going on talk in the street is that one of New York's other five families the Genovese is the force behind the Bruno hit no one's ever been prosecuted for the Bruno murder because they've all turned up dead but the underworld and law enforcement theory is a convoluted tale of double cross a triple cross Bruno didn't want his guys dealing drugs and a couple guys including his console Gary Tony bananas Caponigro was dealing heroin on the side he had to do it on a snake Kathlyn egg was upset about Bruno and he's grassing up there in Newark about this he won't let us do this he won't let us do that and and he talked to some people in the Genovese family about his concerns they imply that it's okay do what you got to do he thinks he's got the Commission approval to wacky who know because you can't whack a mob boss without Commission approval so Caponigro carries it out then he goes up to for what he thinks is gonna be a meeting where he's gonna be crowned the new boss at Philadelphia and he gets garroted stabbed and brutally killed and they stick $20 bills in his mouth and in his anus to show that he had been greedy and they leave his body in the South Bronx and then three other guys that were connected to him at that point also turn up dead in similar fashion the Genovese family is moving behind the scenes to take control of Philly they are the most secretive and slippery of all the five Mafia families not even the other mob bosses know who's really in charge they considered the Ivy League of organized crime in New York City they're smart because they're very screwed they're quiet they're very intelligent very sophisticated they're the smartest the most crafty they knew what they were doing they don't like to get their hands dirty the Genovese have their reasons for making such a bold move Atlantic City for most of the two decades the Gambino's ruled the Philadelphia territory Atlantic City is a quiet coastal resort town in decline but in 1976 everything changes an Atlantic city becomes a crown jewel of organized crime 1976 is a casino gambling referendum legalization of casinos in Atlantic City all of a sudden that's the Boomtown money to be made construction unions legal gambling illegal gambling and so who's our guy down there our guy down there's Nicky Scarfo Nicodemo Little Nicky Scarfo a captain in the Philly mob with a ferocious reputation bar foes not a a large man but he's very violent man he's a very vicious man so I guess he makes up for whatever there may be lacking in height with respect to to violence you know it turns out if the Genovese family wanted my uncle Nick Scarfo to be the boss of the family and with that they knew they would have the Philadelphia family on their side with any votes on the Commission so my uncle said we'll wait a minute you know full test is the underboss and he is my friend so I don't think it would be right you know for me just to step in his boss with Bruno out Phil testa becomes the new boss of Philadelphia my uncle in full testing they grew up together they knew each other for a long time that was his best friend who referred to him as lefty because he would always throw zingers at you to see how you would react and he always had to be careful the Bruno hit paves the way for the rise of Scarfo in his own gang when Angelo Bruno was killed we're really happy about it because Angelo Bruno wasn't doing anything for us we were like stuck in limbo he wasn't going to make us he wasn't going to send any work our way or give us an opportunity to make money for Scarfo and Leonetti Bruno's death is the break they've been waiting for their new boss Phil testa is a friend and they intend to take full advantage of that relationship by the 1980s Atlantic City as a boomtown thanks to legalized gambling and the fortunes of the Philadelphia mob and its boss Phil testa are taking off with it there were opportunities for the mob that didn't exist before I mean all of a sudden the state of New Jersey has legalized a vice casino has made a ton of money after they're built but to get them built it cost them at that time I think was like 500,000 a day we laid the foundation for what we wanted to do started with the unions and got all of them under our control we were in a position to make big big money the Mafia became more powerful than any organized crime group had ever become because they had morphed into an organization that had economic power political power controlled industries the Philadelphia mob starts a company to take advantage of the construction boom naming it after the man in charge testa's trusted consul Gary Nicky Scarfo I formed skarf Inc which was a concrete company I was doing all Union jobs but I was in non-union contractor nobody bothered me because naturally they knew who I was if you don't want labor problems and delays then your general contractor better hire scarf Inc as the sub who's gonna pour the cement and that's the way they legitimize some of what they were doing no criminal organization in the history of our country has ever infiltrated legitimate institutions of society the way the Mafia was able to do and there's another mob growth industry in this new gambling mecca loan-sharking we started lending people money for so many points like one ten thousand dollars if you charged them five points you'd be making five hundred a week just in interest until they paid at ten thousand dollars back you already have a reputation for violence so for someone to come to borrow money from us they got to be really desperate it's karfas job to collect and Phil Leonetti is his indispensable man born and bred to be his uncle's soldier Phil Leonetti was a fairly intelligent kid he played basketball for Holy Spirit high school was a point guard and at one point I wanted to go to pharmacy school but his uncle he said pharmacist of sissies you don't want to be a pharmacist his uncle has groomed him since childhood to be a soldier in his mob I was about eight years old my uncle Nick Scarfo came to me said Phillip I want you to take a ride with me while we were in this pickup truck he was telling me the story of this guy this bad guy dreads Crusoe who he just killed and he said he was a very bad man and we used the truck to dump his body now what we're going to do is bring the truck to Philadelphia to get it chopped off to get rid of it and he says I'm bringing you with me so it doesn't look too suspicious I don't want to be stopped by the police or anything you know it made me feel big because he was actually telling me I was an eight year old kid he was making me feel like an adult my mother hated him and my mother always told me what are you doing hanging around with this man stay away from him he's crazy my mother always referred to him as Hitler leonetti sees firsthand how people regard his uncle on the boardwalk as a celebrity my uncle would take me to the beach in the summertime and this one time we were walking down from the boardwalk onto the beach and there was fellas there he's really big guys with tattoos all over the place which scared me half to death because I was about ten years old but as we got closer when they seen my uncle they went absolutely crazy they called him said Nick how you doing they did everything but kiss his feet I mean they showed him all kinds of respect and I said wow they made a big impression on me that you know in my mind that's the type of person I wanted to be a big part of scarfo's aura is his reputation as a stone-cold killer a rep that goes back decades to a notorious incident in a diner my uncle Nick Scarfo is been a diner and he got in a fight with a real big fella this man was choking my uncle he was ready to pass out at the counter but as he was being choked he reached back on the counter and grabbed a butter knife and stab this guy in the heart and the guy died the way he stabbed them it just happened to hit the guy's heart and if it didn't pierce his heart I mean it would have been just a regular stab wound now he's arrested and he ends up being convicted of manslaughter his argument was it was in self-defense but he made out pretty good because he had 6:18 once he served like six months and was released and that's just the beginning of one of the bloodiest careers in the history of the American mob in the 1980s New York's five Mafia families rule organized crime in America with an iron fist exerting their power through regional bosses like Phil testa and his henchman Nicky Scarfo in Philadelphia if we have a problem with someone we don't call the police we take care of ourselves and Scarfo grooms his nephew Phil Leonetti for years towards his one true goal becoming a made man in his crime family my uncle Nick Scarfo always told me that to get involved but the locos in Auster you got to commit a murder and with him he wanted me to kill two people of course he wanted me have a reputation as a killer like he did a lot of people watching and killing and it's the furthest thing in their experience maybe you can help us understand what's new mind I had no feelings one way or the other I didn't enjoy it I didn't dislike it I just did my job my duty and kill no legitimate people no nice people all the guys I killed were guys like myself everybody was a bad guy I mean this was our life and will cost in Austria but leonetti is nicky scarfo's nephew which means the bar to becoming a made man is higher and bloodier he must kill again and the target this time is Vincent Falcone his partner on the first murder in the case of Vincent Falcone yeah he deserved to get killed anyway he was talking about my uncle saying crazy things about him and my uncle went completely berserk and decided to kill him so we may believe we were going to have a party at this house of Margate he was getting a little suspicious so I tried to break the ice a little bit by telling him go make some drinks get the Scotch well you know we'll have a few drinks and roll called the canal that I had in my waist and shot him behind the head he fell down and my uncle checked out Vince's body listen to his heart he says give him another shot shoot him again in his fart looks in to the face of the corpse of Vincent Falcone and says I love this I absolutely love this he loved murder he loved killing people he always says you got to kill you got to keep on killing him my uncle just kept saying I love this so much the Big Shots dead and he drank so much scotch he got drunk he was falling down drunk that's how happy he was this is the first time and only time that he hooked me and kissed me and told me he loved me and then he said this was big it's on record now that we did something for the family and I'm a proposed member so I'm on my way to be made traditionally to get involved in the Mafia and you you would be an associate at first maybe you're picking up some money taking money here there if you get involved and you become an earner somebody who can be trusted you become a higher associate eventually you may be proposed for membership becoming a made man is the pinnacle in the American mob the moment when a wannabe gangster becomes the real thing it's called making your balls and these mob families in a making ceremony they pay allegiance not to the flag they pay allegiance to the gun and the knife those who become inducted into it to pledge their allegiance to the criminal society and not to turn on or cooperate with law enforcement or reveal the secrets of this criminal gang leonetti's allegiance to mob boss Phil testa is now secured my uncle told us that phil was opening up the books to La Casa Nostra to make people there was a big circle formed and I walked in the center of the circle and who's sitting down at the head of the table is Philip testa and my uncle Nick Scarfo and the first question Philip testa s me is do you know why you're here naturally I know why I'm there but you're supposed to say no and when you say that everybody lasts because everybody knows you know why you're there and then he says if I needed you and your mother was dying on a deathbed would you come to me or would you go to your mother I said I would come to here first of all he says I know you would he said do you see this gun in this knife on the table I said yeah he says would you use that to protect anybody here I said yes I would he says ok what we want to do is I got a picture of a saint here says your uncle's gonna prick your finger and then I want to like the picture of this st. on fire and put it in your palms he told me cup your hands and as the picture of the saint is burning I want you to juggle it in your hands and as you're juggling you I want you to say may I burn like this Saint if I betrayed my friends and at that point I was a fully initiated member and it meant more actually me being me to my uncle then it did to me he felt like he felt proud it was like I'm part of his world now then overnight that world is rocked to its foundations Phillip chicken man testa blown up by a bomb on his front doorstep phil chicken man testa is probably the only gangster celebrated in a Bruce Springsteen song and there's a line in the in the song they blew up the chicken man last night testa walks through his front door and a bomb detonates blowing him to pieces the noise so loud the neighbors think the nearby gas refinery has exploded it's the dawn of a bloody new era in Philly testa's assassination allows Nicky Scarfo to rise to the throne of boss the struggle for Philadelphia between the two of New York's prominent Mafia families the Gambino's and the Genovese now tips towards the Genovese they know and trust Nicky Scarfo Scarfo has a line to New York with the Genovese family the reason he has that line is he was in jail with a couple other wiseguys from New Jersey including Louis Bobby manna so after they got out of prison they kept that relationship going but the question remains who killed Phil testa Vincent Gigante was the boss of the Genovese family and a really member of the Commission was concerned about what happened in Philadelphia namely the unsanctioned unapproved by the Commission murders hits of two mob bosses first Angelo Bruno in 1980 and now Phil testa in 1981 if that went unchecked people in Cosa Nostra would get the idea that you could kill a boss of a family without Commission approval without consequence the Genovese family now has its man at the top in Philadelphia but there's some unfinished business they told my uncle whoever was involved kill them and that's what we did after Philadelphia mob boss Phil testa is blown up in his own home in 1981 the Genovese crime family summons the leaders of the Philly mob to New York first sit down and quickly identify the killers she gotta have fried chicken or doochie a kapil who was considered a prime mover behind the test of murder newly appointed Philly mob boss Nicky Scarfo was given the contract to administer mob justice hey told my uncle whoever was involved killer Phil Leonetti and his friends savvy test to carry out the death sentence skarphol gets tested son salvie testa to be one of his main shooters in all of this and Salvi was on him it was his father and he wanted justice he wanted to kill everybody salvie testa was on chickie Narducci every day until finally one day he caught him just right Salvy told me full I just gave him enough time to look at my face before I shot him when salvie testa's shot and killed Frank nor do Qi according to a couple wiseguys I talked to salvie testa's said I wish he would come back to life so I could shoot him again salvie testa's on the warpath to avenge his father's murder and Narducci is not the only one to feel his wrath the guy who planted the bomb was a mob associate named rocco Marunouchi he's found dead a year to the day of the test of murder his body is on the in an abandoned lot in South Philadelphia and he's got three large firecrackers stuck in his mouth that was the Vengeance that he wanted because of the death of his father but the Scarfo gangs wave of violence starts bringing real law enforcement heat and they soon charge scarfo's soldier Phil Leonetti for the murder of Vincent Falcone they found Vincent Falcone's body a day later in the trunk of his car in Margate New Jersey and once they found this body then you know there started investigating the murder the cops squeeze a local plumber named Joe Salerno they went to go see Joe Solano just as a fluke because they'd seen him around us they never suspected that he would be involved with a murder and he just spilled to being hit and start telling him everything and they were shocked they couldn't believe it Salerno witnessed the Falcone murder and gives them all up the government now has its star witness and arrests the ranking leaders of the skarphol gang we were facing life if we get convicted we're going to go away for 25 years and we were ready for it I mean we all accepted it Salerno describes the crime and gruesome detail he was one of the most compelling witnesses that we had because the way he described it the emotion with which he described it he could not be making that up but 10:00 on cross-examination there was too many statements that they made that we used against them the state had hoped an eyewitness account of the December murder would be enough to put the three behind bars but the Ben managed to successfully discredit the state's key witness Joseph Salerno as we were walking out of the courtroom if the verdict was read television guy came up to him and says when he got to say Nick he said thank God for the American Jewish system and honest you're my uncle said that we got away with murder I mean we beat this thing there's no way we should have beat this case how does it feel to be home it's just one more example of the power of the American mob even in the 1980s it's immune from prosecution Scarfo is back on the streets looking untouchable the new boss of Philadelphia once my uncle becomes a boss it was a great moment for us and for our family push now we had all the union's in Atlantic City and we had all the unions in Philadelphia so we were in a position now to make money since my uncle is the boss all the captains have to start handing in whatever they make a piece of every illegitimate business out there and giving him his end and now he's got this honey pot in Atlantic City wants everybody to pay tribute so now he's starting to collect street tax anybody's making money he's got to give him money we called that the elbow us shaking down all these illegal businesses because it's strong-arm and that's what it meant so we didn't have to say it if we were out talking and we were worried about getting picked up the surveillance we just went like this we were making millions of dollars every year from the elbow it would make scores sometimes with drug deals for 200-300 thousand at a time but unlike former boss Angelo Bruno mere wealth may not be enough for Nicky Scarfo someone said you should never make a poor man the boss because it gets greedy and he loses sight of what it's about I mean Bruno saw himself I think as the caretaker of an institution and he made plenty of money but the idea was to ensure the continuation of the institution Scarfo was just about it's mine now give me the money but money and success don't dampen scarf was appetite for violence if anything they increase it his reign becomes a reign of terror Scarfo was like a Molotov cocktail you never knew it was going to explode and you never knew when it was going to explode in your presence and you were going to be a victim bruno ruled with an iron fist covered with a velvet glove Scarfo saw no need for the glove and where Bruno murder was the negotiating tool of last resort for Scarfo murder was a calling card Scarfo enforces his street tax without mercy every conflict was settled through the barrel of the gun a mob war his left 18 men dead in the last four years this is what the Scarfo mob was about this captures the cold-bloodedness of the Scarfo mob the body count keeps rising and the fear escalates permeating the streets of Philadelphia we went to Bobby stones jewelry store but on our way to the store Sammy says let's go see this enrico riccobene let's go shake him up but enrico riccobene is no gangster he's a legitimate jeweler so we go to his window in front of his store there and we're banging on the window and Sammy's yelling open the door Nico Banna is terrified and retreats to the back of the store so when you think nothing of it about 10-15 minutes went by all cops surrounded us picked us up took us in I didn't know what was going on come to find out later one the kid got so scared that we were banging on the window wanting to talk to him he blew his brains out people were scared of us both of us were sons of made guys so people were scared to death of us Salvy said that we don't even have to kill these guys anymore he was telling me they'll kill themselves in the streets of Philadelphia in the 1980s mob boss Nicky Scarfo grows angry with the popularity of one of his own captains this man salvie testa the son of former boss Phil testa scarf owned his gang or raking in millions but money doesn't stop his paranoia about one of his own men salvie testa would be known as a real-deal mobster he was someone who was very loyal to Scarfo everyone else looked up to they admired somebody that they wanted to follow leonetti and salvie testa were contemporaries salvie testa's father was chicken man testa the underboss leonetti's uncle father figure was scar for the consiglieri they came from the same place in that respect and Philip testa was my uncle's best friend and Philip testa even told my uncle if anything ever happens to me please take care of my son but Salvi's high profile puts him squarely in scarfo's crosshairs The Wall Street Journal does a front-page article calling him the Mafia Prince of Philadelphia and they call him this charismatic and he was a handsome young guy stocky well-built but the girls loved him his father was the boss who had been killed he had the bloodlines software apparently went nuts this guy's did you know ultimately he's gonna come after me and and leonetti kept his mouth shut when all this was going on I didn't know what to do he was my best friend and we grew up together I didn't I thought about killing my uncle a different man oh but I couldn't kill him because I just couldn't do it I was like you know I was just I was just there but Scarfo issues the order and that's all it takes shall be new he felt you know he felt the vibes when we were saying goodbye he's shocky kiss Salvi kissed him on the lips like the kiss of death well when it happened what happened to you well I knew we would want to get killed I could do nothing about it just let it happen Joey punched drove him over to this store that was empty when he went to go shake weyni granny's hand Joey granny shot him in the back of the head I wanted to tell him but it's not the type of kid if I told him he was gonna run away he was gonna shoot it out I did what I had to do because that's the way I was brought up I thought I was doing something good but that's how I am that was my life his murder I think epitomized all that was wrong with the skarphol organization and again it's not to say that any murders ever right but salvie testa literally put his life on the line for Scarfo when scarf ER became the boss the Salvatore testa funeral procession arrived at st. Paul's Catholic Church in South Philadelphia shortly after 10:00 this morning skarphol had a fatal flaw his fatal flaw was a blood lust and that blood lust psychopathically drove him and his decisions and it was his decision to murder salvie testa that was really the breaking point salvie testa's murder sends a clear signal to everyone in the Philadelphia mob no one is safe all the main guys all the tough guys all the gangsters are scared to death of what my uncle did because they're saying if he could kill savvy who was like his son we don't stand a chance here by 1984 everyone under Scarfo now begins fearing for their own safety Scarfo is a psychopath and he's paranoid he's always worried about who's gonna turn on him and who's gonna come out and because that's his mindset you know he's always you gotta kill somebody before they kill you after test his death Scarfo shakes up the family structure demoting even old friends like Chuckie Merlino chuffy down their son before send him a meeting on the ghost it was that wanting unnecessary violence the treachery the turning on guys that had put their life on the line for you all of that which flied in the face of the whole Godfather Honors Society all of that nonsense leonetti like other members of the organization realized he's taking us all over a cliff I lost faith in my uncle and I lost face and of course an ostrich because he was the boss he didn't follow any of the rules that he wanted everybody else to follow scarfo's bloodlust is bad enough but things get worse when the law closes in on him and his by the mid-1980s the walls are closing in on Philly mob boss Little Nicky Scarfo first he starts killing any of his gang he can't trust and then the law starts arresting the others nick caramandi who was friendly with my uncle was a con man so he wind up getting in trouble he wind up taking a fall and getting indicted and he knew my uncle was mad at him and he thought my uncle's going to killed so from prison he calls the FBI virtually the same time tommy delgiorno was being told by the New Jersey State Police you got this problem he flips now to skarphol family members have turned increasing the heat on the boss Little Nicky he is the only one who can okay the crime of murder del giorno said and went on to list 14 hits ordered by his boss all the law enforcement agencies never had a mobster become a government witness we now did we had it we caused the two individuals felt that they had become sideways with scarfin so the choice isn't so hard then become a government witness in 1986 the Justice Department indict Scarfo and most of his leadership on charges of conspiracy and murder the enterprise was known this was going to be the last time that we would be able to go in and prosecute Scarfo and this time the setting was done on the smartphone it was all his Mob members they were the Capo's it was the soldiers we had 17 defendants in the courtroom 17 lawyers this time law enforcement truly not only was energized it was galvanize Nicodemo Little Nicky Scarfo has reigned over Philadelphia and Atlantic City as one of the nation's most violent Mafia bosses but the reputed skarphol crime family may be about to crumble from within prayin I said I hope I beat this case I'll get out of here and get away from him and if I don't beat it I'm gonna get my family my kid out of here I'll call the feds up and start cooperating the state of New Jersey versus Nicodemo Scarfo Philip Leonetti and others as council first after a two-month trial Scarfo leonetti and 15 other members of the Philadelphia mob are convicted on racketeering charges in November 1988 I was charged I believe with four murders extortions gambling beatings I was facing 45 years and at that point where he got 45 years he decided to cooperate and I remember on a Sunday I get a call from another reporter who covers federal court and she says to me leonetti has flipped my decision to cooperate was a very very hard decision even though I was so disgusted with my uncle but it was a decision I wanted to make I don't want my son to grow up in this environment and I mean that sent shockwaves people in law enforcement couldn't believe at number one and people in the other world work you know this is a guy who was inside the inner circle you know it was a circle within a circle kind of thing he was there Leonetti was really at that point the highest-ranking Mob member ever to turn to become a government witness on top of that leonetti was scarfo's nephew that made his cooperation then even more significant and as a witness he was probably one of the most effective that I've ever seen in vivid detail Leonetti describes the scene of the crime when he murders Vincent Falcone in cold blood he makes clear that Scarfo was calling the shots leonetti's testimony does permanent damage to the Philadelphia mob which never fully recovers skarphol himself is currently serving out a life sentence in a maximum-security prison in North Carolina and Leonetti testified and he ultimately had a sentence reduced to five years five months and five days and today leonetti's a free man with the family of his own I have a new life now a lot of guys that I was friendly with went away for 20-30 years but you know most of my friends like Salvi he's dead Lawrence Murrell II know he died my uncle's still living but hold it forever until I get killed until he kills me that's why Leonetti remains in the shadows even now every day he fears the possibility of his uncle's wrath in the form of an execution there's a contract that all my life he wants to kill me my family my uncle knows a lot of people especially in New York and he can find help to have me killed so I've got to be careful law enforcement would not have been successful without scarfo's commitment to violence his decision to murder salvie testa was his Waterloo and the death knell for the Philadelphia mob family and it was the death knell for omerta within the Philadelphia mob whatever relationships they have those don't exist anymore whatever power they had doesn't exist anymore they have been reduced to a street gang as the old mafia dies so will more of its members it's a very bad time for the mob leonetti's cooperation is the beginning of a domino effect within the five families of the New York mob a sign that the old traditions of loyalty and secrecy of what's called omerta a giving way to the pressure of a newly invigorated Justice Department the department which will use men like crazy phil leonetti to attack an entire generation of mobsters the arrests continued the FBI said it was the worst night ever and it will serve as a death knell of New York's infamous five families thank you they imply that it's okay do what you got to do he thinks he's got the Commission approval to whack uno because you can't whack a mob boss without Commission approval so Caponigro carries it out then he goes up to for what he thinks is gonna be a meeting where he's gonna be crowned the new boss at Philadelphia and he gets garroted stabbed and brutally killed and they stick $20 bills in his mouth and in his anus to show that he had been greedy and they leave his body in the South Bronx and then three other guys that were connected to him at that point also turn up dead in similar fashion the Genovese family is moving behind the scenes to take control of Philly they are the most secretive and slippery of all the five Mafia families not even the other mob bosses know who's really in charge they considered the Ivy League of organized crime in New York City they're smart because they're very screwed they're quiet they're very intelligent very sophisticated they're the smartest the most crafty they knew what they were doing they don't like to get their hands dirty the Genovese have their reasons for making such a bold move Atlantic City for most of the two decades the Gambino's ruled the Philadelphia territory Atlantic City is a quiet coastal resort town in decline but in 1976 everything changes an Atlantic city becomes a crown jewel of organized crime 1976 is a casino gambling referendum legalization of casinos in Atlantic City all of a sudden that's the Boomtown manner money to be made construction unions illegal gambling illegal gambling and so who's our guide down there our guy down there is Nicky Scarfo Nicodemo Little Nicky Scarfo a captain in the Philly mob with a ferocious reputation bar foes not a a large man but he's very violent man he's a very vicious man so I guess he makes up for whatever there may be lacking in height with respect to to violence you know it turns out of the Genovese family wanted my uncle Nick Scarfo to be the boss of the family and with that they knew they would have the Philadelphia family on their side with any votes on the Commission so my uncle said we'll wait a minute you know full test is the underboss and he is my friend so I don't think it would be right you know for me just to step in his boss with Bruno out Phil testa becomes the new boss of Philadelphia my uncle and Phil testa they grew up together they knew each other for a long time that was his best friend who referred to him as lefty because he would these men are witnesses to that secret history stepping out of the shadows now to tell their stories firsthand a few remain in the shadows fearing for their personal safety afraid of an organization with branches all over the country like Philadelphia what happens here in the 1980s will have a direct impact on the heart of organized crime in New York as one of the most prominent figures in the Philly mob decides to cooperate with the United States government this man Philip Leonetti still with a bounty on his head has come out of hiding to tell his story to protect his identity his face must be blurred at all times in Philadelphia he's known as crazy Phil I got a nickname crazy Phil from a radio announcer and I told my uncle said can't I do something about this and he told me no pun intended says are you crazy he said guys would pay money to have a nickname like that my uncle Nick Scarfo always told me you always have to use your brains in this thing and you always have to use the gun leonetti's uncle Nicky Scarfo is a captain in the Philadelphia mob but the mobs rule in Philadelphia is an autonomous they're overseen by the governing body known as the Commission run by the bosses of the five families in New York the Commission was formed in 1931 in Atlantic City were started by a guy named Lucky Luciano Luciano decided that he was going to organize this into a business the New York Commission which truly governed the five families in New York City and had very specific powers regional bosses sit on the Commission – and some of them are independent outfits not under New York's influence but others are directly under New York's control and Philadelphia is one of these it's been overseen by the Gambino family for decades thanks to the influence of legendary old time Gangster Carlo Gambino there's always been a strong connection between New York and Philadelphia it's only 90 miles away and Philadelphia's always been in the shadow of New York if you look at organized crime at the Mafia Cosa Nostra's new york is the major leagues Philadelphia is a triple-a franchise the Gambino Philly connection goes back to 1959 when Carlo Gambino personally backs Angelo Bruno as the boss of Philadelphia their relationship goes back to when they were young guys they were bootleggers together and all Angie's power as boss was because of Carlo Gambino Bruno's satella Commission and Carlo Gambino had Bruno's proxy vote whenever Bruno couldn't be there Bruno is known in Philadelphia as the docile Don he'd liked to keep a very low profile he was 410 on cross-examination there was too many statements that they made that we used against them the state had hoped an eyewitness account of the December murder would be enough to put the three behind bars but the defense managed to successfully discredit the state's key witness Joseph Salerno as we were walking out of the courtroom after the verdict was read television guy came up to him and says when he got to say Nick he said thank God for the American jury system and honest you're my uncle said that we got away with murder I mean we beat this thing there's no way we should have beat this case how does it feel to be home it's just one more example of the power of the American mob even in the 1980s it's immune from prosecution Scarfo is back on the streets looking untouchable the new boss of Philadelphia once my uncle becomes a boss it was a great moment for us and for our family push now we had all the unions in Atlantic City and we had all the unions in Philadelphia so we were in a position now to make money since my uncle is the boss all the captains have to start handing in whatever they make a piece of every illegitimate business out there and giving him his end and now he's got this honey pot in Atlantic City wants everybody to pay tribute so now he's starting to collect street tax anybody's making money's got to give him money we called that the elbow us shaking down all these illegal businesses because it's strong-arm and that's what it meant so we didn't have to say it if we were out talking and we were worried about getting picked up the surveillance we just went like this we were making millions of dollars every year from the elbow it makes scores sometimes with drug deals for 200-300 thousand at a time but unlike former boss Angelo Bruno mere wealth may not be enough for Nicky Scarfo someone said you should never make a poor man the boss because it gets greedy and he loses sight of what it's about I mean Bruno saw himself I think as the caretaker of an institution and he made plenty of money but the idea was to ensure the continuation of the institution Scarfo was just about it's mine now give me the money but money and success don't dampen scarf was appetite for violence if anything they increase it his reign becomes a reign of terror Scarfo was like a Molotov cocktail you never knew it was going to explode and you never knew when it was going to explode in your presence and you were going to be a victim bruno ruled with an iron fist covered with a velvet glove Scarfo saw no need for the glove and where bruno murder was the negotiating tool of last resort for Scarfo murder was a calling card Scarfo enforces his street acts without mercy every conflict was settled through the barrel of the gun a mob war and his left 18 men dead in for years this is what the Scarfo mob was about this caption is safe all the main guys all the tough guys all the gangsters are scared to death of what my uncle did because they're saying if he could kill savvy who was like his son we don't stand a chance here by 1984 everyone under Scarfo now begins fearing for their own safety Scarfo is a psychopath and he's paranoid he's always worried about who's gonna turn on him and who's gonna come out and because that's his mindset you know he's always you gotta kill somebody before they kill you after test his death Scarfo shakes up the family structure demoting even old friends like Chuckie Marlene oh yeah Chuckie down this other course and he made meeting on the boss it was that wanton unnecessary violence the treachery the turning on guys that had put their life on the line for you all of that which flight in the face of the whole Godfather Honors Society all of that nonsense Leonetti like other members of the organization realized he's taking us all over a cliff I lost faith in my uncle and I lost face and of course an Oscar because he was the boss he didn't follow any of the rules that he wanted everybody else to follow scarfo's bloodlust is bad enough but things get worse when the law closes in on him and his gang by the mid-1980s the walls are closing in on Philly mob boss Little Nicky Scarfo first he starts killing any of his gang he can't trust and then the law starts arresting the others nick caramandi who was friendly with my uncle was a con man so he wind up getting in trouble he wind up taking a fall and getting indicted and he knew my uncle was mad at him and he thought my uncle was going to kill him so from prison he calls the FBI virtually the same time tommy delgiorno was being told by the New Jersey State Police you got this problem he flips now to skarphol family members have turned increasing the heat on the boss Little Nicky he is the only one who can okay the crime of murder del giorno said and went on to list 14 hits ordered by his boss all the law enforcement agencies never had a mobster become a government witness we now did we had it because the two individuals felt that they had become sideways with scarfin so the choice isn't so hard then become a government witness in 1986 the Justice Department indict Scarfo and most of his leadership on charges of conspiracy and murder the enterprise was known as indictment this was going to be the last time that we would be able to go in and prosecute Scarfo and this time the setting was not only Scarfo it was all his Mob members didn't have to say we were out talking and we were worried about getting picked up the surveillance we just went like this we were making millions of dollars every year from the elbow it would make scores sometimes we throw pills for 200-300 thousand at a time but unlike former boss Angelo Bruno mere wealth may not be enough for Nicky Scarfo someone said you should never make a poor man the boss because it gets greedy and he loses sight of what it's about I mean Bruno saw himself I think as the caretaker of an institution and he made plenty of money but the idea was to ensure the continuation of the institution Scarfo was just about it's mine now give me the money but money and success don't dampen scarf was appetite for violence if anything they increase it his reign becomes a reign of terror Scarfo was like a Molotov cocktail you never knew it was going to explode and you never knew when it was going to explode in your presence and you were going to be a victim Bruno ruled with an iron fist covered with a velvet glove Scarfo saw no need for the glove and where Bruno murder was a negotiating tool of last resort for Scarfo murder was a calling card Scarfo enforces his street acts without mercy every conflict was settled through the barrel of the gun a mob war and his left 18 men dead in the last four years this is what the Scarfo mob was about this captures the cold-bloodedness of the Scarfo mob the body count keeps rising and the fear escalates permeating the streets of Philadelphia we went to Bobby stones jewelry store but on our way to the store Sammy said let's go see this enrico riccobene let's go shake them off but enrico riccobene is no gangster he's a legitimate jeweler so we go to his window in front of his store there and we're banging on the window and Sammy's yelling open the door Nico Banna is terrified and retreats to the back of the store so when you think nothing of it about 10-15 minutes went by all cops surrounded us picked us up took us in I didn't know what was going on come to find out later on the kid got so scared that we were banging on the window wanting to talk to him he blew his brains out people were scared of us most of us were sons of made guys so people were scared to death of us Salvy said that we don't even have to kill these guys anymore he was telling me they'll kill themselves in the streets of Philadelphia in the 1980s mob bust Nicky Scarfo grows angry with the popularity in the last time that we would be able to go in and prosecute Scarfo and this time the setting was not only smarphone it was all his Mob members it with Capo's it was the soldiers we had 17 defendants in the courtroom 17 lawyers this time law enforcement truly not only was energized it was galvanized Nicodemo Little Nicky Scarfo has reigned over Philadelphia and Atlantic City as one of the nation's most violent Mafia bosses but the reputed skarphol crime family may be about to crumble from within I'm praying I said I hope I beat this case I'll get out of here and get away from him and if I don't beat it I'm gonna get my family my kid out of here I'll call the feds up and start cooperating the state of New Jersey versus Nicodemo Scarfo Philip Leonetti and others as council first after a two-month trial Scarfo Leonetti and 15 other members of the Philadelphia mob are convicted on racketeering charges in November 1988 I was charged I believe with four murders extortions gambling beatings I was facing 45 years and at that point where he got 45 years he decided to cooperate and I remember on a Sunday I get a call from another reporter who covers federal court and she says to me leonetti has flipped my decision to cooperate was a very very hard decision even though I was so disgusted with my uncle but it was a decision I wanted to make I don't want my son to grow up in this environment and I mean that sent shockwaves people in law enforcement couldn't believe at number one and people in the other world work you know this is a guy who was inside the inner circle you know it was a circle within a circle kind of thing he was there leonetti was really at that point the highest-ranking Mob member ever to turn to become a government witness on top of that Leonetti was scarfo's nephew that made his cooperation then even more significant and as a witness he was probably one of the most effective that I've ever seen in vivid detail Leonetti describes the scene of the crime when he murders Vincent Falcone in cold blood he makes clear that Scarfo was calling the shots leonetti's testimony does permanent damage to the Philadelphia mob which never fully recovered and his long and relatively stable reign ends in 1980 on a night that sends shockwaves around the city he had going to a restaurant in South Philadelphia for dinner that night was driven home he's parked in front of his house his driver was sitting next to him Bruno smoking a cigarette the driver pushes the remote control the windows go down and then out of the shadows comes this guy in a raincoat pulls a shotgun out shoots Bruno in the back of the head law enforcement left the body in the car for about two and a half hours it's on a Friday night all the neighborhood comes out all the media comes out and there's this Bruno leaning back his mouth wide opening it kind of a death screen the murder of Bruno changed the game everybody New York was going crazy like here's a boss of a full L feel Cosa Nostra family getting killed what's going on talk in the street is that one of New York's other five families the Genovese is the force behind the Bruno hid no one's ever been prosecuted for the Bruno murder because they've all turned up dead but the underworld and law enforcement theory is a convoluted tale of double cross or triple cross Bruno didn't want his guys dealing drugs and any a couple guys including his consul Gary Tony bananas Caponigro was dealing heroin on the side he had to do it on a snake Kathlyn egg was upset about Bruno and he's grousing up there in Newark about this he won't let us do this he won't let us do that and and and he talked to some people in the Genovese family about his concerns they imply that it's okay do what you got to do he thinks he's got the Commission approval to whack uno because you can't whack a mob boss without Commission approval so Caponigro carries it out then he goes up to for what he thinks is gonna be a meeting where he's gonna be crowned the new boss of Philadelphia and he gets garroted stabbed and brutally killed and they stick $20 bills in his mouth and in his anus to show that he had been greedy and they leave his body in the South Bronx and then three other guys that were connected to him at that point also turn up dead in similar fashion the Genovese family is moving behind the scenes to take control of Philly they are the most secretive and slippery of all the five Mafia families not even the other mob bosses know who's really in charge they considered the Ivy League of organized crime in New York City they're smart because they're very screwed they're quiet they're very intelligent very sophisticated they're the smartest the most crafty they knew what they were doing they don't like to get their hands dirty and he gets garroted stabbed and brutally killed and they stick $20 bills in his mouth and in his anus to show that he had been greedy and they leave his body in the South Bronx and then three other guys that were connected to him at that point also turn up dead in similar fashion the Genovese family is moving behind the scenes to take control of Philly they are the most secretive and slippery of all the five Mafia families not even the other mob bosses know who's really in charge they're considered the Ivy League of organized crime in New York City they're smart because they're very screwed they're quiet they're very intelligent very sophisticated they're the smartest the most crafty they knew what they were doing they don't like to get their hands dirty the Genovese have their reasons for making such a bold move Atlantic City for most of the two decades the Gambino's ruled the Philadelphia territory Atlantic City is a quiet coastal resort town in decline but in 1976 everything changes an Atlantic city becomes a crown jewel of organized crime 1976 is a casino gambling referendum legalization of casinos in Atlantic City all of a sudden that's the boom town man money to be made construction unions legal gambling illegal gambling and so who's our guide down there our guy down there is Nicky Scarfo Nicodemo Little Nicky Scarfo a captain in the Philly mob with a ferocious reputation bar foes not a a large man but he's very violent man he's a very vicious man so I guess he makes up for whatever there may be lacking in height with respect to to violence you know it turns out the Genovese family wanted my uncle Nick Scarfo to be the boss of the family and with that they knew they would have the Philadelphia family on their side with any votes on the Commission so well cause it will wait a minute you know full test is the underboss and he is my friend so I don't think it would be right you know for me just to step in his boss with Bruno out Phil testa becomes the new boss of Philadelphia my uncle in full testa they grew up together they knew each other for a long time that was his best friend who referred to him as lefty because he would always throw zingers at you to see how you would react and he always had to be careful the Bruno hit paves the way for the rise of Scarfo in his own gang when Angelo Bruno was killed we're really happy about it because Angelo Bruno wasn't doing anything for us we were like stuck in limbo he wasn't going to make us he wasn't going to send any work our way or give us an opportunity to make money for Scarfo and Leonetti Bruno's death is the break they've been waiting the thing he was there leonetti was really at that point the highest-ranking Mob member ever to turn to become a government witness on top of that leonetti was scarfo's nephew that made his cooperation then even more significant and as a witness he was probably one of the most effective that I've ever seen in vivid detail Leonetti describes the scene of the crime when he murders Vincent Falcone in cold blood he makes clear that Scarfo was calling the shots leonetti's testimony does permanent damage to the Philadelphia mob which never fully recovers skarphol himself is currently serving out a life sentence in a maximum-security prison in North Carolina and Leonetti testified and he openly had a sentence reduced to five years five months and five days and today leonetti's a free man with a family of his own I have a new life now a lot of the guys that I was friendly with went away for 20-30 years but you know most of my friends like Savi he's dead Lawrence when lino he died my uncle's still living but hold it forever until I get killed till he kills me that's why leonetti remains in the shadows even now every day he fears the possibility of his uncle's wrath in the form of an execution there's a contract out on my life he wants to kill me my family my uncle knows a lot of people especially in New York and he can find help to have me killed so I got to be careful law enforcement would not have been successful without scarfo's commitment to violence his decision to murder salvie testa was his Waterloo and the death knell for the Philadelphia mob family and it was the death knell for omerta within the Philadelphia mob whatever relationships they have those don't exist anymore whatever power they had doesn't exist anymore they have been reduced to a streak yet as the old mafia dies so will more of its members it's a very bad time for the mob leonetti's cooperation is the beginning of a domino effect within the five families of the New York mob a sign that the old traditions of loyalty and secrecy of what's called omerta a giving way to the pressure of a newly invigorated Justice Department we have proven the Cosa Nostra protected the department which will use men like crazy Phil Leonetti to attack when his murder I think epitomized all that was wrong with the Scarfo organization and again it's not to say that any murders have a right but Savi tested literally put his life on the line for Scarfo when scoffer became the boss the Salvatore testa funeral procession arrived at st. Paul's Catholic Church in South Philadelphia shortly after 10:00 this morning skarphol had a fatal flaw his fatal flaw was a blood lust and that blood lust psychopathically drove him and his decisions and it was his decision to murder salvie testa that was really the breaking point salvie testa's murder sends a clear signal to everyone in the Philadelphia mob no one is safe all the main guys all the tough guys all the gangsters are scared to death of what my uncle did because they're saying if he could kill Sally who was like his son we don't stand a chance here by 1984 everyone under Scarfo now begins fearing for their own safety Scarfo is a psychopath and he's paranoid he's always worried about who's gonna turn on him and who's gonna come out and because that's his mindset you know he's always you gotta kill somebody before they kill you after test his death Scarfo shakes up the family structure demoting even old friends like Chucky Merlino chuffy down this underboss and he made meeting on the boss it was that wanting unnecessary violence the treachery the turning on guys that had put their life on the line for you all of that which flied in the face of the whole Godfather Honors Society all of that nonsense Leonetti like other members of the organization realized he's taking us all over a cliff I lost faith in my uncle and I lost face and will cause an Oscar because he was the boss he didn't follow any of the rules that he wanted everybody else to follow scarfo's bloodlust is bad enough but things get worse when the law closes in on him and his gang by the mid-1980s the walls are closing in on Philly mob boss Little Nicky Scarfo first he starts killing any of his gang he can't trust and then the law starts arresting the others nick caramandi who was friendly with my uncle was a con man so he wind up getting in trouble he wind up taking a fall and getting indicted and he knew my uncle was mad at him and he thought my uncle's when he killed so from prison he calls the FBI virtually the same time tommy delgiorno was being told by the New Jersey State Police you got this problem he flips now to skarphol family members have turned increasing the heat on the boss Little Nicky he is the only one who can okay the crime of murder del giorno said

History of Internet Documentary

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Learn origins and evolution of internet and how it has grown to become one of the foremost tools for almost everything that surround people. In short, a brief, interesting history of the internet, and its evolution.

Internet is perhaps one of the most
prestigious indispensable tools of modern times where people simply
cannot imagine a life without it, or even the world without it. It makes planet earth go round
and helps to move it forward. It is one of the primary essence
of technological evolution. Every era has had its own
indispensable tool – for us in these modern times, it is none other
than the world-wide web. Having such humble
beginnings in the university campuses of American
institutes in the 1960s, internet would soon become
a global phenomenon, a concept and a
medium on its own. Universities now teach the
origins of internet and how it has shaped mankind
in the last 60 years. It has its own nuances and the little
nuts and bolts that need to be known and be aware of if one aspires to
become a professional web designer. It is indeed a field of study and involves
continuous scrutiny and observation if one needs to understand how this
global phenomenon really became global in technical sense and how it governs
almost everything we see around us. A brief understanding of
the origins and evolution of internet will be
discussed and how it has grown to become one
of the foremost tools for almost everything
that surround people. In short, a brief, interesting history
of the internet, and its evolution. Internet, or in more technical words,
the world-wide-web (denoted as WWW in short), is a medium through which
the world connects and communicates. Yes, it is primarily just a mode
of connection and communication, similar (or in some sense, even
exactly the same) to mediums and inventions that have shaped our
world for the last five millennia. As the world became larger and
bigger, so did its communication needs and the mode through
which it communicated. No longer was it possible to simply
communicate everything on the telephone that once revolutionised the world in
the 19th and early 20th centuries. Now, the need of the hour was to develop
something even more revolutionary as letters became more complex and academia wanted
quick and efficient mode of communication. The revolutionary character of the internet
lies in its true nature and purpose. It is, as already said
above, just a mode of communication, but the
scale and the method through which it communicates
has what made it revolutionary, forever
changing human life. So much so, that the internet has
become an ideology in itself and governments across the globe decide
on the aspects they need to use on, whether it be finance or monetary
policies, law enforcement or even anti-terrorism
and general governance. Internet is a phenomenon
that even rulers depend on. Thus, in light of such
circumstances, it becomes important that people
understand what internet really is and how it has evolved
to become such a widely understood as well as a
misunderstood concept. As starters, we first describe
internet’s beginnings starting from the 1950s
when computing itself was a rarely heard concept and
most ‘computers’ existed only in laboratories and
government research. After becoming widely
popular in the academic and political circles,
internet started becoming popular in military affairs
and several western military organisations
started adopting it. Internet was never really
known as ‘internet’ as it's known now, but through
special denotations. Lastly, internet started becoming more
accessible to the general public as computing itself was made available for
the local masses and people in general. Starting from 1980s, a new
technology was being allowed to the public under certain
licenses and regulations. Although during this time, internet
was still out of reach for most because of its unimaginable price
tag, starting from the 1990s, the revolution in internet
technology an availability took place that left a
legacy we see now today. The Beginnings As simple and straightforward it may seem, internet actually has one of the most
complex launches with its history of evolution being filled with
technological advancements and inventions not easy for the layman to
comprehend too quickly. What started out as a draft
paper to connect several computers in a workplace
only got bigger and bigger, so much so that the whole world-wide-web can
now be imagined as a single workstation with millions and billions of computers
loosely connected to each other. In fact, we might as well
raise an uncanny analogy here when the internet
was just being invented. Many of you might actually
be aware of several animated cartoons that showed
futuristic infrastructure. Cartoons like The
Flintstones or even Richie Rich that originated
during the 1960s. Several episodes of these popular TV programs
showed people connecting to each other, talking and observing on a display screen
and chatting with another character. Might have seemed very out of
place but several technocrats and inventors of those times predicted
that there actually will come a time when people will connect
directly through electronic devices and do
lots of stuff with them. One of these individuals was
the late Dr J.C.R Licklider. The very first beginnings of our
modern internet can be traced back to the 1960s when he was the head of
computer research program at MIT. Several research papers by notable
scientists and technicians suggested new technologies in
computing and interconnectivity. These ideas were primarily based on existing
inventions like the telephone and the much earlier telegram services, which was the
‘electronic’ mail service of the 19th century. Since a lot of stuff was
going on in the world of science just after
the great war ended, the community that filled it
wanted innovative methods by which they could connect and communicate
instantly as and when required. In light of this, one of the first
known internet services was the DARPA, designed and implemented in 1962 upon
the recommendations suggested by J.C.R Licklider himself, in his paper
‘On-Line Man-Computer Communication’, published in the same year. Dr Licklider also published
several books on the same topic. Licklider was the first head
of the computer research program at DARPA that started
in the October of 1962. The innovative concept and the pace through
which DARPA functioned as one of the first known networks resulted in his program
receiving much acclamation and popularity and perhaps laid the foundation
stone for the next four decades where the internet would become
the latest wonder of technology. Dr Licklider had several
colleagues and fellow technicians and innovators
working alongside him. DARPA was primarily meant to connect
all its staff through a network but Licklider took one step
forward by developing it further. One of these individuals who filled up
the DARPA staff was Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and he published his first paper
on packet switching in July of 1961. This was another major step forward
for the evolution of the internet and perhaps one of the first known documents
to explain packet networking, which is still the primary mode
of internet transmission today. Kleinrock would also go on publishing books
on networking related topics, one of them becoming a popular read among researchers
and inventors and released in 1964. This packet switching
concept would soon become an applied reality in
the DARPA program. Packet connectivity was indeed a very
innovative addition to networking but it still needed time and
implementation to actually work. Kleinrock convinced Lawrence
Roberts, another member of the DARPA program to
think on switching to packet connectivity rather
than the traditional circuitry if long range
networking was to exist. Roberts agreed to the concept. Another need of the hour was the
requirement of ‘talking’ between two computers, borrowed from the
concept that made telephones work. For this, in 1965, Roberts
connected two computers, the TX-32 and the Q-32 in California
with a single telephone line and made history by developing the first ever
dial-up connected wide area network. The experiment became a success and Roberts
was able to ‘talk’ between these computers. However, the realization that
two computers could connect to each other and work in coordination
was in direct conflict with the circuit method owing
to circuits’ inability to process millions of data
in a matter of seconds. The traditional circuit method
was thus totally incapable of allowing two or more computers
to fully connect to each other and it also stood as a total
hindrance towards further development of networking
and DARPA in general. On the other hand, packets allowed for swift
movement of data and made it possible for computers to smoothly transmit
communication without much loss and noise. Packet switching was also more
desirable considering that circuits were more prone to
industrial hazards like overheating and high maintenance and needed
regular replacement of electronic components like cables and
boards for it function fully. Kleinrock’s suggestion to switch
to packets was really the need of the hour and the next
big step towards networking. DARPA and ARPANET After DARPA’s founder, Dr
Licklider, the next big member of the MIT program was
Lawrence Roberts himself. He would become the pioneer of the
ARPANET, the second stepping stone on the history of internet, and perhaps
one of the biggest stepping stones, given its wide implementation and
several technological advancements added to it starting from late
1960s till the middle of 1980s. In fact, the predecessor of our modern
day world-wide-web was ARPANET itself. In late 1966, Roberts went to develop
DARPA further by making it ‘wider’ and providing it more speed for the members
to connect with more swift and less lag. In 1967, he published his
paper describing the idea behind ARPANET and how
it would be implemented. DARPA was now becoming ARPANET. The latter would also incorporate for the
first time and for its full potential, the packet switching concept
that was the primary need of the hour for successful
and efficient networking. It also so happened that during
a conference that Roberts was attending, where
networking was the hot topic, several other researchers
from notable universities of UK also presented their
versions of networking. Donald Davies and Roger
Scantlebury of the NPL also presented their papers
on packet connectivity. That networking was solely being invented
by Americans was not true at all. One of the members of the NPL communicated
Roberts about the packet connectivity concept that was developed in 1964
independently by the British military. It appeared as a coincident,
but the work at MIT, at NPL and the
RAND group, which was a group headed by Paul
Baran and his colleagues pretty much coincided
in the same timeframe. Roberts was inspired by others too researching
on this ground-breaking concept and borrowed a few of their ideas that were
presented by them during the conference. He would go back and since
full fledged networking was being developed only at
select American universities, much of the credit during this
evolving timeline went to campuses of MIT and later on, the
University of California (UCLA). Roberts tested these
‘packets’ by increasing the speed of ARPANET from a
mere 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps. This small step was successful
prompting Roberts of the importance of packet connectivity
and further developing it (which would lead to such components like the
TCP/IP, first invented in 1980s and still the primary mode of identification through
which computers are assigned IP numbers). Since ARPANET was going through several
developments and refinements, new individuals and technicians started
replacing the existing and the old. Members like Bob Kahn, Frank
Heart and Newman would soon start developing ARPANET in
coordination with Roberts. At MIT, a new component of the
ARPANET was being designed and this was the Interface
Message Processor (IMP). The IMP was first coined by Frank
Heart and Newman and this was now being incorporated in the
overall structure of the ARPANET. Roberts was now working with a lot
of small groups and independent people on further developing
the technical core of ARPANET. Bob Kahn helped him with
designing ARPANET’s new architectural design and
economic efficiency while existing members like Kleinrock took
control over developing the measurement system that according to him would support
the packet concept he devised earlier. In 1969, Kleinrock’s
campus at UCLA was first selected as the Network
Measurement Centre, to be functioned as a node through
which Roberts would connect his computer at MIT and that
of Kleinrock’s system at UCLA. In September of 1969, the
finalisation of ARPANET came into play when
this node in the UCLA campus was made operational and a second node
at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Elizabeth Feinler and
team made it possible for the second node and
funded its establishment. The first ever host computer was
thus connected at the UCLA campus. Several other such institutes followed. A month later after connecting
SRI with Kleinrock’s system, the first host-to-host
message was transmitted. Several other such nodes were
added to the ARPANET network, the third being the campus of UC Santa
Barbara and University of Utah. Professors and researchers in these
last two campuses also added their own small contribution that would
matter big in the coming decades. Glen Culler and Burton Fried of the
UCSB researched methods on displaying mathematical functions by adding
display storages to their systems while Robert Taylor at the
Utah campus investigated methods of refreshing the
net on 3-D representations. At the start of 1970, there
were thus four major universities and their campuses
connected over the ARPANET. The groundwork was complete and the rocket
was now ready to launch from its site. With the four campuses successfully connected
without any errors, it was now fully possible for ARPANET’s founders to transmit
simple email messages and notifications. 1970 onwards, several systems
and computers outside these four campuses were added
in the ARPANET coverage. Work proceeded further
to make ARPANET a fully functional host-to-host
connecting system. In 1970, the Network Working
Group (NWG) working under the guidance of S. Crocker developed
the first ever protocol that would allow computers
to fully communicate and allow individuals to develop
software over ARPANET. This protocol was called the
Network Control Protocol (NCP) and could be considered as the first
complete host-to-host protocol. The project came into full play in 1972
when Lawrence Roberts held a major networking conference at the International
Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). There, he and his team would showcase the
first ever email message and was also the first ever public demonstration of the
networking concept and the potential it held. Roberts simply sent a simple message
through email that was received by one of his team member,
resulting in an instant applause. The first ever email application
included read, forward and send functions and
was an instant success. What would follow in the coming decades
starting from 1972, would be the first era when internet really evolved
from ARPANET to the prototype of the
world-wide-web we know it now. The Birth of Internet The next big player and pioneer of the
ARPANET technology was Bob Kahn himself. Lawrence Roberts and others
remained in the team for much of the 1970s but it was
Kahn who was now designing and developing further the
ARPANET technology that gave way to full fledged wide area
networks as we know them today. In 1972, after the successful
conference was held and for the first time, the
public saw how email worked, Kahn taking with him his knowledge and idea
for further developing the packet system, started to refurbish the whole
technology at its core with new protocols being designed
by him and for the first time, algorithms inserted in
the networking pipeline for ‘automatic
networking’ technology. Since ARPANET was primarily designed for
a select few individuals to connect, most of them belonging to the academia
of select universities of America, Kahn now decided to take this a level
further by reinforcing the existing technology that could allow more
individuals to connect at the same time without any error or
disturbance to the overall flow of packets
and thus the network. But ARPANET still had its
own limitations when it came to connecting
wide area networks. One of these limitations was the existence
of packet loss and uncontrolled noise that resulted in slow connectivity and even no
connectivity at all at some instances. So the next big job was to ask
the question on how to redesign or develop the existing protocols
and hardware technologies that would allow for a smoother
experience and connect people with more ease
and less complications. Kahn thus set himself to work again. Recall that Kahn was also the pioneer
of the packet switch system that forever replaced the circuit system
in the early days of the DARPA. Kahn was now again convinced that
it is only the packet receiving and transmitting mechanisms that
required some major overhauls for the internet to become
simpler and smoother and without the requirement for
major hardware requirements. One of these key areas was to develop what
is known as Open Architecture Networking. Recall that ARPANET and its
predecessor were designed with open contribution
and development in mind. Since these were experimental
developments, technicians and engineers designing his
technology required contribution not just from their teams but anyone who
could contribute his/her part in it. Open Architecture
Networking is still one of the core areas of 21st
century networking. If technicality were to be ignored,
it would be very sufficing to say that internet with its database of
millions and billions of websites, are designed in a customised manner
and there are no rules and set codes to define how things over the
internet need to be developed, except of course security
measures and standards that everybody has to
rely upon and maintain. Kahn in 1972 already had
open-architecture networking in mind and he was probably one of the first
to introduce it to the ARPANET. The key to this architecture
was maintaining an open end-to-end protocol and developing
a packet radio program. The packet radio program was in
existence during the final days of DARPA and Kahn only developed
and advocated it further. This system required new protocols that
could allow packets to transmit easily and smoothly between two computers and allow
users to have a smooth internet experience. Back then, this was
also initially called ‘internetting’ because
of the concept that the network was like a spider’s
net, with each node connected to a host
computer for transmission. As the radio program developed,
new protocols were designed as well that were to function with
the refurbished radio systems. The Network Control protocol
(NCP) which was earlier used by all the members and all
the four nodes of ARPANET, was incapable of smooth transmission
of these packets and had no algorithms to deal with the noise and disturbance
caused in its packet flow. After several tests and experiments,
it was concluded that the NCP needed to be designed further
to allow for more computers than just the ARPANET members for the
internet to actually start existing. Also recall that ARPANET
was not the internet as we know today, but only the
beginning of it, a part of it, since the evolution of internet after
ARPANET involves altogether new technologies and advancements
unrelated to the former technology. Since the purpose of networking
was itself evolving to include a vast community of
academia and technicians, the technology upon which
RPANET functioned was found to be incapable for
further ‘expansion’. Technically, ARPANET required
additions to the protocol system (through which it
communicated among its users), in addition to requiring
additional hardware and systems for the new protocols
to work efficiently. Why the NCP was unable to
transmit vast numbers of packets over wide areas and
long ranges was quite clear. The ARPANET was designed with
a single purpose in mind, and it was designed very robustly
to satisfy that purpose. However, as needs of it grew
and as networking’s purpose also evolved, so did ARPANET’s
demands for an overhaul. The NCP was never really designed to handle
a vast number of packet transmission. And since every node was connected,
the NCP’s job was clear and simple. However, as the concept of networking grew
outside the corridors of ARPANET, its protocols that controlled the transmission
and reception of digital packets started to see terminal
limitations that posed a hindrance to the overall
growth of ARPANET itself. Kahn observed that when a
computer tried connecting to ARPANET that was outside
the preregistered node, the NCP failed to provide
packet transmission and the whole system collapsed for
the connecting computer. In this manner, the ARPANET could
only be functioned for the registered members that were
running ARPANET’s protocol. This was too rigid for everyone to adopt
and thus required some major changes. NCP also lacked the
capability to handle packet errors, that is, anytime
during a minor packet loss, the NCP would collapse altogether
and immediately and the connection to the host computer
would come to a forever halt. The NCP thus had no end-to-end
error control mechanism. To sum up the requirements that were
needed to actually introduce the internet to the world, then could
be done so in the following manner: Redesigning the protocol system
that could handle a larger network of computers and allow for
packet control and efficiency. Devising new hardware and
algorithms that would allow these computers to connect
with the host computer. Making communication with the host computer
not only feasible but efficient and simple. New techniques for
host-to-host flow control and requirements for
network pipelines that would allow multiple
packets to transmit to and from the host
simultaneously and at the same time reducing any
chances of major packet flow errors in this
‘multiple lane’ pipeline. New technologies like gateways
and hardware that would allow to provide an identification
to a connecting computer. These would later become
things like the routers and IP addresses that
everyone uses by default. Introducing new protocols and
replacing existing ones that could govern these newly thought
about ideas and implement it in a manner that would allow the
least control over global networking while still keeping computers
connected at the very best possible. Last but the not the least, the capability
for networking with several other operating systems since at least
during the 1980s, several operating systems were
already coming up. Thus, Kahn was facing major challenges
for developing ARPANET further to include several other computers
used by scientists and innovators who wanted quick access to communication
with the academia community. Because of the nature of the
challenges as well, Kahn also accepted them as part of
developing networking further since ARPANET was definitely
not the end of the story of internet as some
might have once thought. Kahn thus proposed a totally
new protocol that was to be designed from scratch
and this he would call it the Transfer Control Protocol or
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) that would altogether change how internet services
communicated with each other and worked. However, Kahn had no immediate knowledge
in interfacing and protocol design. He was aware of how NCP worked but designing
a new protocol and incorporating it in ARPANET demanded an all new technique that
required additional knowledge and skill. Accepting this, Kahn set out to call
technicians from leading universities to design new protocols that would
allow for efficient communications regardless of the operating
system a user is operating in. That is, this certain protocol had to
be operating system efficient as well. In 1973, he thus teamed up
with Vint Cerf of Stanford to initiate and think on the newly
arrived topic of TCP/IP. Vint had immense knowledge
of interfacing in several operating systems and skills
to develop new protocols. This knowledge teamed up with
Kahn’s know-how on implementation and architectural design resulted
in a very productive solution. The TCP/IP was finally
at place and was ready to start functioning
with several computers. The initial protocol
allowed for some 256 connections and worked
at 32-bit transfer rate. The TCP/IP was unveiled at another
conference where Cerf was also invited. The International Network Working
Group (INWG) was set up at a conference a Sussex University
in 1973 and Cerf was invited to head this group with
his all new protocol that would power up
ARPANET further. Upon meeting up with several
key players and innovators in the field of networking
design and implementation, the following points emerged
as to how TCP/IP would work and replace the
existing NCP of the ARPANET: TCP/IP would allow for packet
control at the host computer through acknowledgements
and packet flow control. This internet protocol would function
through a series of long streams of bytes. TCP/IP would remain open when deciding
upon the parameters that would allow the protocol windowing, which was required
to control the flow of these packets. TCP/IP would function through a 32-bit
assigned IP address of which the first 8 bits designated the network
while the remaining 24 bits signified the host
computer’s network. These features had a major
motivation behind them. The creators and ARPANET and of
course TCP/IP wanted much more than just sharing small sized
emails and simple voice transfers. Kahn and Cerf intended to
design the new protocol for various new topics that
networking could handle. These included techniques to share files,
folders, accessing the time sharing resources on the ARPANET and further
in time, even bigger tasks like sharing
printers and devices. The very first release of
this new protocol was put to test and it did not include
the IP section to it. Thus, in its initial beginning,
it was only TCP that worked. Kahn and team put the TCP to test
and observed different behaviours and algorithms by which two connected
computers now shared packets. It should be noted however,
that this was only the initial release of TCP and it was tested
out through a virtual circuit. This initial release was good
for file transfers and sharing between two computers but certain
roadblocks still lay open. There was certain amount of packet loss
observed and was concluded that a certain amount of packet loss correction be
left out for the computer to deal with. This led the team to develop its
integrated section – the IP address. This address was to remain
as an ‘identification number’ for the computer to
be connected to the host. This led to a final
reorganisation of the TCP to include the IP address
and thus became TCP/IP. The protocol was innovative
and revolutionary in handling packets from the
host to the node computer. It also incorporated the IP
address now that the problem of certain packet loss by
TCP was now also solved. The problem of packet radio system
seemed to have finally rested. An alternative for those
machines that were either not compatible with TCP or did not
want to use the TCP was the UDP, designed and implemented by Kahn and
team and was not very different from the original TCP in that UDP was more
preferable for ‘physical’ packet check instead of checksums that were being
provided and implemented by TCP/IP. The introduction of the
new packet handling protocol totally changed
the game of networking. Several challenges that lay prior to
TCP/IP were now resolved and perhaps the only thing left for networking
was its efficient commercialisation and further designing and
modification that could suit the requirements of
not just 256 connections but probably thousands
or even more than that as conceived by the
developers of networking. As simple as it might have seemed,
this was no easy job either. The new protocol that
was introduced still functioned for ARPANET’s
registered members, and since those had increased
over the years since the network’s inception, TCP/IP
functioned robustly well. However, how were the designers
planning on introducing and finally releasing this
technology for general purpose? This was still a question that had
its answer only during the 1980s when several technological changes
further led the idea of networking to become an even more ‘loosely
connected’ array of computers, all sharing certain characters and the
contents stored in those computers. The main idea behind networking that
was proposed in the 1960s was now becoming a reality, after consistent
effort laid down by its founders. Finally, in late 1970s, the real
face of networking started to emerge as more and more users started
using it for sending emails, small attachments, files and folders,
send voice communication similar to memos and an idea borrowed from telephony
but implemented in digital format. Thus, the idea of open
architecture networking was now truly making itself emerged
to the rest of the world. However, the story never ended there again. The newly introduced TCP/IP
was operable for a number of operating systems and
machines of those times but how was it to cope up with
time and increasing number of computing machines both
at the workplace and home? With the start of the new
decade, a plethora of operating systems and
business enterprises emerged. Firms like Microsoft and Apple,
among others were now increasingly competing against themselves to
capture computer market share. Each one of those empires needed
networking as one of their core areas of operations and the designers of
ARPANET had to face a new challenge – to make TCP/IP even simpler
and more flexible for it to exist for the several
coming decades to come. Contracts were handed to Stanford,
BBN and UCL California. Headed by Cerf himself, their
task now was different from their purely technical
background and work experience. The task now was whether TCP/IP
required major changes to its design or was it satisfactory enough for
several machines to operate upon it. Several experimentations provided
the conclusion that the ‘final’ release of TCP/IP was still too complex
and big for domestic machines, other than the workstations for which
it was specifically designed for. Cerf and his team thus set out again
to simplify the infrastructure of TCP/IP for upcoming major machines
to become compatible with it. Changes were introduced and were tested out
on machines like the IBM PC and Xerox Alto. New changes were successful
and both computers were able to operate with
TCP/IP with 100% results. The only task left, and which
required much time was how will the new and universally flexible
TCP/IP test the passage of time. This was a question that
required patience and gradual developments to the
protocol’s implementation and algorithm as computing
itself was evolving rapidly. Transition to World Wide Web In its final years of ARPANET,
the designers, both old and new were very excited and proud
on how their simple inception of connecting just a handful of computers
was now becoming a global reality. As if the whole concept had
changed altogether and become an integrated part of human life in
just a matter of years and months. In its early years of transition
to a globalised network, the transition phase could
be divided into two stages – technical transition and implementation
by networking agencies, scientific forums and academic community side-by-side
domestic computers and finally, the full scale commercialisation
of internet that had to have rules and regulations for its proper
functioning and smooth experience. The technical side of TCP/IP’s prior bugs
and hindrances were now fully resolved. Computing itself was evolving on an
unimaginable scale and these machines were not just now limited to university
campuses and academia personnel. Computing in general was undergoing a total
change in its purpose of existence and its overall objective to serve the general
public without any global restriction. The 1980s saw the very first
computer giants emerged. Microsoft and Apple were one of
those and still exist today as the dominant computer hardware and
software catering enterprises. Microsoft, under the guidance
and leadership of Bill Gates were fast becoming a
commercial empire of its own, and with the failure of Apple to
capture subsequent market share owing to its failure of its
revolutionary Macintosh computer, was now also making decisions
to making networking a default, in-built operation
in all of its machines. The emergence of TCP/IP simply
changed the wave of networking. The newly designed protocol was so innovative
that federal agencies and organisations were recommending its implementation
in all of its machines and computers. The once secretive and limited
protocol that was used only by a select individuals
and academic professors had gained global popularity and
computer producers were consulting, holding meetings and conferences with
the original designers of ARPANET and its revolutionary protocol
on how to implement networking as the default option in all
of its operating systems. UNIX was now a very widely
used operating system now and its developers came
up with quick solutions. TCP/IP was now included as the default
networking protocol to connect to anywhere it wanted; the rest
of the world simply followed. Microsoft released its very
first GUI interface and later on, the Windows operating
system that included all aspects of networking
right from networking software preinstalled on
every Windows machines. Apple never lagged behind
and incorporated the default version of TCP/IP
to its Macintosh system. Thus, in a span of just
five years, starting from 1985 till early
1990s, networking became an inbuilt feature of all operating systems
and machines that were fully operating. Thanks to the efforts laid by
its founding fathers, TCP/IP, teamed up with the ever evolving
infrastructure of ARPANET, gave way to our modern day world wide web. Several commercialisation
activities and networking firms started to appear
during the mid 1990s, when the DOS and newly introduced Windows
operating system was the dominant norm. Firms like Cisco, Asus,
Intel and AMD were one of the first computer
hardware start-ups. These were setup to
cater to all of the professional and domestic
computer community and thus came forward with several
hardware innovations and inventions that were to include nearly every
feature in just one motherboard rather setting up several
chipsets to make one computer. Intel and AMD were the first
ones to set up their processor units, and these were to process
TCP/IP calls on a default basis. The rest of the evolution
of the internet was now more of like making
networking a universal truth. Till the late 1990s,
LANs had become a common thing and no longer did
‘small networks’ exist. Network was now undergoing
physical change rather than in its technical infrastructure
or design modification (although those are
things that continuously keep expanding and evolving,
even to this day). Several new technologies
like satellite transmission and fibre cables were defining
networks on new levels. Users for the first time
witnessed increase in speeds up to ten times with the
introduction of satellite imagery and communication with fibre cables
providing speeds into megabytes per second rather than the
traditional kilobytes per second. Dial-ups that used to be the norm
in the 1990s were fast getting replaced by satellite connections
and hi-speed fibre connections. At the start of the new millennium,
internet had become a necessity. The world revolved with
the help of the internet. What started as a small, rudimentary
network of a handful of computers at an American institute
now was a global phenomenon, a medium through which the whole
world connected and communicated. Anybody who would never use it would
simply get disconnected from it. Internet has thus been the
most innovative and ground breaking medium of communication
in the history of mankind. It replaced telephony and telegram that
were the primary modes of communication for most of the decades even during
the time when internet was nascent. It is thus one of the most important
inventions in the history of mankind. You must have understood the importance
of internet and the impact it has had on normal lives of normal human beings and how
it has grown to be the thing we see today. And this is not the end of the story. Internet still evolves
and will keep evolving just like technology
has been for the past five millennia when
humans first started designing handcrafted
machines and simple tools. Like the nut-cracking stone that
first required sharpening and which ultimately led to its evolved
variants in the coming millennia, internet evolved just like every other tool
has done for the past thousands of years. New technologies and techniques
are being added every day before our very eyes as internet becomes
even bigger and more organised. Techniques like HTML, CSS and
Flash are just some of the most commonly taught subjects at technical
institutes and software design. Internet is the result
of complex computing and the technological evolution
we’ve reached so far. It is unlike telephony or
telegram simply because those never required computing or
even a computer to operate. With that in mind, internet will
forever keep evolving and will never halt ceasing if computing
itself has to remain relevant. With every new addition to
the world of internet, new challenges are recognised and
new results are dug out. We now have technologies
that were once thought to be purely imaginary and even
plain philosophical by many. A lot of these ‘prophecies’ turned out
to be true in the following decades. In fact, modern day networking has resulted
in a whole new concept of nomadic computing where an individual simply
does not require a physical connection to a router to
connect to the internet; rather that happens with technologies
like Wi-Fi or even Bluetooth. In the end however, as internet
still keep on evolving, the question will remain as to
how people will manage this gigantic invention that has
changed everything around them, rather than how it would evolve further.

Deep Sea Creatures [National Geographic Documentary 2017 HD]

Views:806879|Rating:4.74|View Time:53:56Minutes|Likes:4589|Dislikes:255
Deep Sea Creatures [National Geographic Documentary 2017 HD]

The Deep sea creature refers to organisms that live below the photic zone of the ocean. These creatures must survive in extremely harsh conditions, such as hundreds of bars of pressure, small amounts of oxygen, very little food, no sunlight, and constant, extreme cold. Most creatures have to depend on food floating down from above.
These creatures live in very demanding environments, such as the abyssal or hadal zones, which, being thousands of meters below the surface, are almost completely devoid of light. The water is between 3 and 10 degrees Celsius and has low oxygen levels. Due to the depth, the pressure is between 20 and 1,000 bars. Creatures that live hundreds or even thousands of meters deep in the ocean have adapted to the high pressure, lack of light, and other factors.

The depths of the ocean are festooned with the most nightmarish creatures imaginable. You might think you’re safe, because these critters live thousands of feet down in a cold dark abyss, but the vampire squid, which looks like a nightmare umbrella, and the frilled shark—a literal living fossil—will live on in the recesses of your mind long after you’ve clicked away. Enjoy these deep sea horrors and try to have a relaxing day afterward.

► NOTE : I’m a big fan of National Geographic and I just collect the best parts of National Geographic. I do not make money from National Geographic’s Video.
Thanks You very much

Extreme A&E – Charlotte Maxeke Academic Hospital in Johannesburg | Medical Documentary | Documental

On the final stop of his worldwide journey Dr. Kevin Fong heads to Johannesburg, South Africa to visit a trauma unit that has an extraordinary record at treating patients, using very limited resources. Whilst there, Kevin observes a trauma team who is trying to save a man’s life after he was involved in a barroom brawl. Plus, the doctors must act fast after a father is rushed into the hospital with a suspected broken neck.

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Going Deep with David Rees – How to Pet a Dog | How To Show | Reel Truth. Science

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David Rees doesn’t love dogs but he is setting on a mission to learn how to pet a dog properly. During his journey he visits Yale University to find out everything he can about the genetic history, cognitive function and incredible senses of man’s best friend.

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The Space Shuttle's Last Flight (Atlantis) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

Views:26165|Rating:4.60|View Time:1:11:22Minutes|Likes:268|Dislikes:23
As Atlantis completes its 135th and final mission, this definitive documentary charts the rise and fall of the most ambitious space programme ever undertaken, the space shuttle. For the past three decades since it first launch in 1981, the shuttle has become an iconic symbol of America’s technological dominance while at the same time rewriting the rules of space travel. Here is reusable vehicle that could lift off like a rocket, carry people and cargo into Earth’s orbit, then land on a runway like a plane and do it time after time. But two disasters, in 1986 and 2003, and the tragic loss of 14 astronauts shocked the World, and signalled the end of the programme, and the end of an era. However, its legacy has been extraordinary. In 30 years of service, the shuttle has flown more miles, completed more missions and put more men and women in orbit than any other spacecraft in history. It has transformed our understanding of the universe, aided technological advancement, and enabled us to study the environmental consequences we have had on our planet. After this July, when the shuttle takes its last flight, the USA will no longer be able to put a man in space for the first time in over half a century.

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Royal Deaths & Diseases: Living By The Sword | History Documentary | Reel Truth History

Views:123824|Rating:4.80|View Time:49:24Minutes|Likes:1371|Dislikes:57
Extraordinary royal war injuries, including Richard the Lionheart, hit by a crossbow bolt, and Henry V, critically wounded by an arrow to his skull.

Series investigating how royal doctors and medicine have changed the course of British history – from madness to war wounds, decadence to the struggles to conceive an heir. The series recounts the fates of Richard the Lionheart and Henry V on the battlefield; examines Britain’s most famously mad king, George III, and investigates the stories of Queen Victoria’s clinical depression and Henry VI’s acute schizophrenia. The film also examines how Royal misbehaviour changed the image of the monarchy – from Henry VIII’s overeating and lack of exercise to Charles II’s death at the hands of his own doctors and George IV’s opium-fuelled reign.

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Jaguar Documentary – The Real King Of The Jungle – History Channel HD

Jaguar Documentary – The Real King Of The Jungle – History Channel HD

The jaguar, Panthera onca, is a big cat, a feline in the Panthera genus, as well as is the only extant Panthera varieties native to the Americas. The jaguar is the third-largest feline after the tiger and the lion, as well as the largest in the Americas. The jaguar’s existing range expands from Southwestern United States and also Mexico throughout much of Central The u.s.a and south to Paraguay and north Argentina. Aside from a known as well as potentially breeding population in Arizona (southeast of Tucson) and the bootheel of New Mexico, the feline has mostly been extirpated from the United States considering that the very early 20th century.

This seen cat most carefully appears like the leopard physically, although it is usually larger and of sturdier build as well as its behavior and environment characteristics are closer to those of the tiger. While thick rainforest is its favored habitat, the jaguar will vary across a range of forested and open landscapes. It is highly related to the presence of water as well as is significant, along with the tiger, as a feline that appreciates swimming. The jaguar is largely a singular, opportunistic, stalk-and-ambush predator at the top of the food web (a pinnacle killer). It is a keystone species, playing an important function in stabilizing ecological communities as well as controling the populaces of the pets it pursues. The jaguar has an exceptionally powerful bite, also relative to the other big cats. This allows it to pierce the shells of armored reptiles and also to utilize an uncommon killing technique: it attacks straight through the skull of target between the ears to supply a fatal bite to the mind.

The jaguar is a close to intimidated types and also its numbers are declining. Hazards consist of loss and fragmentation of environment. While global trade in jaguars or their components is prohibited, the feline is still regularly killed by people, especially in conflicts with breeders and also farmers in South The u.s.a. Although reduced, its variety stays big. Offered its historical circulation, the jaguar has actually showcased prominently in the folklore of many aboriginal American cultures, including those of the Maya and also Aztec.

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[Applause] [Applause] it's called El Tigre the Jaguars the most powerful jungle cat in the Americas it stalks the secret reaches of the rainforest a jungle masters so well camouflaged but only the occasional paw prints reveal its presence in order to film the elusive Jaguar nature went to the steamy jungles of Belize in Central America there are some 2,000 Jaguars living in those rainforests but even in Belize it's all but impossible to film these great cats in the wild the only way we could accurately portray the Jaguars secret lifestyle was by using specially constructed sets spread out over 100 acres of jungle the result one of the most complete compelling and intimate portraits of North America's biggest cat ever recorded on film empires that would rule forever lie buried beneath the land the glory of the Mayans gone the Olmecs the Toltecs the Aztecs now fragments of history but there was a time before our kind laid claim to the Americas a time when the great spotted cat lived unfettered uncontested on oppressed through the drifting mist the Jaguar makes his morning rounds unseen eyes since he isn't hungry yet the iguana cautious a howler monkey warns his troops [Applause] prepare to flee the motmot calculates even for the never hunted caution is the surest way to stay alive awareness of every movement every sound every sect in the tropics subtle change betrays the passage of time during the dry season when it may not rain for days the rivers run low but life in the Jaguars world follows a flow uninterrupted by the change of seasons high above the dimness of the forest floor in the sun-drenched canopy a community awakens to the clamor of a toucan six-inch wings begin to unfurl newly reversion a Morpho butterfly the female they made it just a month ago now there's only avoidance like the urge he felt when he picked up the female scent a thirst now cause that his throat by mid-morning after hunting all night the Jaguar is ready to rest as the top predator here the cat does not have to sleep concealed or with one eye open but insects keep up a steady assault peccaries a stately procession of wild pigs seeking the relief of water and the pleasures of mud the year has been uncommon ly dry drawing together the thirsty the Jaguar like most hunters fails more often than he succeeds in the tropics opportunities are never very far away the turtles bite neither discourages the Jaguar nor arouses his anger he concentrates eyes pause searching hunting in murky water by touch capture is only half the battle the turtle lives in a fortress few can penetrate the Jaguars crushing jaws the most powerful among the cats shatter the turtles defense the Jaguar visits his favorite stump to clean his claws and to post his presence cat nails scraped the rock hardwood already scarred by others scent glands and his cheeks leave his signature and stake his claim by marking trees he hopes to skirt a confrontation with another male for in the tropics even a minor wound can lead to a tortured death the rainforest provides many ways to die from a sudden demise to the drawn-out triumph of infection in the heavy heat of afternoon The Drowsy in between of thought and dream clouds the senses who knows of what a Jaguar may dream a coati learns when it's still young to forage while the cat is napping you Swift and agile paws brush away the stinging hairs that discourage others from devouring the tarantula the Jaguar is a stalker to capture prey he normally relies upon surprise and a sneak attack in a chase he's at a disadvantage bitch knows who has the upper hand cause this size cannot negotiate the narrow branches that offer the karate refuge before the heavy rains the female or append Allah turns architects constructing a nest that follows a genetic blueprint while she Labor's suitors serenader and advertise their assets [Applause] they Cal they burble for the reward of passing on their genes in this tropical nursery trees have strategies of their own some flower before they leave to ensure that their pollen rich blossoms are conspicuous the consumers they lure unknowingly collect and then transport the dust that is the agent of new life songbirds like the honey creepers help coral trees follow a similar scheme as tech parakeets flip each flower open uncovering a trove of pollen you you the howler feeds as if he's in a hurry as if the flowers of the course how calm might suddenly vanish but there will be time for the blossoms and the fruits before the onslaught of the rains the karate is alert even while mysteriously it rubs its tail with blossoms that have fallen from the sky the coral snake with flashy rings and fatal poison for protection a quick karate can kill a snake before it strikes when food is on its mind the female Jaguar she's hungry and she's pregnant now she settles for small and easy prey armadillo a staple of the Jaguars diet but just one armadillo will not sustain her for a long in the forest food distribution often follows a vertical path fruit is abundant but the supply can be outweighed by the heavy demand below the kuroh sales claimed privilege within their clan the cranky jungle fowl have their own pecking order the lure of sweet MAME it attracts the blue-crowned motmot and the chorus house even a Shia booty dares to be at their own stately pace the peccaries approach to claim their share Oh Hey the Marne a feast continues waiting to make another run the agouti watches other eyes also watch and measure opportunity you you a light passes a season passes and a time of change sweeps across the Jaguars world [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] in a limestone cave he will wait out the storm the wild air shows the seeds of change life that waits to be will be awakened by the rain it will ring the bun complete intensely every day for nearly half the year but the deluge does let up often in the morning or at night allowing time for basic needs as the season wanes the rain no longer rules so it's legacy remains nature's potent formula of moistures Sun and decay nourishes each secret crevice of the rainforest like magic mushrooms spring from improbable places the storm has passed the Jaguars first urge you to eat now he feeds on leaves a remedy to clear the hairs left in his gut by grooming in the fading light another cat stalks its prey a hungry Ocelot eager for a meal but careful to avoid its powerful competitor both felines will hunt into the night you the Jaguar is at ease in the dark its eyes are just well but not every hunter depends on sight the eyelash Viper sees poorly at night it weighs it option to flee or to strike by testing the air with its tongue sometimes sighs take second place to sheer determination if push finally comes to shove a smaller bat is wise to give way Ammar gaze eyes penetrate the night antenna ears hear what eyes cannot detect the Margay moves on dainty cat feet but gives its up away the deed is done and I'd with indeed in the wake of the rains the tree frogs gather for bouts of communal shuffling the underlying herd is secured a role in the future [Laughter] the business of catching a fish cannot afford distractions it demands concentration strategy and a bit of luck fishing by eye and fishing by touch a flick of the pause sprinkles the moonlight a technique or a ritual it remains unexplained things seemed tamer now since the fury of the rains has been tempered by the Sun beneath the canopy new life renewed vitality many residents of the rainforest now must face the added pressures of new responsibilities among the newest vaatrik forest dwellers to natural-born killers vicious predators of insatiable appetite and cunning expertise following in their mother's footsteps the Jaguar Cubs will climb to the top of the food chain for the next two years she will be there so link to survival teaching them all she can and she will give them time to explore through play to discover to test their world as two paths cross two lives cross and for a moment two Jaguars connect the future and the past but he continues alone the flow of life moves on young as a stream after the rain old as the course that it follows you to learn more about what you've seen on this nature program visit this is PBS you

Couple Share Studio Flat With A Cougar | BEAST BUDDIES

Views:12588031|Rating:4.73|View Time:6:39Minutes|Likes:178625|Dislikes:10288
MEET the brave couple that share their home with a playful two-year-old COUGAR. In 2016, Alexandr Dmitriev and his wife, Mariya, decided to adopt a young cougar called Messi and raise him as a house-pet in their small, studio apartment in Penza, Russia. Messi follows a strict grooming routine to ensure he doesn’t make too much of a mess around the house – he gets washed in the bath, has his nails trimmed, his teeth checked and he receives a special brush-down every day. The big cat eats twice a day with a diet consisting of turkey, beef, a bit of chicken breast and some bones. And with a growing social media following of 250,000 on Instagram and more than 2 million views on YouTube, Messi has become a local celebrity.
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Video Credits:
Videographer / director: Александр Крутенков
Producer: Danny Baggott, Ruby Coote
Editor: Sonia Estal

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COMM: A year and a half ago Alexandr and Mariya
decided to adopt a cougar. COMM: The couple adopted Messi from
a petting zoo. COMM: Alex and Mariya already had another,
much smaller sphynx cat living in their studio apartment but Messi fit right in. COMM: It’s not just a carefully planned diet that Messi needs, Alex and Mariya also have other tasks to do – to take care of their big cat.

Biggest Corporate Scandals in History Documentary

In the age of big business, it seems that everyone is looking for ways to make more money, acquire more power, and be more successful. However, from start-up companies to corporate empires that stretch back centuries, the temptations of greed and power often lead to #corruption, fraud, unfair business practices, loophole-hunting, and even murder.

There is perhaps no truer and
more frequently proven adage than “power corrupts and absolute
power corrupts absolutely”. While this casual maxim is tossed
around in a variety of situations, it has its roots in reality, and they are continually
proven to this day. We put a premium on power in modern
society, throughout the world, and although many people
in positions of power are there because they
rightfully deserve to be, are the best people for the job,
and have respect for the laws and policies in place for their
respective industries/countries, there are also those that bend
the rules for their own gain. This is a nearly unavoidable
symptom of human nature. If we see an opportunity to get ahead
in the world, even if it is at the expense of others’ well being, some
members of our species will take it. In no way does that make it
acceptable, and using the “it’s natural” excuse is certainly not
admissible in most courts of law; however, bending the rules
is often allowed to slip by unnoticed, and has done
so for thousands of years. Scraping a bit off the top,
working the system, and operating in the grey area of legality
are hardly new concepts, and the endless examples make it
impossible to constantly police. As soon as laws are made, loopholes
are found… and inevitably widened. However, bending the rules and
breaking them entirely are two very different things, and when greed
and self-assurance grow too strong or when the fear of getting
caught disappears, truly staggering crimes
can be perpetrated. The word crime is certainly appropriate,
as the gross breach of any established law constitutes a crime, but when these
things happen in the world of business, they fall under the more front page-worthy
category of “corporate scandals”. Scandals come in all shapes and
sizes, from sex and drugs to money laundering and murder, and they
make for exceptional headlines. Unfortunately, the longer
that a series of crimes takes to be exposed, the larger the
eventual scandal will be. The size and scope of any scandal depends
on the ambition of the criminal behind it and the ability of appropriate authorities,
partners, employees, or institutions to identify and prove that
criminal conduct has occurred. The fact that certain corporate scandals
throughout history have been allowed to get to such an extreme level is
evidence of much larger problems, either oversight irresponsibility,
inherent vice within powerful organizations, or a global culture
that allows a flexible moral standard. Or perhaps all of them at once. However, the underlying cultural problems
are far beyond the scope of this. Some insight into the motives and the
madness behind these problems is a given, as these stories would hardly
be worth telling without a backstory, but analyzing the more intense and
comprehensive issues that result in this type of scandal-chasing and
criminal behavior is simply impossible. While any decent scandal is sure
to cause a buzz for a while, and certainly make its rounds in the
Twittersphere and Facebook universe, as well as international news networks
and late-night talk shows, but it takes something particularly juicy to capture our
attention for more than a week or two. We’re attracted to scandal in
the same way that scandalous corporate stars are attracted
to money and power. A more cynical writer might call into
question the delay in breaking a good story in the hopes that it would become
even more entangled and impressive, but I’ll keep my suspicions to
myself as much as possible. What interests me more is how it happens? When does the low-hanging fruit
become too hard to bear? How is a much easier question than
why, and can usually be deduced by finding the loopholes that allowed
such a gross oversight to occur. There are plenty of front-page news
scandals every year, but this will focus on some of the most exciting and unusual
scandals of the past half-century. From keeping billions of dollars in
debt off the balance sheets to selling millions of dollars of stock only days
before a company posts a devastating loss, there is a wide selection of corporate
scandals that have truly shocked the world. If you want to break down the
“worst” scandals in history, it becomes a study of measuring
the severity of impact. The sum total of money stolen or
lost is not the final deciding factor, as that money is often
returned, or insured somehow. However, when it comes to a
scandal’s effects on other people, such as thousands of people losing
their jobs and livelihoods, most people would argue that those scandals
are truly the most damaging and damning. The bottom line is that scandalous
behavior is a double-edged sword; it functions as entertainment
and newspaper fodder for some, but economic ruin and
shattered dreams for others. Corporate scandals are a symptom
of our age, and they will likely continue to be a part of our collective
culture for generations to come. As such, it’s important to
understand a bit more about these blockbuster law-breakers, the
companies they worked for, the loopholes they found, and, of
course, how they eventually got caught. Let’s dig a little deeper
into some of the most unbelievable and infamous
corporate scandals of all time. Enron – Crash of the Titan Forbes Magazine once crowned
Enron as “the most innovative company in America”, not once,
but six years in a row, and given its impressive
services, products, output, and profits, there was
little room to argue. In the late 1990s and very early 2000s,
Enron was one of the world’s most important and respected energy,
services, and commodities companies. They dealt in natural gas, electricity,
pulp and paper services, and communications, and raked in more than
$100 billion in revenue in the year 2000. The stockholders were happy,
the employees were well compensated, and the company had
never been in higher demand. In short, it looked like Enron
was going to be the poster-child of the global energy sector
for many years to come. Oil and natural gas companies have always
been associated with massive profits, simply because the vast majority
of our global population demands electricity, heating, automotive
transportation, and other luxuries that can only be achieved through
some sort of energy provider. When an energy company posts revenue
of $60 billion or $100 billion, the numbers seem too astronomical to
fathom, but not criminal in nature. The complex web of
companies and partners and interchangeable revenue
streams make it extremely challenging for analysts
and shareholders to understand the full breadth
of the company’s holdings. This is true for dozens of
multinationals and conglomerate corporations that are
still in business today. When Enron’s stock price rose
more than 300% from the early 1990s to 1998, the country
celebrated its energy titan, which was trying to simplify energy,
broadband, natural gas, and pipeline services to individuals
and companies across the country. It had already become the most dominant
name in natural gas by 1992, but used that foothold to expand into the entire
energy industry, from top to bottom. Following those 8 years of
impressive stock growth, it exploded in 1999 by more than 50% and then
again in 2000 by nearly 100%. All told, from 1996-2000,
Enron’s value shifted from approximately $13 billion
to over $100 billion, a wildly unprecedented rate
of growth that made it one of the wealthiest and most powerful
companies on the planet. The stock market continued to pour praise
on Enron, valuing it at more than 70 times its actual earnings, and causing the stock
to peak at $90.75 by the middle of 2000. Those sorts of stock prices meant
billions of dollars in bonuses to top executives and job security – or so
the leadership at Enron thought. As it turned out, the projections
and figures that Enron had been claiming for the better part of a
decade were not technically true. They had been hiding billions of dollars
in losses, keeping them off the accounting books, or falsifying profits
and grossly overestimating revenue. This was far from an accidental
error in the +/- column; the Enron Scandal, as it came to
be known, had occurred due to a systematic and masterful manipulation
of not only Enron’s top leadership, but also of a globally renowned audit
and accounting firm, Arthur Andersen. Back in 1985, Kenneth Lay formed Enron
when two large energy firms were merged. Jeff Skilling had worked as a
consultant for Enron in its early years, and was hired in 1990 as
chairman and Chief Executive. This is when the scheme began to play out. Essentially, these two men designed
a financial reporting scam that allowed them to take
advantage of reporting loopholes, special purpose entities, and
weak financial reporting oversight to hide billions
of dollars in losses. The company was constantly trying
to expand into new industries, which meant buying and
investing in many companies. By implementing something
called mark-to-market accounting, the company
leaders were able to claim projected revenues
far into the future for unproven companies
and product sales. For example, Enron
bought several companies and projected the potential
profits for these partners into their revenue statements, even
if those companies failed or lost money. These false revenue streams could
carry through the books for months, or even years, which resulted
in higher declared earnings, increased stock prices, and more money
in the pockets of the men at the top. They also used clever revenue
reporting methods by adopting a similar liability categorization
as trading companies, where they could reporting the entire
value of each trade as revenue, without including statements about the actual
products’ (purchases) cost of goods. This meant that it heavily inflated revenue
and hid losses in the ether of accounting, resulting, once again, in massively
overestimated value for the energy titan. They further complicated the
situation by protecting themselves against risk from
these illicit practices by using tax shelters and
special purpose entities to effectively hide or
protect their money. Through a number of official
company sales and acquisitions, Lay and Skilling were able
to hide billions of dollars within other companies
technically owned or partnered with Enron in
different industries. The list of these sorts
of secret maneuverings and deals is shockingly
long, and they were largely the reason for Enron’s impressive
stock growth in the latter half of the 1990s. The SEC became suspicious of
the huge growth, and began an investigation into the
inner workings of Enron. Although the soaring stock
prices drew the initial attention, it was an
internal whistleblower named Sherron Watkins that
eventually blew the whole scam out of the water and
into the public eye. When the massive overestimation of
wealth was revealed, the stock price plummeted from an all-time high of over
$90 to an all-time low of less than $1. This caused the almost immediate
collapse of the company, thousands of employees not only lost their jobs,
but also their retirement funds. All told, shareholders
took a $74 billion hit from the previous king
of the energy industry. The pair had been able to pull it off
for so long by putting pressure on their audit and accounting firm
representatives from Arthur Andersen, one of the largest and most respected
accounting firms in the world. When those audit professionals willingly
turned a blind eye, they also broke the law, and later investigations essentially took
away the company’s license to practice, causing irreparable damage to
its reputation as a global accounting, tax, and consultancy
leader of the “Big Five”. Lay and Skilling were both
investigated and found guilty. Kenneth Lay died before he
could ever serve time, but Jeffrey Skilling is serving 14
years of a 24-year sentence. Finding those loopholes put Enron
on top of the world for half a decade, but it was only a matter
of time before the spotlight (which they were probably providing the
energy for) began revealing that no one gets that big, that fast, without something less
than legal going on behind the scenes. Martha Stewart Living Outside the Law When it comes to home furnishing
and do-it yourself homemaking, Martha Stewart’s name is almost
inevitably on the tip of your tongue. This American mogul has involved
herself in everything from reality television shows and stock brokering to
magazine publications and e-commerce. Her name has become
synonymous with a lifestyle, and her magazine,
Martha Stewart Living, was one of the most popular
and well-respected magazines in mass publication
within the United States. Her television show of
the same name was wildly popular for the better
part of a decade, allowing her to share her tips,
tricks, and secrets on everything from gardening to cooking to
making decorations for the house. However, even the elegant exemplar
of domestic bliss couldn’t escape the clutches of corporate scandal,
and when all was said and done, one of America’s true sweethearts had to
stand trial for insider trading charges in one of the most controversial and
widely watched scandals in modern history. But that’s getting ahead of the story; let’s take a step back to
see what really happened. ImClone was a
biopharmaceuticals company that specialized in oncological
medicines and treatments. One of its major drugs
in development at the beginning of the 21st
century was Erbitux, a monoclonal antibody
that would have been used to seek out and neutralize
cancerous cell clones. It was a promising new drug, and the
company expected large returns once it had passed the approval phase from the United
States’ FDA (Food and Drug Administration). Unfortunately, near the
end of 2001, the FDA decided not to approve
the experimental drug. Due to the large amount of
money that had been projected from this new drug release,
the stock price had inflated, but when news of the
drug’s rejection hit the stock market, the stock
price dropped sharply. This is the sort of risk that
stock markets are founded on; sometimes you win and sometimes you lose. However, there seemed to be a large
sell-off of ImClone stocks in the days leading up to the announcement
that the drug hadn’t been approved. An investigation by the US
Securities and Exchange Commission revealed that a number of shareholders
and executives of the company had sold off large portions of
their stock due to this insider knowledge before the news
was released to the public. More than $10 million dollars in
stock was sold on December 27th and 28th of 2001, and there is no such
thing as a coincidence that large. Simply put, the company’s
executives and stockholders were engaging in insider
trading, which is illegal. The story became far more
exciting than the traditional insider trading scandals that
so often crop up on Wall Street when it was revealed
that Martha Stewart had also held a fair amount
of ImClone stock and had also sold her shares
(nearly $230,000 worth) on December 27th, the day
before the announcement. Martha Stewart’s daughter had
once dated Samuel D. Waksal, the founder of ImClone who had begun
telling friends and family to sell their shares once
he realized that the company’s stock prices
were about to plummet. Peter Bacanovic, Martha Stewart’s
broker at Merrill Lynch, had apparently given her nonpublic information
that led her to sell her stocks, and although she claimed innocence,
or at least no knowledge of wrongdoing, the actions were
suspicious, to say the least. The news came out very quickly, but
the legal process is a long one. Martha Stewart, despite her
hands having literally been caught in the
cookie jar, continued her television show and remained at the head
of MSLO (Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia). For nearly two years, scrutiny and tabloid
rumors and even on-air interviews about her involvement in the ImClone
scandal swirled around Martha Stewart, but she just continued
preparing salads and giving out household tips to
millions of people each week. It wasn’t until 2003 that she was
finally indicted by the government on nine counts, including insider
trading and obstruction of justice. During the proceedings, it did come
out that Stewart’s broker had told his assistants to inform Stewart of
the events unfolding at ImClone, including the details of the failed FDA
approval, at which point Stewart chose to sell her stock and save tens of
thousands of dollars in potential losses. She was fined approximately $200,000
and sentenced to five months in prison, followed by five months of
house arrest, two years of probation, and a five-year ban from
being the CEO, CFO, Director, or any other
leading executive within her own company that would
allow her to disclose, report, audit, or control
financial statements. The world watched as one of the most
celebrated names in domesticity and homemaking head into the Big House,
and Martha Stewart didn’t disappoint. She actually took a position
within the prison to act as a line of communication between the
prison management and the inmates, showing diplomacy, grace, and
intelligence even in an orange jumpsuit. Five months later, having
“paid her debt to society”, she dove right back into
building her empire. Unlike many other scandal-makers, who never
recover from their illicit activities, Martha Stewart’s career, or at least her
company, seemed boosted by her incarceration. MSLO has expanded into
real estate, winemaking, mass-produced craft items,
and home furnishings. What had once been a media
empire has rapidly grown into a sprawling inter-industry giant that
shows no sign of slowing down. Martha Stewart has written numerous
books since being released in 2005, and has talked candidly about her
behavior and subsequent time in jail. As mentioned in the introduction, as a
global society, we love to see a scandal unfold and the greedy top dogs at the
top finally get what’s coming to them. However, in this particular case, we
enjoyed watching the scandal, but seeing a beloved household name become embroiled in
the controversy changed the game entirely. It fascinated the country, and
since our collective memory is apparently short, we applauded the
criminal and showered her with love. People don’t look at Martha Stewart
and see a criminal, they see a reformed mogul who lost her way,
or at least took a wrong turn. Samuel Waksal, the original distributor
of the insider information regarding ImClone’s stock, served
more than seven years in prison. I doubt there was a media empire to
come back to for Waksal, and that is why the scandal at ImClone is
such an interesting point of study. Most people know that Martha Stewart was
involved in insider trading, but very few of them would even know the name
“ImClone”, let alone “Samuel Waksal”. When the glitz and glamor of Hollywood
becomes mixed in with the dark underbelly of illegal business, the world is
perfectly happy only digging far enough – reading the headlines
and remembering the highlights, without ever
seeing the whole picture. Texaco – The Search for Black Gold There are few industries
that have been around as long and have remained
just as profitable as oil. With a current global value of $3.2
trillion for gas and oil, there is clearly a ridiculous amount of
money to be made in the industry. As we’ve already seen so
far, when profit margins can be that steep, people
can get a bit crazy. Back in the mid-1980s, however,
companies were acting just as wild as individuals, but
the stakes were just as high. In 1984, the head of Getty
Oil, Gordon Getty, decided to sell his oil empire
to the highest bidder. He spoke to the biggest oil companies
he could find, and eventually settled on Pennzoil, and they made
an informal, yet binding, contract. The sale price was to be set
just over $10.53 billion. Later that week, Gordon
Getty was approached by representative from Texaco,
a major rival of Pennzoil. He then agreed and confirmed the
formal sale of Getty Oil to Texaco, in direct breach of the contract
he had entered into with Pennzoil. This sort of last-minute, backhanded
deal-breaking happens more often than we’re ever told, but on such a grand
scale, in such a lucrative industry with huge amounts of money
at stake and interested parties around the
world, this backdoor dealing made front-page headlines from
coast to coast, and even around the world. $10.5 billion is a lot of money in 2015,
but back in 1984, it was unfathomable. Gordon Getty was the
wealthiest man in America in 1983, and that was only
for a $2 billion fortune. In other words, Pennzoil was losing a massive
opportunity, and it had been snatched away from them through double-dealing and
intentional malicious deal making by Texaco. You may see this situation as a “too
bad for you” scenario, but the concept of an informal, yet binding, contract,
made the entire affair a legal issue, and Pennzoil had a
legitimate case to hold against Texaco for the
loss to their company. Breaking contracts, especially
on that scale, can be very costly, and according
to Texas law, very illegal. Throughout the lengthy legal
process, Pennzoil was calculating all of its potential losses
due to the illegal sale, and when the court
eventually ruled in favor of Pennzoil, Texaco was
facing a massive fine. They had just purchased the company for more
than 10.5 billion dollars, and their total amount of damages and legal fees and punitive
charges amounted to nearly $13 billion. This was the largest civil suit in
American history at that point. Furthermore, to add salt into the
wound, the court would not allow for the appeal process to begin
until the company paid its bond, which was the full amount of the court’s
fines, in addition to interest. At that point, Texaco had no other choice. It couldn’t afford
to pay that type of money, and was forced
to declare bankruptcy. This was also the largest bankruptcy
filing in US history at that point, and it caused tremors throughout the
financial system and the world. Pennzoil eventually settled with
Texaco for $3 billion in damages. Texaco was down, but not
out, and the following year, they merged with
Saudi Aramco, thus beginning a 25-year
period of merging and absorptions, disbandings and
gradual disappearances. Texaco stations have all but disappeared,
replaced by Shell and Esso and Conoco. You might still find the
occasional Texaco station in the Deep South of the United States,
but it is a dying brand. However, watching an oil empire
slowly crumble after being dealt a single knockout blow
more than two decades earlier, goes to show that the more money
and resources there are in play, the less a scandal actually has
to do with righting a wrong. In the case of Texaco,
Pennzoil, and Getty Oil, this scandal was more like a
hostile takeover gone wrong, resulting in Pennzoil
bleeding Texaco dry until it had no choice but to give
up and declare bankruptcy. People often think about the
reputation of a company following a scandal, but in
reality, for oil companies, reputation is never going
to be the top priority, as they will always have a
product that is in demand. However, profits speak louder
that reputation in certain industries, and that kind
of business can get bloody. When it comes to an industry worth
over $3.2 billion, everyone wants a piece, and they’ll do
anything they can to get it, even if they have to step on someone
else’s billion-dollar toes. Carrian Group – The Rise
of Corporate Sleaze While the companies examined
so far have certainly had their fair share of
dirty players and greed, their crimes have almost
entirely been related to money – whether through sneaky
deals, insider trading, or clever manipulation
of the figures. While there is plenty of that in
the scandalous story of Carrian Group, one of Asia’s largest
conglomerates in the 1980s, the company’s story has a
much darker side – murder. It is a sad truth that bumping up that
level of intrigue always draws a crowd, but the Carrian Group scandal
was one of the largest and most sinister corporate schemes
that the world had ever seen. Although the total amount of
money that was fraudulently accounted may not seem like much
in terms of today’s scandals, the exposed corruption rocked the global media
and financial sectors, and the collapse of the Carrian Group in 1983 was the
biggest bankruptcy in Hong Kong’s history. Before we get into all the details,
perhaps we need a bit of exposition. In 1980, a relatively unknown civil
engineer named George Tan who had begun working as a project manager
at a land development company and began making risky property
acquisitions in Hong Kong. The Carrian Group Ltd. had been
founded back in 1977, but it wasn’t until 1980 that their scheme for
success was put into motion. Via a 75% subsidiary, Carrian Group
purchased Gammon House, which was a prime piece of real estate in the
Central District of Hong Kong. The purchase was made for
nearly $1 billion HK dollars, and while that figure was
staggering back then, the company quickly flipped the
property for nearly $1.7 billion HK. Obviously, this drew
significant attention from the financial and commercial
markets of the country, as that sort of profit margin
in such a short time for a land developer was
impressive, to say the least. In less than two years,
George Tan was the head one of the biggest land
developers in the country, and the company wasn’t satisfied with
one major property in Hong Kong. Using the profits from their
first major undertaking, Carrian Group found
Carrian Investments Ltd., which gave the company access
to the financial markets. Based on this influx of capital, the
Carrian Group was able to expand its real estate and financial empire to include
holdings in a wide variety of industries, including Transport,
Catering, Hotels, Shipping, and Real Estate,
just to name a few. At one point, they even owned the largest
taxi company in Hong Kong’s history. Those first few years of the 1980s were
hugely profitable for the Carrian Group and George Tan, as well as for the supporting
banks of the company’s financial interests, namely Bumiputra Malaysia Finance and Bank
Bumiputra Malaysia Berhad of Malaysia. By engaging in fraudulent
reporting, deceit, and corruption, Carrian Group was able to
manipulate financial markets and essentially trick high-level bankers
and auditors into handling the dirty work and providing the company with
access to massive amounts of capital. It may be shocking that Carrian
Group and George Tan were able to perpetrate this significant of a real
estate scam in such little time, but by allying with two respected names
that had once worked at Price Waterhouse, which remains one of the Big Four accounting
and auditing houses in the world. This immediately gave Carrian
Group credibility, and by promoting John Marshall
(one of the PW hires) to a Managing Director position for all
major Carrian companies, it seemed as though the huge land developer was
above suspicion and above board. That was not the case, and
while George Tan and Carrian Group’s coffers swelled,
debt continued to grow. When an auditor for Bumiputra
Bank, Jalil Ibrahim, was found dead in a banana
grove outside Hong Kong, questions began to arise and more
people began looking into the questionable business and accounting
practices of the Carrian Group. It quickly became apparent that
Ibrahim had discovered something in the books of Bumiputra Bank and was
going to expose the corruption. A chairman of Bumiputra Malaysia
Finance, Lorrain Esme Osman, was suspected of having a hand in
ordering the death of the auditor, but nothing was ever proven,
despite him being held in retention in London, fighting
extradition, for seven years. The man arrested for the murder has
already served his sentence and is now living out his days in
Penang, while Osman and George Tan, perhaps two of the key figures in this
massive conspiracy, remained free. This conspiracy took place
more than 30 years ago, and remained in contention for the
better part of two decades, but it is still the largest Asian
corporate collapse of that era. By implicating major financial
institutions across the region, Carrian perpetuated
billions of dollars in fraud, and Bank Bumi required a $1
billion recapitalization by the Malaysian government
to remain afloat. Shocking enough, despite the blatant fraud
and corruption that had been exposed, the Malaysian government didn’t pursue
criminal investigations into any of government officials or bank leaders who
might have been involved in this fraud. This remains a mysterious black
hole of the scandal, which is why it remains one of the great shadowy
pieces of Hong Kong’s history. As more of the key players
in this scandal begin to pass away, like
Osman in 2011, it will become more and more
difficult to determine what really happened
back in the early 1980s. Was Jalil Ibrahim supposed to be killed? Were Osman and Tan involved in the
planning or ordering of the hit? How much money was actually
fraudulently accessed and spent? Who in the Malaysian
government was in on the scam? All told, Carrian Group
collapsed following the murder and subsequent
investigations, and from a once-great empire of Hong Kong’s
economy, only a restaurant, Carriana, remains. This scandal is evidence that
in certain parts of the world, when international policies,
philosophies, legal codes, and ethical foundations may differ
between involved players, corporate scandals can be shockingly hard to
prove, fully understand, or prosecute. Banco Espirito Santo –
Old Money, New Problems For more than 150 years, the
name Espirito Santo has been synonymous with the banking and
financial system of Portugal. Banco Espirito Santo and the family
behind it, including the famous patriarch nicknamed DDT (“Dono Disto
Tudo” – “Owner of all This”), have had their fingers
and interests in every industry from real estate
in North America to diamond mines in Africa
and billions of dollars in corporate and commercial
assets in Portugal. The company had been through
controversy and tragedy in the past, namely during the
nationalization of the country. The Espirito Santo family was torn from power
and imprisoned, as they had been one of the primary financial institutions under
the dictatorial regime of Antonio Salazar. When that regime was
removed from power, the banking family similarly
lost its power, but was able to reclaim their
empire with international aid and support from some very powerful
allies, including the White House. However, this latest round
of trouble occurs while the European market is still
in a very fragile state. With numerous collapses and
recessions still raging around the Eurozone, the revelation
that nearly $4 billion in fraudulent debt was being
hidden by a titan of the Portuguese banking system is
both dangerous and worrisome. There are constant worries of a
complete collapse, and given that Portugal was the poorest
western European country that had been struggling with
recession and unemployment issues for years, this blow
is particularly strong. The question is, how was this
allowed to go on for so long? How can one family hide $4 billion
in debt from organizations like the IMF and the European
Securities and Market Authority? The answer to that is why
this story is so interesting. After more than a century
of prestige and respect, in which the Espirito
Santo clan accumulated a massive fortune that stretched across the
globe, they wanted to protect their assets. To that end, they created an outside
organization to manage all of the transactions and financial
issues the company needed to handle. Eurofin was a privately
held Swiss company that dealt with many
Espirito Santo entities. In fact, 23% of Eurofin
was owned by another family company, Espirito
Santo Resources. Basically, this gave the Espirito
Santo family quite a bit of control over the operations,
or at least influence. That is why, when the rest of Europe was
struggling to stay above water during the Global Financial Crisis and the
subsequent recessions across the Eurozone, Banco Espirito Santo and
the rest of the family’s empire was able to remain
in such good standing. Eurofin was responsible for moving money
around the family, and often packaged large amounts of debt from various companies and
then sold it back to the bank’s clients. This was essentially hiding
huge amounts of debt from suffering companies in clever,
covert, and illegal ways. From the outside looking in, the
company was posting enough profits to avoid much suspicion, particularly
in its more valuable holdings, but in reality, debt was being
shifted around so quickly that regulators and auditors were largely
unable to detect the movement. This debt was handled and
traded by another Espirito Santo-created entity, Tulipa, a
trading desk based in Lisbon. This charade continued and at one point,
internal memos reported that the Espirito Santo scam could potentially sell off 30-40
billion Euros annually, if necessary. When suspicions began to rise about
the trading practices between Banco Espirito Santo and some of its
other family-related companies, following an “insider tip”, things
began to come to light that the family had been hiding for
the better part of a decade. When the truth came to light, and
it was found that Banco Espirito Santo’s internal processes were
breaching a number of regulations, more than 3.6 billion
Euros of debt had been sold off, while the
companies continued to post profits and deceive
investors, the Portugues stock market, and the
entire European community. The list of violations that the
Espirito Santo family and corporations committed is impressive, including
insider trading and accounting fraud. In total, the unraveling of Espirito
Santo’s scandal led to nearly a 4 billion Euro hit to the Portuguese
stock market, representing a 22% drop. With the ongoing fragility
of the rest of the European community, this
sort of major hit to one country that had already
been struggling has sent shockwaves throughout other
precarious countries. What makes this scandal so serious
and devastating is that it was left undiscovered for so long, and while the
regional economy appeared to be improving, it has in fact been suffering
more than ever imagined. Due to the recent nature of this
scandal and the ongoing recovery efforts, the full effects of
this scandal are still unknown. One thing is certain, however, the
old familiar ties of the Espirito Santo family, which included kings
and presidents of the past, are not going to be
able to save them from financial ruin and
international embarrassment. This is the end of a global dynasty,
but perhaps the Espirito Santo empire should have ended with a
bit more grace many years ago. Healthsouth Corporation – Fraud
is the Best Worst Medicine Although Healthsouth Corporation
is meant to help people, and is the largest inpatient rehabilitation
company in the United States, the scandal that shocked
company investors, shareholders, and the
broader medical community of the US certainly didn’t have taking care
of people at the top of its priority list. The company experienced huge success
leading up to 2003, when it expanded into every state of the US, as well as
facilities in half a dozen other countries. With more than 6,000 employees at more
than 2,000 locations across the world, Healthsouth was a dominant and well-respected
name in the healthcare industry. In fact, it was the most valuable
healthcare company in the country. However, the company’s stock had
actually begun to drop more than 7 years earlier, when Richard M. Scrushy
took matters into his own hands. He began directing a
series of fraudulent activities that stretched
on for more than 7 years, falsely inflating the price
of the stock by reporting up to 4000% more in earnings than
they had in reality gained. At times, the tax that they
were required to pay on their inflated earnings was more than
the company’s true earnings. By manipulating accounting records,
Healthsouth’s executive leadership was able to maintain the stock price
and fulfill investor expectations. When all the thousands of transactions
and accounting records were analyzed, it turned out that more than $4.6 in
fraudulent earnings had been reported. The tipping point came when SEC
investigations into Scrushy’s timely sale of $100 million in stock preceded a
major stock loss for the company. This would have been considered
insider trading, but Scrushy managed to be
acquitted of those charges. However, as the books
began to open, more and more fraudulent earning
reports began to appear. What was at one point $1.4 billion soon
grew to $2.9 billion and $3.5 billion, eventually settling at a whopping $4.6
billion in total fraudulent reports, which had been keeping
the company afloat for those seven years, its
period of largest growth. What made this scandal particularly
tabloid-worthy was the almost insultingly lavish lifestyle that
Scrushy was living in those years, which included a 92-foot yacht, millions
of dollars in art, and classic cars. All the while, this
inpatient rehabilitation center mogul was
bankrupting his company by falsifying earnings, and
putting the welfare of tens of thousands of
patients in jeopardy. Scrushy was known as an
intimidating and even frightening director, and many employees were
afraid to report indiscretions; similar reports came from accounting directors
throughout the company, a culture of threats and intimidation that belonged more
in a Mafia movie than a medical titan. When Scrushy eventually
stood trial in 2005, he was acquitted of all
36 counts of fraud, and one of the greatest frauds in the
history of the country was nearly complete. In the year following the
trial verdict, which shocked the nation and the remaining
leadership of the company, every effort was made to
eliminate all traces of Scrushy’s influence and
connection to the company. Four years after that fateful court
decision, Scrushy was sued by the Healthsouth investors who had
lost millions due to his actions. At the company’s peak in March in 1998, the
company’s stock was worth more than $30. Following the revelations of the fraud and
scandal, the price plunged to $.11 in March of 2004, before climbing back to the $6
range and slowly recovering to this day. This massive drop,
however, represented a complete collapse of the
financial structure of the company, as the fraudulent accounts
represented nearly 20% of the company’s value. The investors got some of
their revenge, although not nearly as much as
many would have wished. Scrushy was ordered to return $2.8
billion to company investors. The company has had to sell off, close,
or drastically reduce hundreds of its facilities across the world, and
is but a shadow of its older self. What had once been the top earner
in an industry worth hundreds of billions of dollars, despite those
earnings being largely falsified, is now a serious warning to other companies
about the impact that accounting inconsistencies can cause
major problems for investors, shareholders,
and service users. While the penalty to Scrushy in the $2.8
billion lawsuit was partially palliative for those who had lost everything
(including faith in the medical industry), the fact that no criminal charges
could be successfully leveled at him has left a bad taste in the mouths
of many people for nearly a decade. When money that finds loopholes can buy
innocence, then what’s to stop more executives from manipulating the figures
and dodging charges in the future? Reform is necessary, but
scandal-makers always seem to be one step
ahead of the lawmakers. Denny’s – The Racism Grand Slam At more than 1,600 locations
around the world, patrons from more than a dozen countries
are invited by Denny’s to come in and enjoy the
comfort, convenience, and affordability of
an American breakfast. From its legendary Grand Slam
Breakfasts to its often 24-hour services, it has been a major
restaurant chain since 1953, although its franchising operations
didn’t begin until 1963, when considerable growth and
expansion of the brand began. However, in the 1990s, the popular
diner spot came under serious fire for potentially discriminatory practices against
minorities at many of their locations. The first incident that raised attention
occurred in 1991, when a large group of black youths were asked to pay for
their bills before they could be served. When the youth questioned the waitress
about this unusual policy that was clearly only being instituted for them,
the waitress replied that earlier, there had been a group of African
American youths who had caused trouble in the restaurant and
left without paying their bill. Therefore, the store
management was requiring that black people had to pay
for their meals upfront. This blatantly discriminatory
practice brought national attention on
the small location in San Jose, California,
and there was a public outcry for this racist
behavior to be addressed. Denny’s quickly covered their vulnerable
racial points and worked closely with the NAACP to come up with tolerance
schemes and racial sensitivity programs that could be disseminated to
Denny’s representatives, who could then establish appropriate
practices in all locations. For two years, Denny’s did its
best to improve its image, even coming to an agreement with the
original youths in question. However, less than a week after that agreement
was signed in an attempt to salvage its public relations image, a second
incident incited a new wave of anger, when six black Secret Service
agents were kept waiting and were refused service by a waitress
in Annapolis, Maryland in 1993. The white Secret Service agents present
at the restaurant were seated and served. The timing of this second blatant case
of racial discrimination essentially annulled the work that Denny’s had
been doing to save its image, and all of the pledges and
commitments Denny’s leadership had been making suddenly rang false
in the ears of the country. Since the 1991 incident,
thousands of other claims appeared, and as the
list of complaints grew, it became clear that there had
been systemic racism perpetrated and promoted in the higher
management levels of Denny’s. More than 4,000 complaints were eventually
compiled against the breakfast chain giant. These ranged from other
examples of black people being made to pay for their meals
before they could be served, being made to pay more than white
customers, suffering racial slurs from patrons and staff, or
being entirely refused service. With thousands of independently
proposed cases, this could no longer be proposed as
individual or random events. This was a company who had regularly
engaged in discriminatory practices that had been disseminated
from company leadership. The evidence was almost
irrefutable, and the eventual total for that class-action lawsuit
was a whopping $54.4 million, paid out to more than 200,000
individuals and lawyers. It was the largest case and settlement
based on an issue of race since the Civil Rights Act had made these sorts
of discriminatory practices illegal. However, the story doesn’t stop there. In 1994, despite the settlement, racial
complaints continued, with six black women in Illinois claiming that
they had been forced to wait for over an hour
before they were served. Other diners, once again, had been seated,
spoken to, and served before them, and when a waitress did approach them, she
allegedly threw the menus at the patron In 1996, six Asian patrons of a Denny’s
in Syracuse New York were made to wait and were refused service, even as other
white patrons were seated and served. They were then made to leave by security
guards after complaining to the management. At this point, a group of white
patrons of the restaurant followed them out of the
establishment and beat them up. While the actions of those
white patrons cannot be controlled by Denny’s
management, the continued reports of racist and
discriminatory behavior in Denny’s across the country
could not be denied. Denny’s underwent a second
rehabilitation process that was even more intense
than their original one. Every Denny’s employee must now pass
through racial sensitivity training. Denny’s as a company also
underwent massive changes; only one franchise in 1993
was owned by a minority. Five years later, approximately 35%
of franchises had minority owners. Denny’s never denied its discriminatory
practices had happened, only that they were in no way sanctioned
or instructed by company management. They continued their image
improvement strategy by making sizeable donations
to minority groups, and changed its hiring and
marketing strategies to represent a more diverse and welcoming
atmosphere for minorities. Not only did Denny’s
seek to make up for its gross errors in judgment
and policy-making, it sought to go above and
beyond the norm in America and is now one of the most diverse
companies in the country. The claim that the behavior of thousands
of employees wasn’t in some way inspired by managerial or corporate policy still
seems farfetched, even impossible, but the fact is, this
scandal has made Denny’s turn over a new
leaf in a major way. In fact, in 2006 and 2007, Denny’s
was at the top of the list for Black Enterprises’ “Best
40 Companies for Diversity”. Saying that there is a silver lining
to a shameful discrimination scandal may be controversial, but the public
attention the issues attracted, and the evolution of a major commercial
chain from discriminatory or neutral on racial issues to a model of diversity
and equality is almost inspiring. Perhaps that is the one good thing that
came out of this Grand Slam Scandal. Madoff Investment Securities LLC
– Using Ponzi to Perfection In what would become
the largest accounting fraud and the largest
Ponzi scheme in history, the story of Bernie
Madoff’s elaborate and unbelievable fraud scandal
tops the charts in terms of blatant disregard for ethical
behavior, accountability, the welfare of others,
and simple decency. There remains an air of
mystery and impossibility surrounding this
particular scandal, as the sums discussed and the
companies involved operate in some of the most exclusive, secretive, and
elite levels of global society. While some of our other examples have
been smaller companies and smaller sums, the Madoff scandal was reported to
have involved more than $64 billion in falsified sums and deceit spread out
across Madoff’s nearly 5,000 clients. Given the complexity of this
case, and the shockingly bold nature of the scam
used to pull it off, a bit of context might be helpful. Bernard Madoff was a
stockbroker and investment advisor for nearly five
decades, from the founding of Bernard L. Madoff
Investment Securities LLC in 1960 until his empire’s
eventual collapse in 2008. The full extent of the fraud may never be
known, because Madoff implemented the most extensive and convoluted Ponzi schemes in
history to achieve this massive fraud. Essentially, a Ponzi scheme is a
pyramid scheme based on covering losses from previous investors
with the money from new investors. By promising modest and
consistent returns for a select group of
investors, Bernid Madoff was able to grow his modest investment firm
into the sixth-largest firm on Wall Street. He was managing the wealth of some of the
wealthiest individuals and companies in the world, ranging from transportation
industry holdings to global charities. Interestingly enough, Madoff used seven
feeder fronts that would acquire investors and funnel that money into
the larger parent organization, leaving many people completely unaware that
Madoff was in fact managing their money. As each successive group
of investors demand the return on their
invested capital, Madoff would move the money from his next tier of
investors up to cover his earlier debts. By operating in a very exclusive echelon of
society in some of the most affluent areas of New York State, and using his Jewish
heritage as a powerful too of coercion, Madoff was able to
manipulate tens of billions of dollars through his
recycling cash scheme. Despite his ingenious plan, the Global
Financial Crisis hit Madoff just like the rest of the world, and it became
nearly impossible to find new investors. As he was unable to cover his prior
debts for the first time in decades, investors began requesting their money
be withdrawn from the investment fund, likely to wait out the financial
storm and keep their capital safe. However, most of that money didn’t exist,
or had been spent to cover other debts. European investors began
to pull out in huge amounts, and the jig
was essentially up. It wasn’t long until the rest of
the story came out, and the full scope of the deception was
revealed – all $64 billion of it. The SEC had actually investigated Madoff’s
operations back in 1999, but they had failed to uncover the scheme, even though
that had been Madoff’s tactic for decades. While most scandals of this nature
don’t have a chance to ever grow to this size, purely based on
whistle-blowers and eventual suspicions, Madoff had covered himself in that
department in a way that no one ever had. He hired his brother as the
Senior Managing Director and CCO, his niece as the compliance
officer, and his two sons. Keeping this crime in the family
allowed them all to benefit hugely from the fraud, and there
was a very low risk of exposure. Madoff’s son admitted that they
had all been aware of the fraud for years, and Madoff had
explained the scheme many times. The revelations that came out in the
years that followed showed the true face of greed and selfishness that
runs rampant in the Wall Street World. The fact that a Ponzi
scheme had been able to pervade the stock market
to such an extreme degree shocked the world, and
it sent ripples through global markets from
Tokyo to South Africa. Due to the many companies
and charities that had their money being handled
directly by Madoff or through one of its feeder
companies, many had to shut down across a
wide berth of industries. Madoff set a new low for corruption and
greed in the corporate and financial sector of America, and as such, he received a
landmark prison sentence for his offenses. Madoff was sentenced to 150 years in
prison, which was the maximum allowable. He had pleaded guilty to
11 federal crimes, mainly through his actions in
creating, implementing, and reaping the benefits of the largest Ponzi
scheme in history for nearly 50 years. There are dozens of things that could
be learnt from the Madoff Investment scandal, and this was only a very
superficial summary of what occurred, but what this particular scheme revealed is
that the corrupt actions of a single man can shake global markets and industries in
a way that hadn’t previously been seen. When the accumulated wealth of such
an elite tier of investors and individuals is threatened, the
ripples that can cause are enormous. Following the Madoff
scandal, and as a direct result of those crimes,
the SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) has
instituted dozens of policy changes to keep this from
ever happening again. The fragility of global markets has been
brought into the spotlight in recent years, making cases of this scale and
severity a real danger to the financial security of thousands,
or even millions, of people. The Future of Corporate Scandal We noted that trying to
explain the underlying motivations behind such
unbelievable greed and corruption is beyond
the scope, but perhaps we have provided some
insight along the way. From some of the most trusted
names in investing to real-estate moguls and oil barons, scandals
don’t have any boundaries. Throughout history, we have seen
that power begets little more than a desire for more power, and when you
are at the top of an industry, there can be billions of dollars in
low-hanging fruit to tempt executives. Not all the scandals we covered
concerned massive amounts of money, nor were they limited to the
investment or banking sectors. We can clearly see that
corporate greed and corruption, even in terms of philosophies,
are shockingly common. Even a 150-year old dynasty can’t
be safe, nor is a company dedicated to helping people rebuild their
lives after traumatic events. The company’s function and
industry is obviously unimportant; corruption, fraud, insider
trading, intimidation, bigotry, and accounting malfeasance can
occur anywhere to anyone. It only takes a few twisted
minds and some misplaced numbers to begin the
slow avalanche of fraud. Many of these scandals began small,
and some of the perpetrators even admitted that when the
illicit activities began, they were only intended to be a
temporary fix to an identified problem. Despite those “honorable” intentions,
fraud, deception, and corruption form a slippery slope, and just
like the Ponzi scheme of Madoff, companies are continually
covering their problems with more lies, using bigger shovels
to dig their own graves. This was intended to be both
informative and cautionary. Small infractions may seem harmless,
a “necessary evil” of the business world, but most great
scandals begin with a single slip, but there’s no telling how large and
damaging they may eventually become. In terms of what we’ve
learned about human nature, the only logical
way to conclude is to reiterate what we said to
begin this little journey through the dark side
of corporate culture. Power and money corrupt, and absolute power
and unlimited money corrupt absolutely. The problem is, as markets
continue to globalize and overlap, the temptation of
billions will grow even further, just as greed for millions
eventually swelled to billions. Global economies are
powerful by themselves, but as a cumulative engine
that drives our world, they represent one of the most important
and essential elements of society. The actions of a corrupt
few have nearly toppled stock markets and
countries in the past; the fear, and it must be present to
some degree, is that the next wave of creative accounting frauds, investment
deceptions, and corporate corruption will not only be more clever,
covert, and extensive, but far more damaging to the stability
of entire nations and regions. Ongoing regulation and adaptation of global
banking, financial, social, political, and cultural policies is
essential if we are to continue the arms race against
corruption and greed. There will always be those who seek to
take advantage and get ahead in the world; a similarly responsive and dynamic
response must always be at the ready. The future depends on it.

Why did Napoleon Invade Russia? (Short Animated Documentary)


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Why did Napoleon Invade Russia? TL:DW, he thought he was going to win.


A Concise History of France by Roger Price.

Long-Term Bandwagoning and Short-Term Balancing: The Lessons of Coalition Behaviour from 1792 to 1815 by Daniel J. Whiteneck

Blinders, Blunders, and Wars: What America and China can learn by David C. Gompert, Hans Binnendijk and Bonny Lin

we all know that Napoleon's invasion of the Russian Empire ended how shall we say poorly but one of the big questions is what was he hoping to achieve and were these goals realistic so a bit of context when Napoleon had risen to power in the year eight or 1799 is it normally known Europe looked like this by 1812 on the eve of Napoleon's famed invasion of Russia it looked like this Napoleon had managed to defeat the Prussian Russians and Austrians before this and after rearranging their territories had demanded that they take part in what's called the Continental System the Continental System was basically the don't trade with Britain club and this lack of trade was quite damaging to Russia as such in 1810 the Russians simply opted to ignore Napoleon's demand and trade anyway which the French Emperor did not like one bit now this wasn't the only problem that plagued Franco Russian relations the first was ideological Russia represented everything that the French Emperor despised it wanted a meritocratic Europe in which certain rights were enshrined in certain values were seen as being simply universal and Russia did not embody these ideas the second issue was Poland in 1807 Napoleon had defeated the fourth coalition and as a result took this territory from Prussia and gave it to the brand-new Duchy of Warsaw in 1809 Austria tried to defeat Napoleon and just like everyone else they failed and so was punishment for even trying in the first place they lost this territory to the new polish state so how does this concern Russia well the last independent polish state was the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth and that had been partitioned by Austria Prussia and Russia this meant that a large polish minority lived within Russia meaning that if there was a conflict between itself and Poland or its patron France they would likely be an uprising furthermore the close friendship between the Duchy of Warsaw in France meant the Poland could be used as a launching point for an invasion into Russia as such the Russians could not tolerate an independent Poland unless it accepted the Russian Emperor as its king the poles in Napoleon said no and so things got a little bit tense so by 1812 the French Empire was deeply bogged down by Spanish and Portuguese resistance in the Peninsular war this was becoming costly in terms of money and lives and so as a result Napoleon needed a win and what better way to do so than to have a quick and easy victory by invading Russia Napoleon knew that he couldn't continue to fight the costly Peninsular war and invade Russia without Prussia and Austria on side as such Napoleon pressured them to commit small forces to the invasion which they agreed to the idea being that they would make an enemy of Russia and so wouldn't be able to against Napoleon so as we all know Napoleon's invasion of Russia was a complete failure and so surely he must have been able to predict some of the issues he faced right well know Napoleon was convinced of his own genius and considered the Russians to be an inferior people who would be unable to withstand his armies for very long as we all know this invasion went terribly for France and Napoleon stays in power were soon numbered so in summary Napoleon invaded Russia for many reasons to enforce the Continental System which in theory would starve Britain of money and resources to destroy Russia is a potential future enemy so that France could focus entirely on the Spanish Portuguese in the British and to strengthen his grip over Eastern and Central Europe as well as the new polish state to enforce Napoleonic ideals there however the most obvious reason he invaded was simple he thought he was going to win I hope you enjoyed this episode and thank you for watching with extra thanks to my patrons that you see on screen now and a special thanks to James Bissonnette David archaeologist Zarqa flash Party Boyko Rob Waterhouse Yashar Enderman Chris wicker Myles Bailey Brent guard Michael Reynolds Gustav Swann tun Rick Onion duck Maggie pax Kowski Winston k-word phacelia Ravidas Anthony Beckett Adam Harvey Ike Skye Chappelle and the amusement park Ives

The Warsaw Uprising – The Unstoppable Spirit of the Polish Resistance – Extra History

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Thanks to the Polish National Foundation for sponsoring this video.
The Polish are determined to make Poland matter on the world stage, and they will not wait for whatever mercies may come from the Russians. So the Home Army stages their own uprising to liberate Warsaw, and for some 60-odd days, their strongest members, the Grey Ranks, tragically held steadfast.
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♪ Get the intro music here!

*Music by Demetori:

♪ Outro music: “Broad Street Pump” by Sean and Dean Kiner

For five years, execution, torture, and vicious oppression has been the fate of the Poles. But resistance, the will to fight the Nazis who occupy their homeland, has been kept alive. In the face of unspeakable brutality, The Polish Home Army, the volunteer force of resistance fighters secretly living in Poland, has continued to grow. For these fighters, discovery meant instant death. But with sabotage, indirection, and a message of hope for the people, they kept the Germans from ever feeling secure in occupied Poland. And now it was time. Russian shelling could be heard in the streets of Warsaw. Liberation was at hand. But the Home Army wasn't going to wait for the Russians to march into their capital and return to them, whatever portion of their country they felt generous enough to give. The Warsaw Uprising was about to begin. A few months ago, James was invited to Poland to attend one of their massive game jams and observe what they're doing to help grow the games industry there. With any luck, he'll get back there for their game jam in September and I'll be hiding in his luggage to go visit my homeland. Because while in Warsaw, he fell in love with the city and its history. So much so that he worked with the folks running the game jam to help sponsor this special episode so he could talk about one of the greatest tragedies of the 20th century. So, let's begin. August 1st, 1944. The Allies have landed in Normandy. Rome has fallen. And the Soviets have pushed the German war machine off Russian soil. And in Warsaw, a people oppressed for five long years are about to rise up against their oppressors. But what precipitates this is the approach of the Soviet Army. Because the history between the Soviets and Poland is a fraught one. In 1939, as allies of Hitler, Soviet forces stormed over the Polish border, taking Poland by surprise and collapsing Polish defenses. Up to that point, while not winning the war against Germany, the Polish Army was taking their toll. Slowing down German forces and making them pay for every inch of ground. But to do this, almost all of their forces were sent to the West, never expecting an attack from the supposedly neutral Soviet Union. When Soviet forces poured over the eastern border, it spelt the end for the Polish Army. Two weeks later, Poland would surrender and more than half would be annexed by the Soviet Union until they in turn lost it to the Nazis double-crossing them. And while not as systematically brutal as Nazi occupation, the Soviet domination of Poland was still horrific. They rounded up and shot 22.000 Poles in the Katyn forest. And even when they joined the Allies, they refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Polish government-in-exile. All of which means that many in the Polish resistance believed that the only way they'd have a seat at the table after the war is if they liberated their own country. Which leads us back to the 1st of August. The Russians are a few dozen kilometers away. As their advance continues, The Germans are guaranteed to fall. It's now or never, it's time to rise up. The previous night, a tense meeting had occurred and "W hour", the start of the Polish uprising was declared. The troops had trained for a surprise attack at dawn. But at the last minute, plans changed. The uprising was now set for 5:00 P.M. But it's hard to hide that many people spoiling for a fight and by 5:00 P.M., sporadic engagements had already broken out across the city. The Polish troops were barely armed many without weapons at all. Charging in with homemade submachine guns or captured German rifles. They took the gasworks, the power and water plants, and some vital production facilities, but they were repulsed in key locations as well. The bridges, the airport, the rail line, and the main police station all remained in German hands. Most crucially though, they failed to link up. By night, groups were erecting barricades. The city was now divided and though there would be some coordination and reinforcements, many pockets were now fighting in their own small wars. Then the bombs begin to fall. The Luftwaffe is laying waste to the city. Not differentiating between civilian areas and those controlled by the resistance. The Polish Home Army doesn't have a single anti-aircraft gun and all eyes look for signs of the Soviet air force. But no planes sporting the Red Star of Russia are anywhere to be seen. Four days into the uprising, the true atrocities start. On orders of Heinrich Himmler, German troops begin going house-to-house, shooting every inhabitant they find. The old, the infirm, women, children, all were gunned down. Over the course of a week, tens of thousands of civilians are murdered as they huddled in their homes. But the Polish resistance didn't break. The Home Army ground the Germans to a halt. Though it's strongest battalions were also its most tragic, "The Grey Ranks". They were made up of the boy scouts. Older scouts were frontline troops, better organized, better trained, better disciplined, than most of the volunteers. The younger members ran courier duty while the girl scouts served as combat medics, nurses, and munition haulers. And they all swore an oath. "I pledge to you that I shall serve the grey ranks, safeguard the secrets of the organization, obey orders, and not hesitate to sacrifice my life." And they would hold this oath, all the way, unto their death. They fought house-to-house, door-to-door, in the chaotic melee of city fighting. Classmates died side by side, first loves torn apart by machine-gun fire. They referred to each other as bees, because they were a hive. A collective and they would sting the Germans. They fought with the fury only possessed by the young and the righteous and they pushed the Nazis from the burnt-out remains of the Warsaw ghetto. They cut into the German line far enough to liberate one of the concentration camps. 384 Jews who had survived the extermination of the ghetto were still in prison there. And they took up arms to fight against those who had enslaved them, who had murdered everyone they knew. But then, the young fighters of the grey ranks were faced with the unthinkable. Something I don't know as a human being you could face. German tanks rolled forward, but it wasn't the hundred tons of steel and death that stopped the scouts. They had faced tanks before, armed only with rifles and hand grenades. No. It was what was in front of the tanks, because in front of those tanks, were women. Some burned or beaten, all Polish. The Nazis were using them as human shields It was this the scouts couldn't face. So the advance turned to a stalemate and still aid did not come. By the end of August, the undersupplied Polish forces had to withdraw from Warsaw as old town, making their way through the sewers to more easily held points. For nearly a month, the soldiers and many of the civilians had been living off barley from a brewery the grey ranks had captured early in the fighting. Soon even water was scarce, with waterways clogged with corpses and the Germans cutting off remaining water mains as they advanced. At last, on the 15th of September Soviet forces appeared on the far banks of the Vistula. A crossing attempt is made, but Soviet command only sent the lightly armored division of Polish volunteers who had joined them after the fall of Poland to try to relieve Warsaw. Of the 1.600 men, who went more than a thousand fell to German guns. The Soviets decide that a crossing was impractical and no further attempt would be made to aid the Polish partisans. Meanwhile, America finally attempts an airdrop of supplies, but 80% of it is accidentally dropped behind German lines. American forces will not try again. The resistance is shelled day and night, great mortars with shells 2 feet in diameter, rained down on them. Rockets slam into the few remaining upright buildings and tanks hammer away at foxholes for scouts armed with no more than rifles. The Germans advance on the Mokka Tube district. The resistance is pushed back. They enter one of the major hospitals under Polish control and they execute every wounded soldier and all of the hospital's personnel. Again, the resistance flees through the sewers but a 150 of them exit too early and are killed by German troops. The Poles now control only a few square blocks right against the river They were surrounded, starving, outgunned, and outnumbered, and yet they fought not like bees but like wasps. Every house was a stronghold, every doorway a bunker, and they fought within sight of the Soviet Army across the river yet no aid came. They fought with the determination of the damned. They fought and fell. The outcome was inevitable. Surrender had to come. Germans weary of fighting and interested in concentrating on the Soviet threat offered terms. The entire population of Warsaw was to be expelled but no one was to be executed. The terms were accepted. The resistance fighters spent their last days forging documents for the Jewish members among them. 15,000 of the Home Army were taken away as POWs and 500.000 civilians were shipped out of the city. The lucky ones were simply let go with no homes, no food, no jobs. But 60,000 ended up in the death camps and 90.000 more found themselves unloaded at forced labor yards. And after the surrender, Himmler said, "The city must completely disappear from the surface of the earth and serve only as a transport station for the fair mocked." "No stone can remain standing, every building must be raised to its foundation" And in one of the last great acts of senseless destruction, perpetrated by the Nazi regime, German engineers took flamethrowers and dynamite and systematically, building by building, block by block, wiped Warsaw off the map. By the time 3 months later, when the Russians finally crossed the Vistula, 85% of the buildings in Warsaw had been leveled. Monuments, schools, libraries, historical sites all reduced to rubble and ash. If you go to the historic district of Warsaw today what you're actually seeing is a reconstruction. An attempt to rebuild based on old photographs and paintings. If you walk the halls of the Royal Castle, you're not seeing a building that's been standing for 400 years. Instead you walk through a palace completed in 1984 and in the rubble of that city, lay 70% of the young people of the grey ranks. But their sacrifice was not forgotten for their nation still stands, long after the thousand-year Reich was wiped from the earth.

Adam Lane – Serial Killer Documentary

Adam Leroy Lane is a convicted serial killer who is dubbed the “Highway Killer” because his crimes took place near the highway, which he frequently traveled because of his job as a trucker.
Lane committed the murders while he made his way through the northeast during the summer of 2007. He had a book (DVD) in his truck on stalking and killing humans entitled “Hunting Humans.” He also carried two knives and a choke wire.

His first known victim was Darlene Ewalt, who lived near Harrisburg. She was stabbed and killed on 13 July 2007. At the time, she was talking on the telephone in the backyard. Lane stabbed her to death while her family was inside the house.

Lane’s second victim was a woman named Patricia Brooks, whom he stabbed on 17 July 2007 in York County, Pennsylvania. She survived.

His third victim was a woman in New Jersey by the name of Monica Massaro. He stabbed and killed her a day before he committed his final crime.

His final crime transpired when he made a stop on I-495 in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, broke into a house on 30 July 2007, and attacked a 16-year-old girl with a knife. Her parents awoke to the sounds of her struggling. Her 135-pound mother and 160-pound father were able to subdue the 245-pound Lane and wrestle the knife he was carrying away from him, even though the mother suffered knife cuts. Chelmsford Police was contacted, arrived at the scene, and arrested him.

I try to avoid 495 at all times because it reminds me of a very bad thing that happened to my family and I living close to the highway I never really thought about safety factors it was Sunday night and we had just returned home from dinner jeanny decided to step and watch the Red Sox game and I turned in early the weather was very hot it was extremely oppressive shake came home at her curfew she has a 12 o'clock curfew she actually came home probably about 15 minutes beforehand it's me I was like oh I'm doing good I'm doing good on time I came in and I went straight to the back door just to see if it was unlocked and I just left it unlocked thinking that my brother was coming home that night I wanted to make sure that he wasn't going to text me a two hours later being like hey Shay can you come unlock the door it's locked Shay was being a good sister and looking out for her big brother I neglected to tell her that Ryan had called earlier in the evening and said that he was going to spend the night at his friend Ricky's house I don't think anyone ever prepares for anything like this to happen to them I heard a muffled sound like a little whimper come from the bedroom right next to us and I thought that was odd che must be having a bad dream or something and Kevin got up at the same time she said I'll check on her and I said no I'll check on which really isn't the norm usually I'm selfish and want to get all the sleep I need and but that that morning something told me to get up I got up and my wife Jeanne followed me in there I opened up the door and I saw a black silhouette over my daughter I woke up in the middle of the night to a cold object on my neck I thought it was a gun I didn't know it was a knife I just saw dark eyes and a mask the man spoke and it was a voice that I had never recognized before and he said if you make any ethnic noise I'm going to kill you and that's when I just kind of went into panic mode and I just started kicking I just pushed my back against the bed hoping to make as much noise as possible so that my parents could wake up and hear me and my dad the first thing I heard him say was who are you the man stood up from leaning over me and just went straight for my dad and we saw a knife in his hand you it was the scariest thing I've ever seen I saw a knife a guy that was probably three times the size of my dad going after my mom and my dad he was dressed all in black black pants black mask just a terrorizing figure and he was huge my dad just jumped on top of them was trying to grab the knife I was just trying to get out of bed I was saying get the knife get the knife the knife was very big the blade was I'm gonna say that long and so I tried to grab the grip of the knife but the man's hand was huge and it was ineffective it wasn't doing anything so I just grabbed the blade of the knife because I didn't know what to do I instinctively told my daughter call 911 and get my gun I don't have a gun but something inside me told me to say that which would keep him on his guard I was so confusing with the dispatcher and I was so flustered that I didn't even know what I was saying on the phone all of a sudden he got a burst of adrenaline he erected himself up off the bed with me on his back that's when I I knew I was in some deep when man stood up with Kevin on his back the knife slid through my hands I thought oh this is it we're all dead it was so stop and go where one minute my dad had him under control and then he'd freak out again and it it was scary when high school I wrestled I knew a choke hold was the only thing with a guy of this size that I had a chance on restrain and I'm taking him down was if I took his wind out and I choked him on the throat and threw my weight back and pulled him with me and we hit the floor and so at that moment I turned around and I grabbed the knife again I grabbed the blade of the knife again I ran back into the back room is all a lot of blood and I didn't know what it was coming from and then I looked down and I saw my mom holding onto the knife for dear life and she wouldn't let go of it I was pissed and all I could think about was I need to distract this guy so that he doesn't try to do anything else so I'm screaming at him I'm like what were you thinking that's when the man spoke and said I just wanted money and I heard the accent and Kevin and I looked at each other and went ha ha ha who is this who is sitting in front of us and he said I'm nobody let me go and I said to him I said you're not going anywhere you're fat when I saw the police come into the driveway I was ecstatic I was so relieved and so happy because I knew that at that point everything was gonna be fine and the second that the first officer got into the house he just grabbed the guy and got him under control and everything I didn't cry I just immediately hugged my dad he was really choked up it really hadn't hit him yet he just I don't think it hit any of us what had happened as I left the room Shay was with me we just held on to each other for a little bit and I wasn't gonna let go of her for the life of me when I first arrived at the scene I wasn't sure what to expect at that point it was very serious the sergeant told me that a man had broke into the house it was heavily armed different types of weapons weapons that I'd never seen before Chinese throwing stars choking wires along with this horrifying task after they left our house with this intruder Jeanne and Shay went by ambulance to the hospital to tend to Jeannie's wounds Brian was in shock when he found out what happened he felt bad that he wasn't there but he was spending the night at his friend Ricky's house and it's unfortunate cause he shouldn't because it's not his fault in the slightest bit I think he just wishes that he was there to just protect us detective Tyros told me that the man that had broken into our house was a long-haul trucker his name is Adam Leroy Lane lived in North Carolina and was running routes up and down from North Carolina up to Nashua New Hampshire and various locations throughout the metropolitan Boston area he had a wife and he had three daughters that made me sick to my stomach to know on August 2nd a few days later we conducted a search warrant of Adamle Rylands truck we found his logbook receipts some more knives we also found a movie inside of a DVD player that movies titled hunting humans this movie is about a serial killer that goes around randomly killing people without any mode of a reason other than to just kill people later I learned that Adam Leroy Lane was on the prowl in our town for approximately 5 hours he tried to get into at least three other houses before eventually getting into the MacDonald residence to where unlock door he was out in our town hunting humans at night we started to think maybe he's done this in other places and just has a McCoy yet you Joanne was my wife and friend is my partner in life I've known her since I was 15 phalion was sitting outside on our back patio just enjoying the weather talking on the phone at 10 o'clock I opened the door and told her I was headed to bed and she said she'd be up in a little bit I kind of laughed because I knew better she just would be out on the phone till late I just went upstairs and I shut the door I went to sleep I was just laying in bed and my bedroom door opened up and guy started screaming and shining flashlights at me guys were screaming at me to get my hands in the air I thought it might be a home invasion or something and I started to look past the flashlights and stuff and could see the silhouettes of the men standing there and I could see guns pointed at me and then one of the troopers identified himself as a state trooper so I put my hands in the air I asked if my son was there and he walked up on the police and put his hands above his head then they handcuffed him I was able to look around I see my wife's person sitting there with her cell phone and keys on one of the chairs at the kitchen table and I told my son we got big problems your mom wouldn't leave without her phone and her keys then I started seeing flash photography going off I knew that wasn't a good sign after about three hours one of the detectives came in sat me down that's when they told me that Darlene was dead and and she was killed at the hands of another person that's when things started to fall apart for me I remember hearing my son scream Senna kitchen still handcuffed broke the chair he was sitting in head-butted the frigerator you're still too big incident when I arrived crime scene investigators were already working in the backyard of what I describe as a typical suburban neighborhood this woman had been when her back patio talking to a male friend on the phone Darlene's friend hears the call sort of abruptly and a sort of muffled sound and abrupt in to a call that and his experience wouldn't normally happen talking to Darlene he tells his wife they hop in their car and drive to Darlene's home where he discovered the body on that back patio she suffered a fatal stab wound in the neck area ultimately causing her death I got woke up about 6:45 on the 13th from a phone call from my brother I answered it he's like Nicole mom's dead I'm like what you're kidding me tell me you're lying he's like no she was murdered last night and then I just feel my whole life just completely fall apart as experience is often taught the police and prosecutors people who are killed at home our most light would be killed by someone close to them that this was not a random act that it was committed by someone who knew her and someone who had the opportunity to kill her and most likely her husband they they accuse me of killing my wife they just wanted me to break down and say I did it or paid somebody to do it I knew I didn't do it cops took me down to the Pennsylvania State Police barracks where they had my brother and my father I just remember coming around the corner from the door and just running to me and just grabbing her and holding her and giving her a hug because I just there was nothing I could do for nothing I could do to make it better I just held on to her we both kind of just wanted to rewind time I never asked myself once if my dad killed my mom because I just knew I'm them had no enemies she's great personality and was just loved by everybody so it was kind of like why would someone want to hurt her let alone kill her and who would do it who could be such a monster shortly after the attack we had to go to court and see our attacker he was kept in a plexiglass bulletproof partition on the other side of the court from us he just looked like a caged animal he was disgusting he wouldn't stop staring at me and that was the worst feeling in the entire world I wanted to leap over the railing actually because I was so angry at that point I mean I really wanted to get a get a punch in or something there was no way that we could allow this guy to hit the streets the judge held Lane without bail finding that he was a danger to the community as well as to the McDonough family we didn't know a lot about him at the outset he had no prior record in the state of Massachusetts no prior criminal record but just from what we had at that point we knew he was one dangerous individual we put out an all-points bulletin to see if any of the other police departments along the East Coast it had any type of similar incidents in their communities and one of the first people to respond was a State Police trooper out of New Jersey his name was Jeff Noble and he had inquired whether or not Adam Lane might have been responsible for a murder that he was investigating down in New Jersey on the morning of Monday July 30th 2007 New Jersey troopers responded to the home of Manik massero miss massero had been stabbed multiple times in the sanctity of her own home it was just the type of crime that someone with an incredible amount of violence and rage would have done monica Massaro was a single 37 year old female she lived by herself she was very active socially she had a lot of friends really lived life to the fullest we didn't have anybody that we would call suspects specifically and that proved challenging for us we knew that our victim lived in proximity to a truck stop we of course felt that we should call the chumps of Massachusetts Police Department and just kind of compare notes on the case basically we wanted to know if Adam Leroy Lane was in New Jersey at or near the time Monica massero died so we asked detective Tyros if he had any evidence paperwork blogs receipts toll records anything that would indicate to us Adam Leroy lanes route of travel and all of a sudden detective Tyros kind of stops and he goes hey I have a receipt here okay and he goes it's from Bloomsbury New Jersey we all looked at each other like did he just say bloom was buried New Jersey when George went and then he gave us the second piece which was July 29 2007 right at the time we believe Monica died a short time later I heard detective Noble say George what coming to Chelmsford how can you get 48 hours anytime anyplace won a clue your iPad reality drama exclusive extras to missing would be a crime when we arrived in Chelmsford Massachusetts we immediately started you know the questions where's the evidence you know we want everything that Adam Lee could have had in his possession at the time of the murder we wanted to know where was the truck and we learned that the truck had already been released we had Adam Leroy lanes tractor-trailer for approximately three weeks legally we were only able to obtain evidence that pertained to our case at that point in time we didn't have any other cases so unfortunately after several weeks the owner of the tractor-trailer was looking for his truck back without any other cases we had to eventually give his truck back everything in there that belonged to Adam Lane the owner of the company threw into a dumpster which was located in the impound yard in Massachusetts where the truck had been the trash hauling company was scheduled to pick up and empty that dumpster on that very day we got very lucky we basically beat the trash hauler to the dumpster and the dumpster was was packed it was full he sued up it took an entire afternoon we took every piece of debris and trash out of that dumpster and in that bottom of the dumpster we found basically all of Adam lanes personal property clothing shoes socks without a doubt every detective there suspected that we were coming across key potential DNA events in this case we couldn't wait to get back to New Jersey submit this stuff to the forensic laboratory and let the evidence basically show us you know what happened before Jeff went back he wanted to interview Adam Leroy Lane at that point we told them don't get your hopes up but it's worth a shot going into the interview with Adam Lane we had basically very low expectations because he didn't speak to the other detectives in Massachusetts we felt he wasn't going to speak to us after detective Noble went in to interview Adam Lane my sergeant and I waited for him we were thinking we're gonna be eating dinner shortly it's probably not gonna go very long after about a half hour 45 minutes we realized he's talking after an hour we decided you know what we've had a good week without him and as we started talking to him it became evident that Adam Lane actually much to our surprise wanted to speak with for the first hour hour and a half of the interview he never once asked us what crime we were investigating and my impression of that is he didn't need to ask us he knew I were there he knew it and we knew it we did not have the benefit of the forensic results so this whole interview was done basically with my partner I just feeling out Adam Lane as we went we told them we're not here because we think you did something in New Jersey I told them we're here because we know you did something in New Jersey and you could see Adam lanes demeanor start to change and my impression of it was he was starting to come to the realization that he was caught and after several seconds he said the words I'm done I packed up our stuff we turned off the tape recorder My partner and I got up to leave he walked out of that room and after several minutes Adam Lane made a motion through the window of the door made a nod for us to come back in and at that point we knew exactly where we were we knew that I'm Lane why not to confess that he wanted to tell us what happened he described how he stabbed Monica Robles back here best I could tell our phone across out here he described where he stabbed her did you have any sexual attraction or any of this no no I'm wearing look I am out for sexual toys what happened next time she didn't tighten very much about how long 60 seconds Adam Lane no doubt about it it is perhaps the most dangerous man that I've seen personally and the reason is because there's no explanation there is no why with Adam Lane and he killed Monica Massaro just in my opinion for the sport of it I received a phone call on my cell phone from the Chief of Police they told us that Adam Leroy Lane had murdered a woman the night before he came to our house when we heard that we we were we were just floored we knew at that moment that we came seconds milliseconds from losing our daughter in the most horrific way possible why do you think Adam Lane suddenly confessed to murder chat now on Facebook and Twitter my biggest fear after I lost my mom was that I was gonna lose my dad I didn't want him to end up in prison for something that he didn't do emotionally I couldn't bear to lose another parent I had been subpoenaed to appear in front of a grand jury the early part of September of 2007 and is it two closer more worried I was getting several weeks after we submitted Adam Leeds knives to our laboratory for analysis we received word of what the results were the results showed that not only was Monica serous DNA on his knives but also Darlene waltz from Pennsylvania her DNA was also on Adam lanes knives I found out that my mom's DNA was on a knife from the newspaper I think I called my dad I'm like so you're clear and it just kind of becomes a blur after that just knowing that finally that they have the evidence to clear my father after we discovered that Darlene's blood was on the knife taken from Adam Lane I did meet with toddy waltz I explained to him that we had found the perpetrator and apologized that he had been a suspect treated as he believes as somewhat unfairly during the investigative process and wanted him to know that we would do whatever we could to bring Adam Lane to justice I can't even begin to think how bad it would have been if Blaine was never caught I think I would have been on trial for the murder of my wife the DNA match of Darlene II Walt's blood on Adam Leroy lanes knife was a complete game-changer we knew that he was incarcerated that he faced charges in Massachusetts and he faced charges in New Jersey since he was locked up and we knew he wasn't going anywhere we decided we would defer to Massachusetts and New Jersey before commencing our prosecution here in Pennsylvania even though he terrified me I went on to face this guy down I'm sorry do you don't come into my house and attacked my family I'm gonna be there I'm gonna watch you every step of the way we knew pretty much from the outset that this case was not going to go to trial there was really no defense that he had to offer he was caught red-handed in the mcdonoughs house by the tempered police so at some level we knew it was going to be a plea and what it came down to was how long of a sentence were we gonna get on this guy the one sticking point for Adam lien seems to be the sexual assault charge he was adamant that he wasn't going to sexually assault Shea McDonough this wasn't about sex so I went to the mcdonoughs and we discussed it if that was the one sticking point did they feel comfortable with dismissing that charge if it meant that the plea would go forward on all the other counts and he would receive 25 to 30 years in state prison that meant that Shea would not have to get up on the witness stand and recount everything that she went through that night and just traumatized her all over again we said okay let's just accept the plea bargain and go forward with it I would have liked to see a longer sentence and that that's what we were advocating for but we also knew that Adam was going to face murder charges in both New Jersey and Pennsylvania so at the end of the day we knew he was never going to get out I felt compelled that okay even though the legal battles for us were over I was gonna see this thing through and I'm gonna make sure that I was at every hearing that he was at that I was with the families of the other victims we went down to the sentencing for Monica Massaro this defendant showed absolutely no mercy for Monica my sorrow we don't know why a person who was a husband and a father suddenly commits these kind of acts I just was heartbroken for thaen Frank Messara Monica was their only child and only daughter and their whole lives revolved around her I remember giving Monica's mom a hug and just saying how sorry I was and just really feeling her pain and it was hard it was really hard as we were walking into the courtroom we noticed this gentleman sitting against a railing outside of the courthouse and he just looked lost we learned that it was Todd Ewald the husband of Darlene Ewald I gave him a big hug and I just felt like awful why am I here and his wife isn't here I was just really thankful to meet him the first time to be able to shake their hand and tell them thank you for them to finally have their daughter's killer face the consequences for what he had done I was relieved that they were able to be there and see him sentenced more sense to serve as years in the New Jersey State Prison I wanted to know why lane would go off and start killing people I started digging looking for answers it just snowballs and it ended up turning into a book it seems like he had a normal childhood and as far as we could see that there was no criminal background the police told me that it was very difficult on his family we'll never probably ever know why he did what he did there was more to write about because Lane still had to face the charges against Darlene a Walt and I was determined that I was going to be in that courtroom when he was sentenced I could be there as a reminder to him that you know what you killed those other women but I'm still here and I'm gonna make sure you get what you deserve how can you get 48 hours anytime anyplace won a clue your iPad reality drama exclusive extras – missin would be a crime June 28 2010 was the day that lien was sentenced for the murder of my mother the mcdonoughs were there and the masaru's were there it showed a lot of solidarity between the families the connection that we all feel as a result of being tormented by the sky there was some tension in the courtroom but there was also a lot of tears and pain and then there was just nothing from Layne he was a blank slate it's like you didn't even care we initially saw the death penalty against mr. Lane as we continued to talk with the Ewald family they were becoming concerned about an actual trial going through the emotional aspects of hearing about Darlene's death in trial the fact that a defense tactic might be to try and blame him Todd as the killer serial killer who police say went after random women along his truck route will spend the rest of his life behind bars Lane pleaded guilty as part of a plea deal some of the waltz family were in the courtroom today and they supported it was not hard to accept a plea deal for life in prison with 4 Adam Lane because whether he's on death row or not it's not going to change my circumstances at all because nothing can make up for all of the pain that he's caused there's just no way I feel like if there's anything I can do for Nicole to make the road ahead easier for her I owe it to her I can call Jeanne any time she's programmed in my speed dial and usually at the end of every phone call it ends with I love you it's great because it's almost like a second mother McDonough's are sort of like heroes in my book they stopped an innocent man from going to jail they put a guilty man away and they saved countless women it's hard looking at the other families and seeing that the hard times that they've been through and how traumatizing everything has been for them and I do feel guilty that I'm still here and that others aren't it sucks she just was traumatized she didn't want to get up out of bed she didn't want to leave her room when she was in the basement she was terrified of people looking in she had gone off to school and she had some anxiety she thought she was ready to go on to college and she she had to come home she she couldn't be away from us initially therapy made a huge difference I was able to just get a lot of emotions and feelings out that I didn't even know I I had built up and it was just a great feeling because now I feel like I'm able to let go and able to move on without holding a grudge and being angry [Applause] every time I leave the house or every time I go anywhere it's we never forget to say I love you because you never know what can happen when I go to bed at night and I look at my husband I think you know you are just my hero really I mean he saved my daughter's life he saved my life he saved his own we're here because of him so he really is the hero he is a hero I think about moniker and a family in the e waltz in their loved ones that they've lost and I say to myself you know why were we so lucky but I feel that he was sent there to be stopped to our house I feel it was a reason or a greater power that enabled us to stop on that night and I feel he sent there to be stopped you