Jim Laurie Documentary 'Unruly Dragon' (1988)



For educational and historical interest only. This is a 1988 travel documentary focused on China’s Huang He or Yellow River. Full credits below. A quality DVD of this film is available through TCM – Turner Classic Movies

Background: In the 1980’s NHK, Japan’s national broadcaster, was among the first to shoot in China extensive co-production documentaries. China was virtually closed off to foreign film makers until the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. In partnership with China Central Television, NHK produced two major films – one on the ‘Silk Road’ and another on the Yellow River. In 1987, Laurie having completed his first residency in China, was based in Tokyo. ABC News chose to adapt the NHK film for American television.
Looking back 26 year later: 1988 was a time of less critical examination of China, an atmosphere that changed a year later when the Beijing government brought to a violent end the Spring 1989 Tian An Men reform movement.
The film also shows parts of China including Tibet that have changed dramatically in the last twenty years. Ex: 2006, Chinese authorities began efforts to end the Tibetan practice of SKY BURIALS as portrayed in the film. As an historical document, it has some value in 2014.
It aired at 10 pm April 3, 1988 and received a poor critical response from the New York Times. The Times led: “”The Unruly Dragon” flows along like its subject, the Yellow River in China. It’s long and it’s muddy, but it has lots of bright flashes of color.” full review at

CREDITS:
Director: Consuelo Gonzalez; Writer & Producer: Pamela Ridder; Writer: Jim Laurie; Anchor Jim Laurie; Executive Producer: Av Westin.

[Teaser Trailer] My Saga – A Star Wars Fan Documentary



My Saga follows the journey of Adam Harris, a husband, father and Star Wars fan. Four years ago, the discovery of a brain tumour and a serious health scare caused Adam to re-evaluate his priorities and follow his dreams.

Star Wars has always been a constant source of joy, comfort and even safety in Adam’s life. When it became apparent his children shared the same deep love and affection for Star Wars, Adam felt compelled to discover just what it is about Star Wars that creates such devoted fans that span across multiple generations, all around the world.

With his son Jack by his side, Adam has spoken with fans, enthusiasts, die-hards as well as cast and crew members from the films. All the while discovering what Star Wars means to him, and the impact it’s had on making him the husband and father he is today.

Every fan has their own saga. This is one.

Visit the official website for the My Saga Documentary –
Help support the Starlight Children’s Foundation by donating or purchasing My Saga merchandise at our store –

my name is Adam Harris I'm a husband a father and a Star Wars fan four years ago I was left with an uncertain future when doctors taught me I have a brain tumor this has spurred me on to live out my dreams so along with my son Jay I'm going to discover what being a star's fan really means well I'm quite nervous I'm not a good flyer that sort of feeling it get that excitement whole crew went off to watch Star Wars and it was just mind-boggling it was just overwhelming there's so much you can be a part of and everybody loves each other I mean I was a bad guy everyone nor is amazed by call Carolyn said all these other clothes for it's it's really a humbling experience to come out and sit and have people appreciate something that he did 30 years ago you know it was a universe I felt safe in Gabe's journey started when he was about six months old he was diagnosed with tuberous sclerosis complex which is a disease that causes tumors to grow in the body maybe that's why this means so much for you it does it really does I want to tell them they're not alone there's a world of people who've been through it and it come out the other end that's arrived you think that's is that a good message why do you think people connect with the Star Wars story do that why in the world would they do that you

Contemporary Documentary Films, Filmmakers, and the Full Frame Film Festival – Spring 2016



Course No. AMI 205 / DOCST 270 / POLSCI 276 / VMS 264 / PUBPOL 374
Curriculum Codes: ALP, CCI, STS
Instructor: Tom Rankin
Tuesday, 1:40-5:00

Contemporary Documentary Films introduces students to documentary film history, theory, and criticism as well as with the richness of offerings at the Full Frame Documentary Film Festival in April. Featuring films from the 1960s to the present, the course draws much of the content from films that have been featured at Full Frame over the past decade and a half. Visiting documentary filmmakers will attend class, screen their work, discuss their motivations and methods, and engage with students around both the content and the form of their work. With a goal of exploring the art form, style, and technology of contemporary documentary films and issues of autonomy and power, politics, and public policies, the course advances a very interdisciplinary approach to documentary. A central premium of the course is student attendance to select screenings at Full Frame in downtown Durham with support for tickets through the Signature Course designation. Throughout the semester we will analyze the form, technique, and impact of documentary filmmaking.

it as Duke University I'm Tom Rankin and I'm teaching a course at Duke University contemporary documentary film film makers in the full-frame film festival I've been at Duke 18 years 15 of that is director of the center for documentary studies and now direct the Master of Fine Arts in experimental and documentary arts I'm a filmmaker and photographer and write about film and photography and like to think about it in in the context of contemporary life it's a course that looks at the arc of documentary film from about 1960 to the present and does that by looking at whole entire films comparing the themes the techniques the methods the politics the size of the crew the sense of audience and the intended audience and what we write about films we have for visiting filmmakers come into class and then in April the class attends at least two films two screenings at the full-frame documentary film festival in downtown Durham that film festival one of the premiere film festivals in the country gives an idea gives students an idea gives all of us an idea of the kind of life of the documentary film films that have just come out as well as those screened at that Film Festival that looked back across the tradition when I use the word contemporary it's really to talk about our focus on the last 20 years but to do that we we begin in about 1960 the late 50s early 60s and the advent of direct cinema the sort of power of direct cinema and that allows us to to begin to think about film as a as a construction so many people think of documentary is something that that's rooted in objectivity and and this class really tries to interrogate that idea and look at it as storytelling as storytelling with a lot of power with a lot of presence and with a lot of contemporary issues I think one of the great features of it is the visiting filmmakers being able to talk to people about why they made what they made what they plan to do with it how they get it out in the world what the intended audience is and what they want to do with their careers as filmmakers it's a class that that it really does can open your eyes to to the power of this medium you

Max Miller – 40 minutes BBC Documentary



Max Miller – 40 minutes BBC Documentary 1989 – I Like the Girls Who Do – written and presented by Gerald Scarfe Thomas Henry Sargent (21 November 1894 — 7 May 1963), best known by his stage.

Here’s the brilliant Heroes of Comedy documentary about the great comedian Max Miller circa 1995. Long-running documentary series looking at some of the . Max Miller – 40 minutes BBC.

Documentaries on the documentary makers + The Documentaries themselves.

Part two is at Most comedians from the Music Hall days sound as funny as a station announcement by today’s standards – but a precious few come up.

Why The Romans Were So Effective In Battle – Full Documentary



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General Knowledge History Quiz:

The Roman Army was a highly effective war machine that constantly adapted and evolved in order to defeat new rivals and conquer new territories, ensuring Rome remained the dominant superpower for many centuries.

it may have been the greatest army of all time conquering and controlling an empire that stretched across the ancient Western world it was ruthless disciplined and feared by all not just by his enemies who died in their millions but by its own Empress who often paid the price of the Army's wrath and yet these soldiers were builders as well as destroyers helping to spread a culture that became the bedrock of Western civilization what was it that made this army so dominant how was it able to rule reshape the classical world and why did it eventually fall this is the story of the Roman warship the glory that was Rome was built largely upon the power of its army until it discovered how to wage war Rome was just another small Italian farming settlement but there was something different about the Romans they had a unique ability to turn themselves into a political and military power without equal the city that would dominate the ancient world for centuries began as early as 1000 BC archaeologists have found the remains of dwellings from that period on Rome's Palatine Hill for many centuries later the Roman emperors built their palaces early Rome was dominated by a neighbor the Etruscans from what is now Tuscany to the north Etruscan Kings took control of Rome around 600 BC and ruled it for a century before the Romans expelled Rome then began creating the political and military system we recognized today Rome became a republic with the Senate and two chief executives the consuls who were elected for one-year terms to handle important matters including the military Rome had to learn how to fight because it occupied an important trading crossroads on the Tiber River and it was always skirmishing with envious neighbors as early as 500 BC Rome had an army of 6,000 been called a legion from the Latin word meaning conscription but this was a far cry from the professional Roman army that would later dominate the world they are citizen soldiers they are part-time soldiers they get recruited for the campaigning season they leave their fields their work to go off and fight in the army at the end of the campaign they're back bringing the harvest bringing in the vintage buying the fields every year able-bodied Roman men were summoned by trumpet to report for enlistment but not all men only landowners were trusted to fight for Rome because they had something to protect service was regarded as a duty and an honor and a must for any Roman seeking political power the Roman people are reluctant to vote for people who cannot show their war rooms them many stories of people standing for politics in the forum ripping their clothes to show their wounds to demonstrate that they have fought for Rome in battle Romans had to provide their own armor and weapons so the wealthiest the officers had a helmet armor a spear a sword and a shield while the poorest the front ranks had no owner and had only slings and stones for weapons the early Roman army was modeled on the Greeks especially the basic tactical formation the Greek army used the so called phalanx a tight-knit rolling infantry formation which came at the enemy like a forest of Spears your whole army lined up facing forward in lines and then the first few ranks would hold out their spears and their shields and the army would move forward and mass the object was to simply push aside the enemy and in in the course of it kill as many as possible Roma's first major victory was against his old nemesis the Etruscan a Rome conquered the nearby city of AE in 396 BC but the Romans didn't have long to celebrate six years later they met an entirely new kind of enemy when Celtic warriors on the north swept down upon Rome the Celts were people linked by language culture and style of warfare and Celtic tribes were spread across Europe from Ireland to France and Switzerland and 390 BC a Celtic army thrashed the Roman legion and over an ro [Applause] the Celtic method of fighting was very disturbing to them the Celts simply ran at you with hundreds and thousands of men yelling shouting banging on metal objects blowing their horns they really terrified the Romans the Celts left the city only after the Romans bribed them with gold this was Rome's wake-up call it needed to rethink its whole military strategy if it was to survive that one way was through training Roman soldiers had to go through the toughest training in the ancient world there were four long hard months of basic training and anyone who couldn't stand the pace was either discharged or put on rations of foul-tasting barley until they got it right basic training began with marching and plodding up soldiers had to be able to march more than 20 miles in five hours carrying a full pack in weapons training recruits were given dummy swords shields and javelins that weigh twice as much as the real thing is to build muscles the Romans I think in this early period should really be seen as the the zulus of the Mediterranean world they are highly militarized society and like the Zulus they don't let no warriors have sex so when they come into battle they're very tough as the army gruel Armour became standardized for all soldiers and provided by the state I'm wearing a male shirts for body protection and you can see it's made of small individual pieces of metal which are fashioned into rings and then linked together it's biggest advantage of course is to take slashing blows across because the male links all sit together if an enemy hit me with a sword in a slashing way it would actually take the blow the disadvantage of male was that it doesn't in fact take a stabbing at all if you stab through the male the point of the sword will actually pierce the rings beginning in the 1st century AD the Romans also used segments and plate armor held together by leather straps it was so much more complicated than male armor that soldiers needed help to put it on you can see all the protections on the top rather than round the legs and things and the reason for that is that when you've got D the counts fight in you their long slashing swords needed all that protection up on the top rather than bottom they also give you a chance to run the Roman helmet gradually redesigned over the centuries aim to give maximum protection without blocking the sensors you can see it's a round bowl protecting the top of my head round because it's got very good glancing blow action a square helmet would take the blow words a round helmet the blow would glance off large cheek pieces to protect the side of my face and a small neck guard at the back to actually take an over hand below protecting the back of my neck now obviously you can see there's no covering on my face or on my ears in fact and the Romans decided that it was a lot better for a soldier to be able to see around him and hear orders very vital in back further protection came from the Roman shield smaller and round and early times developing later into a bigger rectangular one it was made of layers of wood glued together bound and covered with leather and but think about the Roman shield is it is curved not flat like most shields at the time this gives me protection all around my body and if I coming at you in battle it's not only a defensive weapon it's an offensive weapon I can smash you in the face and then while you're off pilots draw the sword and pin under your ribs when it came to offensive weapons the first one the Roman soldier would use in battle was the javelin the great thing about the Roman javelin is when you threw it the enemy couldn't throw it back these are delivered in volleys of hundreds as they rain down the hard iron tent will punch through the armor the weight of the handle will bend this soft metal shank it'll be useless and can't throw it back the shield is useless you probably hurt you're in big trouble but the weapon that won the Empire and cabinet was the Roman sword once the Germans have been expended the Roman legion would then move in with probably the most vicious of his weapons the short sword or Gladius in Latin very much a close quarter weapon it's much shorter than you will envisage a sort of a medieval broadsword today because it actually is much shorter it's designed with a very broad base tapering to a very very sharp point and the idea of this weapon was purely to stab the soldier was trained to actually stab into an enemy soldier mainly in the stomach area because of course there's no bone for it to actually get jammed in and of course a quick stab when withdrawls put him out of action one way or the other now the soldier was trying not to use an overhand blow but purely a stabbing action in the modern wire sole use the bayonet really the thing about this Roman swords is shortened to the point that issues for stabbing rather than slashing barbarians this or don't like hours and long and broad and it's all an ego trip on the battlefield sloshing around above their heads all style that's all it is and while they're doing that it's up and under stabbed into the ribs remember so we make them into me to the barbarians the Roman army was ready to use their weapons and training to build an empire and the first victims were their fellow Italians the basic unit of the Roman army was the Legion and over time it became highly structured eventually the Legion evolved into a unit of 4,800 soldiers it was divided into ten cohorts of 480 men each which in turn contains six centuries not 100 men that he won't expect but 80 soldiers each century had ten groups of eight men who shared a tent a legionary commanders were usually political appointments Roman nobleman doing service as they climbed the political ladder their military ability varied greatly and so much of the real running of the army felled the officers beneath them the most famous of these was the Centurion and charge of a century of soldiers as Rome's Empire rule Centurions became career soldiers working their way up through the ranks Centurions usually had at least 15 years experience it was their job to train the men discipline them and lead them in battle because they'd seen so many campaigns they understood the traditions of the army they knew how the army could actually solve particular problems which he might encounter in future campaigns so they were very much the living essence of the Roman legions I mean the equipment of a Roman centurion you can always immediately tell the Centurion because his crest goes across his helmet in this case the crest is made of horsehair although sometimes they were made of feathers and if he'd been given military awards you can see they're worn on a harness on the chest Centurions were career officers who took the term literally Centurions Demma had to retire we find some cases people over 80 is still serving so this of course helps to secure uniformity of standards and training and so on throughout throughout the empire you see careers of the Centurions who've been all over the place in their very long lifetime Centurions could make a soldier's life hell they demanded bribes to excuse soldiers from the less popular duties and used their vine staffs to deliver punishment one Centurion Luke Ilyas was nicknamed give me another for his practice of breaking his staff over soldiers backs it was later murdered by his own men after its early defeat by Celtic warriors in 390 BC the Roman army changed its battle tactics they did away with the rigid phalanx formation it had borrowed from the Greeks and used smaller fighting units called men apples or handfuls highly maneuverable groups of less than 150 men this allowed the the Roman army to operate more effectively perhaps on on rather rougher ground but also it allowed them to move groups of soldiers around to the flanks and to the rear of enemy armies well the basis of the Roman army was its infantry the foot soldier each Legion also had an attachment of up to 300 cavalry the Romans were not natural horses so they adapted tactics and gear from their enemies including the Celts one example was the military saddle saddle on top of it is a very odd-looking Beast to most people now it doesn't look like a modern saddle at all the most obvious feature other four horns on it and the four horns are there because of the thing that is obviously missing there are no stirrups at all the Romans didn't ride with stirrups the saddle that developed after they'd fought with the Celts had this these horns as a very significant feature if you've got no stirrups as I said you can't lean out sideways very safely on a flat saddle these horns in Abele to do that the saddle looks sure compared to a modern saddle because the back horns press against your backside the front horns go under your thigh and you can lean out probably to about 45 degrees with relative safety part of the Cavalry's job was to harass the enemy and the riders carry special light javelins for that purpose as you pass that enemy you can lob several of them at them they're not going to do a huge amount of damage but your purpose isn't necessarily to do a lot of damage it's to make the formation break up so the infantry can get in and win in battle the cavalry lined up on the wings of the legions the infantry formed three horizontal lines so they could take turns at being the frontline until the battle was won as the Romans formed up to start the pathway they bang their swords against their shields now frightening drumroll until the order came to charge as the two sides closed in on each other the Roman foot lions would launch their javelins disrupting the enemy formation the infantry would form wedges to break up the enemy lines and allow close-in fighting that was when the short Romans stabbing sword would come into its own the fighting itself might be only twenty minutes or so sometimes it was a lot longer but it was very difficult to fight for a great length of time and this massive weight of armor that Roman soldiers and often their enemies wore part of the reason for Roman success in in battle was undoubtedly to do with training once an enemy cracked the Romans did not surround them instead and usually left an easy escape route so that the cavalry could come in and cut them down as they fled by 270 BC Rome controlled much of the Italian peninsula but unlike many ancient powers it did not simply pillages defeated neighbors it turned them into allies sometimes offering them Roman citizenship that way as Rome expands the people human conquerors are integrated all part of the Roman army and become the troops for the next wave of conquest out so it's a cumulative process and then I think key to the success and the growth of this Empire Rome's expansion made a clash inevitable with Carthage another Mediterranean superpower and when that clash came it would produce the most horrendous war the ancient world had ever seen Rome's expansion in the 200s BC brought it into conflict with another empire across the Mediterranean the city of Carthage in baden-baden easier commanded an empire stretching across northern Africa in 264 BC Rome and Carthage began fighting over control of Sicily / Carthage had colonies and Rome found itself at a disadvantage Carthage had a great Navy and Rome had almost none Rome began building one the most of its soldiers had never sailed so they practiced on dry land pretending to row in unison to get a feel for it and when it came time for the real sea battles Rome had a trick up its sleeve it developed a kind of gangplank called a Corvis that hooked onto Carthaginian ships so that the Roman soldiers could board them turning naval battles into more familiar land battles and that way Rome routed the Carthaginian fleet Rome won Sicily Corsica and Sardinia but Carthage did not accept the defeat in 218 BC Carthage hit back under one of the most feared warriors Rome would ever face Hannibal and this time the target was Rome itself Hannibal was a man clearly with tremendous determination a great personal hatred of Rome which he'd inherited from his family who'd fought the Romans before and it's also very clear that he had great personal magnetism Hannibal marched his army through Spain and France and across the Alps into Italy accompanied by three dozen elephants most of Hannibal's elephants died on journey over the Alps in fact his elephants played absolutely no role in the subsequent campaign I nevertheless they represent the skill and boldness that Hannibal portrayed in coming over the Alps so early in the campaigning season and surprising the Romans but the help of Celtic warriors who joined him on the way Hannibal won early victories against Roman legions said to meet him then in 216 BC came a major showdown at Cana in southern Italy Hannibal had about 40,000 troops while the Romans and their allies had nearly twice that number but Hannibal was a master tactician when the Roman legions made the usual thrust towards his Center Hannibal let them advance then encircle them it was a disaster for the Roman army some fifty thousand Romans and allies were killed there was panic and Rome but cries of Hannibal is at the gates but Hannibal was never able to capture role because Rome's ingenious policy of creating allies paid off once again what defeats had over the fact that the Romans have got eight nine ten times as many men able to be impressed into the army as Hannibal has got they can lose fifty thousand men in a day and they keep on fighting because they've got the manpower and no other state in the ancient world could ever achieve anything like that Rome practice total war against Hannibal as an emergency measure they called up every available man even slaves and set legions to Carthage held Spain to stop supplies and reinforcements from reaching Hannibal the wars on on this scale are fights for survival literally for survival if you lose these kind of wars in the early period your city is destroyed your women and children are dispersed across the Mediterranean world that's the end of it all societies are destroyed if battles are lost it took fifteen years of fighting before Hannibal was forced out of Italy he returned to Carthage to defend it against the counter-attack by the Romans who finally defeated Hannibal in 202 BC but despite the victory rome maintained a paranoid fear of Carthage and provoked a third war in 149 BC it took the Roman legions three years to breach Carthage's huge city walls and then the Romans slaughtered unknown thousands of Carthaginians and so of 50,000 survivors into slavery finally the Romans leveled the city crowded into the ground and according to legend sowed it with salt so that nothing would ever grow there again any Roman army was capable of extreme brutality particularly in the sack of a city which had resisted them which they then managed to break into under those circumstances it seems to have been normal Roman practice almost policy to slaughter absolutely everybody in everything including animals everybody was just chopped to pieces absolute carnage after defeating Carthage Rome also added Greece as a province after destroying the city of Corinth many other conquests followed so that by 100 BC Rome was undisputed master of the Mediterranean the Romans justified their expansion in a way that many modern-day politicians would understand they always convinced themselves that they fight defensive Wars no Roman war no matter how offensive or imperialist it might look to us to the Romans it was always a matter of defense always fending off an attack so in a sense that's how they justified a Mediterranean conquest as rulers of a rapidly expanding Empire the legions had to get used to a lot of travel and that meant travel on foot when Roman soldiers marched they carried up to 50 pounds of equipment on their backs including weapons armor cooking utensils rations and tools for building a temporary camp most armies relied on natural defenses if the Romans carried the tools to build a new camp wherever they were a new one each day if necessary they dug a defensive ditch around the whole camp five feet wide and three feet deep then built a palisade with the snakes they carried with them it was as though the Romans had their own fortified city wherever they went the primary purpose of a Roman marching camp is psychological rather than military it's the idea that in enemy territory every night you make a small city in what is not your territory and the enemy look on seeing their territory pockmarked by the advance of Roman armies the camps were a classic example of the Romans passion for order every camp had an identical plan each leather tent was put up in the same position each time so that the soldiers knew exactly where they were the soldiers had a great sense of security during the night they knew exactly where their officers were and the fact that their comrades work were guarding them as well the Roman obsession with order extended to the discipline of the troops cab sentries who fell asleep to be stoned to death for having endangered the whole regiment it wasn't as exceptional as it might sound given the general background of what Roman society was like people were used to flogging they were used to fairly frequent public executions so the Roman army was indeed pretty draconian but not as different from the rest of society as badly I think one infamous form of harsh discipline was decimation the killing of one men in 10 of regiments that showed cowardice in battle the men were selected by luck and clubbed to death by their comrades roman obedience was based on fear if a Roman soldier was faced by a crisis in battle that Roman soldier that unit of soldiers would stand their ground because they were more likely to survive a desperate fight in battle than to survive if they ran away one famous case of decimation came when Roman legions suffered several defeats during a revolt led by an escaped gladiator a warrior called Spartacus the Roma Norway was so busy conquering and building an empire on foreign soil that it had no standing army back home in Italy and that left it open to surprise attack that's just what happened in 73 BC in a revolt led by a foreign slave named Spartacus who had been forced to become a gladiator conditions for all slaves were relatively cruel and brutal and particularly for gladiators who were kept chained in barracks and were brutally treated Spartacus led a revolt by fellow gladiators against their conditions and was soon joined in the uprising by slaves in the countryside millions of slaves were brought back into Italy a lot of them were prisoners of war a lot of them were ex warriors and therefore although many of them were kept in barracks and many of them are trained to be gladiators they were a potential security risk because there were no legions stationed in Italy at the time new legions had to be quickly raised and trained but Spartacus said his men using guerilla tactics defeated each Legion centimetres and his band remained at large in Italy for three years the roman senate finally gave the nobleman marcus crassus the power to quell the revolt the show he was serious he began by decimating two of the legions that had lost the Spartacus then raised six new legions and met the Spartans in open warfare their tactics were so unconventional they refused to give battle until the very end in a conventional way they confounded the expectations of the generals and the army is sent against them in a sense their mistake and what lost them their final battle was to behave like Roman soldier the fighter conventional pitch battle had they stuck to guerrilla warfare their revolt might have been even more effective than it was the legions defeated the rebel army and killed Spartacus and then Crassus lined the Appian Way outside Rome with 6000 crucified sparticles a lesson to anyone who opposed Rome and her army in the early days of the Roman army soldiers were called away for only a few months at a time between spring and harvest but the expanding Empire that long campaigns overseas and for property owners he only been eligible for the legions military service became an ever-increasing hardship by 100 BC Rome had about 130,000 men in uniform one Roman man and eight was a soldier and he was required to do up to six years of service in one stretch and a maximum of 16 years over his lifetime the legions needed a bigger pool of manpower to draw on and the man who made it possible was the Consul Marius himself a great general twice he had saved Rome from invasion with victories over German tribes in the fields near XR Palace and southern France and 102 BC Marius army killed so many Germans one hundred thousand by one account that farmers had bumper crops for years afterwards because of the blood and bones in the soil as console marius decided to throw the ranks open to all Roman citizens whether they owned land or not this meant poor Romans could volunteer for a secure and prestigious job with good pay and trap they could become career soldiers the Roman army was now on its way to becoming a full-time professional force but volunteers still had to meet strict requirements they had to be tall preferably literate and have good character references certain professions were preferred including blacksmiths and hunters those incident not suitable included Weaver's and tavern keepers new recruits had to pass an interview and a medical exam and then had to take an oath to perform whatever they were commanded for the Roman state and to not shrink from death they were then given three gold pieces and sent to the provinces for training but many of these new Torah soldiers were already looking beyond three gold pieces as the army kept adding new conquests soldiers were increasingly focused on the spoils of war the amount of booty are over to bring back from cities like Corinth in 1 4 6 BC so enormous that I think it did encourage massive greed and an increasing level of brutality among Roman soldiers increasingly soldiers turn their loyalty from the Roman state to their own generals who could make them rich and the generals being Roman aristocrats saw their legions as tickets to wealth and power intimately related as the general and his army the general promises his army land booty settlement after the war has finished and the army promises the general not only success in conquest but votes back in Rome afterwards this led to a new class of super generals all the political ambitions there was Maria's himself a consul for many years his rival sulla who won victories in the eastern Mediterranean and became dictator of Rome for a time Pompey the great for conquered Syria and Palestine and the most famous general of all Julius Caesar Julius Caesar represents as close as I think you can get to naked ambition in the first century BC there's a famous story of Julius Caesar age 31 in further Spain coming across a statue of that great Conqueror Alexander the Great and suddenly bursting into tears and his entourage say why Caesar are you crying and he says this man by my age had conquered most of the world and I have done nothing within a few years the world would know that Caesar had done a great deal of all Rome's great generals none created more fame bloodshed loyalty and hatred than Julius Caesar he was a nobleman who worked his way up the political ladder and used his military command in Spain to pillage enough booty to buy votes in Rome he was made a consul and formed a political alliance the triumvirate of the rival general Pompey and Marcus Crassus the richest man in Rome Cesar then had himself made governor of northern Italy and southern France which made him commander of several legions he was anxious for more conquests and his chance soon came in 58 BC a Celtic people the helvetii II asked Caesars permission to migrate from Switzerland to western France across Roman Allies territory in what was then called goal instead of agreed Caesar decided to attack the Caesar of course is a cynic he needs a war he needs the booty derived from that to finance his political campaigns before he goes on campaign in Gaul he is deeply in debt Gaul will provide the booty for repaying his creditors Caesar said six legions against the Helvetii is three hundred and sixty thousand men women and children more than half the haveli was slaughtered and the survivors forced to return to their homelands it was a part of the political struggle at Rome in the late Republic Pompey his great rival was Rome's best general so Caesar competing against Pompey he has to be a better general after dispatching the Helvetii he Cesar said after a German tribe that had crossed the Rhine and marched his troops 120 miles in five days to the Alsace region again the Romans slaughtered thousands Caesar then turned west towards Belgium and repeated the dos against the tribe there ceases political foes in Rome decried his actions but both Romans cheered him on because he was defeating goals the very same Celtic people who'd sacked Rome in 390 BC the Romans fear of Celtic people's like the goals was more than historical it was also physically partly the sheer size of the Celts the Italians were fairly small people and compared them the goals for example were haps enormous you know some of six-footers that the Italians weren't used to for example we're told that Julius Caesar was tall for a room when he was only 5 foot 6 to the Romans anyone who didn't speak Latin or Greek such as the Celts was looked down upon as a barbarian because the language sounded like sheep baa baa the Romans have a very particular view of themselves and that is to see themselves as people who've developed the powers of the mind to control the body barbarians on the other hand are people who are led by physical desire sex and drugs and rock and roll they don't have a proper education so they go for the nearest thrill but the Celts that Caesar was fighting at gold but far from barbarians as we know the Germans they lived in organized towns like this reconstruction in France and there were master iron workers who probably invented the chainmail armor that the Romans adopted and the Celts artwork was anything but barbaric it still regarded as one of the great artistic traditions of Europe as warriors the so-called barbarians were no match for seas as well-trained legions Celtic warriors did not fight as a unit they fought for individual glory the big men like to show up dressed in fancy shiny armor stand at the front and engage in warfare that was no doubt fairly brutal but was fairly small scale they couldn't plan total war in the way that the Romans could plan they didn't have fully trained legions they didn't have logistic backup also the Celts were up against a brilliant commander and Julius Caesar he was ambitious hungry for victories and used daring and original tactics he was noted for the speed and surprise of his movements and he really brought those techniques to perfection in using his legions on the other hand he was a little reckless part of his daring and he often got himself in terrible scrapes but he was so quick and so perceptive of the enemy's intentions that he was always able to get himself out from the word go he was prepared to adapt I mean coming up against the Germans for the first time in his first campaign enormous sums of cavalry he had virtually none no problem he simply gets in horses and tells one Legion right boys your organ recovery suddenly has 5,000 calories Cesar knew he asked a lot of his soldiers and so he went out of his way to cultivate an intense loyalty from he didn't ask them to do anything that he didn't do and he often dismissed his bodyguard and had his horse led away and actually stood in the ranks with the troops and his troops were very loyal to him not surprisingly these loyal soldiers were also becoming wealthy soldiers throw booty and slaves the spoils of war were often won through great brutality Caesar himself boasted that his campaigns in Gaul left a million dead and a million enslaved Cesar just carried out what I've called actually a big-game hunt he took his legions back and forth across call slaughtering troops pillaging towns killing women children the Romans were terribly cruel on the Celts defeated enemies were often made into slaves slavery was tremendously important to Rome 40% of the Italian population were slaves the same percentage as the American South before the Civil War slaves are fundamental to Rome's war effort essentially slaves free this Roman citizen to fight in the army without slavery it would have been impossible for Rome so effectively to initiate these wars of conquest caesar's wars of conquest went on for nine years he was the ultimate example of everything the Roman army had become in its first 500 years dedicated ambitious ruthless and caesar would not stop with foreign conquests with his army behind him he would conquer his enemies in Rome and take the title of dictator for life

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in northeastern Canada harbors a legendary monster the descriptions match those told by Native Americans of swimming demons and water Devils eels longer than a canoe and strong enough to capsize a boat we hear of stories of gigantic eels is it possible that something dreadful has made this Lake its home or is this a local legend passed down for centuries it's almost a badge of honor if you've seen it a monster quest team dives into the icy murk to find out what slithers beneath and employs the latest technology to seek the truth about Lake crescents monster eel witnesses around the world report sea monsters are they you or imaginary science searches for answers on Monster quest Roberts arm a fishing town nestled amid the rugged bays of Newfoundland northeastern coast is a seemingly peaceful place but beneath the still black waters of majestic Lake Crescent something is said to live as it has for untold years I started here it was kind of long featured there was no waves on either side was just a deep swell to be vibrating the head was like long pointy 30 feet long witnesses describe a serpentine creature 20 to 40 feet long with a snake-like head and featureless body it most closely resembles an eel but compared to any known eel fresh or saltwater this is a monster sightings of similar phenomena are reported across Canada from Lake Okanagan in British Columbia and Lake Manitoba in Manitoba kalegnon from agog in Quebec on the Vermont border but this is the first scientific investigation into the monster of Lake Crescent Lake and ocean monsters have a long history a Swiss naturalist Conrad jester was the first to try to classify these unknown Giants for two centuries North American sailors have reported sea serpents all along the eastern seaboard but the oldest accounts in this area come from stories passed down from the very first native settlers of this continent if you talk to the Algonquin and you interview them they talk about serpents John Castleman a biologist at Queen's University Kingston has investigated these native legends and you asked them and you question them and you think maybe serpents are snakes but when you talk to them about serpents they'll tell you that serpents are not snakes tales of these unlikely Lake Monsters have persisted here for centuries terrified Native Americans refer to them as pond Devils or swimming demons what were these tribal members seeing is it possible that these stories of the swimming demons can be explained by a giant heel there are about 600 species of eagles in the world they are fierce carnivores with a notoriously indiscriminate appetite preferring live fish and large invertebrates most eels possess a highly developed sense of smell to track their prey with their serpent like heads slimy bodies called beady eyes and razor-sharp teeth the eel is a creature reviled and feared by some although not common eels have even been known to attack humans in April 2005 British tourist Matt butcher was diving off the Similan Islands in Thailand when a moray eel latched on to butchers left thumb once the eel bit into his flesh butcher was powerless to get it off within seconds the powerful jaws and needle-like teeth had sliced through the skin bone and cartilage Castleman is the first to admit that even after a century of research biologists still know very little about heels heels are very interesting and in anyways many ways very mysterious because we've never seen a spawning eel there are very ancient fish they're among the most ancient fish the largest and most ferocious of the species are all oceanic eels and although Castleman doubts the existence of a 30-foot long eel living in a lake he cannot say with certainty that it could not occur every now and then we hear of stories of gigantic eels occurring in freshwater and and there's some really well documented observation certainly one of these sightings was by a man who has decades of experience with the native North American eel I've been fishing since the late 50s I started with feels–oh it kept going from there and the first thing I knew I was in the eel fishing business John Roraback is a commercial eel fisherman on Lake Ontario the fish is considered a delicacy in Europe and Asia it's a profitable catch in 1974 Roraback was fishing with his father on Lake Ontario and claims that he encountered an eel of gigantic proportions after a long day fishing for eels Roraback caught sight of a massive shape coming towards him in the water well when it come to me I was in moss so all I could see was a big hump coming so I dropped on top of him like that I was gonna flip him in the boat as Roraback attempted to catch hold of the creature it reared up and was strong enough to lift the man out of the water he just wasted me in the area went right on underneath me he was too big Roraback fought to wrestle with a large slippery creature he turned around come back and when he come back I got on him again this time my whole body but whatever the creature was it was too strong he just slid right onto just shove me in there there's no way but she's gonna hold that thing it was monstrous that's to see something like that it's like something you think you looking at a movie you know the incident left war of X shaken whatever it was that he encountered that night he knew that it didn't belong in these waters it wasn't the North American heel the only other you let it know is that any anywheres near that size is the conger but conger eels do not inhabit freshwater lakes they can tip the scales at 200 pounds and have been known to measure over 12 feet in length they are terrifying and voracious Knight predators locking they're incredibly strong jaws onto their prey they twist and turn their bodies like a screw ripping away chunks of flesh and although the Conger is exclusively an ocean eel Roraback suggestion may make more sense than it seems the thing that's unique and interesting about Congress is from time to time we see eels in fresh water that are gigantic eels these reels that were 2 meters more than 2 meters long 6 7 feet long you know 8 to 10 inches in diameter and truly gigantic 800 miles downriver from we're Roraback had his encounter in Lake Ontario the island of Newfoundland in eastern Canada guards the entrance to the st. Lawrence estuary it's here at Crescent Lake that locals say the granddaddy of such creatures has been sighted for centuries ever since I was a kid I always heard stories Fe Colborne has lived on the lake side for more than 32 years she says many of the older generation told of something menacing in the lake I believed it because all the holder folks were reliable people at certain times they would see ok they'd have a sighting of the Contra monster so there have been numerous sightings here over the past 100 years and the legendary stories from Lake Crescent continue to emerge one such account from the 1980s told of royal canadian mounted police divers searching for the corpse of a drowning as the scuba divers braved the murky waters they found themselves surrounded by a school of vicious eels said to be as thick as a man's thigh the massive creatures then attacked the divers who quickly swam to the surface to escape there's a problem with the story the Royal Canadian Mounted Police have no record of such an attack still many legends bear a kernel of truth in this case it's the sightings that date back to ancient times even so this man is skeptical of the existence of crécy the nickname given to the monster by locals it's not likely that there's something unknown to science in these waters after years spent investigating the lake monsters of North America author and researcher Joe Nickell believes that Lake Crescent Monster is more local legend than scientific fact he believes it's self-perpetuating someone sees something and they tell a story and pretty soon it's almost a badge of honor if you've seen it nickel will offer up his own explanations and will perform an experiment to test whether the sightings can be explained away as mere optical illusion 22:30 meanwhile a forensic sketch artist will produce the first images of the lake monster and analyze the startling consistency between the many witness sightings if a professional sketch reveals that different people are seeing the same detail it could suggest that what they are seeing is very real an eel three times longer than the largest documented specimen lurking in the waters of Lake Crescent waters that marine biologist Richard Heydrich will search employing traps sonar divers and submersible technology most of my experiences is working in the ocean and particularly in the deep sea I'm a firm believer that there's plenty out there that that we don't don't know about now Richard Heydrich is determined to find what would be the greatest discovery of his career a monster eel so guess what we want to do now just head down the middle of this of the East basin here you're crowding this leg and there's salmon and there's what we call salmon veal you know yeah but there are but there are only other deals area honey yielder local fisherman and expedition pilot all went right out has lived on the shores of this lake his whole life when you hear stories like this particularly ones that go back a long ways they they have their foundation in something so that the idea that that something could could be in here of large size and quite mysterious is it's not at all surprising the local topography suggests an extremely deep body of water lake Crescent is nearly as mysterious as the monster that locals say inhabit it although there are no depths indicated in the lake people have told us that it's virtually bottomless will Lake Crescent finally give up its darkest secret you saw it didn't you you you the people of Roberts arm in eastern Canada claim to have seen an extraordinary and terrifying beast rumored to be over 20 feet long I think people think you're crazy if I am I say assault Fe Colborne is not the only witness in the past two decades there have been at least a dozen sightings I was just appalled that what I saw my wife and I were driving and I I've got a tendency to to always look in the lake what Fred parson saw in July 1991 was astonishing lo and behold Thera was the creature just laying on the water so that's when I backed up and I don't know I would say I observed it for 30 to 40 seconds I was shocked I was dumbfounded I I just couldn't believe it you know it wasn't moving in the water but it was it had this tendency to to be vibrating and consequently there was a number of low profile waves and ripples emanating from his body all around I mean I estimated to be between 15 and 20 feet long I'm convinced that what I saw was some kind of a giant eel that's the way I described it the Lake Crescent eyewitnesses are about to undergo their first real test if you see a creature like this in the lake your emotion will be quite high so you will store that information in that very very special place in your in your brain Michel Fournier a forensic sketch artist is more used to working with victims of crimes but for him the principle is exactly the same due to a lack of photographic evidence Fournier will sketch the monster based on detailed recollections of witnesses you need to enter somebody else mine and extract that information but first of all you need to establish if that person is telling the true so there was those small waves emanating from all around his body that thing is not moving no the thing except except the shivering shivering motion exactly four days intensive training allows him to deduce from questioning whether the eyewitness is reliable this thing was round and Fred not flat it was round exactly after two hours work Fournier let's the witness see his final sketch is there any change you want me to no no okay okay so on a scale one to ten I'm going to rate it at least a nine okay that's good that's good meanwhile Richard Heydrich is trying to get a better understanding of Lake Crescent and makes an interesting discovery you can tell that certainly the deepest places are going to be hard by those cliffs and then down along there then there's a connection to the lake through this river where there are no prominent waterfalls it provides very good access to the sea eel is traditionally spawned in the salt water of the Sargasso Sea an elongated region in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean but exactly where in this region remains a mystery it's very unique because we have never seen a spawning eel they leave fresh water and go to the ocean and when they go to the ocean the only time that do we know that they've been successful is their young or starting to swim back by way of the Gulf Stream it's a pattern of behavior that goes back 250 million years to the time of Pangaea the supercontinent that existed prior to the continents splitting into their current configuration eels evolved probably a hundred and twenty-five million years ago we know that they survived continental drift in other words they lived in the ocean started to use fresh waters before the continents divided is it possible that this ancient species at home in both fresh and salt water might have spawned a monster still living in Lake Crescent if so then modern technology like side scanning sonar might help find the beast what this is called is a it's called a fish and and what it is something is that you tow along and it has little echo Sounders basically built into the sides of it that's what this does it'll look at the bottom of things where things might like to hang out sit around yeah there 6969 okay yeah the sonar images show the areas that should be explored further with divers and submersible cameras plenty of water maybe it's showing it rough well well that's probably a lot of rocks it's gonna be a very interesting place to dive and have a look at this is just right here eels are known to hide in dark crevices and deep waters the sonar images show that this could be an ideal habitat there's kind of a little Basin in between us and the cliff and the cliff face so there's a rock ridge it's running underneath this it goes up here so this is a real good place these are going to provide caves and ledges and overhangs and that sort of thing which would be it which would be good shelter particularly for a for a large eel a baited crab trap is used to attract the attention of whatever lives at the bottom of Lake Crescent this is the area where most of the sightings of any of these mysterious creatures have have been in a lake that's only six miles long a few herring can go a long way especially for the highly refined senses of a giant heel an eel can smell a herring a thousand miles away they really can they are extremely sensitive pedra CH is hoping that an easy prey will lure the monster to the spot and Joe Nickell examines a strange set of photos that could explain the lake beast no question is if it's an eel it's huge you the residents of Roberts arm on the coast of Newfoundland in northeastern Canada are convinced their lake is home to a monster eel that the local media has dubbed cressie but Joe Nickell as he examines the evidence is skeptical he's an investigator of cryptids creatures whose existence has been reported but not scientifically proven I have here a series of photographs and this certainly this first photograph could be a very long very gigantic eel as far as one could tell from the photograph it's it's obviously long curved snake-like you can see from some idea of the surrounding rock and so forth that it's this is not just a little something little but it's sizeable here we see it where the animal's body is very flexible and it it looks like an arch or a hump in the water we sometimes hear something having a series of these as if it's moving a very snake-like very serpentine no question this is a living living creature it's if it's an eel it's certainly eel like and it's huge then we see in the next photo dramatic shift we see now that we can see two creatures and we begin to they begin to look familiar to us otters here it is furry and not looking so sleek and wet and flexible but this is the same creature river otters are rare but not unknown in the area around Robert's arm could locals have misidentified this lake monster here's a classic sea serpent lake monster type of drawing and yet if we look closer if we could if we were the eyewitness and could peer underwater and see what we're actually the case we see that this is a separate animal this is a separate animal we recognize them now as otters and it's like a magician's illusion it's an optical illusion of sorts it's a misperception whatever skeptics say locals are sure that what they are seeing are not otters or anything else known to man I definitely saw a head and a body whatever it was it was real in 1995 Fe Colborne had the longest sighting of the creature yet she watched the months to cross the lake for more than 15 minutes I was just more or less in deep thought and the movement just when I just glanced and movement caught my high I went and to the window kind of I started here it was kind of long feature and in the body and when it swam was like a swell there was no waves on either side it was just a deep swell I watched it for a big 15 20 minutes because the lake is wrong and I watched to tell it when it sight aye-aye sir always at the time but it was probably 20 to 30 feet and under forensic artist Michel Fournier attempts to translate EFI's account into an accurate image when at the beginning I said about K my mind my horses he had but was not as big as a horse's head it was more more slim and more painted but yes that's the first thought when I saw the hand I look at the sketch what do you think is the thing that it looks like the shape of the update yes kind of look like this anything you want to change or add or no no you're happy with this yes back on the lake the monster Quest expedition adds some new technology to its arsenal well we're up to the second day now and we've added a bunch of new pieces of gear which are very exciting to have one of them is a sonar not unlike the side scan sonar that we used yesterday but it's going to be much higher resolution and in conjunction with that we have an ROV which is a wonderful little instrument with this instrument we hope the perhaps we might have actually be able to see Cressy at some point today okay Richard Vandervoort has been working with underwater robotics for over 25 years he has piloted remote operated vehicles in many dangerous environments from oil rigs to shipwrecks but this is his first at Lake Crescent so for today's exercise we have our video ray eyeball ROV which has dual camera color pan and tilt camera in the front black and white stationary camera in the back visibility is always a problem with operating our Ovie's we do have our avoidant sonar which we deployed earlier that allows us basically to see in the dark so if there any object there we can pick them up on sonar first that will give us a target to fly over to with the vehicle with an ability to go as deep as 1,000 feet the ROV is the perfect way to investigate rocky outcrops caves and crevices where bottom-dwelling eels are most likely to be found including possibly a mammoth species that shouldn't be here the idea of a conger eel which is one of the largest of eels and does occur in the saltwater here coming up and occasionally making its home here is perfectly is is believable for sure you know it gets lost and this happens a lot in the ocean the conger eel is a fearsome creature they can weigh up to 200 pounds and are known by fishermen for their terrifying fighting power they will eat anything that moves that are strong enough to take down sea birds and aquatic mammals their razor-sharp teeth and huge jaws easily crushing through bone and crustaceans Heydrich has a plausible theory for how a displaced Conger could grow to monstrous proportions what happens instead of some of the food energy that it gets having to go into reproduction it can you can all go into growth and so these things can grow and get very large a 30-foot Conger could reach half a ton easily capable of overcoming and devouring a full-grown man leaving no trace of its victim the Monster quest expedition crew is about to see for the first time into the deepest reaches of Lake Crescent you for nearly a century the residents of Roberts arm in eastern Canada have spoken of a monster that lurks in majestic Lake Crescent described a serpentine but larger than any known heal some believe it could be a displaced ocean dweller the monster Quest expedition crew have captured something on their ROV camera okay now just sticks line there or actual trails either they look to me like trails something's made these little tracks now we can't see anything right at the moment except when you see that stuff now heels hey it could be I mean there's not a lot of candidates that would make those tracks there there are there they're small tracks well there's a big one there's another one right there there's something once the waters settle Heydrich wonders if the trails could be typical lakebottom disturbances a closer look show strange patterns emerging from the murk as if something heavy has slithered along the lake floor it's very familiar to people that look at bottom photographs all the time to see tracks all over the bottom usually made by crabs and snails and things like that I think if this looks like a latticework of sticks to me meanwhile investigator of cryptids Joe Nickell wants to put eyewitness claims to the test so we're gonna take this out the middle of the lake anchor it and then ask the eyewitnesses to guesstimate the length of it and we'll see if they're able to do that at an unknown distance the log seems a good idea it's it's a natural object it's something that people would see in a lake and sometimes do mistake for Lake Monsters people make estimates but they really don't usually have any frame of reference they're just it's an impression if there's something next to it a rock of known size or a boat or something then you would have some scale nickel anchors the log in the center of the eastern Basin the location of most of the Cressy sightings as Nikhil gathers the eyewitnesses for the experiment Richard Heydrich and the team have found an excellent spot to search for an oversized and hungry my belief is that that any animal isn't is never gonna go very far from where it can get something to eat and the best place in here is where the lake narrows chokes down to that that little narrow entrance at the at the bridge and there were fish jumping there were there was a loon there were all kinds of things going on so that for my money is where you want to look for something that that is probably out looking for a meal and to find it the ROV is sent back into the murky water yes look at this aww look at all this salt sediment yes hard to say for the divers to have a look at see what the heck that really is I mean it's all a lot of structure in that a lot of structure see these little Thanks the soft bottom of the lake would provide excellent coverage for a needle waiting to ambush its next victim the massive disturbances on the lakes floor grab hydrogen attention that looks like a bunch of bones with some intriguing targets to explore the divers prepare to go head-to-head with whatever's hiding down in Lake Crescent okay so we make this too diverse right at the moment we'll see what happens on this Sweetback we've been pointing the position where the divers are now those are two men and basically you've got a relatively small dot you know because they're only about 2 meters long or 2 meters high if you had a large animal that was say 10 15 20 meters long it would cover 2 or 3 of the bar that the range indicators on the screen all right it would be compared to that dot it would be 5 6 7 8 10 times longer the water is just above freezing and visibility is less than three feet as the divers swim along the bottom something looms in the distance it's a branch so far no signs of any food source the bottom is a barren landscape and yet they see something else a place to hide another place to hide I was very concerned for the safety of the cameraman support diver Robert Lynn field knows that uncharted Lakes can be treacherous as we swam along the bottom and approached any object it was invisible and then all of a sudden it was there the entire Lake is a complete hiding spot because where the water is so black the creature could be you know within feet of the surface and you could pass over it in a boat and never see it the footage they bring back is worth the effort it's wonderful to see these logs that are all they're all cut cut wood they're not things that have fallen in there and so they might well be left over from the logging days just lots of sort of looks and crannies but a very inhospitable place basically looks like a rock but for Joe Nickell the log strewn lake bed suggests another case of misidentification given the amount of logs at the bottom of the lake it's possible for overtime for due to the rotting of the log to produce methane gas and this makes the log buoyant and at the surface it can rock back and forth or bob at which point it loses the methane and the log sinks again good Fred Parsons vibrating eel-like creature via log rolling at the surface of the water the rising and sinking log effect is roughly demonstrated with this old science experiment where we're putting a moth ball into some carbonated water and as you see it quickly becomes coated with bubbles and rises to the top now the bubbles should hopefully dissipate whereupon we're going to expect as it loses bubbles it rolls it's animated it's alive back on the lake the Monster quest team is about to discover there may be something in Lake Crescent and it's big enough to drag a 40 pound crab trap we came up alongside the buoy we set it down off the point there so so something moved it around you native legends and historical accounts describes sea serpents all along the eastern seaboard why ologists suggests that a stray infertile conger eel could grow into a monster his Newfoundland Canada home to a record-setting creature this woman watched for 15 minutes as an undulating monster made its way across Lake Crescent this man is convinced that the mystery lake creature he saw was real this fisherman saw what he thought was a 20 foot long giant eel Michel Fournier a forensic artist creates the first images of the monster based on detailed recall of the eyewitnesses and Joe Nickell is putting the locals through a test of perception I'd like to try a little experiment with you if I can what we're gonna do is we are going to see if you are able to guess at the size of something in the water it's an unknown distance unknown object and we'll see how well you do okay okay so we're gonna stand I think right here's a good view I want you to say how long do you think that is what do you think I think it's probably 20 feet what do you think okay that's perfect no well how long do you think that that is twenty to thirty twenty to thirty okay I say he if he's on okay okay the real distance is the real length is actually you know you did that's a bit it's 14 feet three inches they did overestimate this size I think that's almost always the case and people tend if they see something alive and alarming or really rare and wonderful the sighs I think it's magnified by some factor however two of the estimates were within six feet of the actual length showing that the eyewitness recollections of a monster or creature up to thirty feet long may have been accurate paid rich and the Monster quest team returned to the crab trap earlier the crab trap was baited with herring and attached to a buoy to offer an enticing meal to the creature suspicions are immediately raised when they realized the trap has been moved we came up alongside the buoy and we set it down off the point there and expected to go right back to it but it seems to have moved down here so so something moved it around it wasn't very windy at all last night in fact this morning it was flat calm it's a pretty heavy trap and it's gonna take something pretty big to shift that around that in this real deep water where there are no currents or anything it has moved what would you say 200 feet 200 feet or more the ROV is used to check whether anything has disturbed or damaged the trap 30 how deep is it or do you think we think it's about a hundred now that now we're coming right to the trap that's the line off the top of the trap okay and so you're gonna see that you're gonna see the trapping just a just a very short distance that's it there's the trap oops and this is why we're seeing all the turbulence because we're telling the trap look at that and there's the herrings and nothing's been Adam that we got a real good look at the trap and we saw it from the top and from the bottom because it was tipped over a little bit was by the by the vote itself and what we could see was that the herring were in fine shape nothing had been in there munching away Adam or eaten up or anything the untouched trap is a disappointment but then they see something moving across the bay whatever it is it's not visible on the surface but it's producing a footlong wake well was a mysterious creature swimming along I don't know I don't know you saw it didn't you there it is right there that's a beamer did you get him going across towards a rock right in the steel area it's too bad it's a beaver it's quite a mysterious place down here but Michelle Fournier forensic artist concludes that his sketches do depict something real I believe that we are all dealing with the same same creature the clarity of the witness recollections and consistencies in their descriptions are difficult to dismiss details in the size movement and shape of the creature are unwaveringly similar the three person I met today definitely saw something in that plate and the Monster quest expedition reluctantly packs up if I'd gotten a sonar target then I'd go to court tomorrow certainly if we could spend a lot more time you get a little more Hardware out here I think if there was something to be found I'm I'm confident I could find I really am the mystery behind the creature of Lake Crescent will remain just that whether it is an oversized conger eel that has lost its way a sunken log or his witnesses believe truly a monster there's a kind of person who loves a mystery and once it kept a mystery they do not want an explanation and for those people this will continue I saw something in the water I don't know what it was so it must have been a lake monster and you can't draw a conclusion from I don't know it was kind of long feature there was no waves on either side was just a deep swell it wasn't moving was it had this tendency to to be vibrating the head was like long pointy it was I'd say 30 feet long witnesses describe a serpentine creature 20 to 40 feet long with a snake-like head and featureless body it most closely resembles an eel but compared to any known eel fresh or saltwater this is a monster sightings of similar phenomena are reported across Canada from Lake Okanagan in British Columbia and Lake Manitoba in Manitoba to Lake Memphremagog in Quebec on the Vermont border but this is the first scientific investigation into the monster of Lake Crescent Lake and ocean monsters have a long history a Swiss naturalist Conrad yester was the first to try to classify these unknown Giants for two centuries North American sailors have reported sea serpents all along the eastern seaboard but the oldest accounts in this area come from stories passed down from the very first Native settlers of this continent if you talk to the Algonquin and you interview them they talk about Serpent's John Castleman a biologist at Queen's University Kingston has investigated these native legends and you ask them and you question them and you think maybe serpents are snakes but when you talk to them about serpents they'll tell you that serpents are not snakes tales of these unlikely Lake Monsters have persisted here for centuries terrified Native Americans refer to them as pond Devils or swimming demons what were these tribal members seeing is it possible that these stories of the swimming demons can be explained by a giant eel there are about 600 species of eels in the world they are fierce carnivores with a notoriously indiscriminate appetite preferring live fish and large invertebrates most eels possess a highly developed sense of smell to track their prey with their serpent-like heads slimy bodies called beady eyes and razor-sharp teeth the eel is a creature reviled and feared by some although not common eels have even been known to attack humans in April 2005 British tourist Matt butcher was diving off the Similan Islands in Thailand when a moray eel latched on to butchers left thumb once the eagle bit into his flesh butcher was powerless to get it off within seconds the powerful jaws and needle-like teeth had sliced through the skin bone and cartilage Castleman is the first to admit that even after a century of research biologists still know very little about heels heels are very interesting in anyway many ways very mysterious because we've never seen a spawning eel there are very ancient fish there among the most ancient fish the largest and most ferocious of the species are all oceanic eels and although Castleman doubts the existence of a 30-foot long here living in a lake you cannot sled right on through just shove me in there there's no way but you're gonna hold that thing it was monstrous its to see something like that it's like something you think you looking at a movie you know the incident left Roraback shaken whatever it was that he encountered that night he knew that it didn't belong in these waters it wasn't the North American eel the only other yield that I know is that any anywheres near that size is the Conger but conger eels do not inhabit freshwater lakes they can tip the scales at 200 pounds and have been known to measure over 12 feet in length they are terrifying and voracious night predators locking they're incredibly strong jaws onto their prey they twist and turn their bodies like a screw ripping away chunks of flesh and although the Conger is exclusively in ocean eel Roraback suggestion may make more sense than it seems the thing that's unique and interesting about Congress is from time to time we see eels in fresh water that are gigantic eels these reels that were 2 meters more than 2 meters long 6 7 feet long you know 8 to 10 inches in diameter and truly gigantic 800 miles down river from where Roraback had his encounter in Lake Ontario the island of Newfoundland in eastern Canada guards the entrance to the st. Lawrence estuary it's here at Crescent Lake that locals say the granddaddy of such creatures has been sighted for centuries ever since I was a kid I always heard stories they would certainty that it could not occur every now and then we hear of stories of gigantic eels occurring in freshwater and and there's some really well documented observations on each one of these sightings was by a man who has decades of experience with the native North American eel I've been fishing since the late 50s I started with feels–oh it kept going from there and the first thing I knew I was in the eel fishing business John Roraback is a commercial eel fisherman on Lake Ontario the fish is considered a delicacy in Europe and Asia it's a profitable catch in 1974 Roraback was fishing with his father on Lake Ontario and claims that he encountered an eel of gigantic proportions after a long day fishing for eels Roraback caught sight of a massive shape coming towards him in the water well when it come to me I was in moss so all I could see was a big hump coming so I dropped on top of him like that I was gonna flip him in the boat as Roraback attempted to catch hold of the creature it reared up and was strong enough to lift the man out of the water he just wasted me in the area went right on underneath me he was too big Roraback fought to wrestle with a large slippery creature he turned around come back and when he come back I got on him again this time like my whole body but whatever the creature was it was too strong in northeastern Canada harbors a legendary monster the descriptions match those told by Native Americans of swimming demons and water Devils eels longer than a canoe and strong enough to capsize a boat we hear of stories of gigantic eels is it possible that something dreadful has made this Lake its home or is this a local legend passed down for centuries it's almost a badge of honor if you've seen it amongst request team dives into the icy murk to find out what slithers beneath and employs the latest technology to seek the truth about Lake crescents monster eel witnesses around the world reports these monsters are they you or imaginary size searches for answers on Monster quest Roberts arm a fishing town nestled amid the rugged bays of Newfoundland northeastern coast is a seemingly peaceful place but beneath the still black waters of majestic Lake Crescent something is said to live as it has for untold years

Advice for First-Time Documentary Filmmakers



Q&A panel gives advice for first-time documentary filmmakers.

Kimberly Browning, producer at Hollywood Shorts, recommends getting an experienced filmmaker to work with you. Surround yourself with people who are willing to tell us the truth.

Jorge Hinojosa, director the documentary film “Iceberg Slim: Portrait of a Pimp,” recommends patience. Also, don’t assume that your ideas aren’t as vaild as supposed experts’ opinions.

Angela Northington from REVOLT TV recommends proper planning and budgeting for post-production all the way through to delivery of the finished film.

Michele Barnwell, executive producer/showrunner at Reel Roost, Inc., says don’t be afraid to ask questions.

Part of the International Documentary Association’s Doc U seminar series. Shot and edited by Viva Videography.

GTA 5 Wildlife Documentary | Into The Deep



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For the first time, Chaney555 brings you an up close and intimate look in to the animals and plant life that live in the waters of GTA 5. This GTA 5 nature …

Australian Adventure Documentary – OzDox May 2014



Australian Adventure Documentary Forum by OzDox

Featuring adventure documentary pioneer Michael Dillon AM, Jen Peedom, Justin Jones from Cas and Jonesy, Storm Surfers 3D Marcus Gillezeau and The Crossings Julian Harvey & Clark Carter. Hosted by Frank Shields.

The May 2014 OzDox forum at the Australian Film Television and Radio School was produced by Frank Shields, Brendan Toole & Brendan Palmer, filmed by Erika Addis and edited by Joshua Marks

In the spirit of things going wrong, parts of this session’s footage have been lost. These included Frank Shields, Jen Peedom and Michael Dillon’s presentations.

However, Michael Dillon spoke the next day to Cinematography students at AFTRS, and this footage has been included. Jen Peedom speaks at another OzDox event here:

BIOS

MICHAEL DILLON
One of Australia’s leading cinematographers and makers of adventure and exploration documentaries, having won more awards in this field than any other individual worldwide. He has made five adventure documentaries with Sir Edmund Hilary, the conqueror of Everest, and his latest “Beyond Everest” about Sir Edmund Hilary’s ongoing work with the Sherpa people of Everest has won five international awards.

MARCUS GILLEZEAU
AACTA and Emmy Award winning filmmaker, executive producer and entrepreneur Marcus Gillezeau is the CEO of firelight Productions, a Sydney based film and TV company specializing in all-media, documentary and 3D production. Marcus has over 20 years experience in the film & TV industry. He mastered cross platform delivery and promotion techniques with the tele-feature “Scorched” and applied same to his latest adventure documentary, the multi-award winning “Storm Surfers- 3D”.
 
JEN PEEDOM
Drawn to exploring the human condition in extreme conditions, Jen Peedom has succeeded in directing a number of award winning documentaries, among them “Solo”,  “Living the End”, “Life” series, “Miracle on Everest” and “Race Around Oz” picking up several directing awards along the way. In 2003 while working as Managing Director of IF Magazine, she was awarded NSW Young Businesswoman of the Year. Jen Peedom is recognised as one of Australia’s top Adventure filmmakers.
 
JUSTIN JONES
Part of the Cas and Jonsey filmmaking team, two Aussie Explorers constantly pushing the boundaries of human endurance.  First, paddling 3300km without assistance across the Tasman Sea from Australia to NZ as seen in their documentary “Crossing the Ditch” . Then in 2012, they made history by completing the longest unsupported polar expeditions of all time, walking/skiing from the edge of Antarctica to the South Pole and back, a voyage of 2275km as shown in their latest film, “Crossing the Ice”. Justin Jones: Celebrate Christmas in Antarctica –
 
JULIAN HARVEY & CLARK CARTER
No stranger to adventure, director Julian Harvey has tagged four of the “Seven Summits” including a five week expedition in establishing a new climbing route of Antarctica’s highest peak, Mount Vinson. His credits include the award winning feature “The Tunnel” and the adventure feature documentary “The Crossing” Of the latter, his passion for adventure has given him a unique insight into telling this story. Adventurer CLARK CARTER is a member of the prestigious Explorers Club and is passionate about two things – adventure & filmmaking. Along with fellow adventurer Chris Bray, he set out to cross 1100kms of Arctic wilderness that is Victoria Island, unsupported – the focus of the adventure documentary “The Crossing”.

FRANK SHIELDS

Australian film-maker Frank Shields has global experience in writing, producing or directing commercials, music videos, TV specials, documentaries and features, amassing a considerable list of credits along the way. His first film, a documentary on “Breaker” Morant that he wrote, produced and directed won the Greater Union Awards for best documentary at the 1975 Sydney Film Festival. Of his five feature films, Hostage played for three months in mainstream theatres and made the top twenty list for Australian films at the Oz box office. Another, The Surfer, was selected for the prestigious Directors Fortnight in Cannes.

OzDox is proudly supported by Australia Directors Guild, Australian Film Television and Radio School (AFTRS) and a large volunteer committee of veteran to emerging documentary filmmakers.

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©OzDox 2016

The Fading Cajun Culture (Part 1)



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*Note: Within the first few minutes of this video, Dr. Barry accidentally says that Poitou, France is located on the Eastern side of France. Poitou is located on the Western side of France*. This was an honest mistake and could not be removed from the film due to technical difficulties. Thank you for your understanding.
This documentary covers over 300 years of history concerning the migration and development of modern day Cajuns. Our story starts in Poitou, France where persecution caused a group of French settlers to travel across the ocean to Nova Scotia, Canada. Here they established a new life for themselves and became known as the Acadians. Many years later as a result of English rule over the region, the Acadians were once again persecuted and forced to leave their homes and travel to many destinations. Several ended up in South Louisiana. Still known as Acadians, they thrived for many years in Louisiana until WWII. As a result of leaving the region to fight in the war, many for the first time met people outside of the Acadian community. The war galvanized the Acadians with Americanism. Now identified as Americans many returned home and slowly left the farms they were raised on to marry individuals outside of the Acadian culture. This led to the current race known as Cajuns. Although Cajuns are located throughout the world now, many still associate South Louisiana with the Cajun culture where the bulk continue to reside. This documentary in no way represents all of the events that helped shape the current Cajun culture. It is rather a synopsis of events that occurred which were part of the evolution of a culture which would become known as Cajun. I am sincerely appreciative to the three teams of multimedia students that contributed to this project. I would also like to thank the academic professionals, historians, trappers, and musicians that graciously contributed to this volume of work. Finally, I would like to thank the Target Corporation which provided the equipment to film and produce the film. My sincere hope is that you gain an appreciation of the Cajun people and that you come to understand the many aspects of the culture that are slowly fading such as; speaking French and living off the land as trappers, fisherman and farmers.
Ray Breaux

south Louisiana filled with both wildlife and beauty has become a mecca of tourism due in part to a group of people known as the Cajuns many of whom are direct descendants of Acadians but what is the connection between Cajuns and Acadians what events caused these people to experience tremendous hardships persecution and sacrifice to gain a better perspective on the culture we must look to the past and view the experiences that made the culture what it is today by examining the past we can gain a full appreciation of the customs that are fading and the tremendous loss that will occur if steps are not taken to protect this incredible American treasure the Acadians were originally French people that migrated from France over to Nova Scotia but what part of France did they actually live in what did they do in France prior to leaving and what would cause them to leave a land that was so beautiful and travel across the ocean to a land that was raw and untamed they came from a very concentrated area in the eastern part of France the largest city that they were grouped around was poitiers in eastern France close to the Atlantic Ocean and probably 95% of these early Acadians they were French at the time were farmers they lived in small villages they worked on farms they were very much small farmers like we find today in Louisiana so the roots of their origins in eastern France very much reflect the type of life that they led when they went to Nova Scotia and New Brunswick and then later were transported to Louisiana and other places so that long agricultural rural tradition has been with the Acadians since since they left ramp at the Acadian population had moved from France to Nova Scotia were somewhat diverse but most of them came from a place that's called today Levon dead which is an old province called Poitou in France and most of them were engaged in as farmers in a feudal system that existed in France at that time in other words they worked and formed for the property that belonged to a lord or someone that was a big property owner over there I draw a distinction between the Cajuns and the Acadians I refer to the Cajuns distant ancestors as the as the Acadians and they came from southwestern France in the area around plot 2 and there were several reasons why they wanted to leave France to come to the new world there had been a lot of religious violence between Catholics and Protestants in that part of France there had been famine there have been disease they were living on the estates of nobility who levied high taxes on them the phenomena people always ask why did the ik why did the French leave the area and why did why would they go to what was basically one of the first settlements in Canada was in Nova Scotia and the main reason was actually religious unrest this was the time in the 17th century where there were a lot of conflicts between Protestants and Catholics the Acadians themselves were very Catholic in nature or the French in that region and they were under a lot of pressure in eastern France to lend adherents either to the Protestants or Catholics and they got to the point where they just felt it was disrupting their lifestyle to to a level where they decided to ship off to the new world and be able to develop the kind of culture and and religious lifestyle and family lifestyle that they wanted to maintain religious turmoil was very important in the decision to go to the new world because in that area of poitou they had long been since that since the latter part of the 16th century and into the 17th century horrendous chaos and turmoil between Protestant people who mainly were protesting against the churches it was administered from Paris and there were there were horrendous there were massacres that took place there were burning at the stake of which is in all kinds of things during that time so there were I'm certain that that was one of the issues that they were trying to escape although the French people in the area of part two were persecuted for their religious beliefs and this was certainly the main reason that they left the area there were other factors that caused them to consider moving to a different region and starting a new life another reason is that the there was an offer of free land to people who were going to the new world and that enticed many of these these Frenchmen to go to the new world because they equated having their own land with with freedom so they they left France that southwest region of France and went to the new world and they would work for X number of years I think it's five five years for the company trapping furs and at the end of that five years they were free to work for themselves entirely they say that the cod fish were so numerous that you could practically walk on the water they had that many fish there so that had been a draw to people from northern Europe for a long time now so some of them came and engaged in fishing industry early on another thing that happened during the colonial period and it was part of the mercantile system had to do with trapping and so there were some trappers there who tried to make a living in that in that capacity what's interesting about the Acadians in Nova Scotia between the you know the early 1600s and 1700s was that they did develop an agriculture base there to their lifestyle and in order to do that they had to and they had to drain some land that was periodically flooded by the Bay of Fundy and so the Bay of fun he had such a great title range that when the tide would come in it would push far far into the inlets and and flood a lot of land but by building dikes they were able to keep the flooded Tidewater out and eventually the rain water would desalinate or you know freshen up the land that used to be covered by salt water and all of that became prime farmland and the Acadians had to of course build and maintain those dikes and that's one of the things that the Acadians are best known for is to develop an agricultural economy that captured land from the sea when they first arrived they discovered that they had to adapt their own agricultural style to a new region that was very different it was a oceanfront a different climate they'd be they had to reclaim land in order to plant and so they built a tremendous system of dikes and channels in order to sort of bring the land back very very similar to the type of land we have in south Louisiana strangely enough there are a lot of parallels but they were also very isolated and were left alone by both the French and the bread issue at different times controlled that part of Canada and so they were able to continue theirs their strong family ties their agricultural ties they enhance that with fishing and seafood and trapping they learned from the Native Americans in the area and as long as they were left alone they were very contented what happened though was that about the beginning of the 18th century around 1700 the British took over finally after the 30 Years War and took over the control of the area and they were very nervous about the Acadians at that time because number one they were Catholic and the Anglican Church was really strong and the British wanted the Acadians to change their religion say thing that had caused them to leave France in the first place the other thing was that they considered themselves still French and they were asked to swear an oath to the king of England something that they refused to do England demanded that the Acadians who and who wanted to be neutral but they demanded that the Acadians of would not fight against England and that they would they would change religion too because in those days religion and politics were not too far different so if you support the Catholic Church you would be you would be supporting France and England of course was not Catholic so that was one of the issues but that's one of the issues and of course you know it's told you know that the the refusal to swear allegiance to the crown of England is what caused the exile and that indeed that was that one of the events and one of the factors but of course there was a war a huge war brewing at that very time and it broke out about that time we call it the French and Indian War so from England's point of view they wanted to get rid of that population because had they joined with the French people in Quebec they would have been difficult to defeat as it was they were still difficult to defeat but they they did defeat the French it was easier after exiling the Acadians a plan was devised to gather up all of the Acadians and at that time and bring them into a church still very religious they brought all the men into a church they lock them in they took the wives and children and separated them and then they announced that they were going to deport them this is what we called a Gandhi Raja you know the big upheaval and the plan was to take these Acadians who were reluctant to follow the British rule and to disperse them throughout the a British colonies in North America so we know that many of them ended up coming to Louisiana but a good number of them were also dropped off in the colonies along the eastern seaboard places like Maryland Connecticut Virginia some of them were even transported back to France but they all left on boats and then a number of them actually came to Louisiana of the 15 to 18,000 Acadians who lived in pre expulsion Nova Scotia about half of them died during the expulsion due to starvation disease exposure and even violence at the hands of the British you and when they settle in south Louisiana they encountered other peoples who were already here or who would come here later for example there were a lot of Frenchmen who had come to Louisiana directly from France who were already here when the Acadians arrived there were Spaniards here there were a lot of Germans the Spaniards who founded New Iberia would get here after a lot of the Acadians were already here they came here in 1779 hitting's had already been here a few years by then by the 1750s there was enough cattle in that area to start that trade so that's still well before the Acadians arrived there were some people like Andre Moss who operated from laravel to st. Martinville and then on the other side eventually on the other side of the bayou west of the Bayou Teche as well and we see cattle brands for example they go back to the 1730's so there they were had that those kind of things going prior to the Acadian arrival eventually about 3,000 Acadians made their way to Louisiana beginning in 1764 65 and settled not too far away from where we are now in new Iberia they settled around a false point and then spread out from there throughout south Louisiana there were two hundred and some-odd Acadians in the first group that came to the postage Ataka Paul that was in st. martinville around st. martinville but actually it was in-law of the ship where they first arrived there a number of them actually came to Louisiana which at that time was under Spanish rule the French had passed it on to the Spanish and during that hundred years the Spanish were very happy to have the Acadians because the Acadians had two qualities that they were looking for they wanted to be farmers so they didn't want to stay in New Orleans or any of the cities in the colonies they were passive they were hard-working and so they were given land grants and the idea was from sort of from down around Morgan City up through Opelousas grants were given along bayous for farmers and Acadians to settle they thought that they could use them then as a buffer between peoples in Texas what was still Mexico at the time and Louisiana the Acadians live side-by-side with these other peoples but didn't really intermarry with them on a large scale until the end of the Civil War and this is actually Carl Brazos research that I'm citing from his book Acadian to Cajun and transformation of a people who's a very title tells you that the the Cajuns and the Acadians were not quite the same people the Acadians as Brazel points out begin to intermarry on a large scale with other ethnic groups right after the Civil War and the reason for this is that these other ethnic groups the Spanish the French the Germans and others had held themselves apart from the Acadians and looked down on them because the Acadians had always been subsistence farmers they grew just enough to survive these other peoples you know acquired material wealth to live more comfortably they were upwardly mobile but after the Civil War the economy in the south was ruined the economy in French Louisiana the southern part of Louisiana was also ruined the the Acadians and these these newly impoverished ethnic groups that had previously looked down on them we're now after the civil war working together side by side in the fields as sharecroppers and tenant farmers and that made it acceptable that once they were all equally poor to intermarry with the Acadians for the first time so you had a lot of Acadians marrying non Acadians on a widespread basis for the first time over 50 percent of the marriages that Carl Brazeau looked at in the census data and elsewhere at church records over fifty percent of the time young Acadian men an Acadian women were marrying non Acadian men and women so you had you know Boudreaux and Thibodeaux sand and Terios marrying app shires and Hugh lands and emails who were all Germans they were marrying Romero's and me Gaza's and dart Dez's who were all Spanish they were marrying you know font nose and swallows who were French Creoles and that's why today all of these distinctly non Acadians surnames like that are considered Cajun nevertheless because Cajuns by their very nature are a mixture of ethnic groups Acadian French Creole Spanish German and other ethnic groups after the Civil War there became a creeping what we call an American ization and Acadians and Cajuns were resistant to that in fact as little as twenty years ago I would talk to a Cajun in French and I would ask them what they were and who they were and they would not say they were American they'd say just sweep America shook a jack that is they identified themselves as Cajuns and not really as American because they were resistant to this sort of Americanization of their culture partly because it was Protestant partly because it was another language partly because it brought in a lot of new technologies and industries that they were not comfortable with and so there was a sort of passive resistance I should say but then three things happened in the 20th century that really changed Cajun culture forever the first was the imposition of English as the language of the schools which happened around 1920 and in 1920 you could no longer speak French at school in fact it was it was disallowed and you would be punished and several Cajun poets have written about this a famous poet Joss and they wrote something called you cannot speak French on the playground you cannot speak French on the playground and this really sort of stigmatized and caused a very negative reaction by cages to their own language they had not learned how to read and write French they had just spoken it it was strictly a spoken language in here English was presented through the schools as the future as the literate language as the superior language and so a whole cultural complex developed amongst Cajuns where what they spoke what they say chapelle de novo francais I speak bad French and this really stuck with them they didn't want to pass it on to their children because they wanted their children to be successful and so French became sort of a a hidden language that the older people would speak to themselves so their children wouldn't understand what they were talking about and they hid it away in everything that they did so this was a tremendous impact on on the culture and language when when I was a kid I learned how to speak French because my grandfather lived with us but during those days when you spoke French or if you spoke French when you spoke English you had what we call a Cajun accent and because of that people kind of look down on you when when in my freshman year in college I took a speech course the professor's name was dr. Doherty never forget dr. Doherty now the course had nothing to do with pronunciation it had to do with how to give a speech but at the end of the semester he pulled me aside and he said me

New England History Documentary | BBC Colonial House EP02 Harsh Reality English subtitles



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New England History Documentary | BBC Colonial House EP02 Harsh Reality English subtitles .

An amazing documentary on the never ending question: Does the Illuminati really exist? Surf privately, hide yourself from NSA, evade hackers, access blocked .

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My chennel : Series in which Dr David Eagleman takes viewers on an extraordinary journey that explores how the brain, locked in silence .

Maya BBC Spirits of the Jaguar 2of4 Forests of the Maya



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Uxmal, Mexico. Reputed to be one of the most beautiful Mayan cities, it holds the only known pyramid with an oval base. The Magician’s Pyramid sits on one …

The Story Of Earth And Life – Full Documentary- Blue Planet



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Understanding the formation of life in earth.

as far as we know it's the only home to life in the universe why what is it that makes our planet so special the answers are hidden deep in the Earth's past to find them we must travel back in time to see the first humans walk the earth to ride continents on a collision course face killer dinosaurs dive into oceans full of bizarre life-forms feel the bitter chill of global ice ages and experience the fury of cosmic missile attacks we must travel back in time until we reach the birth of the earth itself then we can piece together our planets incredible story and discover why all of this all of us are here our journey starts almost 5 billion years ago but this can't be right there's no sign of our beautiful blue planet just a newborn star our Sun surrounded by all this dust we've arrived too early before the earth has even formed speed up time and we can see gravity pull the dust into tiny rocks it hardly seems possible but something as complex as a planet is made from nothing more than dust and rocks over millions of years gravity pulls these rocks together to form the earth one of at least a hundred planets circling the Sun but 4.5 4 billion years ago our planet looks more like hell than home up close the temperature is over 1,200 degrees Celsius there's no air just carbon dioxide nitrogen and water vapor it's so hot so toxic that if we got any closer we'd be incinerated and suffocated in seconds the newborn planet is a boiling ball of liquid rock there are virtually no solid surfaces just an endless ocean of lava a young planet called Theia is heading straight for us it's the size of Mars and it's traveling at nearly 15 kilometers a second 20 times faster than a bullet the intruders gravity is distorting the Earth's surface the blastwave races out around the planet it's as though both young planets turn to liquid trillions of tons of debris blast out into space but over the course of just a thousand years gravity works its magic and turns the rubble into a ring of red-hot dust and rock that circles the earth and now from this ring of all forms over three thousand kilometers wide we're watching the birth of our Moon it's much closer than the moon we recognize just 22,000 kilometers away instead of about 400,000 kilometers the Sun rises over a cool in Earth and sets just three hours after it rises the impact has set the earth spinning so fast the entire day lasts just six hours the days may pass quickly but the earth changes slowly to understand the making of our planet we need to fast forward through millions of years a hail of meteors 3.9 billion years ago and we're under attack from debris left over from the solar system's formation look at these strange crystals inside the meteors they look like grains of salt the same salt you'd put on your french fries and inside these minut droplets of water it seems these deadly missiles could contain the vital ingredient for life on earth there's only a small amount of water inside each meteorite but as they bombard the earth for over 20 million years pools of water grown the water collects on solid ground the Earth's core remains molten but its surface is cooled to around 70 or 80 degrees just enough to form a crust in the future we could swallow this water when we take a drink every sip every puddle every drop of water in every ocean is billions of years old and it may have traveled millions of kilometers to reach us carried inside a meteor the earth looks more familiar but this is still a dangerous place this wind is as fast perhaps faster than the most destructive hurricane it's a mega storm ripped up by the planets rapid rotation the moon is so close to Earth that it's gravity is overwhelming it creates huge tides that race across the planet's surface but over time the moon moves away the waves car and the planet spins slower 700 million years after the planets birth life-giving water covers its surface but not just water there's something else down there tiny islands they seem to have appeared from nowhere until molten rock bursts through the Earth's crust and rises up through the ocean over time the lava cools and forms a volcanic island this is how these islands formed in the future they will join together to form the first continents the infant earth has water and land it's beginning to look like the planet we call home but the atmosphere is toxic and the temperature is scorching nothing could live here meteors they've been raining down since the planets formation but now 3.8 billion years ago the assault has entered a violent new phase something has disturbed the orbits of these meteorites they already brought water to the planet but they're carrying something else too as the meteorites dissolve they release their minerals and transport carbon and primitive proteins amino acids from outer space to the bottom of the ocean it's dark the sun's rays can't reach beyond 300 meters and it's close to freezing this must be a mirage a city of underwater chimneys it's not smoke it's some kind of hot liquid see water has seeped down into the earth through cracks in the crust getting hotter collecting minerals and gases on the way it's this potent mixture that's spewing back out into the ocean building these towers add to this all those minerals and chemicals from the meteorites and the water has become a chemical soup it's impossible to know how or when but somehow these chemicals have come together to create life the water is now full of microscopic organisms these single-celled bacteria are the earliest forms of life on Earth this is a defining moment in the making of the planet microscopic life is underway to find more complex life we need to travel forwards through time to 3.5 billion years ago and a shallow ocean these look like rocks or even plants they seem to grow out of the seabed each is a mountain of living bacteria a colony called a stromatolite as if by magic these bacteria turns sunlight into food this process called photosynthesis uses the power of sunlight to transform carbon dioxide and water into glucose a simple form of sugar and similar to the stuff we put in our coffee and this magical transformation releases a byproduct a gas called oxygen underwater the stromatolite slowly fill the oceans with oxygen the oxygen turns traces of iron in the water into rust this falls to the ocean floor to form deposits of iron rich rock one day we'll use this mineral to build bridges ships and skyscrapers above the waves the oxygen transforms the atmosphere these stromatolites are creating the single most important element for life on Earth without them virtually every living thing wouldn't exist when we take our next breath we're doing it thanks to these colonies of ancient bacteria over the next two billion years oxygen levels continue to rise and as the planet spins slows the days get longer now they last at least 16 hours we're discovering it takes a long time to make a planet 1.5 billion years ago three billion years after the planets birth and there's no complex life no plants no dinosaurs no humans but the earth has something that no other planet has a force with the power to change everything our planet a beautiful blue ball dotted with volcanic islands one and a half billion years ago it's home to primitive life over millions of years we can see something is rearranging the islands hidden beneath the ocean the Earth's crust has broken into vast plates deeper still the Earth's cores at work it's hotter than the surface of the Sun so hot it generates movement in the rock beneath the crust these movements push and pull the plates around the globe and carry the oceans and the islands with them millions of years raced by seeing it like this our planet seems active changing alive over 400 million years a vast new supercontinent takes shape called Rodinia in the shallow waters around rodinia stromatolites have been working their magic for over two billion years pumping oxygen into the atmosphere the temperature is 30 degrees Celsius and the days are 18 hours long but this looks more like Mars than earth to find life here we need to move on through time the state of Washington 750 million years ago some force from deep inside the planet itself is whipping the crust to pieces it's as though the world is tearing apart and there's only one force powerful enough to do this heat it escapes from the Earth's molten core stretching and weakening the crust centimeter by centimeter year by year the great supercontinent is splitting in two the intense geological activity has spawned a mass of volcanoes these pump carbon dioxide into the atmosphere there's smoke and gas everywhere all that carbon dioxide mixes with water to make acid rain the rocks absorb the acid rain including its carbon dioxide and there are a lot of rocks on the earth right now exposed when the continent tore apart so many that vast quantities of carbon dioxide are absorbed out of the atmosphere and locked up in the Earth's rocks there's not enough carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to trap the sun's heat around the planet in just a few thousand years the temperature plummets to around minus 50 degrees this frozen wasteland is southern Australia 650 million years ago it's the start of what some scientists call snowball earth a period they believe to be the longest cold ice age ever to grip the planet a vast wall of ice thousands of meters high the ice is unstoppable the more ice there is the more sunlight it reflects away from the planet and the faster the ice spreads and there's a second ice sheet just as high the two sheets spread away from the poles towards each other to meet at the equator now an ice sheet up to three kilometers thick in Tunes the entire planet first the planet was a molten ball of fire now it's a frozen ball of ice virtually all the sun's light and warmth reflects back into space but it can't last forever something must release the earth from this frozen prison and when it does who knows whether life will have survived beneath the ice the surface is frozen but the core is still hotter than the sun's surface volcanoes have been erupting since the world began to freeze but up until now even their heat and power made no impact on the ice volcanoes pump out billions of tons of carbon dioxide before the big freeze the Earth's rocks absorb most of the co2 but now with the rocks smothered in ice there's nothing to absorb the gas so it fills the atmosphere like a blanket it traps the song's warmth around the planet temperatures rise until now after 15 million years the ice begins to melt it's thought that during snowball earth the ice pushed the cross down now as it melts the crust bounces up this creates fissures and weak spots and more and more volcanoes these volcanoes release more carbon dioxide and push the temperature up even higher the melt gathers momentum oxygen levels rocket through a series of chemical reactions the ice has created oxygen while the planet was frozen the sun's ultraviolet rays reacted with water molecules in the ice to produce a chemical rich in oxygen hydrogen peroxide the same chemical that bleaches head now as the ice melts the hydrogen peroxide breaks down and releases massive amounts of oxygen the earth is waking up and it's a very different place now 600 million years ago the atmosphere is warmer it feels like a summers day and the days are about 22 hours long add all this water and it's the perfect recipe for life before snowball earth primitive bacteria had emerged in the oceans but surely they couldn't have survived an ice age 75 times longer than the entire span of human history if something has survived then our best chance of finding it is where we last saw life in the ocean now 540 million years ago in an ocean full of oxygen those primitive bacteria have evolved a handful must have clung on through the big freeze there are plants everywhere and something else it looks like some kind of armored slug it's called we wax eeeh it's one of a new generation of complex multi-celled organisms we're entering one of the most dynamic periods in the earth story the Cambrian explosion increased oxygen levels allow creatures to grow larger and develop bony skeletons there are worms sponges and these their trailer bites distant relatives of insects lobsters even scorpions life in the oceans is blossoming from microscopic bacteria to a monster like this this is an ama lak Eris it's about 60 centimeters long look at its large eyes its razor-sharp teeth and grasping limbs all anomalocaris has to do is take its pickle the trilobite guard right itself it's soft belly is exposed these are pacaya they're just five or so centimetres long but they've got what may be the first ever spine over millions of years this simple structure will evolve into the spine that keeps us standing erect and creatures are beginning to take on familiar forms beneath the waves there are already tens of thousands of plant and animal species the advance of life seems unstoppable we're looking for life on land 460 million years ago and the plates have moved again below lies a new continent Gondwana it's a warm 30 degrees Celsius oxygen levels are close to those in which we live the land should be covered with plants crawling with creatures but there's not much here beside a few patches of algae there's only one explanation the son it blasts the surface with deadly radiation the complex life we've seen in the ocean doesn't stand a chance on land but 50 kilometers our weather rays enter the Earth's atmosphere something strange is happening when oxygen meets the sun's radiation the oxygen turns into another kind of gas called ozone this gas forms a blanket around the planet this ozone layer absorbs the lethal radiation over 120 million years the ozone layer gets thicker and stops more and more radiation from reaching the Earth's surface without this layer life on land simply wouldn't exist now shielded from radiation life blossoms those small mossy lumps are the first land plants and they're pumping out even more oxygen levels saw 375 million years ago there's something down there in the water it's moving swimming it's a strange fish called a Tiktaalik it's neck allows it to raise itself up it uses its fins as if their legs and moves out of the water where Clarke life is exploding over 15 million years these creatures call tetrapods evolve they grow stronger limbs and spend more time out of the water until 360 million years ago they make the land their home it's from a creature like this that all four-legged vertebrates will evolve dinosaurs birds mammals and eventually you and me we've come a long way from a lump of burning rock and dust to a Bluegreen planet bursting with life there are still no humans but there are fish plants and this it's a dragonfly a dragonfly the size of an eagle this giant is called mega Nura what were once legs have evolved into wings extending the dragonflies hunting territory over a vast area there are millipedes spiders all sorts of bugs down there these creatures called arthropods were among the very first to set foot on land they've already been around for hundreds of millions of years they look almost identical to the bugs than invade our homes today except for one big difference like mega Nura they're monsters we've stumbled into a lost world of giants where millipedes at two meters long and scorpions the size of wolves all the oxygen in the atmosphere allows their respiratory systems to be more efficient and frees up space for their bodies to grow a lizard-like creature called anonymous the creatures we've seen so far laid their eggs in the water but these eggs contain all the water and nutrients the developing Heil anima Sneed's the babies are growing in their own self-contained pond the egg is a major evolutionary breakthrough now animals can leave the water behind and conquer the land this baby hi Lana mas will lead the advance it's a new kind of creature a reptile inevitably with life comes death there's so much dead plant matter it builds up and decays into dense soggy layers over hundreds of millions of years rocks will cover these layers heat from the Earth's core and pressure from the overlying rocks will transform the layers of dead plants into seams of coal each lump of coal we burn today to warm our homes and fire our power stations is made of plaster died 300 million years ago amidst the decay hidden from sight life is stirring soon seeds will germinate plants will grow and this wasteland will live again life seems to have conquered the planet a herd of creatures graze the Siberian Plains they're not dinosaurs they won't set foot on earth for at least another 20 million years but they're big evolution has taken a huge leap forwards the small lizards we saw earlier and now giant reptiles these are scooter soars the distant relatives of Turtles they're plant-eaters and if the plant-eaters looked this tough the Karla Clause must be seriously mean it's a Gorgon opposite a perfectly engineered prehistoric killing machine the gorgonopsids saber teeth have wounded the SCOOTER saw the predator is watching as its prey grows weak from blood loss until hold on it's backing off something strange is happening the ground is getting hot there must be enormous pressure beneath the surface there's larvae but this isn't one single volcano the entire landscape is erupting it's a flood basalt eruption a massive plume of mantle is rising up from deep inside the earth pushing molten rock out through fissures in the Earth's crust the lush paradise is now a lifeless hell the SCOOTER soars and the gorgonopsids a debt they're the first casualties in the greatest mass extinction the world has ever seen the Permian extinction on the other side of the continent of Gondwana it's as if nothing happened snow but the temperature is about 20 degrees Celsius it's not snow it's ash fallout from the eruption some 16,000 kilometers away the ash burns suffocates and kills animals around the world the atmosphere is full of sulfur dioxide from the eruptions as it rains the gas turns to sulfuric acid and burns everything it falls on at first it seemed like this was a local disaster but now it's gone global the Siberian eruptions increase the Earth's carbon dioxide levels the atmosphere gets hotter water evaporates vegetation dies we saw what life had finally found a foothold now it looks like we were wrong there are no signs of life on land but in the oceans this can't be right the oceans are turning pink and the plants the trilobite the Predators everything's gone everything except for this pink algae the new hotter atmosphere must have heated the oceans and stripped them of oxygen now nothing except algae can survive in the stagnant water the Siberian eruptions are transforming the entire planet nothing not even the deepest ocean floor is beyond their reach look bubbles but it's not oxygen its methane escaping from vast pockets of methane gas beneath the seabed methane is a greenhouse gas at least 20 times deadlier than carbon dioxide until now the gas has been frozen but as the sea temperature rises the gas begins to melt released into the atmosphere this powerful gas pushes up temperatures even further up to almost 40 degrees six degrees hotter than before the Siberian eruptions now even the creatures that have made it this far are doomed it's 500,000 years since the eruptions first began and all this time for half a million years the lava has been pouring out by now it covers an area the size of the United States with a layer of molten rock nearly six kilometers deep 250 million years ago we're back where we started on a lifeless planet almost it's 50 million years since virtually all life on Earth was wiped out and the planet has been transformed it's now 200 million years ago and there's just one supercontinent called Pangea stretching from pole to pole after the trauma of the mass extinction the planet is healing temperatures are stabilizing the acid rain is neutralizing and vegetation returning and with 95% of all life on Earth wiped out the field is open for a new species to emerge one that will dominate the planet like no other before or since the dinosaurs these dinosaurs are called Amazon's like all dinosaurs they've evolved from the handful of reptiles that survived the Permian extinction at four and a half meters tall their size makes them slow and valuable I don't offer Soros two of them they're small and fast the AMA Soros is too big a meal for one Dilophosaurus but not for too the dinosaurs have repopulated the earth but no species contain this Restless volatile planet the Earth's crust is thinning here it's releasing lava shaking with earthquakes as though it's being stretched by some unseen force and the same thing is happening all the way down what will be North America's eastern seaboard the Earth's plates are on the move again 190 million years ago the great supercontinent of Pangaea breaks up a vast slab of land has broken away you creates a chasm and this fills with a new ocean called the Texas over what will one day be the Middle East currents are pushing nutrients up into the coastal waters running along what will be Saudi Arabia Iraq and Iran and the nutrients attract fish in their Millions and with so much life also comes death dead fish and plankton carpet the ocean floor over the next 10 million years layers of rock will bury and heat the dead creatures ancient fish and plankton will become all every litre of fuel in our cars every piece of plastic on the planet the paint on our walls the carpet under our feet even the soap you wash with almost all originated in this way 180 million years ago and further west the North American plate is still moving away from the European and Asian plate it happens slowly at about two and a half centimeters each year the same speed as our fingernails grow but hit fast-forward and a new ocean forms right beneath us and new continents Montreal moves away from Marrakesh New York from West Africa the world as we know it is taking shape the chasm between the two continents fills to create a vast ocean the Atlantic and they're in the middle a volcano we've seen plates move before we know it's caused by currents deep beneath the earth's crust this process is happening down there right now the entire seafloor has been torn in two and pushed up into a ridge of mountains and volcanoes it's growing higher than the Himalayas and longer than the Rockies the waters hot here molten lava is forcing its way out from deep inside the earth as the lava cools it's creating a new range of volcanic mountains and new ocean floor this is what's pushing the plates and Pangaea apart and rearranging our world it's this geological activity that makes the earth Restless creating unique and every time the planet reinvents itself the things that live on it must adapt and evolve things like these there akia sores they're reptile ancestors lived on land but as the planet changed so did they they grew fins and moved into the newly formed Atlanta koushin this one is six meters long and fast it travels at about forty kilometres an hour it's the oceans fastest creature the most efficient predator and it's ruled the Earth's oceans for 50 million years but now there's a new contender for the crown appliance or longer than a bus as heavy as a truck its jaws are immense over eight times more powerful than a great white sharks and its teeth a 30 centimeters long the earth and the creatures that live on it has changed beyond recognition this was once solid ground now it's the Atlantic Ocean it was on this very spot that we stood and watched Amazon's graze and I'll office or stalk their prey the dinosaurs world may be different but there is dominant as ever they appear invincible it's a shrew-like mammal and it's evolved from the small number of mammals that survived the mass extinction 185 million years ago it's also prey for the dinosaurs this is why most mammals live in the trees or underground and venture out at night mammals are no threat to the dinosaurs nothing on earth can challenge their dominance nothing on earth it's a lump of space rock a large one this asteroid is about ten kilometers across bigger than Mount Everest and it's traveling at over 70,000 kilometers an hour straight towards the earth it's heading for the Gulf of Mexico just off the Yucatan Peninsula it travels so fast blink and we miss the impact unless we slow down time it's a split second that will change the world forever at the moment of impact the asteroids back edge is still at nearly 11,000 meters the same height as a commercial aircraft flies the asteroid strikes with such immense force it destroys everything it hits even the asteroid itself instantly vaporizes the impact unleashes the energy of millions of nuclear weapons nowhere is safe not even way up here some of these boulders are as big as entire city blocks the blastwave races out from the impact zone like shrapnel from an exploding bomb minutes after impact thousands of kilometers from where the asteroid struck the earth is under attack from every direction boulders rained down earthquakes shake the ground and tsunamis batter the coasts but the onslaught has only just begun the plume of molten rock and dust spreads out and engulfs the planet the entire sky is acting like a giant sunlit the Earth's surface heats up to 275 degrees vegetation begins to spontaneously ignite even months after the impact smoke and ash still block out the sun's rays with less sunlight plants died and the animals that eat them starve against this onslaught it's hard to see how anything can survive the dinosaurs 165 million year reign is over but the dinosaurs demise is an opportunity for another species mammals by living underground they've avoided the heat in the fires and by eating anything and everything they thrive while more selective eaters die these are the unlikely inheritors of the dinosaurs crown and as one story ends another begins with the dinosaurs out of the way this could be our ancestors chance the dinosaurs are long dead the planet is peaceful in this new world our mammal ancestors are evolving this lake 47 million years ago in what will one day be Germany should be the perfect place to spot them this isn't like the mammals we saw earlier its eyes and brain are bigger this is Darwinian matter they or ADA she looks nothing like us but fossil evidence from our own time tells us these creatures could evolve into monkeys apes and eventually humans we're looking back through 47 million years of evolution to what may be one of our earliest known ancestors the lake sits on a volcanic crater it belches out noxious gas now the lake that killed her will preserve her in its oxygen-depleted deaths one day when the water has gone an EDA is fossilized in stone we will discover her and recognize in this primitive primate what could be the very beginning of our own story the story of human life we're closer to understanding how everything we've seen from ocean bacteria through walking fish and subterranean rodents leads to us and to understanding how our planet was made 47 million years ago and the atmosphere is much like our own the temperature is 24 degrees Celsius and a day lasts just under 24 hours the earth we're looking at now is almost identical to the planet we call home almost the Earth's plates have been on the move again with the continents on their backs India moves north towards Asia the Indian and Asian plates are locked in a titanic struggle neither plate is winning both plates begin to buckle what was once oh she and floor contorts upwards along a two and a half thousand kilometer line a vast mountain range rises up 1,500 meters 4,500 meters now over 8,000 meters these are the Himalayas and there it is the highest mountain of all Mount Everest when the snow on the peaks melts it feeds great rivers the Ganges Indus Yangtze and yellow rivers the Himalayas are like a vast water tower one day their rivers will supply water for almost half the world's population 20 million years ago this is our planet with every continent every ocean just as we know it except there's one thing missing us the human race for humans to evolve something somewhere down there has to change along Africa's east coast between the plates that make up the Earth's crust a great rift opens up the rift stretches nearly 6,000 kilometers along its edge mountains grow there it looks like an a not a human it might stay in these trees forever but its world is changing the growing mountains act like a wall they stop moisture from the Indian Ocean passing over the land it's getting hotter and drier the lush rainforest is becoming arid savanna the new hotter climate destroys the creatures habitat it forces them to search further afield for food to stop dragging their knuckles on the floor like Apes to stand and walk on two feet it's the most important step in the human story this mountain range along Africa's East Coast could be the reason we walk on two feet it seems incredible the random movement of two plates may have kick-started a chain of events that will lead to the first humans the man and child it could be a scene from our own time but it's one and a half million years ago these are an early species of human called Homo erectus and these are the first footprints like our own civilizations past and present everyone that's ever lived the greatest inventions the most brilliant ideas human history in all its complexity and splendour begins here and now the climate changes again 70,000 years ago sea levels fall the gap between Africa and Arabia shrinks down to just 13 kilometers the Red Sea is narrow and shallow enough for this small group to cross out of Africa there another later species of human called Homo sapiens they've made it across scientists believe every man woman and child outside of Africa is descended from these 200 or so individuals over time our ancestors multiply and spread out to India on to Asia and into Europe but while humans head north a giant wall of ice travels south Europe 40,000 years ago our Homo sapiens ancestors are arriving only to find a world that's changing fast it's getting colder it should be the height of summer but the plants are frostbitten the rivers are frozen natural changes in the Earth's orbit co2 levels and the flow of warm water around the planet conspire to lower the earth's temperature the earth and its inhabitants enter an ice age Glacia is as high as skyscrapers creep over the northern hemisphere at 30 centimeters a day slow and powerful they sculpt the landscape as they move over it gouging out great depressions the planet will never look the same again now around 20,000 years ago they grind to a halt much of the Northern Hemisphere is covered by ice sheets up to two and a half kilometers thick with trillions of gallons of water locked up as ice sea levels fall twenty thousand years ago a strip of land emerges from the ocean between Siberia and Alaska it's a bridge between two vast continents a gateway that takes humans from Asia to a new world America it's the last great continent to be colonized the last great human migration and somewhere down there are the first Americans now 14,000 years ago the changes that triggered the ice age go into reverse as the ice retreats it reveals a very different northern hemisphere the glaciers gouged out huge depressions now they fill with water to become North America's Great Lakes 6,000 years ago the ice retreats back to the poles to the Arctic and Antarctic after a four and a half billion years early we've made it we're back home this is our world our time now for the first time we can piece together our planets incredible story we can understand how and why everything we see around us is here today from the skies above us to water the essential ingredient for life the ground beneath our feet and finally life the spectacular result of a chain of catastrophes and coincidences each triumph each disaster is a step on the trail that leads to here to each and every one of us right now but Earth's story doesn't end here a lot has happened but there's more to come the earth will live for at least another four and a half billion years everything we've seen on our journey is only half the story just imagine what wonders what terrors what strange creatures lie ahead for our Restless creative planet the next chapter of Earth's story is still to be written take another epic voyage in journey through the Milky Way brand-new next Sunday at 7:00 stay tuned for 2012 the final prophecy

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Top 10 Best Documentaries of 2014



Top 10 Best Documentaries of 2014

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hi everyone and welcome to my picks for the top 10 best documentaries of 2014 I think I saw about 15 to 20 documentaries last year in the theater these are all films I saw in the theater and I did a review for each of those films on my channel but here's a top 10 i love doing top 10s and i love documentaries sometimes they're so the best films i've seen all year and here is 10 of them and i also want to say right before i name my the best one of the best i have a couple honorable mentions i just want to name really quick but let's get on with this countdown all right number 10 finding vivian maier now this one was actually nominated for i believe that academy award for this documentary this year and this is a very fascinating story about this guy who at this auction got all these boxes or crates and stuff like that and he found that this woman who was kind of living alone and living her own life she's a nanny and she had all these amazing pictures he just loved to walk around her community i believe she was from New York or somewhere and she just walk around taking random pictures and there's all these amazing pictures that are going on sale right now and said traveling the world or she's no longer with us she I think she died years before all this stuff was found and I think it's a side of her that she probably never wanted to show the world but it's such an amazing credible side that now the art world is just eating it up and I thought this was a really great documentary that examined that her story and the people that knew her but didn't know her and then at the same time this filmmakers journey or the guy who found all this stuff his journey and what he's gonna actually do with all this stuff really great documentary that i highly recommend i don't know if it's on netflix right now but if it is check it out it's definitely worth seeing I don't think it's very long either it's a pretty short documentary and I wish it was longer but check it out finding vivian maier next one is number nine Glen Campbell all be me now i'm not a big country fan though I do love the country music of glen campbell and a lot of the other people that came around during that time I think in the 60s and the seven he's a lot of great stuff you know Johnny Cash Coal Miner's Daughter camera brought her name what her name was but some great some great music the country music up today is just trash sorry if you like it that's fine you can enjoy it I'm not going to I have nothing I don't have a problem with anybody enjoying it I'm just not personally into that kind of 20 crap but Glen Campbell is a great artist and what this film actually examined I didn't know what I was going to get into I knew Glen Campbell because he was in a movie called True Grit the original true grit with John Wayne new one but with Glen Campbell I'll be me this is a concert film at the same time is this guy's journey with his family as he is suffering from Alzheimer's disease and you could see how it affects him but it doesn't let him stop him he goes on tour his final tour and it's a great thing that he can experience with his entire family and as fans and people that maybe not know him that well can enjoy all the great music and the great performances and see like oh my gosh how is he going to do is you can survive because he's trying to be himself he's losing his mind but his music is loved by so many and this film actually got nominated for best song so that is awesome congratulations to glen campbell and this entire family on this nomination a great film I hope it gets hope it gets released on some sort of format other than blu-ray so people can chance to go see it because it is a really great concert film / documentary about a talented musician and human being next one is number eight touch the wall now I didn't know much about this story before watch it I saw the trailer I don't follow sports but this film examines the lives of two amazing women misty Frank Missy Franklin and Carol Lynn Joyce and I saw the documentary before watching this like I do for most films that I don't know much about and when I saw it I really loved it I enjoyed it I actually met the filmmakers at the screening I got to interview them and then they told me about tubs the tug tug tug tug calm where you can actually host a screening in your area and just last month I did that with the filmmakers both filmmakers showed up and I had a sold-out show that included friends family that were there and a lot of people that I've never met a lot of kids that just love swimmers and stuff like that but i would say what really got me into this movie more than the subject matter it was just the themes and ideas that you can look at the lives of Missy and Carolyn and you may not be into swimming and that's okay I'm not too much into swimming I do like to go swimming but I I'm not that passionate about it that's what I'm trying to say i'm passionate about other things so i was thinking as well watching this film how could I relate to my own life and that's what I think you should do when you watch that movie because great examples of Carolyn and Missy she is she's a firecracker she is so interesting and uh I would love to meet her one day get a chance to interview but she's so busy let her win some more gold medals and bronze and stuff like that she's gonna be incredible probably yet at the I think next year's summer olympics I hope she takes home a lot of medals and at the same time doesn't forget to be herself because that's what's so great about the film is that she's truly herself and inspiring to everybody whether you swim or not and I want to thank the filmmakers everybody who came to my screening because if it wasn't for them I wouldn't have had that amazing experience and a great film a wonderful film and one of the best documentaries I saw in 2014 hopefully it'll be released very soon i think in april on blu-ray and hopefully digital format as well next one is number seven citizen for which is also nominated for this year's Academy Awards and I didn't know much about this film or about Edward Snowden before watching in what he's actually done and how brave he's actually been and some people might not like what he did and other people will enjoy I appreciate what he's uncovered this is a really great document I mean if you were someone who loves documentaries and and actually the for the filmmakers because they're all a part of the story kind of around the beginning they don't really know where it's going to go and where this story actually goes and I'm not going to get in detail or explain too much is I can majan the filmmakers being in this room when this guy's just uncovering all these things and they're just videotaping like oh my gosh we have gold this is amazing this is what documentary filmmakers live for so check out citizen for it is nominated again for best documentary and it may win who knows it's got some really great subject matter a great story and I there's going to be a movie in the works I don't who's making it but I think it'll be an incredible film if it's done right as well number six tim's vermeer this is a film actually made by Penn & Teller the great funny comedian magicians who perform every almost every day in Las Vegas they have a friend named Tim who is a filmmaker as well and he has a huge passion for Vermeer the great artist and what he tried to do in attempts to do in this documentary is pretty shocking this is one of the first documentaries I saw last year and one of the best it's just incredible filmmaking and and just what he does with art and trying to not just make a copy but make his own version of a Vermeer and i highly recommend and of course Penn and Teller are part of it but they don't really get in the way they let the subject shine they don't try and use their notoriety to get in the way of a subject during the film but they probably need to use their notoriety when they were making it other than the fact other than that great film check it out hopefully it's available somewhere in some sort of format great film number five when I went to the LA Film Festival I think I saw I don't know if I just saw this documentary or anymore but this is one that stayed with me the most it is Giuseppe makes a movie now giuseppe is adapter and someone who's been working in the business as a young actor in films like detroit rock city and independence day but he formed a real friendship with adam rifkin who was the director of this movie and so Adam started filming his his his life as he was making these kind of off-the-wall crazy somewhat terrible movies but he was having so much love so much passion for it he was using his friends his people he met in bars homeless people off the street being a part of these things and so he just makes these movies and one thing I loved about what he said this film is like forget continuity who cares I don't deal with it you shouldn't deal with it either and that's one thing I appreciate it i mean i love continuity in big-budget films but when it comes to these small independent films and you don't get it right who cares just have fun enjoy your passion and i don't know what he's doing today but i think he's still making movies wherever he's at and this is just a really awesome documentary that examines film a game when someone may not have a lot of money but have a lot of passion a lot of ideas and just willing to put himself out there algorithm is this did a great job at directing this and putting all clap putting this all together I would love to see an extended cut because I bet he has hours and hours and hours of footage but you should check out this film as well number four the gallipoli gallipolis affair satan came to Eden now this is a documentary that has has a lot of footage from this situation that was shot there back and I think the 1920s or 1930s off the coast of somewhere south america or maybe other the pratt can't remember where this where this actually happened but this is a strange weird film that i didn't know what i was going to get into there are interviews with the the people that are still living there at the same time there there are recreations with the letters at the that the that the people that were there lived there and all the crazy crap that actually went on with the people that were looking to get away from the world and at the same time when they got together they were pretty much still part of the world even though they were on this island far far away a lot of evil things happen when they released them when they were when they at least expected it and i didn't expect what i was going to get when i saw this film and i think this film might be on netflix right now so please check it out it's definitely worth seeing and a great film about the history of that island the crazy history of that island number three last days in vietnam which i think is nominated for an Academy Award now this film examines the last few days when America was in Vietnam before after this is after the vietnam war was over and they were slowly just backing up and getting the hell out of there and let him vietnam deal with Vietnam now after the the catastrophe that happened during the Vietnam War this examines with with interviews of the people that were really there is they were trying to get as many people out of the country as possible during that time at the same time there was so much crazy and amazing insane footage of everything that went down and if I was going to pick a film out of the five films that were nominated for the Academy Award and I've seen four notches I've seen three right now I'm trying to see a fourth one before the before the weekend happens but I'm out of the three three films out of the five then I've seen I would probably pick last days in Vietnam it's a great documentary and it does a great job of incorporating the footage with interviews and all that stuff and where Vietnam is today number two life itself now one of the film critics that really inspired me is Roger Ebert I think most people that are doing YouTube and sharing their feelings about film were inspired by Roger Ebert to me he was the best film critic ever and ever and ever and ever no no no one will ever beat him when it comes to film criticism I think he's the best he's the greatest and I even if I agreed or disagreed them i always had much respect even if I really really really disagreed with them I still had a lot of respect for his opinion I knew whether he knew I knew that he knew that I knew that he knew what he was talking about he was just so interesting to watch in the show what he did with just a cisco neighbor and then even Roper and that he worked and he did all this stuff to the day that he died and the love life you had with Chaz Ebert and even some of the stupid stuff he did on Twitter it's there but you know when you vocalize your opinion you might say a few things every once a while that people are not going to agree with but anyway it's great film why is this film not nominated that's the shame of life itself this film should be nominated for an Academy Award and if it was it would have won I love this film it is really close it was definitely going back and forth between number one and number two on my list so please check out life itself especially if you love film if you love film criticism if you love to go to the movies you got you're gonna love this film because Roger Ebert as I said reviewed a lot of masterpieces and now he's in one congratulations to everybody worked on this film and love this film and i highly recommend whether you like movies or not it doesn't matter this is a movie about someone's life all right to come to honor to honorable mentions before i get into the final film really quick i'm just going to name them off really great films that you should check out super Mitch The Legend of Jeff Gordon great film funny film directed by Mike Myers yes Mike Myers Wayne's World Mike Myers and also for no good reason now if you've seen anything from the great writer gosh fear and loathing in las vegas hunter s thompson then you've seen this artists and his work so check out for no good reason which i believe is also produced and starring johnny depp great film check it out about his the the artist behind the the the art behind the artist behind the art of all that great stuff that hunter s thompson worked with as well for his books in his design and stuff like that just really crazy alright everyone finally number one and then we can move on with their lives number one it i just love this film so much and this film opened me up to a whole new world of this insane filmmaker the film is uterus keys dune i loved alejandro jodorowsky and now I've seen three of his films now and it's a shame that this dude does not exist because it would have changed the world it would have came out before Star Wars but we'll see this movie if you love film if you appreciate film if you just love great stories about stuff that just never happened that could have changed the world it's a great story in itself yoona Roth's keys completely insane and that's what's so great it makes it so interesting I can't wait I hope he continues any movies at he's in his 70s or 80s now and he just made a movie last year called the dance of reality which I really love that I put in my honorable mentions but this film shows you how this movie can't kind of came together and then then fell apart at the same time as all the influences the major influence this movie actually made on science fiction & movie history from then on because it's supposed to I can come out in the 1970s before Star Wars and then I like at the end I'm not going to say what it's compared to but it shows you all these movies that were inspired maybe hopefully probably by you know Rocky's do great film the best documentary I saw in 2014 love this film I'm a huge fan of uterus key right now and I can't wait to see more of his movies that I have not seen yet I've seen the holy mountain I've seen no tempo and I've seen the damn to reality and I know there's a list of other films that he's made in the past that have not seen yet and some I think he's working on right now so that's awesome i love crazy insane movies that sometimes i'll make make any sense but they're visually stunning and emotionally engaging and that's how I felt about you know Rocky's dude everyone that is my list and the comm box below what were your favorite documentaries of 2014 I'd really like to know in the meantime please check out we live film calm and subscribe to youtube on started we love film on YouTube also go to Long Beach acting and film Association right here on facebook on Twitter please also go to movie polycom and if you enjoyed this video please click right here subscribe to my channel I'd really appreciate it thank you again so much for watching I got one more video to do about 2014 the worst of the worst and I hope to get that done soon in the meantime have a great day a wonderful night and wonderful life and I'll talk to you in my next video on YouTube oh my gosh I can't talk anymore bye peace be with you

The Immigration History of the United States of America



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This mini documentary explains the history of settlement in the United States of America: from the “Natives” who first populated the land to the Mexican migrants who arrive today.

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Immigration. It’s been the defining characteristic of
America since before our country even began, so it’s important to remind ourselves of
our rich history…of where we all came from to create this one-of-a-kind melting pot of
people that is the United States in the 21st century. The first successful colony in America was
established in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia by English settlers. But, these first europeans arrived in a land
that was already home to other people. To indigenous, Native Americans who thousands
of years before had crossed over a land bridge from Siberia into what’s now the state of
Alaska. They were the first explorers of this beautiful
land, and they would spread throughout the entire continent and throughout central and
southern America too. Native Americans thrived by harnessing the
power of nature, and over time, they formed into many distinct groups, each with their
own languages and cultures. Then, in 1492, as legend has it, Christopher
Columbus sailed the ocean blue and arrived in the Bahamas and immediately encountered
a group of these indigenous people called the Arawak. The Arawak were curious and friendly, but
Columbus was filled with greed, and took some of them prisoner, demanding they show him
where the gold they were wearing came from. Now, the Native Americans were so easy going
and poorly armed compared to these Europeans – who had modern weaponry like metal-forged
swords and armor, and even guns – that Columbus said “I could conquer the whole of them
with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased.” And that’s exactly what he, and other Spanish
conquistadors who came after him, did. They vanquished indigenous group after indigenous
group with cunning and sheer brutality, and got a lot of help from diseases like smallpox
that moved ahead of them and just wiped the natives out. “When smallpox was taken to the new world
nobody in the new world had every seen a disease like this before. So the number of people who were susceptible
was much greater. There was no natural immunity, so the number
of people who could contract the disease and then spread, and the number of people to receive
it once it’s been spread, was much higher.” “Some scholars think there may have been
a population of 20 million native americans and the vast majority, perhaps 95%, were killed
by old world diseases. A continent virtually emptied of its people. Once word of the discovery of the New World
spread throughout the Old World – the kingdoms and empires of Europe – many people began
to plan journeys of their own across the Atlantic Ocean. Starting around 1620, tens of thousands of
British, German and Dutch – but mostly British Puritans – came to North America to escape
religious persecution, or to search for better opportunity, or simply for an adventure. The Puritans spread throughout New England
in the northeast, the Dutch settled along the Hudson River in New York and established
rich, successful trading posts and cities like New Amsterdam (which we now call New
York City). English Quakers established the Pennsylvania
colony and its commercial center, Philadelphia. More than 90% of these early colonists became
farmers. And, because they were living in small, widespread
villages, disease didn’t spread as easily as it could back in Europe, which kept the
death rate among settlers in America low. All these farmers needed large families to
help them farm, which caused the population to boom, especially in the New England colonies. As land became harder to come by along the
coasts, the roughly 350,000 Scottish and Northern Irish who arrived throughout the 1700’s
settled inland in western Pennsylvania and along the Appalachians deep into the south. The British sent 60,000 prisoners across the
ocean to Georgia, although the only thing many of these men were guilty of was being
poor and out of work. Tobacco was a highly profitable cash crop
in the southern colonies, so many British settled there and began to take advantage
of the thriving slave trade. “Those of us who study immigration history
think in terms of why people leave their homelands and why they come here. And those are generally encapsulated in two
words: push and pull. Something pushes them out of their homeland
and something pulls them to the United States. Now obviously in the earliest cases of slavery
they were not necessarily pushed from their homeland, but they were taken from their homeland. But the reason why they were taken was because
there was labor to be done here in the United States. It was a global force, the slave trade was
fairly global – at least in the Atlantic – and later Asia would become involved in it as
well. So here you have a forced migration.” Hundreds of thousands of Africans were mercilessly
captured and taken prisoner in their own lands, then put on ships bound for America, where
they were sold into a life of hard labor for no pay, and no chance at freedom. [Graph] This is the population breakdown of
the country around 1790, shortly after the colonies’ hard-won war of independence with
the British and the adoption of the American constitution, which made the country of the
United States official. The Native American population was so decimated
by disease, war, and migration to the west, that only about 100,000 were left inside the
territorial United States. Out west, many Spaniards moved north from
Mexico across the Rio Grande to settle in California, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. Not all of these settlers were of European
descent. They all could speak spanish, but ethnically,
they were a melting pot of whites, Indians and mestizos, or people of mixed race. French settlers established footholds mainly
along the Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes, along the Mississippi River, and along
the Gulf Coast, establishing the city of New Orleans. Their descendants are known as Cajuns. These French and Spanish populations would
be incorporated into the United States in the coming decades through the Louisiana Purchase
and the granting of statehood to the western territories. After more than four decades of relatively
little immigration into America after its founding, in the 1830’s, tens of thousands
of immigrants began arriving on her eastern shores, again, mainly from Britain, Ireland
and Germany. Some were attracted to the cheap farmland
that was made available by westward expansion, while others took advantage of the manufacturing
boom in the cities sparked by the industrial revolution. The Irish were mainly unskilled laborers who
built most of the railroads and canals, took jobs in the emerging textile mill towns in
the Northeast, or worked in the ports. About half of the Germans became farmers,
mainly in the midwest, and the other half became craftsman in urban areas. Asian immigrants – mainly from China – began
crossing the Pacific to work as laborers, particularly on the transcontinental railroad
or in the mines. [History Professor Scott Wong] “Immigration
also during the 19th century was usually male dominated—males in their prime working years
between the years of 18-25. The Irish being the one exception. Eventually there would be more Irish women
who immigrated than Irish men. Immigrants to this day often follow established
patterns. They leave on village or one city and go to
another city in the United States because someone has already established that pattern
for them. People go to where they know people. And those people here can often arrange for
jobs and places to live and so on. It was often said that your first job coming
off the boat was whoever picked you up at the docks. Now people say your first job is whoever picked
you up at the airport. [Show graph]
After tripling from the decade before, in just two more decades, from the 1830s to the
1850s, the amount of immigrants arriving in the US each year tripled again, to about 170,000. By the 1850s, when the total population of
the country passed 20 million and things began to get a bit crowded, America’s first measurable
anti-immigrant feelings began to take root, mainly targeting Irish-catholic immigrants
who were arriving in large numbers to escape the poverty and death of the potato famine
that was hitting them hard at home. But with a huge boom on the horizon, this
early xenophobia was nothing compared to what would come later. Large, steam-powered ships took to the seas
after 1880, replacing the older, slower sailing ships, which meant it was suddenly much faster
– and cheaper – to cross the ocean, making the dream of a journey to America more accessible
to many around the world. “Processed and ticketed, they waited for
their ship. They boarded in many parts of Europe and in
many kinds of vessels. Most to New York and some to other ports. But they had one thing in common—they were
traveling steerage, and the steamship companies understood the profit in numbers.” [Chart]
Before long, millions of immigrants were arriving on America’s shores. They passed through immigration processing
stations like Ellis Island in New York and Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. This wave was much more diverse than before. Coming mainly from Southern Europe, it was
led by Italians, Poles, Greeks, Swedes, Norwegians, Hungarians, Jews, Lebanese, and Syrians. “It was as if god’s great promise had
been fulfilled. I’m going into a free land. I don’t think I ever can explain the feeling
I had that time. It’s not my native land, but it means more
to me than my native land—it means more to me than my native land…Any country on
earth this never happen. And become a human being again–it’s a miracle…everybody
had hopes. And one thing I was sure, and thousands like
me: that the degradation, and the abuse, and the piration that we had in Europe, we wouldn’t
have here.” This group was young, most were under 30 years
old, mainly because an entire generation of the children of farmers and factory workers
in Europe and the Russian empire couldn’t find work because the owners of the farms
and factories preferred to have an efficient machine – that they didn’t have to pay – do
the work instead of a human being. Well, this was fine by America, whose steel,
coal, automobile, textile, and garment production industries were booming. It happily took in this pool of eager, hard
workers and put them to work in its growing industrial cities. “As mills and factories sprouted across
the land, cities grew up around them. In turn, the cities beckoned to workers by
the millions from the American countryside and from overseas to fuel the burgeoning industrialization. What was once a rural nation was rapidly becoming
an urban state. From 1860 to 1910, the urban population grew
from over 6 million to over 44 million.” The United States also took full advantage
of Europe’s paralyzation during the first World War. With millions dying in the midst of the bloodiest
struggle the European continent had ever seen, every country there had to completely focus
its industries on producing all the supplies – the guns, the uniforms, the tanks, the boats,
the bullets – all the stuff needed to carry on and win the fight. But with many of its working-aged men on the
front lines, in hospitals or at home after horrific injuries – or dead – the factories
of Europe couldn’t meet all the demand, so US factories made up for the shortfall
in production. Before long, the United States had leapt to
the front ranks of the world’s economic giants. And when the Americans entered the conflict
themselves in 1917, US industry was now tasked with supplying its own soldiers too. It was during this 50-year immigration wave,
from about 1870-1920, when many well-off, white, native-born Americans began to consider
mass immigration a danger to the health and security of the country. They started actively organizing to exert
political power to slow it down. The first immigration law in American history
was known as the Asian Exclusion Act. It was passed in 1875 and – you guessed it
– outlawed Asians, specifically Asian contract laborers, from stepping foot on American soil,
plus any other people considered convicts in their own countries. In 1921, Congress pushed through a law that
marked a turning-point in American immigration policy–a law that passed the Senate 78-1. The Emergency Quota Act set strict limits
on the amount of immigrants who would be allowed into the country each year. It was very effective. The number of new immigrants let in fell from
over 800,000 in 1920 to just over 300,000 admitted in 1921. [CHART]
If the pace of immigration had been like a raging river, this law acted like a dam. But that drop off in the flow of persons into
America still didn’t satisfy the anti-immigration crowd who, just three years later in 1924,
forced congress to tighten the quota even more, established the border patrol, and stated
that any undocumented immigrants who entered the country were subject to deportation. It’s during this time that the definition
of “illegal alien” was born, a term that would be used to stigmatize the next group
the anti-immigration community’s crosshairs became fixed on: latin-american migrants living
and working in the US Southwest. After the quota laws passed by the US Congress
in the 1920’s, immigration was capped for the first time in American history. One of the exceptions to the strict quotas
were documented contract workers from the western hemisphere who could come into and
out of the US freely. The other major exception were the hundreds
of thousands of refugees who were allowed in, mainly Jews escaping the horrors of the
Holocaust during and after World War II, and the roughly 400,000 families who fled Cuba
after the Castro-led revolution of 1959. The US entrance into World War II also meant
many more Mexican workers were needed to fill in for all the young American men who were
off fighting the Germans in Europe and the Japanese in the Pacific. At the end of this period, between 1944 and
1954, the number of immigrants coming from Mexico increased by 6,000 percent, as many
Latin American workers were offered low wage agricultural jobs in the American Southwest
as part of the bracero program. But large numbers of Mexicans without the
necessary paperwork came in search of the American dream too, and what followed is one
of the ugliest periods in US immigration history. With pressure mounting to do something about
the thousands of immigrants easily crossing the southern border each year, President Eisenhower
turned to Gen. Joseph Swing, who launched “Operation Wetback” in 1954. That derogatory name reveals the insensitivity
of the policy, which directed hundreds of federal officials to lead thousands of local
police officers on sweeps through neighborhoods throughout the American southwest, stopping
any “Mexican looking” person and demanding to see their papers. If they didn’t have their papers, they were
arrested and deported. Some estimates put the amount of illegal immigrants
thrown out of the country above one million, leading to countless families being torn apart. In some cases, their American-born children
were even sent away. Obviously, this program angered many Mexican-American
citizens, and anyone else who saw it as a blatant violation of human rights on a massive
scale. [History professor Miguel Levario] “What
we have here is an aggressive and sort of paramilitary approach to deportation and mass
deportation and of course the use of propaganda to address the issue of unauthorized Mexican
workers in the United States. Because the Border Patrol agency was so small
– I mean, they’re using local law enforcement – so while they’re out there trying to look
for undocumented immigrants what aren’t they doing? Their own basic responsibilities of keeping
neighborhoods safe, addressing burglaries, murders, whatever it could be. Operation Wetback was terminated in large
part because of cost, in large part because it just became too taxing on local resources. We also found out that regardless of how far
you sent them into the interior, within days, sometimes weeks, they were right back in there. The final era of immigration to America is
the one we’re still currently in, which began in 1965 with the passage of the Hart-Celler
Act. This law finally replaced the unfair quota
system with a policy that gives preference to immigrants who have relatives already in
the United States, or people with job skills that are highly sought after. All other past restrictions targeting specific
groups were thrown out. This was one of the crown jewels in President
Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program and it fundamentally shifted who was allowed in. [CHART] In 1970, 60% of immigrants came from Europe,
this number just fell off a cliff by the year 2000, when only 15% were from Europe. The one thing that didn’t change were the
many undocumented immigrants from Latin America who continued to come across the border in
search of a better life. So, in an effort to address this, in 1986,
President Ronald Reagan signed the Immigration Reform and Control Act, which gave green cards
to about 2.7 million immigrants. It was the largest single moment of legalization
in American history. As a conservative from the anti-immigration
party in modern America, the Republican Reagan compromised in exchange for more restrictions
on employers who hire illegal immigrants, and tighter border security. But it was a flawed law in a number of ways,
mainly, it didn’t effectively fix the broken system that was allowing businesses to hire
illegal immigrants in the first place. So since the businesses could still break
the rules, many low paying jobs remained for the millions of undocumented immigrants in
America that the law didn’t legalize. The bill also didn’t adequately fund and
equip the border patrol, which meant there was still a fairly consistent flow of people
coming across the border. To fix some of these problems, Sen. Ted Kennedy
introduced, and Congress passed, the Immigration Act of 1990, which President George H.W. Bush
signed into law. This increased the number of legal immigrants
entering the United States from around 500,000 per year to 700,000–an increase of 40%. This bill is also noteworthy because it was
bipartisan, with a democratically-controlled congress working with a Republican president
to pass major, common-sense immigration reform. Since the passage of that 1990 bill, about
1,000,000 immigrants on average legally achieve residence in the United States each year. These are the top ten countries ranked by
the number of legal immigrants from these countries who came to the United States in
2013 according to the Department of Homeland Security. [Chart] According to the 2010 Census, these are the
countries from which all immigrants currently in the United States came from, ranked by
the total number of people in America who say they were born in each country. Today, 14.3 percent of the total American
population is foreign born. That’s more than 45,000,000 people. The United States is home to nearly 20% of
all the immigrants in the world. It’s estimated that more than 10 million
of the immigrants in the United States are here illegally, living in the shadows. Thank you for watching, I hope you gained
a greater appreciation for who we are as a nation and how immigration has allowed us
to attract people from all over the rest of the world, how that is the single-most important
factor in binding us together and making us such a dynamic country. This video was proudly created by the two-brother
team that is the daily conversation, the video editor Brendan Plank and myself. Until next time, for TDC, I’m Bryce Plank. Click on the screen to watch our full documentary
on the most fascinating mega-projects under development around the world, the ten most
promising energy sources of the future, our ranking of the ten best presidents in American
history, or our latest video.

Back To The Future Making Of Documentary Part 1



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I'm from the future I came here in a time machine that you invented now I need your help to get back to the Year 1985 time travel has always been fascinating because it's something that I think we all fantasize a little bit about and that makes it really interesting and you know when I started studying film I realized that telling a time travel story in a movie lends itself to doing it probably better than in any other medium Bob Zemeckis and I for years had discussed the idea of doing a time travel movie and we were never able to figure out sort of the hook what was gonna make a good subject for a time traveller well after we made a movie called used cars I was back in st. Louis visiting my parents and my father went to the same high school that I went to and I found his high school yearbook in the basement and I'm thumbing through it and I find out that my father had been the president of his graduating class I didn't know this and I'm looking at him and thinking about the president of my graduating class who was a guy had nothing to do it and I thought what I've been friends with him if I had gone in high school or would I have just hated his guys so when I got back to California I'm telling the story to Bob and he's going yeah that's really interesting so we just got going with that and that was the germ of the idea well used cars didn't do too well at the box office but Columbia Pictures loved it so the head of Columbia Frank Price said as soon as you guys have another idea for a movie bring it to me first I want to hear about it and by I don't know September of 1980 maybe October we said okay let's go let's go tell Frank price about this so we set up a meeting we go in to Frank and we tell him basically this kid goes back in time and goes to high school with his parents and his mother falls in love with him and was Dan within days we had a deal to write two drafts back to the future of Columbia Pictures all writing is hard but our working relationship is truly collaborative you know we really check our egos at the door and we debate everything and we do it understanding that it isn't just you know to win is to make the movie good and so we don't have a problem with that we use the index card method of plotting so we had big bulletin board member office and we would say okay we know for example Marty goes back in time so an index card goes up says Marty goes back in time and then towards the end Marty goes back to the future that's another car so we said okay wouldn't it be cool if he invented rock and roll so we put up a card saying Marty invents rock and roll well we need to establish that he can play rock'n'roll and that he wants to play rock and roll so that means that somewhere on the bulletin board before the card that says he goes back in time establish Marty desire and ability to play rock and roll same thing with the skateboard if he's gonna invent the skateboard show him on a skateboard so these pairs of index cards would come up but to write a screenplay like Back to the Future it was just an immense amount of very hard back-breaking work I mean there was nothing really fun about writing the screenplay it was really hard we had a first draft probably in five months they asked us to make changes we spent another six weeks or so had another draft in spring 81 and basically they said well you know what it's a really nice sweet story but we're kind of looking for raunchy or comedies these days no thanks we're gonna pass on this so we said okay let's go take this around and we were getting the same exact message from everybody this is just not for us but among the people that we showed it to was Steven Spielberg they brought it over to me and they said nobody gets this maybe we're crazy will you read this and let us know what you think and I read it and it was a very unusual story and yet it was based on a lot of old-fashioned principles of a family coming of age getting your first car all the dreams and desires you have for your own life the dreams and desires your parents might have had but didn't succeed in realizing and it was about the generation gap and it was about the major disconnect between our generation and our own parents generation and that was all done through an amazing object lesson which was this sort of accidental trip back into the past he said oh this is terrific I'd love to be on board and help you guys get this made a bob and I were in a position where we've done three pictures with Steve and I want to hold your hand and use cars which Steven executive produced in 1941 which we wrote for Steven and none of these movies were big hits at the box office so we were getting a little superstitious thinking well if we do another movie with Steven and it bombs we'll never get another job because we'll just be those two guys that only work because their pal Steven helps them set up their project so we were totally candid with Steven and told them that this is why we didn't want to to it and he understood completely so we're taking it to producers we're taking the studios everybody say take it to Disney take it to Disney so finally Bob and I said well let's go take it to Disney so we set up a meeting and we go in meet with an executive and we sit down and he says are you guys insane you've got the scene with the kid and his mom in the car this is incest we can't do this so it was too extreme for Disney well I think it was a tough sell at the time because Bob Gale and I had no success credentials so Bob Zemeckis said look I got it direct again I got it direct something and I'm gonna direct the next decent script that comes along that was Romancing the Stone and that was a very successful movie so suddenly studio executives thought that the future might be a good movie so it had actually nothing to do with the material and Bob is saying well let's go back to the one guy who always believed in it let's go back to Steve we had this good friend in Steven who was a filmmaker and a filmmaker can see the work of a director and read a screenplay and kind of imagine what that movie might look like so he always understood what the movie was and we said Steven he's still interested in doing back to the future he says damn right I am and so we set it up it was the first Hamblin project at Universal set up with Steven not direct I guess they call you cap no actually people call me Marty obviously the most important character is Marty McFly and every young actor in Hollywood wanted to play him and we did an exhaustive search and read a lot of people and and just trying to find the right person I was shooting a Teen Wolf and we were in passing in was shooting and I got all the stuff on my face I was wolf dragged rubber and hair and I'm feeling miserable and I can't eat and to make matters worse just down the road there was a scouting crew there flirt another film and we found out it was for this new Spielberg produced film called back in the future then I heard that the Crispin Glover was in it and I knew Crispin from other things and worked with him before and I thought man Christian Glover is in this Steven Spielberg movie and I'm like Teen Wolf all of us seized upon Michael Fox right from the beginning but he wasn't available he was doing a very successful television show at the time called family ties that had been created by Gary Goldberg they wanted to offer me back the future before I even did Teen Wolf but they'd spoken to Gary and Gary couldn't really speak for my contract and Gary kind of had figured out that there was no way I could do both so we begged and tried to see if we could cast Michael and we couldn't and then we started really looking for somebody who might embody many of the qualities that Michael had but we were given a mandate that we had to make a movie by a certain date and if we didn't make the movie by a certain date they would cancel the movie so being a young and a hungry filmmaker and maybe having a bit of an inflated ego I thought well I can make this work so you know as you do when you're making a movie you meant finally make a decision and that first decision was to go with Eric Stoltz we shot for five weeks with Eric he was totally professional but there was just something missing he's a magnificent actor but his comedy sensibilities were very different than what I had written with Bob and he and I just never were able to make that work and he showed me the first five weeks of footage cut together and he just said I don't think we're getting the laughs that I was hoping we would get and and I looked at Bob and I realized that he was absolutely correct and I said Bob what do you want to do it so I had to make this horrific decision which was very heartbreaking for everybody but luckily I was able to convince the studio to let me reshoot five weeks of work so we went back to Gary Goldberg and we were on our knees begging we need Michael we really need and Gary said okay look I'll tell you what I'm gonna let Michael read the script and if Michael wants to do it with the understanding that family ties always comes first if you guys are willing to make that accommodation to us and shoot around our schedule then I will let Michael read the script and we'll see what happens so at Christmastime I was called in a Gary Gophers office and Gary gave me an envelope I'm Noah envelope with the script in it he said here's the script take it home and read it if you want to do it and you know she had my blessing I can I went like this I love it it's best thing I ever read and that was it and we literally set up this plan where we had a station wagon with a bed in the back and Michael would finish his tapings on the TV show that he get into the station wagon and he drive out to the set for night shooting and about six o'clock from the moment that I said that I would do it it just kind of my with it caught up in this this cyclone of activity and creativity of the highest level just really brilliant people brilliant filmmakers bringing artisans it was just so much stuff and at the same time then there was a practical matter of shooting it which was a I'd work at family ties from 10:00 to 2:00 about 5:00 and then go over the set and get to probably about six and start shooting and work on that till about four or five in the morning and then go back and get literally get driven home and carried in the house and dropped in bed and woke up in the morning put in the shower and I mean yeah it was just crazy somehow thanks to Michael Fox we made it work and he turned out to be the perfect Marty McFly he's a reactive character he was written that way he reacts to everything I mean because he's a stranger in a strange land so he's basically the alien in the movie and it takes an actor with a perfect sense of comedy timing and a really great actor because it's been said that acting is reacting so he was able to understand that the humor was not in the punch line it was in the reaction never trying to tackle any of the physics of it the temporal logic or the space-time continuum or any of that stuff but from Marty's point of view I understood the story I mean I understood what his what was driving him I mean he's basically you know girls rock and roll and skateboarding it's not far from being major focuses in my life just couple years earlier and two of them still were your uncle Joey didn't make parole again our approach was all right let's find young people who are you know 18 to 25 who have really good acting chops and we will get them to act old with makeup and so forth and we read again every actor of that age and Leah came in and just blew us away well I just think it's terrible girls calling boys Marty it's just terrible I got involved with Back to the Future I believe because I was doing a movie called wild but the wild life with Eric Stoltz at Universal and apparently Zemeckis and Spielberg were looking at Eric Stoltz and they said who's that girl that's the story I heard and so they called me in to audition and for some reason it just clicked for me when I was your age I never chased a boy or called a boy or set a parked car with a boy we were shooting the first scene where you see Lorraine and as the older mom and you know it was a really difficult scene because we had to hit the comedy but we had this show just how sad she was just how bad her life had become was then that I realized I was gonna spend the rest of my life with him and that's one of the interesting things about comedy and one of the interesting things about working with Bob Zemeckis is that you have to kind of weave you know you have to know you're the the reason you're there in that scene and you have to hit the jokes and then hit this the depth luckily bob was there to like tell you what points to hit with with a lot of precision you know he demands a lot of precision and so I loved working with him for that reason Biff know I never noticed that the car had any blind spot before when I would drive it I son Crispin had this unusual way of talking in these strange mannerisms and he was George McFly there was no question I loved Crispin and I loved working with him before I did Back to the Future he did some episodes of family ties and they did a TV movie with him and people think about the way he actually he talks on all that stuff but in his head I mean he sees things differently and thinks about things differently like one point when I chase him across the street and onto his porch step and tell me he's had to take her to the dance he had this broom and he wanted to give us do you want to give a sweep with the broom like this is elaborate sweep and Bob's him what's with the broom he said oh it's a sweep of indignation okay that's cool I mean I was born with it but but you know you just have to why you didn't try to figure it out and again it gave me more reactive hey what the hell is this breakfast when did you ever was my daughter and she just was really funny she just was totally hilarious and so comfortable and because she knew Bob Zemeckis and Bob Gale you know I was jealous of her because she just like knew them and like could joke around with them and I was still a little bit in awe of them with Wendy we met on I want to hold your hand and we became brother and sister like right away for the rest of our lives from that moment and then Bob hired us for used cars and then we got hired for back to the future and we always kept saying like how lucky we were you know first of all to have met Bob Z and Bob Gale get kicked out of school you wouldn't want that to happen with you everybody has bully in their school interesting thing is that Tom Wilson is absolutely the total opposite of Biff he's the most gentle good-natured decent guy you could ever meet but he had this persona that he put on that was intimidating and he plays it so straight that's why it's funny so why don't you make like a tree and get out of here no Jennifer Marty don't go this way Strickland's looking for you if you get caught it'll be for tardies in a row I had auditioned for young Sherlock Holmes gremlins and Goonies they were all done by Amblin and it got down to me and one or two other girls for each role so when they called me in for Back to the Future it was all the same producers and I was like hey it's me again and then when I got the part they talked to ABC because I just done a pilot for ABC called off the rack and they wanted to make sure that the pilot wasn't getting picked up because they were going to film at the same time and ABC said we love the pilot but it's not gonna get picked up you can cast her they cast me and then ABC changed their mind and picked up the pilot and so I had to back out it back to the future and and turn it down so they had to recast my part I did six episodes of my series but when they let go of Eric they recast me in 1984 I was doing the David Mamet play Glengarry Glen Ross on Broadway and we had run about a year and then I got a call from Robert Zemeckis to do this little movie Back to the Future and I understand that it was because of my performance in Prince of the city that they thought of me for this character no McFly ever amounted to anything in the history of Hill Valley I was doing a film and Mexico City and I got a call from my agent saying that he was sending a script which of course the past the future and the script arrived and I just had no interest in it and I put it aside and I just thought was that I was back in New Haven into a play where real actors belong all that stuff and a friend said never leave a stone unturned as far as the business goes you never know you know so I read it I thought about it I thought well the least I can do go back and meet Bob Zemeckis and it's very engaging exude confidence and intelligence and it's just a certain rapport I felt immediately with him and I felt I'm in good hands here and this is something that if if this man is involved with this project it's something I should do and as I do with any character you know I read it that we can begin to think about what did this guy look like what are his characteristics and almost right away Einstein was a no-brainer and my other thought was a renowned doctor by the name of Leopold Stokowski I remember I presented these thoughts to Bob Zemeckis and he didn't even just like okay this is it there's no jokes we tell everybody Bob tells you're playing this completely seriously and you watch Chris Lloyd's performance he's taking you totally seriously he believes everything that he's doing but you never knew what Chris was gonna do until the camera rolled and Chris would do something on take one and take two that he never he would never do in rehearsal but just so that we could understand what Chris was about to do we would roll the camera during rehearsal because unless the camera was rolling Chris wouldn't really give you anything close 100% of his performance and because the energy he had and focus he had I could see why he couldn't do that for five takes a rehearsal for the sake of the lighting guys in the camera guys but it worked out fine because you know Chris once he found what he wanted to do was very consistent and would keep doing it over and over again I felt it was a need for a certain is a meanness I mean doctor was sort of constantly in crisis he had this excitement and I kind of drove the physical life and whatever way I went I didn't I didn't think too much about it I just went with that the energy that came out of that kind of crisis mode you feel it's a time machine it was an important character in the movie obviously it's the device that sends our hero on his adventure so there wasn't like a lot of serious thought going into should the car have a grand entrance it was just always assumed in my mind that it would one of the things that pleased me was to see the car for the first time I made sure that all of the details were brought out we would cross light the various functioning parts and so forth it wasn't as if they just took a car and said okay inside this car somewhere is the time machine it had been very thoughtfully designed they took the trouble to make the car a sort of an offshoot of Doc Brown's character in the early drafts it was not the time machine was a time chamber it was not a DeLorean and the draft I read it was a refrigerator and I don't have a problem with it but Zemeckis and Gale weren't satisfied with it and they were doing their old pacing back and forth Bob was behind the typewriter and Zemeckis was pacing and pacing and trying to figure it out and they couldn't figure it out and I kind of got bored and left and Bob said you know what wouldn't it make more sense for this to be mobile next thing I knew a week later they gave me some revised pages and they had turned the time machine into a DeLorean as far as designing the car you know we just wanted it to look like it was something that could actually look like a time machine and also something that looked like was built in someone's garage and the third thing was that had to look kind of cool that car slides were very clean it's not a sculptural form it's a very simple almost boxy kind of shape and I think that it made a good kind of a canvas to put all that crazy stuff on top of we received three of them in October of 1984 and brought him to my shop we had some lovely drawings from Ron Cobb and Andy fro Bert was very very big on it and the drawings they weren't made with the idea that here are these specific parts we want to put in these specific places it was about the feel of a thing so it was like a scavenger hunt to go to surplus stores electronics shops all these places where you can find used things bring the use things to a workshop and start putting them on the car and then our crew built it and made all the parts work and made sure everything made sense and was properly attached for all the rewards so the filmmaking that went with it and Bill clinger I hired to do all the electronics we had a team of about three or four guys that had nothing but putting in all the electronics we started with three DeLoreans for the very reason one was going to be our hero car it was going to have a full complement of all the electronics all the design elements all those pieces that told parts of the story the second car was going to be used exclusively for driving shots and stunt work and don't worry we'll never see it up close action then in addition we had the C car what we called a B and C car the see car we used for the process work and when he just literally kept sawing it in half like a sausage as the camera moved forward to right over Michaels shoulder when the Scarecrow in the field comes up on the windshield it wasn't outside it was actually done on a stage and so that was the process car and that had very little in it I got to tell you I hated that car I really hated it you hit that freaking sharp metal box that you know I just went like that I just jam my knuckles and I just ripped my hand up and also limited the gears so it would only be low gears and I'd be revving high at load years and feeling that was gonna crap then came the next conversation which is what exactly his time-travel gonna look like when this baby hits 88 miles per hour they're gonna see some serious and we met with ILM and talked to them and they said well here's some ideas and that was one where Bob and I quickly came to the conclusion you know what it's not about the visual effects it's not about how long does it take him to travel through time he's traveling through time should be instantaneous so there is no time-travel sequence as you see in other time-travel movies it's like that but one of the various ideas that I elem came up with was fire thing and we work with Kevin on that there was something interesting on a sort of a primal level about that and it just constantly got refined and worked on and we knew the idea that we had this neon on there the neon oughta glow and do something and ILM came up with some image where bolts were shooting out and it was sort of like opening up a hole in the space-time continuum and the DeLorean was going to go through that so that's sort of what you're seeing during time travel that's how it happened

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it's unusual for a lioness to be without a pride but she's not alone she has a mate a companion and protector now the father of her cubs the beginnings are a new pride for this unspoiled land deep in Botswana tonight the bush is uneasy the distant calls they've been hearing for some time are getting closer it puts them on edge invaders and they suddenly materialize lions from the north forced here by the relentless encroachment of man they're ready to risk everything to win new territory her mail has no choice but to fight it's a battle that could change the bloodlines here in forever the invaders with a clear determination to win and to stay when she finally emerges from hiding her shoulder almost healed she's ready to pick up her life she starts by trying to find her mate every sound makes her freeze every breath of air brings unfamiliar scents until she finds him she is a fugitive in her own land I know her mate has had weeks to recover he should be answering our calls his wounds are too severe his spirit has gone out of him he's become old damaged broken his reign is over there are new rulers now to survive here she will have to submit to these new masters but until the newcomers detect her presence she still has a choice the swirling air carries a hint to the unfamiliar scent the hunt begins she decides to leave to leave immediately for she has a secret all that is left from her old life revolver secret that must be protected this will be her life now to secure the survival of a camel with the males behind her backtracking is impossible the females of the marauding pride blocking her escape to the west the leader will remember the violent might they last met as vividly as she does the night she was left but even bitten bleeding to death but she in turn left the largest of them with one eye blinded for life it's a wound a silver-eyed leader of the pride will never forget they can smell her tracks a storm ignites the bush and she's trapped now she must choose north towards the villages and people more south along the fire line to an even more daunting obstacle for her for swollen river in this part of Africa a mother is named after her firstborn as its protector he was always just a little smaller than the other two slower prone to getting lost today Martita mother of lions earns her name as protector of a young as the smallest you must get used to being constantly bullied it'll either build him up or wear him out Marda town knows the pride we'll be coming after her but what lies ahead is terrifying Ryan's detest deep open-water it hides things that seem unnatural to them but the options behind are worse if she stays to fight the male lions will kill her cubs is their instinct to wipe the face of the earth clean of the old males genes she must make her decision now the male cub doesn't hesitate this time he knows to stay close his sister Wade's in north Moshe sleep but the third cub holds back in scared of the water by the time the third car plucks up enough courage she's become an easy target both on the land and in the water the male's turn back into their newly won territory satisfied but she and her Cubs have been expelled forever the silence is the condemnation Molotov the protector has failed for the first time as a mother actually turns away she's turning her back on her past on the pride that was so desperate to be rid of her and she steps forward into an uncertain future with her two surviving Cubs the male and his sister the battle for the territory has been decided Martita and her cubs have escaped to an almost deserted island in the swamp the only lions on this vast isolated wilderness called dooba in the middle of the Okavango Delta here the land is plagued by seasonal floods and rivers that weave through it if it is a refuge for them it will be a wet one a few weeks have passed food has been scarce but there are still no signs of other lions and they're starting to feel safe at last the smaller cub has gained renewed confidence by being one of just two cups now in his heart he's a hunter always ready to explore the endless possibilities that lie in wait for a cub with a restless the young male it was a close call do you you may have thought he's so nearly notched up his first kill but that little hunters heart did skip a small beat today the cowardly withdrawal by the elephant confirms that there will be another chance perhaps when he's a bit older til today she had only time to focus on escape and survival but now she must find a way to get her cubs safely through their first critical year until they can fend for themselves and as a single mother this will take every ounce of our energy and intelligence the fire and march of human settlements to the north have driven other animal refugees towards the islands dooba is about to change these are some of Africa's most aggressive animals they're sharp horns and bone-crushing bosses of perfect weapons and their massive numbers give them confidence at the head of the herd is one of the most fearsome of them Scarface bull weighing almost a ton for the past few weeks this has been her Island the arrival of the Buffalo brings hope as possible prey but also fear these will be her new enemies on the island Buffalo are not easy prey they dislike the scent of lions and they don't hesitate to attack for the Cubs like so far has been a litany of narrow escapes one long line of enemies out to get them strange way to start life as king of the beasts with more and more of the newcomers flowing onto her Island Marlatt town our Cubs are destined to run into them again Thirds Pathfinder is now aware that this island has lions and from now on it always be on the alert it will be an almost daily conflict unavoidable in this open yet confined space if she is not going to be at their mercy she will have to learn more about this new presence she will have to test them for weaknesses and she must look beyond the strong outer wall and their heavy armament in time she must become expert at finding those weak points small hidden chinks in the armor that will stumble that interview and excite her instincts as a hub dress Knight is an advantage for her she can hide in the shadows of a crescent moon and let her eyes brightened to take in her quarry now she has to become invisible it is what a sultry hunter does best the damp grass helps her perform like a silent ghost flitting in and out of reality to mothers now battle for the survival of their young Buffalo desperate to deflect an attack lioness eager to double back and strike quick fatal blows to earn a meal their cubs it's the eternal dance of Africa the young lions will go hungry a little longer when the Buffalo Calf escapes it carries a chilling message of a near-miss written in blood back to the Scarface bull it's a race against time the Cubs are demanding more from muddy tile as they grow and hand milk dries up a small male doesn't seem to want to compete while he bonds with his mother his sister grows stronger all the time her Cubs survival is a hard taskmaster for her and despite the searing heat and humidity she forces herself up again back onto the path of the Buffalo she seems to understand that the herd will provide if she can just crack that code she has a fresh tactic in mind having taken up a position she tries something very sophisticated full-on out in the open not a desperate child they panics the hood a lion hunt is as much a mind game as it is a physical explosion of violence what she doesn't know is that the commotion of the hunt has drawn interest from across the river silver eye only a thin strip of water divides them at this point in the river the intensity keeps muddy tile focused perhaps too focused the light hides many a bold and sinister thing signs of change often come in the slight shift of grass in the breeze or a hint of a scent that brings disturbing news to muddy Tao she and her cubs once again stand directly in the path of an aggressive half blind lioness and her followers Margit as hostile warning buys her time against these huge lions represent a united force though lack the confidence of her local knowledge the Cubs understand their body language or they know what to do this territory is our last option there is nowhere else for her to go if she flees from the island she'll immediately have to face the male's patrolling the far bank and if she were to avoid them at the horizon there are people villages governments the river is her defense and her confinement last time this island lives and breathes by a different set of rules to the rest of Africa the pride has some lessons to learn before they can call it their own the first is that it's a mistake to sleep too deeply on dooba Island especially when a scar-faced bulld has smelled the spilled blood with his young mother hears the Buffalo attack she pictures the chaos from bitter experience one sound the crash of water as the Buffalo retreat takes on a new significance too water each crystal-clear splash clarifies an idea buffalo flee to water to escape they use it as a protective barrier between themselves and the Lions and yet they still panic bunched together and make mistakes if she can make water her strength it will be their weakness silver eye has noticed the silent hunter on the move and what she has left behind in the grass the casual Awakening is deceptive she's giving the hunters time to leave enough time to get involved in the hunt something bothers not eat out for a moment some instinct but there seems nothing in this beaten or just deterred for the time being it's a question that would haunt any mother with vulnerable young driven by conflicting imperatives to hunt and feed her young or to stay and protect them with the pride safely in retreat the young male cub turns his attention to a much greater challenge like being king of the hill even just remember for a young lion being Lord of all you survey is almost a birthright only one sister would accept it winning the high ground is something to fight hard for but then when one's opponent unexpectedly gives up from the triumph of victory feels a little Hollow with each day she hesitates or fails her Cubs get closer to starving the disturbance is another indication of the sheer power of the scar-faced bull and the aggression and then she seems to see the solution to her problem this violent fighting will keep the pride away if she can move her cubs are closer to the herd that keep them hidden they will be safe from Silva I am a detail will be able to leave them to hunt again as the herd moves she tracks them silently keeping close the Cubs follow her every move it's a risk if the buffalo hear them they could turn back an attack they're surrounded by demons it takes nerves of steel but any thoughts of the single-handedly by Dawn she's in a position to attempt the unknown a water with the Cubs nearby but safe it's time to concentrate on a new tactic now she has the advantage she's already overcome the most of her fear of water the Buffalo won't know that and they have hit the deep channel where they bunched together the angry bull pathfinders horn each other out of the way in the confusion and fusion is exactly what she's looking for they don't expect her to come out of the water they don't understand that shape that wet smell but calculated approach designed to halt stragglers to panic this is the job she can't let go alone cow isolated without help with distress calls enraged the hood they rally the cows defense the one thing she will not confront is a large crocodile but she still has the advantage of almost total concealment her first attempt has given her hope the confuse heard is just too enticing and the deep water is now a speciality and now is how time our success is celebrated but anyone else who can take advantage Africa is as dispassionate about great victory as it is about love it drives all to learn and accept fate and step forward towards the next day at least Mardi Targa's even and then a few hours she will produce milk and later she will go boldly into the water and hunts the heard again but that is for tomorrow now she is exhausted but that old lesson of never sleeping soundly is not to be ignored there are risk attached to leaving the Cubs in the path of the Buffalo stirred to panic there are a thousand reasons to enjoy the dawn especially after a successful hunt there's only one reason that she quickens her face our calls are not being answered every time she leaves them alone they wander off the little male has been going further and further but both always return to the same spot but not today although there is a strong scent of Buffalo there is no sign of the pride so she carefully follows the Cubs trail away from a hiding place and out into the open a call it's the female cub way across the open terrain in the distance clearly upset but Martita the protector has not failed completely she has found one of the Cubs her kill has brought a loyal following of scavengers and they can sense some weakness about her with no sign of the little male she'll defend her last carve against the mom of hyenas at all costs in this final hopeless moment she seems to understand the risks of following the Buffalo and what happened here last night she hesitates just long enough to give hope but she can't mend thebroken back no amount of care licky defending will fix this when she steps away finally Mardi tal leaves behind her legacy the last of her males bloodline and her name she is mad at our mother and protector of lions no more we don't know about animal grief or even the effect of any broken heart but something happens to the lone lioness when the storm of emotion brews up in her eyes and she leaves her cub behind for the last time when she roars she calls to no one our voice just adds to the turbulent day on this day when she's lost everything she seems to draw on a deeply held instinct and transforms herself once again – alone huntress or a single lioness to run directly into the Buffalo is virtually unheard of to take on the largest male than that herd a fit fighting bull it's almost suicide too much for her too much hardship for one day is it Allah meant to the gods cry for help or a last battle cry of frustration the pride again that arrival is always sparked by any disturbance but this time she will not retreat now the past strengthen sir the submission extracted from silver.i is enough for the letter lioness she has something left to do and in this moment of strength something fundamental changes something the pride recognizes they sense it in the determination in her step and the look in her eye something unseen she is transformed into a leader it's more than silver I can do to follow her old enemy especially across water especially as a lower-ranking Huntress Lions hunt with coordination and when the stakes are high they depend on being well rehearsed now hunting together for the first time every instinct drives them to find that rhythm all they can rely on is the leadership for the lioness who has never led before when she makes her move it is clinical and precise but the bull has led this herd for ten years or longer he has won the allegiance with blood they won't abandon him now she is used to standing alone suddenly the scales tip in the bull's favor the loyal horde fights back winning the advantage and forcing the Lions into disarray destroying their confidence and scattering them to the wind without pride divided in week she can't push forward again that exhausted but something beyond the Buffalo catches her eye a disturbance in the herd a lion cub lion come her reaction is a violent explosion of motherhood the thrives the Buffalo back away from her defenseless gun at last she has hoped she might still be able to fulfill that ambition to raise at least one cup the mother who has lost and then found her offspring must be overwhelmed with emotions the lone lioness has her name again Martita the Huntress has purpose once more the transition from fierce tormentor to compassionate mother attracts the buffalos interest a slow determined march of aggression and then out of nowhere a lioness rides the light in this lioness is one I should still stir Terra Amata time it doesn't the two lionesses share a look that in an instant sends a message in some silent language with a wall of buffalo ahead and a vulnerable cub behind somehow silver.i conveys that she is not here to take advantage she is here to help there are moments before every conflict when the fighters have a choice to back away and let the moment pass what to unite and step forward behind their leader into battle silver eye who knows what she must do she must follow Marda tiles lead and in this moment the pride of lions is born and now they seem to understand that their future will be determined right here as a pride with just one less of them the scales would tip in favor of the big bulls and shatter their hopes and the future of this new prides one remaining cub it is now or never Martita spits the herd and arrives the front rang she seems to understand the behind her silver I will lead the attack it's a moment of trust the trust is well-placed and it is over it is his first experience of seeing lions do what they do best it's his introduction into a world of hunting and killing a necessary part of his legacy with the bull destroyed Martita has created a safer world for her camp she has unified a hunting coalition but one last thing remains to be done to raise her cubs successfully she needs to accept this pride as her own when she and silver I finally make peace they mend themselves and bind their pride their future together and will this unlikely survivor a straggler with the heart of a lion be one of the last when you get to grow a mane and strengthen through adolescence will he have a chance to wear the battle scars of a mature male each one a badge of honor that started here today really one of the last wild lions on earth will he wander alone in the last of these wild places as our world fills up with lights clutter noise and people in 15 years there will be 8 billion human beings on earth how long these last 20,000 lions survived will depend entirely on us we are losing cats at an alarming rate it's time for an emergency room all of us at this rate these beautiful animals are heading for extinction can you imagine our world without any of these iconic enemies it's not too late we can take action now we all have the power to turn it around to find out more go to caused an uproar decides to leave to leave immediately for she has a secret all that is left from her old life or a secret that must be protected this will be her life now to secure the survival of a comes with the males behind her back tracking is impossible the females of the marauding pride blocking her escape to the west the leader will remember the violent might they last met as vividly as she does the night she was left but even bitten bleeding to death but she in turn left the largest of them with one eye blinded for life it's a wound a silver-eyed leader of the pride will never forget they can smell her tracks a storm ignites the bush and she's trapped now she must choose north towards the villages and people or south along the fire lane to an even more daunting obstacle for her the swollen river in this part of Africa a mother is named after her firstborn as its protector he was always just a little smaller than the other two slower prone to getting lost today Martita mother of lions earns her name as protector of a young as the smallest you must get used to being constantly bullied it'll either build him up or wear him out Marda town knows the pride we'll be coming after her but what lies ahead is terrifying Ryan's detest deep open-water it hides things that seem unnatural to them but the options behind the worse if she stays to fight the male lions will kill her cubs is their instinct to wipe the face of the earth clean of the old males genes she must make her decision now the male cub doesn't hesitate this time he knows to stay close his sister Wade's in not emotionally but the third cub holds back scared of the water by the time the third car plucks up enough courage she's become an easy target both on the land and in the water a lion hunt is as much a mind game as it is a physical explosion of violence what she doesn't know is that the commotion of the hunt has drawn interest from across the river silver hi only a thin strip of water divides them at this point in the river the intensity keeps Molotov focused perhaps too focused the light hides many a bold and sinister thing signs of change often come in the slight shift of grass in the breeze or a hint of a scent that brings disturbing news to muddy town she and her cubs once again stand directly in the path of an aggressive half blind lioness and her followers Margit as hostile warning buys her time against these huge lions represent a united force though lack the confidence of her local knowledge the Cubs understand their body language they know what to do this territory is her last option there is nowhere else for her to go if she flees from the island she'll immediately have to face the male's patrolling the far bank and if she were to avoid them at the horizon there are people villages governments the river is her defense and her confinement last term this island lives and breathes by a different set of rules the rest of Africa the pride has some lessons to learn before they can call it their own the first is that it's a mistake to sleep too deeply on dooba island especially when a scar-faced bulled has smelled the spilled blood with his young Mobb now here's the Buffalo attack she pictures the chaos from bitter experience one sound the crash of water as the Buffalo retreat takes on a new significance to her water each crystal-clear splash clarifies an idea buffalo fleet or water to escape they use it as a protective barrier between themselves and the Lions and yet they still panic bunched together and make mistakes if she can make water her strength it will be their weakness it's unusual for a lioness to be without a pride but she's not alone she has a mate a companion and protector and the father of her cubs the beginnings are a new pride for this unspoiled land deep in Botswana tonight the bush is uneasy the distant calls they've been hearing for some time I getting closer it puts them on edge invaders and they suddenly materialize lions from the north forced here by the relentless encroachment of man they're ready to risk everything to win new territory our mail has no choice but to fight it's a battle that could change the bloodlines here in forever the invaders with a clear determination to win and to stay when she finally emerges from hiding her shoulder almost healed she's ready to pick up her life she starts by trying to find her mate every sound makes her freeze every breath of air brings unfamiliar scents until she finds him she is a fugitive in our own land I know her mate has had weeks to recover he should be answering our calls his wounds are too severe his spirit has gone out of him he's become old damaged broken his reign is over there are new rulers now to survive here she will have to submit to these new masters but until the newcomers detect her presence she still has a choice the swirling air carries a hint of her unfamiliar scent the hunt begins she did the male's turned back into their newly won territory satisfied but she and her Cubs have been expelled forever the silence is the condemnation margit are the protector has failed for the first time as a mother actually turns away she's turning her back on her past on the pride that was so desperate to be rid of her and she steps forward into an uncertain future with her two surviving Cubs the male and his sister the battle for the territory has been decided Marit on her Cubs have escaped to an almost deserted island in the swamp the only Lions on this vast isolated wilderness called Juba in the middle of the Okavango Delta here the land is plagued by seasonal floods and rivers that weave through it if it is a refuge for them it will be a wet one a few weeks have passed food has been scarce but there are still no signs of other lions and they're starting to feel safe at last the smaller cub has gained renewed confidence by being one of just two cups now in his heart he's a hunter always ready to explore the endless possibilities that lie in wait for a cub with a restless the young male it was a close call do you you may have thought he so nearly notched up his first kill but that little hunters heart did skip the small beat today the cowardly withdrawal by the elephant confirms that there will be another chance perhaps when he's a bit older till today she had only time to focus on escape and survival but now she must find a way to get her cubs safely through their first critical year until they can fend for themselves and as a single mother this will take every ounce of her energy intelligence the fire and March Human Settlements to the north have driven other animal refugees towards the islands doober is about to change these are some of Africa's most aggressive animals they're sharp horns and bone crushing bodies of perfect weapons and their massive numbers give them confidence at the head of the herd is one of the most fearsome often Scarface bull weighing almost a ton for the past few weeks this has been her Island the arrival of the Buffalo brings hope as possible prey but also fear these will be her new enemies on the island Buffalo are not easy prey they dislike the sense of lions and they don't hesitate to attack for the Cubs like so far has been a litany of narrow escapes one long line of enemies out to get them a strange way to start life as king of the beasts with more and more of the newcomers flowing onto her Island Mauri town her Cubs are destined to run into them again the herds Pathfinder is now aware that this island has lions and from now on it always be on the alert it will be an almost daily conflict unavoidable in this open yet confined space if she is not going to be at their mercy she will have to learn more about this new presence she will have to test them for weaknesses and she must look beyond the strong outer wall of their heavy armament in time she must become expert at finding those weak points small hidden chinks in the armor little stumble that interview and excite her instincts as a hundred Knight is an advantage for her she can hide in the shadows of a crescent moon and let her eyes brightened to take in her quarry now she has to become invisible it is what a solitary hunter does best the damp grass helps her perform like a silent ghost flicking in and out of reality to mothers now battle for the survival of their young Buffalo desperate to deflect an attack lioness eager to double back and strike quick fatal blows to an Emil their cubs it's the eternal dance of Africa the young lions will go hungry a little longer when the Buffalo Calf escapes it carries a chilling message of a near-miss written in blood back to the Scarface bull it's a race against time the Cubs are demanding more from mother town as they grow and her milk dries up a small male doesn't seem to want to compete while he bonds with his mother his sister grows stronger all the time her Cubs survival is a hard taskmaster for her and despite the searing heat and humidity she forces herself up again back onto the path of the Buffalo she seems to understand that the herd will provide if she can just crack that code she has a fresh tactic in mind having taken up her position she tries something very sophisticated a full on out in the open our desperate job they panics the hood

Koch Brothers EXPOSED • FULL DOCUMENTARY • BRAVE NEW FILMS



Billionaires David and Charles Koch have been handed the ability to buy our democracy in the form of giant checks to the House, Senate, and soon, possibly even the Presidency. SUBSCRIBE: GET INVOLVED! Sign up: Host a FREE screening:

The last time we exposed the Koch Brothers’ dealings to the world we here at Brave New Films wound up in their crosshairs. They produced online ad campaigns attacking us, but, it takes more than a banner ad to slow us down.

We’ve reissued Koch Brothers Exposed in an updated version, Koch Brothers Exposed: 2014 Edition, to shine a light on them. We’ve delved even deeper into where their money is going, who their money is hurting, and how much they are making during this whole process leading up to the 2014 Elections.

Two years ago when we made this film very few people knew who the Koch Brothers were or what the Koch Brothers were doing. But now, we so strongly believe that everyone should know what is happening that with your help and donations we are able to offer the film for free. We want to make sure everyone has an opportunity to see the truth.

(5:11) How the Koch Brothers use Citizens United to corrupt democracy

(7:11) The Koch plan to re-segregate public schools

(17:11) Koch University: Rewriting your Education
Is your school on the list

(21:02) Kochs VS The Minimum Wage

(25:09) Kochs & Voter Suppression

(31:26) Koch Attacks on Unions

(34:54) The Koch plan to dismantle Social Security

(38:20) Kochs & The Environment

(40:52) How the Koch Brothers Cause Cancer by dumping their toxic waste everywhere

(50:08) FIGHTING BACK

In our country today, income inequality is getting worse and worse. Something's wrong and people know it. Even a dog knows the difference between being stumbled over and being kicked. Never ever in all my years in governance seen anything like this. I don’t admire the Koch Brothers. I'm not against people who make money, that's fine. But what they do with their money isn’t fine with me. The Koch Brothers, they are bound and determined to do away with government. Who's Street? Our street. Billionaire brothers Charles and David Koch are the poster boys for the top one percent, using their money and power to fuel the growing inequality in America. Day in and day out, we see the Kochs using their billions to purchase politicians and policies. Kochs buy policies! Taking a terrible tool on democracy as they knock down the middle class, stomping on poor people. We are the 99% Koch Boys claimed to be self-made men. Yeah, made by their father, Fred who made his fortune in the oil business in the Soviet Union of the 1930s. Stalin himself brought Fred Koch into the Soviet Union to build oil refineries and teach them how to be oil engineers . Fred Koch came back to the United States after taking money from the Soviet Union and used that money to start his own oil empire and accumulated millions in a short time. Fred Koch wrote screeds against the Civil Rights Movement saying that it was communist driven and that white children should not go to school with black children. He said it would lead to the mongrelization of the races. This is the climate that the two brothers, Charlie and David, grew up in. And then they inherited a big pile of money from daddy Fred. And then they put that into their own organization and help build it up to where it is now. An enterprise that so far has put over a hundred billion dollars in the Koch Boys' pockets. Koch Industries is the second largest privately held corporation in the country. They have holdings that range from oil and gas to paper products, forestry, consumer goods, plastics and ranching And the most important thing is not that they have wealth, it's what they're using that wealth to do. To run roughshod over the American people. Koch Industries is filthy. One the top fifteen polluters in our country. Responsible for up to 300 oil spills. They paid over a hundred million dollars in fines and legal settlements and a federal jury found that Koch Industries stole oil from American Indian lands, which their younger brother Bill blew the whistle on.
Koch Industries has a philosophy, that profits
are above everything else. The Koch Brothers are trying to buy America. Over the years, the Koch Brothers have spent over $80 million dollars on at least 85
organizations to serve their agenda The Kochs have set the stage by building an ever-growing right-wing presence called Kochtopus Through this vast network, scripts are written We instituted a photo ID requirement for every voter Actors are cast. Regulate CO2 under the Clean Air Act is wrong. It should not be allowed to stand. And the show is played out on a national stage. But if the curtains pull back, we discover that their production is all under the direction Of the Koch Brothers. $10,000 to the Pacific Legal Foundation $20,000 to Rep. Fred Upton Chairman of the House Energy, and Commerce Committee Over $10,000 to Republican Senator Ron Johnson of Wisconsin $9,000 for Republican Rep. Paul Ryan. $35,000 to House Speaker John Boehner. $250,000 attacking the Economic Stimulus Act. A quarter of a billion dollars on negative ads in the 2012 campaign.
Over $300,000 for the Republican National $23,000 to Oklahoma Senator James Inhofe. Over two million dollars to the Institute for Justice
The Republican Governors Association, one million dollars.
$3.5 million on a nationwide campaign $545 million $2.5 million dollars $3.4 million dollars on the 2010 $8 million dollars $1.4 million dollars Freedom Works 80 percent to And Americans for Prosperity Vice Presidential candidate $8.7 million dollars $7.9 million dollars Lobbying in the government The libertarian the 2012 Election cycle $400 million dollars They're interested in using the money they make To buy a political system that allows them to become dominant players in the shaping of the country. A blockbuster decision from the Supreme Court today. Opening floodgates for companies to spend all the money they want attacking political candidates. In a major five to four decision, the court gave them more power to spend as much money as they want. Well I mean, I think this is a political game changer. It's historic. It's a grenade. The Supreme Court reversed a century of law that I believe will open the floodgates for special interests. Citizens United is a perfect example of how the Koch Boys worked to create a legal decision that supports their efforts. First, two of the Justices on the court Antonin Scalia and Clarence Thomas Have attended private meetings sponsored by the Kochs providing behind-the-scenes interaction. Second, the Koch Brothers helped fund numerous organizations to prepare thousands of pages of legal briefs that were sent to the Supreme Court advocating unlimited corporate spending on political campaigns And third, Ted Olson was the lead attorney representing Citizens United during final arguments in front of the Supreme Court. Today, Ted Olson represents Koch Industries' private legal cases. So now, the Kochs use the law they helped to write to spend millions more in their efforts to buy the public policies they want. What the Supreme Court said to the Koch Brothers, "You can buy the United States government." Why would you hesitate one minute to spend a billion, two billion? That’s pretty good. Senator Kay Hagan is having trouble telling time. We want our insurance plan and your doctor… And their health plans cancelled, health care cost has soared. Families are losing access to thousand of dollars spent on green energy went to jobs in foreign countries. It looks like they already bought the House. The Koch Brothers can buy the Senate, and what's next? They're gonna buy a President? In terms of academic achievement, Wake County is a nationally recognized school system. Because of the good schools here, the economy has actually boomed and prospered. Are they really trying to reverse all that we've accomplished in these last 30 years? Big money is definitely trying to change people's lives here. The Koch Brothers are fabulously wealthy billionaire oil barons. Free enterprise, capitalism is alive and well. It does appear that the conservative think tanks and foundations are eager to move back to an earlier time In terms of the way we run schools and they're definitely pushing an agenda to resegregating the schools, but there's also real push towards privatization. The Koch Brothers, of course, have a national libertarian agenda and they have brought it to Wake County by means of the school board elections and they want to destroy really the model of equal schools Shut it down! Equal opportunity for every child It has also sparked this protest right in front of the Wake County School administration building. They do not like a large public school system and they were determined to take it apart as quickly as they could. The Wake County School Board threatens to turn back the clock to an era of segregation. We must stand up and fight back. We're on the record talking about the most significant local school board election since the 1970s. Follow the money, you can see it. It's real. The connection between the Koch Brothers and what happened here with the Wake County School Board could probably be best traced if you look at Americans for Prosperity. My brother Charles and I provided the funds to start the Americans for Prosperity. Americans for Prosperity, they were gunning for the diversity policy all along. The future of the Wake County School system is on the line. And just a few weeks, four of the school board seats are up for grabs. The Koch Brothers didn’t put money directly into the Wake School Board elections but indirectly, Americans for Prosperity to help the school board candidates on their agenda. It's beyond my wildest dreams how AFP has grown. It was the Americans For Prosperity and the Koch Brothers. They were like in The Wizard of Oz. The Oz behind the scene pulling levers and making things happen. I really had no idea. We worked so hard running for school board. Yeah. Oh yeah. And to know that our opponents were backed by these billionaires For me, my opponent–we had forums and debates, and she really pitched forced busing.
The school board crossed the line with forced busing. Forced busing is absolutely a code word. It's a term, busing, used in the South by George Wallace. Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever. The voters in Wake County in North Carolina have rejected a forced busing policy We are winning the battle against forced busing. My opponent, he just mainly talked about–he stressed neighborhood schools Neighborhood schools, neighborhood schools, neighborhood schools. Neighborhood schools means we have our own schools and the blacks have theirs. Well, we heard loud and clear across this county, people wanted to go to a neighborhood schools model We should have our right to choose our own neighborhood, our own neighborhood schools He didn't talk about student achievement and helping all our schools get better There are always ways to improve the education of our students. We went to a gun fight with knives. The heated race is over. Justice. When do we want it? Now! And don't make any mistake about it. Your plan that you're putting forth today will resegregate the schools. We had no idea what the stakes were. In one election, they now have the majority needed to change the way students are assigned to schools. A big shake up on the Wake County School Board could now impact tens of thousands of local families. People have not really taken the time to listen to the students who are actually in these programs. We met before sixth grade and we were in the dance ensemble together. We consider each other twin sisters. If it hadn't been for the diverse school system, I don't think we really would've had a chance to become such close friends. This pretty much describes my education since kindergarten. This is diversity. When you walk in our classroom and you see the different types of students and the different people, this picture really does represent what it actually is. Moses, come on. It's time to get up. Let's get started. Robert! Let's go. Y'all come on and let's go! We got to get ready. We want to make sure that they get the best education that public money can buy. Ah, there you go. One down. With that idea, we've been able to make sure that they are receiving advanced classes The school board has started the process of phasing out the busing for diversity policy. They're moving so quickly with what they want to do We're not going anywhere! It happened so fast, and they're going to continue. The more they have in power, they're going to change the rules, the laws, whatever they can. I think you'll find that the student voice has kind of been lost through this whole process. Let's go! The Koch Brothers and Americans For Prosperity and that ideology is very simple. What they're actually trying to do is dismantle the whole public school system. If this policy goes through, the schools will become segregated. I don't believe the courses. They would not have opportunities to take the advanced courses. That's critical that they have opportunities, resources so that they can become a productive citizen. There would be enormous impacts on the schools especially in the urban parts of the county. So you'd have an enormous concentration of poverty in that school and with it comes all the related social problems. People aren't gonna wanna teach at that school and suddenly education in that school is going to suffer. It worries me about my sons because we had a game plan. We did not think we were gonna have to change. Do you have your agenda so you can see what your assignment is? If we don't get ready, it's going to be even rougher, nastier than what it is. I am a part of the first group of students moved. I strongly feel that it's racism, I strongly feel that it's segregation. And it was all by surprise, all on short notice. I've lost my communication with the teachers, relationships with the students. I'm just disconnected right now. The school board's decision to do segregation has really made it difficult for students like me to adjust and kind of grow. What happened here really woke people up. Battle lines are drawn over the issue of diversity in the Wake County schools. There was a tremendous outcry over what the school board was doing and tremendous resistance to moving backwards. People got really riled up and pushed back hard. Education is under attack! There were enormous protests at the school board meetings. We say no to Jim Crow! People were arrested. We're heading down a rabbit hole. And we're getting so far down that rabbit hole, there's not going to be a way to get out of it. The Local NAACP filed a civil rights complaint with the federal government. Fight, we will, for the future of our children. They also filed a complaint with the accreditation agency Backwards, never! Forward, ever! We don't want to be left out of this decision because we're the ones going to school! Breaking news on this election night in the Triangle, a shift in power for the Wake County School Board. A shift in the balance of power. The conservative majority, no more We're likely going to see a lot of changes Big changes Th conservation takeover is over This election was a rejection of the brand of politics that the Koch Brothers stand for. The celebration continues. Koch Brothers, Americans For Prosperity they brought in Tony Tata. Superintendent Tata was fired To the Koch Brothers, why don't you just leave? Leave us alone. Leave our children alone. As far as the school board in Wake County is concerned, the Koch Brothers, they are an unpleasant memory. They failed. Things have calmed down. We have the school system back that we were always proud of. But they've moved on. They've set their sights now on taking over state government, which they’ve done. They have taken control of the state legislature. They elect a governor in 2012 with a lot more money and much more openly since Citizens United. So the Koch Brothers are not history in North Carolina. They're very much present. We're still at war. The Koch Brothers have been very clever at designing their grant agreements with universities in such a way that they will exercise maximal control and influence on campus. Many of these grants come with very significant strings attached. They have very clear stipulations that give the Koch Brothers excessive control over various aspects of the universities' internal affairs. A school that I take so much pride in and that I believe in had effectively sold its soul to the Koch Brothers for a few million dollars Their help's setting up a pattern where universities are expected to give up their values in exchange for money. Programs that they start tend to be one point of view only. They now have financial agreements with over 150 colleges and universities. They've spent tens of millions of dollars to get their point of view instilled in classrooms, amongst faculty members, and in students. The size and scope of these deals is quite significant. Thousands of students pass through those programs every year. And over time, hundreds of thousands of students are directly exposed to Koch Brothers' ideology and political points of view. The university signs a contract that says they will hire someone who shares the point of view of the Koch Brothers. They have an immense amount of influence over who those professors are, and what they teach, and what they publish, and what research they do, and what they say in the classroom. We depend on universities to provide a kind of knowledge that is not owned, or bought, or sold. Since the Renaissance, we've had academics who do research independently and we learn as a society from them. What the Koch Brothers have done is strip that segment of society in a way so as to promote their own ideological agenda. This is a major threat to the country. The Catholic University of America founded to serve this purpose to be the national University of the Catholic Church. Almost immediately after the million-dollar contribution, there were protests about the Kochs' undue influence on the staff and faculty. Fifty prominent Catholic educators signed a petition calling for the university to refuse the money. Saying the Kochs' philosophy directly contradicted Catholic teaching. But the Koch Brothers But the Koch Brothers continue to contribute with strings attached to colleges and universities This is a–this is a major threat to our way of life. They are trying to use their money to influence the flow of American democracy. Billionaire industrialist and my future face twin Charles Koch In an interview with The Wichita Eagle, the cute Koch said he wants to eliminate the minimum wage because it creates a culture of dependency I'm living off of minimum wage. And a big hug, big hug. Being on minimum wage, it's really hard getting by. I live on–my house is through Section 8, but I can't afford to buy anything extra or anything better. It's really hard trying to get by. I think the fact that the Koch Brothers are trying to take away minimum wage is ridiculous. I'm just filling out the forms that–what my public assistance, they require in order to get assistance with anything. If minimum wage was just raised a dollar or two, I wouldn't need public assistance. Thirteen million a day sounds wonderful and I couldn’t imagine anybody making that much even being concerned with somebody making minimum wage. It just doesn’t make sense to me how they could even consider taking it away or lowering it. If anything, I think they'd be given back and helping us. When you shared together, the fun just never ends. The end. Well, I'm recycling our cans and our bottles. Sometimes we don’t have enough money at the end of the month, but it makes me feel like what I'm doing at work isn’t enough. I'm just a step closer to being homeless. It really angers me that billionaires like the Koch Brothers have the audacity to create laws and fight certain laws that determine the way I provide for my family. We're not asking for wage to live upon. We're asking for a wage to get by on. Right now, I'm just making 8.25 an hour which is not enough. It's very difficult for me.
Why would Koch Brothers wanna take that minimum wage away from me if I barely make enough money to living? I struggle with, you know, providing daycare, child care. When I see about the Koch Brothers' homes, I believe– because you don’t need that many houses and that big for some– I mean like probably my apartment is as big as one of their bathrooms. I'm just trying to provide for my family. That’s it. The Koch Brothers, they're doing wrong by–you know that’s a grave sin. It's greed. I have been fighting all year to stamp out voter fraud. Because if even one fraudster shows up at the polls in November, that would tarnish the integrity of an election that the Koch Brothers paid good money for. Voters will now be required to show an ID at the polls. A suppression tactic to undermine the right to vote The impact will be felt most heavily among the poor, the elderly, minorities They hit students extra hard Now push to make it as difficult as possible to vote It disenfranchises a whole sector of the American electorate The Koch Brothers are behind these kinds of laws because they want to cut off the participation of people who are not behind their corporate agenda. The people most impacted by these new voter suppression tactics are African-Americans, Latinos, elderly, young voters, and those with disabilities There are three ways the Koch Brothers are working to suppress the vote. Number one ALEC. ALEC stands for the American Legislative Exchange Council. This is an establishment that brings high-powered organizations like Koch Companies, the NRA and Exxon Mobil together with politicians for the express purpose of creating legislation that favor the corporations that fund ALEC. ALEC supervises and guides the writing of the legislation. Once they have the language of the legislation, they work tirelessly to get the bill introduced into as many states and counties as possible using the ALEC money and connections. One bill fits all. Number two Americans For Prosperity and True the Vote Koch
funded Americans for Prosperity supporting a number of voter suppression groups in campaigns across the country. One of the largest and most vocal is called True The Vote. True The Vote has enlisted and trained an army of citizen volunteers. They are planning to station one million poll watchers across the country on election day. True The Vote is the first line of defense for free and fair elections. True The Vote opened my eyes to a problem that has been left unaddressed True The Vote is a citizen led effort to ensure free and fair elections. The problem critics say is that those poll watchers are mostly white and many of the polling places they will target are mostly black. They're trying to find any and everything to stop the citizens from voting. And Number Three Politicians Protecting the integrity of each and every vote cast in the state This voter ID bill Including voter ID. Voter ID. Common sense voter ID law Get those IDs in people's hands Photo ID requirement for every voter. These kinds of efforts are reminiscent of a much darker period in American history. When there were efforts to prohibit people from voting, particularly in the segregated south. This is the resurrection of those voter suppression efforts. And there certainly hasn’t been this kind of money or this kind of organization behind them in a very long time President Kennedy, that’s when I started voting. And then from then on, I've always voted. I'm gonna miss this one though because I don’t have nothing to know– I don’t have any idea. Somebody stolen my pocketbook. Her purse was stolen eight years ago along with her birth certificate and she says she can't get an ID. It's just such a kick in the teeth to old people particularly who have been voting as long as– or darn near as long as I have. There is a glitch on my birth certificate and I did register almost immediately upon my 21st birthday. That was 59 years ago. I have voted in every single election. Since then, I would have considerable difficulty getting a state-issued ID and I would like to continue voting. I think it's my right. They told me at the voter's registration I have to bring in proof of my disability check, proof of my Social Security check, and proof of my handicap ID card. Why do I have to bring these? I never needed it before. The notion that we need this to prevent voter fraud isn't a good faith mistake. It's a lie. It is a way of disenfranchisement of certain segments of our society. This isn't politics. This is requiring people to pay money to cast a ballot and I don’t think we want that in this country. Born at home in the segregated south, she's never had a birth certificate. My grandmother, she insisted never, never miss a voting day. I won't have no right if I can't vote. Ninety-three year old Viviette Applewhite is the lead plaintiff in the ACLU's case over the voter ID law. I think it's a terrible law to make people not be able to vote because they don’t have a piece of paper with the ID on it. January 2014, a judge ruled that the Pennsylvania voter ID law is unconstitutional which means that Viviette Applewhite is eligible to vote. To be able to vote. This is all I wanna do, is be able to vote. The brothers and their allies are going to spend millions of dollars in these efforts. Citizens who believe in voting and democracy must fight back in all possible ways. Viviette Applewhite was able to hold on to her long held right to vote because she fought back against the Koch Brothers suppression laws. Joy Libermanin Missouri also took the issue to the court and won Alberta Curry preserved her record of voting rights of over 50 years because she refused to let her rights be stolen by the bogus voter ID laws backed by the Koch Brothers. The reason that you target somebody's voting rights is it makes it easier to take away the rest of their rights. You come for that first and the whole house of cards starts to fall. Why is voting important to me? Because it gives you equal right to do things. That's why it's important. Really what we would like to see is to take the Unions out at the knees so they don’t have the resources to fight these battles. This a coordinated effort where you have ALEC and Americans for Prosperity, the Koch Brothers and their allies spending millions and millions and millions of dollars to fight unions and to take this country backwards. The Koch Brothers want to eliminate the ability for working folk to have power at either the ballot box or the bargaining table. So they try to eliminate Trade Unions. The Koch Brothers not only want to destroy Unions but they wanna destroy the lives of working people across this country. They do not want to have safety regulations. They do not want workers to be able to negotiate wages and benefits. They're attacking Unions because they know that we stand in their– in their way and that we're going to continue to stand in their way and that’s why they're coming after us in state after state after state. There have been reports that the Koch Brothers are exceeding the spending of the ten most political active Unions. They are behind introducing legislation which robbed public sector workers of collective bargaining, right to work initiatives where they are trying to convince folks that it's better to live in a union-free environment. What they’ve done is they’ve hurt a lot of working people who used to have decent wages who no longer have decent wages. The legislation says we shouldn’t allow unelected bureaucrats to dictate the That workers should have the right to decide whether they want to be part of a Union or not. Forcing workers to pay Union dues. Do not have to pay union dues in order to get a job. People have to join a union in order to get employment. To choose whether or not to join a Union As well as for right to work. The union bosses run a well-greased By setting off member's dues like parasite And raising employers' labor cost The labor movement is one of the most important voices for justice in this country. Unions take away your right to choose where your money goes Being middle class nowadays means we have to work harder more hours for less pay. Kids, you can be the Union boss. Spend forced dues on politicians and eliminate the right to vote The only way that you're going to be able to exercise power it would be through collective action.
Workers' rights! Workers' rights! And now, we turn to that showdown raging in the heart land Thousands of union members taking to the streets When the Koch Brothers put all that money into Michigan here, they financed this thing. We are one. We are one. Union members from all across the commonwealth have gathered here in Harrisburg. These workers see it as union destruction. The people who are making all the money, they want what little we have left. Right to work is wrong. We want to take care of our children the way a working family is supposed to. Destroying what we have done and busting unions and that is not right. Out of state billionaires are just trying to damage the working people and it's ridiculous. We need to shine the light on who the Koch Brothers are and what their motives are. This threat is real. These folks are trying to buy our country and we can't let that happen. What the Koch Brothers want to do is destroy Social Security because Social Security is a federal government program that has been enormously successful. The Koch Brothers are funding think tanks and other organizations which are spreading an enormous amount
of disinformation about Social Security. Raising the age of the retirement is to ask people who are banging nails or waitresses, or so many blue-collar jobs out there that you got to keep working until you're 70 years of age That's just really unfair Second of all, we want to give the younger generation an opportunity to get out into the workforce. The Koch Brothers fund organizations and you have economists and political scientists working there and they are very, very good in getting on television. Raising the retirement age I would increase the retirement age So we'll probably have to increase the retirement age. We're probably going to have to raise the retirement age And people will not know they represent an organization which is heavily funded by corporate interests They are very effective in getting their positions out into the media Should Congress raise the retirement age? If you raise the retirement age Well, raise the retirement age Let's consider the options. Let's raise the age. Raising the retirement age to 69 At the same time, the Koch Brothers are putting huge amounts of money into campaign contributions. Very modest increases in the retirement age And eventually getting the retirement age to 70 is a step that needs to be taken. The age on Social Security will have to go up So you have an echo chamber which starts repeating a lot of misinformation. The Koch Brothers are funding study after study which suggests to people that Social Security is going bankrupt. Social Security is not going broke. Social Security has a $2.6 trillion dollar surplus. The program is actuarially bankrupt. Social Security and Medicare, they are going to go broke. The real risk is Social Security running out of money. Social Security going bankrupt Social Security already bankrupt Social Security is going bankrupt The system will be bankrupt. Bankrupt federal programs like Social Security Social Security is going bankrupt Social Security The Koch brothers want to privatize Social Security to invest your retirement funds on Wall Street and you may lose all of your retirement savings when you get old. Real security is based on personal accounts with real assets. I like the idea of personal accounts The option of investing one third of their Social Security payroll taxes into personal retirement accounts The Koch Brothers' job is to do everything they can to dismember government in general. And if you could destroy Social Security, you have gone a long way forward in that effort. The Koch Brothers are big oil personified and they're carbon barons. They make most of their money running pipelines around the continent. This proposed Keystone pipeline is a 1700 mile fuse to the biggest carbon bomb on the continent. It is going to take the dirtiest energies, so-called tar sands, and bring them down the United States. The Koch Brothers don't have access to this unbelievable amount of carbon and hence money. There are trillions of dollars worth of oil up there. Any spill means that the dirtiest, nastiest fuel on earth will be poured all over our country. Over 10,000 protestors surrounded the White House Sunday calling on President Obama to reject the proposed Keystone XL tar sands oil pipeline. When we say tar sand, you say shut down. tar sand. Shut down Tar sand. Shut down. We're never gonna have enough money to compete with the Koch Brothers. We're going to have to find other currencies to use and sometimes it's our bodies. Over two weeks in Washington, 1253 people got arrested. That was the largest civil disobedience action in about 30-years in this country. I, myself, was arrested on the first day of this protest and spent the next three days in Central Cell Block in DC. We played the game as hard as we could, making it clear to President Obama that there were people all over the country really deeply concerned about this. And in the end, that was enough to outweigh the financial power of the Koch Brothers and the rest of the oil industry. President Obama making an unexpected decision on the Keystone Oil Pipeline. The President announcing they were gonna hold off On a final decision for at least a year. The Obama administration said today it is putting off a decision On whether to approve the Keystone Pipeline The Koch Brothers will scrape the bottom of the barrel with the tar sands That is the dirtiest fuel on the planet There's no limit on the number of communities and families they will hurt to make their money off dirty energy Something is wrong on this street, Penn Road, where I live. Something is wrong here in this community. It's killing people. Just like he killed my daughter. I live on Penn Road. People call me Mr. Bouie because I'm a minister. I pastor church for 22 years in this area. I'm a Reserved Deputy Sheriff and I'm a senior citizen. This house is Mr. Warfield Gibbs. His wife, Bobbie Sue Gibbs, passed away with multiple cancers a few years ago. I have to do this three to four times a day. This house here belongs to Mr. George Parker and Ms. Ollie Parker. Both of them was taken out by cancer. My husband died of lung cancer and I am having breathing problems. Mr. Tom Perkins and his wife, they live here. Mr. Tom Perkins is deceased now. He had multiple cancers. We have 15 homes in this area and maybe 11 people have died or more with cancer and that's unreal. What's going on here is a crime. It's just a waste. My daughter, Laetitia died at 43. She grew up in the neighborhood. She had a husband–a devoted husband. She had children that she really and truly loved and I think that she died too young. She was a non-smoker. She was not a drinker and she got lung cancer. And you know, you're wondering, "Where did it come from?" These people are sick. They're dying. This is inexcusable. Perhaps murderous. Great to see you. Good to see you again. When I met Mr. Bouie, I could not believe what was going on in this neighborhood. I think it has to do with our environment, what we smell, what we inhale. We were deer hunting in the back and we noticed that there was such a strong, strong odor back there. The smell was so strong and so bad, it was awful. They have cut this huge channel and it is like an open sewer line. This is where the smell is coming from. You can see the steam coming from this stuff. And at times it gets so bad it's like a big cloud and it gets up in the air and it flows right over the trees where our property is. It causes the throat to be sore, eyes to hurt, nose, and it's harsh to breath in. The first time that I came here and saw the color of the water, it was like an epiphany. This right here, this private property, but if you could follow it in a straight line, you would be at Georgia-Pacific Plant owned by Koch Industry. It's pitiful that Koch allowed this kind of stuff to be dumped, just dumped. Once I saw this, I knew Koch Industries were the culprits. They know that these people are sick. Koch Industries, Georgia-Pacific, they employ thousands of people here in Crossett and it's hard to come up against the company that employs so many people. The neighborhood of Penn Road is at ground zero. Right through these woods are these ditches carrying these various types of pollutions from the Georgia-Pacific Plant. And that industrial process includes the use and discharges to the air and to the water of a lot of nasty chemicals The Georgia-Pacific complex in West Crossett releases millions of gallons a day of waste water into a whole series of ditches. One might characterize these exposures as a ticking time bomb to the people's health that are breathing the air that's flowing from these open ditches. It's such a hard battle that these people have here. They don't have money and their state representatives are all influenced by the Koch Brothers and this whole system they have put together to be able to do whatever they want to. The Senate will come to order. Koch Brothers direct contributions has been an investment well worth it. It's certainly a lot less expensive than actually having to record this factories. The EPA will have doors locked and the lights turned off. Koch Industries not only manipulates the political process but more importantly to me is, they manipulate the public in to believing that the EPA is killing job The EPA is intent on taking matters into their own hands which will result in a bleeding of jobs. It is a problem when politicians are calling EPA and saying "Leave them alone," rather than calling them and saying, "Do your job and clean it up." This bill is about protecting jobs Jobs. What they're trying to do is just shut down this machine called America. Koch is using natural streams to transport waste and this is not allowed by the Clean Water Act and they can do it because EPA lets them do it. Koch Industries are repeat offenders of environmental crimes. Koch Industries is one of the primary sources of pollution in the United States They have a history of serious and even criminal pollution problems. Koch Industries subsidiaries have paid millions in environmental fines. The Koch Brothers are trying to stop the government from limiting greenhouse gas emissions. Government regulators have fined Koch Industries and its subsidiaries tens of millions for oil spills and pollution over the years. In 2000, a federal grand jury returned a 97 count indictment against Koch Industries in Corpus Christi, Texas. They were charged not only with emitting more benzene than they were allowed to, they tried to cover it up. Benzene is a known human carcinogen. People that are breathing benzene have increased risk of developing cancer. That's known. It's not suspected. It is known. But the Bush administration worked with Koch to come up with a plea bargain. So it went from a 97-count indictment to one count. The potential 350 million to just $20 million fine As an environmental criminologist, watching this case evolve makes me sick. They know they can get away with it. They'll just wait and be fined if they ever get caught which in most cases they won't ever be caught because the EPA is understaffed and under-funded. The Koch Brothers care more for their income than they do for their neighbors and people are constantly dying. It's just called cheap and not caring about people, or rivers, or the environment or anyone but their bottom line. David Koch, he can stop this Just as he donates millions of dollars to try to find a cure for cancer. It began 16 years ago when I discovered that I had prostate cancer and that I had not long to live. What kind of man is David if he has cancer and put all his money into research and then he's dumping in our back yard? Today my cancer is very much under control and my doctor advises me that I have many more years to live. He was able to buy good medicine, to see the best doctors. The fact that this magnificent research facility has been named after me is probably the greatest honor I've ever been awarded. With David Koch knowing that he has been right there what we, the people of this community, are now. And when you look around you and see people dying everyday, then that's shocking to us. I've lived here for 39 years. My husband died of lung cancer and I am having breathing problems and I feel that I might eventually have lung problem. The Koch Brothers, I'm reaching out, hoping and asking them to fix this problem because we need help here. In the Old West, they called it being out-gunned. They're out-gunned by the Koch Brothers. So I feel like their only hope is to make people realize what's happening here. If I could talk to Koch Brothers face to face, I just really believe I'm dying now. You know, just a slow death, that's what it is. The Koch Brothers are killing me and my family. I feel that Georgia-Pacific and Koch is responsible for my daughter's death. This is inexcusable and something's got to be done about it. Once we expose the wealthy and powerful individuals that seek to gain our political system, that’s where citizens get to step into the process. We get to say, "No more." Bad enough that we have to fight the Koch Brothers in terms of what they're doing to our planet. We shouldn't have fight with them also about what they're doing to our democracy. Stop the Koch Brothers! I think losers are those that don’t have the resources being deployed by Koch. At the end of the day, this is a battle of wills. It's a battle between the Koch Brothers' very organized money and people. We can change our politics. It won't be easy. It wasn’t easy to take on robber barons hundred years ago. Once we expose the Koch Brothers that unlocks the door. We need People can beat money, but only if we decide to link up and to organize. Money in our political process produces undue influence absolutely. We're not gonna be bought and paid for by the Koch Brothers. Good afternoon. Koch Industries. Hi, this is Jim Miller from Brave New Films. I'm producing a documentary about the Koch Brothers. I'm wanting to speak with David Koch about it. Koch Industries. How may I address your call? Hi, there. My name is Jordan. I'm calling from Brave New Films. We're working on a documentary about the Koch Brothers. May I speak to David Koch, please? Okay. Do you think you can hold on for just a moment? Certainly. Thanks. I wanted to see if I could talk to Charles Koch today to get a response on some of the issues we raised? Just hoping I could get in touch with somebody or to Charles Koch directly to see if we can get their comment on a couple of things we raised on the film. Uhh. He's unavailable. You know, I'm not allowed to do that. No. One moment, please. Let me–let me connect you with–let me put you on hold and see if this lady available. One moment, please. okay. Well, you have to do voicemail. I could take a message. Sure. I just wanted to ask some questions. okay. Oh, are you the person I should speak to? No. And the person you need to speak with is not available. Mr. Koch's office. Hi, this is Jim Miller from Brave New Films. I'm producing a documentary about the Koch Brothers. I'm wanting to speak with Mr. David Koch about some of the questions that we have. He's unavailable. Can I leave a message? sure Well, could I ask you to send an email with all the information and your inquiries to [email protected]? Sure. I'd be happy to do that. I'd also be really happy with the voicemail. Um. We'll start with an email. Okay. Well, I can almost assure you that he won't be able to call today. I would be surprised. Why would he hide the money he's spending if he's proud of what he's doing? Why he is attacking Social Security when it's essential to so many of our seniors. My next question Uh-hmm. Is why do you think it's right for billionaires to fight against raising minimum wage. So the director of the film, his name is Robert Greenwald and he would love to talk to somebody. Greenwald? Yes, Robert Greenwald. okay. And then also, why, as a billionaire, he's fighting against raising the minimum wage? How does he continue to pollute people's neighborhoods around his factories? And how he justifies taking away people's basic rights to vote. Okay. Well, I just want to make sure that we can get some answers. We're gonna go public next week and I want him to really have the chance to talk to us. We would like to send him the documentary that we're working on. Is that okay? Can I have an address? Jim Miller, Brave New Films. I heard you the first time. Thank you. Have a good day. He's unavailable because he's not here. He's out of the country. And I look forward to talking to him. I would encourage you to send an email. So, I'm not going to be able to provide you with any address today. Thank you. bye Bye-bye

Jaguar, Its Last Frontier – Documentary



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Along the history of mankind, feline have always caused fascination, but this has not been enough to prevent many of them as the jaguar, yaguar or yaguareté (Panthera onca) is currently in danger of extinction.
This documentary describes this beautiful animal and shows the struggle of a few heroes who are working hard to restore the population of this species in northern Argentina.

Quantum Entanglement Documentary – Atomic Physics and Reality



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Want to learn more about quantum entanglement? Check out Want to learn, even …

Troy Kell Prison Documentary



Troy Kell sentenced to life in prison for the 1986 murder in Las Vegas. After moving prisons in a inmate swap program, Troy Kell committed another murder inside the prison which to this day remains on death row.

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[Applause] [Laughter] [Applause] [Applause] [Applause] one in the ten yep I went into the situation that I'm gonna have to kill the guy I'm not gonna hurt him I'm not gonna stabbing two times and say yeah we're even you know cuz the philosophy in prison is you know you stabbed me I kill you I just stabbed the shit out of him you know until he didn't move anymore the reason I said Troy Kell was one of the most dangerous people I've ever met is because Troy Kell when you meet him and when you see him in a certain environment is a very charming charismatic intelligent individual who certainly by no means looks like somebody who could commit a crime as heinous as he committed in this case I've seen guys hesitate on not thinking something was serious and it was serious and they get themselves stabbed up or they get themselves fucked off they get themselves killed all the white supremacists were going say hi to try and make sure it should be up say I let Troy know that I said hi and they were give them the power the white power because they want the statuses associated with him and in his crime because they're looking to Troy you know he's like he's our inmate God we're gonna do anything we can to gain status with him because then that protects us within the institution so they hold his shanks they hold his brew any contraband that he has and he very subtly manipulates everything and then to the administration he wants to represent this clean image well I'm not doing anything you know I'm not associated with these guys but he still has his soldiers going out and performing these acts well that's a good clean up for them I mean they have to say that to really justify doing it keeping me in the hole restricting my movements making sure that that there no real freedom for me to have and maybe I'm not entitled to that I mean its perspective of the individual some individuals think that you know he shouldn't have anything give him some bread and water and put him in a cage somewhere and that's that's fine too don't expect the guy to be a nice guy and smile and to say thank you for the bread and water every time you bring it you know it's a double standard they they expect you to suck ass regardless of of what they're running their face about you suck ass long enough pretty soon you start choking on shit a lot of my personality now has is be reflected from how I was raised in the penitentiary it desensitizes you you don't have the human interaction the contact understanding or anything it's structured that everybody is a piece of shit you shouldn't respect anybody it's kind of like you know just it doesn't matter you have to realize why Troy kelp went to prison and that being at 18 years old he concocts a scheme with a couple of his friends to take a young man he's never met before in his life a young man named cotton Kelley take him out in the desert take out a gun troy kel takes out a gun and shoots him six times at close range in the face killing him after the killing takes his wallet and they go by a convenience store and buy liquor this guy I felt was taking advantage of a friend of mine and she asked for my help and I went kind of overboard me and a friend of mine from high school agreed to beat this guy up because he was doing some things to some teenage girls that we knew she was a friend of mine she was like a sister kind of to me I met cotton Kelley at Circus Circus 8 months prior to this actual tragedy he ran some type of adult entertainment business he wanted me to pose nude for him he had started following me and calling my house constantly harassing my family and as a 15 year old child I made a very bad decision a very immature request and I called upon Troy to beat the man up to leave and have him leave me alone I was raised in Las Vegas Nevada you know middle-class family I'm the only child I think I would probably just an ordinary kid on the blog I wasn't any different anything from anybody else that I'd noticed Troy's been a part of our life ever since I first came to Las Vegas since I was probably like six years old we lived on one corner of the street and I'm the opposite street he lived at the other corner and me and a couple of friends two little girlfriends were walking down the street and him and his little friends were sitting in front of his house on their bicycles and you know they were watching us googly-eye because he's three years older than me so when we got all the way to the end of the street towards the desert you know we turned around and said something real sassy and they chased us on their bikes and we ran and he jumped off his bike and tackled me in the grass and you know it just became like a plaything and ever since then he was like you're gonna be my girlfriend and I said no I don't even like boys while Troy is come over to our house when he was like seven years old play with sandy and chained in the backyard go swimming and he was one of the neighborhood kids good kid my father's in the horses and kind of a redneck background country boy kind of thing we had horses and stuff I was expected to be successful my family his father was really really strict and I remember one time on his birthday we were I think he was turning 13 and I believe I was 10 and I rode my bike all the way to the mall and I bought him a Nike outfit and he had to sneak out in his backyard and climb up on the brick wall for me to give him his gift because he was on restriction he was always on restriction just and for absolutely nothing his father must have been very tough on him very abusive I believe with him and his mother was never around I know they were separated but I don't think his mother came around too much I don't know if it was because of the father or what you know but I guess he looked at me more like a mother figure you know because he's always sent me even cello this day this sends me a bouquet of Mother's Day flowers my parents got divorced and I kind of bounced back and forth between them it was kind of a struggle for me for a while but it's nothing out of the ordinary any other kid goes through I hung out with the Stars and I also hung out with my job frenzy because I like to I like to play sports but I like to drink beer and smoke a couple joints on a weekend – I went to school but I didn't like school too much the authoritarian kind of structure we're telling you go here and do this and I rebelled against that dropped out of school started getting in trouble after that this story goes like this Shaw and two of her friends allegedly lure the Canadian man out here to the desert we're north of the city Shaw then allegedly gets out of her car goes to the bathroom and on the way back falls down they had me pretend that my leg was hurt and I guess this was a plan that they had conjured up the Canadian man got out of the car to help Shaw a man grabbed my arm to help me that's when the first gunshot went off for a reason that I can't really understand I decided to bring a gun and shoot the man and kill him I didn't go to sleep that night out walking away yes of course but why didn't I I don't know I didn't have anywhere to run to I couldn't just keep on running running police say this desert landscape near Rancho and Durango was the stage of a grisly show-and-tell this past week police say the three suspects spent a week going back and forth here in the desert showing off the body to their friends then one of the small children who had seen the battered corpse got to feeling guilty and told police Las Vegas metropolitan Police Department called me at work at midnight and told me that they had Sandy downtown on a homicide and I thought oh my god she hasn't gone through this again when I was 13 years old I was spending the night at a friend's house and her stepfather went into a jealous rage and shot and killed her mother and her mother's two friends and then killed himself it changed my life I detached myself from my emotions I didn't have a sense of life or death it was just all the same to me another episode happened to her she's walking home from school sees this guy come running up behind her girl in front of her sees the guy shoot the girl in the back of the head she's already gone through this now this is too how many times I mean I'm 48 years old I've never seen anyone in my lifetime get shot I mean what are the odds so I went down and I find out that she's somewhat being charged with it I can't tell you how bad that hurt my daughter a man's life had been taken that became known as the show-and-tell murder run how did he get that day the girl was in high school at the time and I was and I had already dropped out of school she had some girlfriends from school that she knew that they both knew the man prior and you know kids kind of I don't know brag about what happened you know remember that guy and well he's you know dead out in the desert you know they don't believe her so she decided to take him out there and and see the guy that was kind of the way it went down the night after Contin was shot the next morning I had gotten up to go to school I didn't know if this had happened to me or was I just thinking this happened to me I wasn't really sure and so I went back to the scene of the crime and I seen it from the side of the road but it still wasn't real teenager sandy Shaw testified in her own defense today staring only at her attorney Shaw I explained how last September she and two older boys drove into the desert with the Canadian man at the trial they told the jury not to allow my angelic looks to fool them that the person I appeared to be was not who I really was that in fact I was a cold-blooded killer at the time um I really didn't feel anything it was that whole time of my life I really don't feel it and robbery they offered me a life with the possibility of parole on a plea agreement and being stubborn and kind of thinking I knew everything at the time I didn't take it I thought that 10 to 15 years was the rest of my life at 18 years old and in reality it's not you know you can start over again I made a decision when I walked in the game that I was gonna come in there as a man and I was going to leave as I wasn't gonna resort to things that a lot of people in my situation had to do to survive in prison I wasn't gonna suck dick I wasn't gonna wash people's laundry I wasn't gonna tell on people I wasn't gonna fall into that structure that survived in my environment I kind of took responsibility at that time that I got myself in the situation now deal with it I was fortunate in the sense of some older guys seem that that I had a lot of time to do and I stuck up for myself so they kind of put me under their wing on schooling me on showing me who was who on the yard and what to stay away from don't get in gambling debts don't get in any kind of drug debts who had predators we have homosexual predators you have extortionist and hope all the wax and we're going to test it one incident I I ended up getting shot and stuff like that on the yard with a guy that was a notorious booty bandit members named homosexual predator I was 19 and and this guy was in his late 40s and we were on the yard and it came to either you know he says if he won't respect you're gonna have to come and get some respect so I had to make sure that that wasn't gonna be tolerated that meant it you you battled for they break it up by by shooting rounds action from the waist it's called skip rounding I'm gonna stop the fire they blew me off my feet you know because I mean you're getting shot by a 12-gauge shotgun from like 30 feet away so it it blew me off my feet when the fight was over after the heck when I arrived at prison I came I came to prison for forgery I forged a $300 check that's what I was in prison for I was serving a sentence of a 1 to 15 I wasn't placed in like a minimum security prison for forgers I was placed in a Supermax most security prison for worse Eric Daniels was a co-defendant Detroit Kell and in fact was the individual during the homicide that laid across the victims legs so as to incapacitate the victim from moving he the ironic thing had been sent to prison on a 0 to 5 somewhat minimal forgery case where he had actually taken a check from a local sheriff here which was his first mistake and then forged the sheriff's name on his check not a bright idea sent him to prison for 0 to 5 so Eric Daniels went from a small-time crook to never going to see the light of day outside of a prison again Here I am a forger living on death row I was coming I was interacting and recreation with the three guys that were up that had death sentences that we're going to be executed within the next three or four years and I mean I'm prison on forgery that's how I ended up be becoming involved in violent situations I felt my only Avenue for relief was to latch out against the authority and that's that's how I became involved with the riot until they fucking fulfill their part of the deal we ranking it regardless you feel slighted by the system because you're there in the first place okay and then that builds okay and that anger turns into resentment and then absolute bitterness sorry guys mom and Daniel no way attention all inmates in Cedar section one might return to your cells and now or extreme lowers will be used against you to return to your cells now and lockup or remorse will be used against you start to think that to officer that's holding you there the one that comes in feeds your tray everyday is evil first thing that comes to most people's mind is this latch out do something violet you're in yourself for so long by yourself you have no television no radio very little contact with the outside world you develop different symptoms of mental illnesses paranoid schizophrenic anxiety disorders impulsive behaviors and because you haven't asked me nothing to do in there all day long I plotted and planned on what I was gonna do to the administration when I got out of there hi threw some urine and some feces on her because I couldn't do anything else to her I couldn't get my hands on her and so I that was the next best thing it made me feel on top of the world to to see her running out of the unit screaming you know screaming her head off with feces in her hair in her face I got a phone call from some official in Utah I don't remember his name but I was you know they just told me that that my brother had been attacked by another inmate and that he was dead and immediately call my dad my mom you know we just just don't believe it don't want to believe that someone at you someone that you love it's called this was a victim who had a quite storied past in Arkansas been in trouble with the law including armed robbery had some violent tendencies in Arkansas and in fact have committed some assaults on guards in Arkansas committed assaults on inmates in Arkansas I want to paint a pretty picture of my brother cuz he was there he was uh he was a maximum maximum security risk is what he told me and and I found out after his death that he was in lockdown originally we didn't have any idea why the killing took place as we got into the case more and more we did more investigation one of the more startling aspects of the case was that this was really just some racial hatred the comments that Troy Kell made at mediately after the killing that he was really quite proud of himself that you know that this black aunt a person would no longer be around that he couldn't talk about white women certain comments like that that he was really a seem very proud of himself that there was one less african-american on the earth and that that was something good I would classify myself as a separatist that's I I believe did that the white man should return to Europe and should it never came over here throughout history if you see the Greeks or the Romans or any civilization that started the Egyptians that started to intermingle with foreigners in a sense Outsiders of their racial groups eventually they've destroyed themselves [Applause] they say that flower vase day as we delved into the case we found out fairly quickly that Troy Cal had very strong beliefs as white supremacist white supremacist group or gang if you want to call him that is significant and probably the most significant single group or gang we've got in our prison president has a tendency to you know force force an individual someone who's impressible as I was young to identify with the group and or a certain ideology and I found that in the white separatist movement and I felt like I belonged I felt like I climbed a mountain reached I got to the top planted the flag and I was home it's born out of fear fear of knowing another race it's keeping your distance from another race with any kind of white guy that stands up for you know his people he's looked upon as some type of racist race hater and that's not the case and you matured I have this video at eight you know I can it doesn't concern me at all I mean it may be people's actions is what I don't like I mean they might choose to do certain things but there's more you know white people that need adjusting than anybody else in preparation for the case and primarily the sentencing portion of the case I went out to Nevada where of course troy was housed as an inmate for years during that the course of that we actually found a letter and it was a letter that Troy Kell had written probably ten days to two weeks prior to the homicide here in Utah and he was white writing some of his white supremists inmate friends in Nevada and in that letter he talked about and actually prophesied that he was going to commit this crime in Utah talked about how a a in his terms a nappy headed monkey had been running his mouth and this nappy headed monkey was going to get his and there's going to be pain and suffering involved in that it was a power trip to begin with but it had racial overtones to it it the race issue was used to justify the power trips controlling the action wanted to control the TV the ice bucket the where this person lived with who things like that that happened in prison it becomes racial only only as a secondary consequence it starts off and greed and profit and control like anything else I had a confrontation with him verbally that derived from two other people's fight they kind of you know flowed over to me getting involved with with him and it was kind of agreed between me and him and that we were going to take care of it you know that any chance that either one of us gone that we were going to deal with the situation I prepared I got a knife and I got a handcuff key and we were restrained we were going down a medical they forged his name requesting that he that my brother go to the infirmary I feel that what they call a medical request slip for Blackman to get him out of his cell on a particular day the guard came to my brother cell and said hey you ready to go and we're both what you mean ready to go where they came over my intercom and my cell and said Daniels you know you're going to medical today and I knew I knew you know I knew it was the day he was sporting his colors you know flying his band down it when he got to the infirmary Troy kale and Eric Daniels and another inmate were there also the next thing I know Blackman's running towards me and it was on I knew that it was it was a strong hit because the color of the blood and it's dark and that that's a sign that where you got an artery or a vein or something like that why do you so we all as I can explain it really is that he kept moving I just stabbed the shit out of him you know until he didn't move anymore and I ended up stabbing the man Levin to 10 [Applause] afterwards I felt man goddamn why why did you kind of make me do that I didn't weigh in the fact that he was a father or a brother or a son to to anybody you know I didn't see him as a human person the prison guards saw this happening there were civilians there the guard rushers them out they then go and get into full riot gear my brother's still being stabbed in here they come in and then they grab kill and it's other guy my brothers dying by then it's it's just too much time as he lapsed I will tell you that I've never seen anything like that in my life I got more and more horrified the more I watched it as I had to watch it over and over again to prepare for the case I actually to the point where we had to count the number of stab wounds after watching the videotape initially I several nights I had problems sleeping from the prosecutors standpoint the two have a videotape of the crime is kind of unheard of my father and I went to Utah for one reason one reason only and that was to try to make a change we wanted to talk to the prison officials we wanted someone to tell us that they were going to change the procedures that's why we went to ensure that what happened my brother didn't happen to another inmate Troy Cal did take the stand he was very articulate very intelligent and was able to bring up emotion which at the time appeared to be genuine and in fact he addressed the victim's family who happened to be in the audience from Arkansas from the witness stand he asked if after he finished testifying if he could talk to me and my dad one-on-one and sit down and he said sit down as a man as a man and talk told him how sorry he was that he had killed their son their brother and he said he actually was crying at the time which I've got to say as a prosecutor it was one of the more remarkable events I had seen from a defendant testified on the stand so we were like I think eight women on the jury and four men and I kind of looked over it when he was testifying and some of the women were crying fortunately for us before Troy Cal had taken the stand to testify he had told two of the guards that were transporting him to and from the courtroom watch this I'm gonna win an Academy Award you know what he was gonna get on the witness stand and just lie yeah I was fighting for my life I did what I had to do to try to save my life but I didn't the emotional part of it was genuine to his family because the way I live my life eventually somebody if the state doesn't kill me eventually someone will will get me you know because of the way I live my life it's just a part of it and my family accepts that but and I accept but the thing is is I would want somebody to show my father the respect that that I think he's got come that's that's all I can let me say about it so if I understand you right you're saying that you meant what you said to that father that that wasn't an act that wasn't faith no I meant I meant what I said I mean they want to downplay it because they're fighting to win the case I put the guards back on the stand and the guards ended up testifying as to this conversation they had had with Troy Kell about winning an Academy Award I was subpoenaed to testify at that trial although I wish he would have done things a lot differently I don't know if I can um I can't pass judgment upon him for the things he's done I don't agree with the things he's done I don't like things he has done but I cannot judge him for the things he has done because I don't live like he lives and I don't walk in his shoes and I don't feel what he feels if society has once sentenced him convicted him to life without possibility of parole for a murder and he's chosen Daniel in a very brutal fashion to take another life while incarcerated what adoption is available and realistically the chance that Troy Kell in the future could commit another homicide while in prison and I think that was probably the most weighty thing that ended up in the jurors voting for the death penalty I don't think the death penalty works you know there are people is on death row I know you know we just had recently had some McVeigh was put to death does that stop terrorism I don't think it will it doesn't stop people from murdering and killing and raping I don't think it will if you know some of my co-workers say hey well he won't do it again well sure but that doesn't deter others there's there's no no punishment on this earth that that's going to even come close to what kill will face when he when he meets God that's my personal belief you can kill him twenty times over and it won't even come close to what he will suffer in the face of God I don't believe in the heaven and hell thing it's a control mechanism to control the masses and it's run by fear that I don't believe in any fiery pits or any pie in the sky I think once you're dead you're dead Aaron's gonna come in whenever come in on the second timeline that's when the whole band comes all right let's try I've came to saving knowledge of Jesus Christ and that happened almost three years ago the way I look at people my relationships with fellow my fellow man and woman have just changed dramatically I no longer see people in terms of skin color I am considered to be a race traitor in their eyes and so even the things that I'm saying to you right now are things that you know I could be retaliated against for I'm happy for and I hope did uh he can turn his life around I'm sorry for fuck his life off Troy Troy would be in a spot a spectrum he would be the extremists I honestly believe that if Troy was to ever get out of prison he'd be you know blowing up buildings and stuff I mean there you know it'd be like a Tim McVeigh or militia yeah yeah and I and I probably would have to to be honest with you if I had gotten out of prison I that's the self-destructive path that I was on it's our eighth letter of the alphabet as h HH stands for heil hitler' white supremacists believe that Jews are the ultimate enemy that they pit black and white against each other so that we both eliminate each other in order that they ultimately win and that's the whole philosophy in a nutshell yeah the bank's the media you know they subliminally inject thoughts and opinions into people's minds and those opinions are all favorable for the Jewish agenda and all that nonsense and the thing is it I see it now is nonsense but I'm tell you I bought into it I think that there's some merit to that if you look at the people that are calling the shots and I think it's definitely not coincidental I mean they look out for their own I mean they've been through some hard down times in the history of the world and they got they're entitled to do that me it's a power trip that's all it is it's you structure a holocaust happen you believe these reveals that it never happened it's just a bad rap on the third ride to the magnitude that they say no because there's no mention it's only the the numbers don't match up to the to the claim of of what they're saying of the Holocaust yes I believe it happened there was a war going on and he told them what they were gonna do what he was gonna do ten years before I even started doing it it's you know seek and destroy it's that's the way it was conquest that's what was happening I mean it was that's just the way it went I mean that's how nations were built was by force I deserve the death sentence you know I didn't get the death sentence again I believe that God intervened in my life at least in two jurors minds and I didn't receive the death sentence I deserved it and I got mercy and Troy didn't I've only been here for one execution and it happened to be the firing squad and to me it seemed a cleaner a faster way to go the man didn't experience any kind of because they think it's like a medical thing I got a problem with the way I don't have a problem with the death penalty okay it's in the sense of that's the penalty but when they try to you know make it like a medical procedure like they're going into like an operation or something like that I you know show it for what it is you know you're killing a guy regardless of the justification we can all justify our actions in one form or another the fact is you're killing the guy so show it for what it is that's what it is I think they should take it down to the Delta Center and and show the public what exactly is going on when he first entered the system he was 18 years old he was a handsome man he was an intelligent man and I remember him telling me I'm entering as a man and I'm gonna remain a man and I believe he's done that I still wake up this day and I cannot believe I'm here this is what my life has amounted to I have spent over half my life in prison my adult life has been in prison you know it's just really hard and sometimes I wonder you know well I ever get a driver's license I know well I ever get to go buy furniture for you know how am I ever gonna you know click on Mouse evaders and click ok I hope when I pray that one day I will be given a second chance I was an unhealthy child I was a lost child how much water do you expect to be the line I don't I can't see I can't even answer that question I can't even answer I don't know I really don't I hope I hope a long time look I go through that all time I go through with making a decision of you know living through this shit or or not cuz I fucked my life off so I mean I've been pissed off since I've been 18 years old [Applause] [Applause] now log onto hbo.com and find out more about this documentary and others in the award-winning America undercover series informative interactive intriguing America undercover at hbo.com

BBC Miracles of Nature – UltraBike and UltraCane



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Feature about the UltraBike and UltraCane on the BBC series Miracles of Nature.

I want you to watch the next 30 seconds very carefully in just a few minutes a second rider is going to come down this track through the same twists and turns over the same humps and bumps but with one big difference this rider is blind so how is that possible when practically all he sees around him is black to find out we need to start with a creature that spends the majority of his life in permanent darkness a creature that can navigate his way around these caves and caverns without using a head torch in fact without using its eyes at all and talking about that of course because we all know that bats can get around in the dark but bat expert dr. Dean waters is about to show me that their sense is a far cleverer than that there you go I've got one here this is an Egyptian fruit that flew back I mean they're very sweet looking creatures and because some bats horseshoes and such yeah I mean no offense I'm sure they look lovely to one another but this to us is aesthetically quite a handsome little thing so beautiful big eyes those have these these lovely ears are very very mobile that they wiggle them around a lot and they locate through their mouth though they'll open their mouth and click from side to side with their tongue so well that's it that's it yeah but it's like a special mechanism tiny stuff yeah that's it but that simple clicking is enough for the fruit bat to find its way about with amazing precision and Dean believes it can build up an incredibly detailed picture of its surroundings but just how accurate is it time to put the bat super-sense to the test we're using a very high-tech combination of cup hooks bells and string to make a type of bat slalom course I can indeed lights out let's see what we got well we got a dark cave thin strings and bats yep what are we hoping for well we're looking at how good these blacks echolocation calls are it's always been described as a simple primitive system sounds rubbish yeah only this is a very impressive no if you look very carefully at the call structure it's almost exactly the same type of calls that dolphins use and we know that dolphins are very very good echo locators so what we're hoping for them is they dodged the strings and we'll know if they hit them because of the bells yep absolutely right but we really haven't made it easy for them the strings are less than a centimeter wide and the gaps between them are much narrower than the bats 2 foot wingspan yeah unfortunately our experiment has one fatal flaw we can't actually see if it's working we don't hear any bells but the bats might have all flown off for all we know so we have a little rethink set up a special night-vision camera and turn on an infrared light the bats will still be in pitch black but now we should be able to see them via beams laptop success except the cave appears to be completely empty but then a single bat appears and what he does next is remarkable Nene Gilliam you're gonna get through oh that's perfect no that's absolutely perfect so that was it was bringing his wings and he knew that when he decide exactly where they were right so again they come with one there so this supposedly primitive system is capable of picking up even the slightest of obstacles so accurately but the bats don't even bother pulling their wing in till the last possible moment they make it look easy but it's not there's an awful lot going on to enable that little bat to fly around in the bitch dog is a wonderfully sophisticated little animal and the thought was always that these guys their echolocation system was a bit primitive a bit basic compared with the other smaller types of that you know but what this proves in fact is that it's not at all it's I mean it's quite finished it'll go down to this wide but absolutely these guys know exactly where these wires are and that's purely through their echolocation sister because pitch black in here there's no other way they'd know they're that so if a bat can use sound a series of small clicks to see in the dark maybe you could work for human beings this man Professor Brian Hoyle believes he's found a way to do just that by putting bat tech in a stick so this isn't just a bit like the way about once this is echolocate it's very very similar indeed over to you right so people got me that was you it wasn't me you felt me yeah and if I move it off it stops I'm gonna go behind you so I guess about going I felt you watch it so what I'm doing now is this is sending out a noise the same as about does and then listening for it bouncing back echoing back off objects which is exactly what our bats did it then tells me by buzzing Absalon this and you can feel iam of them so if I walked towards that oh that advanced something just ate slowly buzzing through with them ah good if I move off yeah it's not great so it's telling me there's an object so you might let a safe path to the right and there's nothing to my right nothing left oh there's a sudden buzzer mat now if I move off to the right nothing to the left something to the right nothing so I I would know I'm okay going this way and it gets faster as you get closer to it it buzzes through your thumb more quickly that's great absolutely well they don't need me to tell you about that your invention works because it it does that's it great bring on the blindfold let's give this a proper go right let's see if I can pick up in a matter of minutes what it's taken the fruit back millions of years to perfect nothing oh-ah something to my right I don't there's a gap that I've got something to my left there and to my right there picked up something then Oh as a mannequin isn't it slowly but surely I can see how somebody could build a per picture right only thing is I've no idea where I've ended up but I had no idea I was well I think you did really well thing I don't think you bumped into anything I don't need anything surprisingly that's not down to luck but to my brain and what you're doing then is this information goes into your brain yes and it's processed through the same part of your brain that actually processes site it is which means when we talk about using this to see as far as your brain is concerned you really are you're building up the picture in the same place you'll see if we think it's the brain that sees not the eyes yeah and you're seeing right yep and that's the remarkable thing our brains can adjust astoundingly quickly to using our senses in a completely different way so I thought what if we take this whole idea a step further and use bat sonar to enable blind people to do something they wouldn't normally even attempt so I've taken apart a couple of canes and I've come up with this the bat bike now let me talk you through this essentially it was a prototype at the moment but it shows the principles we've got to bat cane handles up here on the bars with the contact pads feeding back information to the rider from the sense is in the handles themselves then we've got two more down here I reckon that should be enough information feeding back to the rider to enable a blind person to ride a mountain bike down a mountain bike course now I'll say it out loud yeah that is quite a big ask but this could work by the time engineers have built our back bike properly a few of the details but the theory remains the same these sensors send out and receive a series of clicks and a couple of vibrating buttons tell the rider but now it's actually come to it I'm not sure who's more nervous me or 21 year old Dan Smith who actually has to ride this thing a keen cyclist Dan tragically lost his sight nine months ago from a rare genetic condition if he hasn't been able to ride a bike on his own since although most of the damage to his eyes is invisible trust me Dan can't see anything in front of him dan only had a few short hours to practice in this bike but back technology is allowing his brain to see the course well there could be no clearer proof they're back tech works yeah very good actually so very good to be back on a single bike again but the technology works because I've just navigated the whole track by myself so very pleased yeah now obviously it might be a little while before visually impaired cyclists take to our roads but that technology may just have opened up their lives like never before

Documentaries BBC Documentary 2017 New Bigfoot Evidence National Geographic Documentary



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Documentaries BBC Documentary 2017 New Bigfoot Evidence National Geographic Documentary Please click subscribe button if you want more video ! Thanks …

Backyard Bird Watching: House Finch Nest 5 Weeks Complete Documentary



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Filmed over the course of 5 weeks, from Eggs to Baby Flying away, shot in Pasadena California

Comet Catcher Mission Rosetta Universe Documentary



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Comet Catcher – Mission Rosetta – Universe Documentary ( HD Documentary 2014 ) Comet Catcher Mission Rosetta Documentary 2014 SUBCRIBER – LIKE …

İdeally History Netflix Wild Life HD 2015 [Great History Documentaries]



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WILD,WILDLIFE,WILD DOCUMENTARY,WILDLIFE DOCUMENTARY,WILD DOCUMENTARIES,WILDLIFE DOCUMENTARIES wild documentary wild …

Death Row : The Final 24 Hours (Documentary)



A walk through of the last day of life for death row inmates before and during execution.

countdown the final 24 hours to execution just don't simply get a man and walk up from the south and executable the policy book prescribes pages scheduled hour by hour and even down to minute by minute but executions don't always go according to the plan his head caught on fire his leg caught on fire the needle was dangling there that came out that counter was a message deal from the long walk to the last meal it won't take it long before whole days is a stomach contents on table top tutor course have the opportunity to actually see someone down inside accounts from the men who worked there reveal the last 24 hours on death row it's routine for us death row on average condemned inmates spend 15 years here the time is spent appealing against their sentence if the appeals fail the journey to the execution chamber begins here in the judges office what first occurs is the order that sets the date and then within 10 days you sign what's called the warrant of execution Dallas judge robert francis has presided over five death penalty convictions the warrant of execution authorizes that the person to be executed supposed to be executed in a certain room in a certain manner at a certain day to a certain time each state has a different protocol for execution because it's up to that state's legislature there are five methods of execution in use today and 14 states allow the prisoner to choose how he will be put to death hanging today inmates in Washington State can choose hanging since 1776 more people have been executed by hanging than by any other method the firing squad most recently used in Utah in 2010 it's available to prisoners convicted there before 2004 electrocution most executions in the 20th century used the electric chair it's an option for inmates in Alabama Florida South Carolina and Virginia lethal gas last used in Arizona in 1999 the gas chamber is still a choice for inmates in Missouri and California and finally lethal injection first used in 1982 most executions in the past two decades have been by lethal injection it is now the primary method of execution in all 33 death penalty states execution as a state sanction or state approved homicide I remember signing the very first one the first time I did it that was the end of work that day it is a strange feeling knowing that signatures required not signatures yours once the death Ward is signed the countdown to execution begins you move the inmate from death row to the death chamber 24 hours before he's executed Alan all conducted five executions as Commissioner of Corrections in Georgia the policy prescribes they've scheduled everything you did with the inmate everything you did in the execution chamber the way you handled witnesses the way you handled the victims family the routine that you went through was exactly the same each death penalty state conducts executions according to its own protocol and timeline from 1967 through 1976 there were no executions in America while legal challenges to the death penalty were considered in 1977 executions resumed when convicted murderer Gary Gilmore faced a firing squad in Utah since then Texas has conducted more executions than any other state their protocol has become a model for many others since we do so many executions in Texas there's somewhat of being experts headed I guess Jim Willett was warden of Huntsville prison where all Texas death sentences are carried out he oversaw 89 executions in three years there well I don't know if you'd call it an executioner's school but you've got these states out there that may not have done an execution in ten years and so they'll come here to see how we do it prior to leaving death row and getting on the van to come to the death house the inmate would be searched really well you'd want to search the inmate make sure he doesn't have a weapon so that he couldn't do damage to himself or commit suicide the bottom line on execution is it's a court order so anything other than an execution by the state would have not make acceptable per the court order Terry green was a member of the Texas execution team at Huntsville prison he participated in 102 lethal injections the execution tain was viewed as somewhat an elite unit primarily because of the uniqueness of the duty the care and the commitment that be brought to that duty also known as the tie down team it's composed of prison staff no one is compelled to take part everyone is involved as a volunteer just wasn't something that everyone was able to do was comfortable doing our first assignment was to go to death row bring that mate back to the death house in Texas it's a 45 mile journey from death row at the Polonsky unit to the place of execution in Huntsville known as the death house the drive is the most vulnerable part of the transfer transport process was probably the inmates last chance of escaped and probably the best chance you've ever had to escape assuming he had outside help we didn't take it lightly the three vehicle convoy varies the route taken to avoid ambush due to the fact that nobody said hola the precautions work in Texas no one has ever escaped during transport to the death house once then made it escort into the death house from the transport van that'll be the last time you'll see the light of day in the prison kitchens the inmates request for a last meal has been received my name is Bryan price and I am the death row chef Bryan price was an inmate in Texas Huntsville prison I went to prison in 1989 on a 15 year sentence and when you arrive in prison they assign you a job I was a musician and a photographer and they told me well not any longer now you're in the kitchen while working in the Huntsville unit kitchens brian prepared 189 last meals during the last weeks on death row the inmate would be given a last minute request which I have here imagine what's going through their minds this is my last meal on this earth and I would start putting the ingredients together whatever I was gonna need on the day of the execution I hadn't prepared ahead of time if I could each state has its own rules about what a prisoner is allowed to request in Florida inmates can order food with a maximum cost of forty dollars in Oklahoma the limit is 15 dollars the death row inmates a to not have a a choice of whatever meal they were gonna have every day here they have a a choice something they haven't had probably in two decades once the inmates rolled into the death house cell door secured it's not unsecured again until such time as it's time for the execution to take place first thing I was seeing the majority of them was fear period of that place that was death the prisoner has been transferred from death row to a holding cell in the death house there are 21 hours to execution first person they would meet in the death house was me Reverend Carol Pickett was chaplain at Texas Huntsville unit he was involved in 95 executions first thing I would say is he the majority of them was fear fear of that place that was death house the role of the chaplain is to provide comfort to the inmate his role is to make sure this guy is prepared to die spiritually I was to do anything and everything to help him face that last day whatever was writing letters making phone calls singing songs listening listening and listening as night falls the inmate can sleep if he wishes to while in the death house guards will keep a constant watch ensuring he does not attempt suicide on the morning of the day of execution the equipment to be used in the death chamber may need to be tested lethal injection is carried out on a specially designed bed or gurney prior to the execution the staff would go in there to make sure that the straps were in good working order that the phone to the governor's office was working and it was in communication with the governor's office the phone is needed because even on the day of execution the inmate has a slim chance of avoiding death when you reach the point that you got into the day of execution the defendants attorneys are filing more motions and so forth the lawyers are feverishly trying to do something to get a stay they're gonna be out of the state system in the federal system they'll file them directly with the 5th Circuit Court once the 5th Circuit Court acts it's very rare that the Supreme Court takes any action beyond that unless there's some new novel worthy issue unless an appeal succeeds in the death house preparations continue for an electrocution both the chair and it's electrical components must be tested Gerry Gibbons was Virginia's executioner from 1982 to 1999 he carried out 25 electrocutions I will be the dummy the inmates part and it will strap me in and if I could kick my leg or move my leg I will make sure it is a Titan that I didn't want my staff to get kicked in the face the technology of the electrocution has changed little since the first electric chair was used in 1890 this was the Texas electric chair dubbed old Sparky by the inmates and it was used first in 1924 and on the first night they used if they electrocuted five men the electric chairs are made of wood so they will not conduct the electricity will flow through a headpiece and a lake piece this piece here was placed on the head and there's another piece down here that would be placed on the left ankle when connected to a power source these will form a deadly circuit through the body of the inmate that's wonderful 100 watt bulbs and if one of those bulbs didn't light up then we know we didn't have a good connection coming in and that's how I wish to test it to ensure good electrical contact the headpiece and leg piece are fitted with natural sponges soaked in salt water the reason you use the real sponge is because when you soak the sponge and saltwater this sponge will expand and open up so when the spines span and open up the federal electricity can come through lethal gas requires very careful preparation the gas used hydrogen cyanide is poisonous and combustible the gas chamber was the most dangerous method of execution because gas does not discriminate about who it kills before every execution the seals on the gas chamber must be checked for potential leaks Allen alt was responsible for the upkeep of gas chambers in Mississippi and Colorado I bought seals for the gas chamber I remember and that cost twenty five thousand each place for the seals maintenance costs like these make lethal gas the most expensive form of execution in California and Arizona the chambers were designed to allow two inmates to be executed at the same time to prepare for an execution by firing squad marksmen must be recruited in Utah in 2010 convicted murderer Ronnie Lee Gardner chose this method claiming he had lived by the gun so he deserved to die by the gun the Utah squad was composed of five law-enforcement riflemen they used Winchester rifles four were loaded with 30 caliber ammunition one was loaded with a blank this way the squad would not know who fired the fatal shots preparations for hanging have changed little in half a century the most recent was in Delaware in 1996 convicted murderer billy bailey chose hanging over lethal injection saying i'm not going to let them put me to sleep before the hanging the rope was boiled and stretched Bailey's weight was checked against a drop distance table developed by the US Army in 1947 the heavier you were of course the less drop there would be it would be more of an art than a science even with the calculations and things of that nature of course you would still have mistakes and you know and the next would get stretched out or the head would just pop off in the death house cell the prisoner is kept under constant surveillance as the clock counts down to execution the inmate is you want to get more privileges on his afternoon at the death house then he got during his years of stay on death row invites will be allowed to shower is allowed to use the phone we would dial the number for him and I'll have to complete his call that last telephone call you can't call anybody after that and then on the only person you're gonna talk to you there's a chaplain that was a very traumatic time when they asked you to Tim his hair color and he didn't die in the death house there are just four hours until execution if the inmate has selected electrocution his head may be shaved four hours prior to his execution I will shave his head because the head piece will fit right down on his head and I can get a good connection removing the hair removes a potential hazard his head is shaved because a case in Florida when they executed him his hair caught on fire in 1990 six inch flames left from the head of convicted cop killer jesse tafero as he was electrocuted three jolts of power were required to kill him he didn't die right away it was a very obscene scene Florida's governor demanded an investigation into what went wrong experienced Virginia executioner Jerry Givens was flown to Florida to test their electric chair I went to the prison and I examined the equipment when I look at the headpiece in a leg piece that's what the problem was they're laced our hidden leg piece with that synthetic rubber sponge so whenever then I quickly hit the guy his head caught on fire his leg caught on fire the synthetic rubber sponge might have blocked the flow of electricity Givens replaced it with a natural sponge three or four tests didn't they had somebody from the court to witness the test and then they reinstate the electrocutions the state of Florida hair or cloth veneer the points of electrical contact adds to the risk of fire to minimize this the inmates calf may also be shaved and a trouser leg cut off now Huntsville inmate Brian price would begin to cook the last meal we had two hours to prepare that meal and have a sent over to the death chamber and died you didn't hit you couldn't make any mistakes because it was a one-time shot like I said at one time we burnt the chicken it was just the most requested last meal would be cheeseburgers and french fries believe it or not just sort of comfort food I guess some other infamous last meals like Timothy McVeigh who was the bomber up in Oklahoma he requested two pints of mint chocolate chip ice cream serial killer Ted Bundy requested steak eggs hash browns and coffee John Wayne Gacy ordered a dozen deep-fried shrimp a bucket of fried chicken and a pound of strawberries if I was Indian mates you I oughta cavity off in the Black Sea and hoping that they would take a long time to bring it I did everything I could send it over there the way they wanted it of course it won't take it long before all it is is stomach contents on the autopsy report once Bryan was allowed to eat one of the last meals he had prepared a condemned man had ordered for bacon lettuce and tomato sandwiches the man who tried to take his own life the night before he'd been hoarding what we called tugging tranquilizers for several days where he put him under your tongue and he act like he swallowed but you don't there anytime he took him out and hit him and then he took him all at one time tried to cheat the executioner well they life flighted that man down the Galveston to the prison hospital and pumped his stomach and brought him back to consciousness and then flew him back to the death house for his execution so my helper my friend Anaya we ate those four bacon lettuce and tomato sandwiches which is my favorite sandwich by the way first of all I've had ten years in 2011 Texas ended the tradition of the last meal request now inmates get whatever is being served in the prison that day when the last meal is delivered to the inmate he is no more than two hours away from execution time while the prisoner eats his final meal the men and women who will witness the execution begin to arrive at the prison the role of the witnesses by law is to confirm that an individual was actually executed so they witness the actual execution people volunteer to do this in many states civilians with no connection to the crime must be present in Texas families of the victim have been allowed to attend since 1995 the inmate is also allowed to choose witnesses a victim's witnesses and the inmates witnesses are kept separate they are never allowed to mingle other witnesses include representatives from the media probably I have seen more executions than any other person in the country Houston journalist Michael Gracchus has covered more than 300 executions for The Associated Press there are not a lot of people who have the opportunity to actually see someone die we see dead bodies but under these circumstances where you actually get to see someone breathe their last breath sure it makes it it can be difficult executions used to be conducted in public and anyone could attend they were to prepare food and stuff like that and once the execution was completed they wouldn't you know throw a little party the last public execution was held in Owensboro Kentucky in 1936 it was watched by 10,000 people and widely criticized for its carnival spirit after executions violence would happen minute is slight working up a mob the largest number of witnesses since the Kentucky hanging was in 2001 for the execution of convicted Oklahoma City bomber Timothy McVeigh 30 witnesses attended and 250 relatives of the victims watched the lethal injection on closed-circuit television with one hour to go before the execution takes place the executioner makes his way to the death chamber the role of the executioner is absolutely the key part of the whole process in Texas the identity of the executioner is never officially disclosed whenever he'd walk across a recreation yard going to the officer dining room everyone that he would pass you could see them leaned toward each other and go he's alive in Florida the job is carried out by a civilian who is paid 150 dollars the role of the executioner is to make sure that the job is done correctly and precise as possible it's the executioner who will administer the lethal injection start the electrocution or throw the switch which will mix the chemicals used in the gas chamber the first thing that's gonna catch his eye is that gurney which is the place he's gonna die there are just 30 minutes to execution in Texas the warden comes to the death house with a five man tie down team I looked him right in the eye and I would call him by his last name and I'd say it's time to go with me to the next round if the prisoner is not compliant he will be carried to the death chamber remember the tie-down team would suit up and use the fourth year which included helmet chest pad shin pads elbow pads the lead man would have a plastic shield we were able to take control then mate have him on the gurney sometimes within a minute the vast majority of inmates present no resistance of the 89 inmates that I dealt with I only have one that I would say was a problem and hard to deal with I would tell the inmate to follow me I will turn my back to that inmate and walk him into the death chamber the long walk and the prison is maybe ten feet it's not a long walk but dead walk feel like that long walk even to us when the inmate walks into the death chamber it's gonna be the first time he's seen that death chamber the first thing that's gonna catch his eyes that gurney which is the place he's gonna die once the death chamber to reach these advise to sit up on the gurney then lie down on his back each member of the tie-down team is responsible for securing a part of the prisoners body to the gurney we would normally always have the same position for example I would be at the left arm and take care of the strap across the upper torso within 30 seconds those officers would have all those straps and there's a bunch of them in a small room adjoining the death chamber behind a one-way window the executioner readies the drugs tubes lead from the executioner's room into the death chamber through a hole in the wall now the medical team must insert them into the prisoners veins the American Medical Association advises doctors not to take part in executions because it is a violation of their code of ethics in Texas the tubes are inserted by a medical technician it seems that when people get real nervous sometimes those things just kind of hunker down in there don't pop up like they usually do some of them have burnt paints from drugs which would make the injection process longer and much more painful when the tubes are connected a harmless saline solution begins to flow the lethal drugs will not be administered until the inmate has set his last words at that point we're probably 15 minutes away at most from the execution even at this late stage the inmate might receive a stay of execution there's two phones in there one connected to the governor won't connect through the Attorney General via those phones ring everything stops a stay might be given to allow a court more time to consider new submissions by the defense lawyers on numerous occasions the execution would be stayed sometimes for an hour sometimes for a day and sometimes for a month convicted murderer James Autry was one of the first inmates scheduled to die by lethal injection in Texas in 1983 it was not on the journey and two minutes before they were start the process of kid on him catch today so he was taken back to death row no one on death row knew what to expect from the new method of execution but Autry had been through more of the process than any prisoner alive he told everybody exactly what took place so there's no more sugars James Autry was eventually executed in March 1984 more than 130 people have been wholly exonerated after being sentenced to death Ronald Carney is one of them he was facing the gas chamber for a murder he was later acquitted of this was myself right here we could talk in these vents up here to talk to the people upstairs that was that telephone system shortly before Connie was due to be taken to the gas chamber a prison official asked for his last request that's all right here's my request I said when I'm in that chair and they dropped that pellet my guest starts to come up I want you to come in here and hold my hand then new evidence came to light and kinase lawyers succeeded in proving his innocence I'm taxing words is this what this means does this mean we're done we're done in everything he says yeah you're done you're going home without the legal attention given to death row cases tiny might not be free today if I was sentenced to life in prison I would still be here nobody would have looked at the case when I lowered those glasses it was time for the executioner to do what he had to do there are 15 minutes until execution the prisoner is restrained on the gurney in Texas the witnesses are now ushered into to viewing areas Associated Press journalist Michael Gracchus has witnessed hundreds of executions there you hear people talk about a seat in the death chamber there are no chairs you are allowed to bring in a pad and a writing implement and that's it once the witnesses are brought into the room I tell the inmate that he can make his last statement to prevent delay in Texas the inmate is allowed a few minutes to make his final statement California's protocol states that a brief final statement can be made Kentucky imposes a two minute limit Pennsylvania allows only written statements when the inmate has said his last words he's probably looking at another couple of minutes alive what better my Ana below their knee or on the ankle or I can feel a pulse but they could figure to you the warden would take his glasses off when I lowered those glasses it was time for the executioner to do what he had to do three states allow the use of one drug for lethal injection three states do not specify what procedure they use all the other states including Texas specify three drugs in sequence Pablo take the first drug screw it in and push it the first drug is a barbiturate which sedates the inmate occasionally the inmate will say I can feel it or you know it's working if the inmate has chosen electrocution he will be strapped to a wooden chair the headpiece and leg piece are attached some states also cover the face with a mask is routine for us takes a matter of seconds in Virginia the warden and Chaplin remain in the death chamber a signal is given and the current switched on when I give the order to execute there's a real physical violent jolt 45 seconds on a high cycles vary but Givens would deliver two bursts of electricity at 2400 volts and between two and four amps actually here the electricity is high-voltage electricity going through the line you can see that body swell and drop back then you've uh smelled a flash burn this an office is an awful greasy smell and then the body slumps if I had a choice between electrocution and leaf injection I and then I was in that predicament I will pick electrocution because I know it's faster for execution by lethal gas the prisoner is strapped into a wire mesh chair and the chamber sealed when the signal is given cyanide tablets are mixed with sulfuric acid inside the chamber the gas produced is deadly hydrogen cyanide there would be some moaning gargling type noises severe shaking foaming of the mouth you're actually feeling like you're strangling to death once they actually could no longer hold their breath the process would take four to seven minutes it's not a pleasant death all of a sudden I see this liquid begins sporting toward me and you're thinking what if this gets on me yeah in the death chamber the inmate has made his final statement the warden has given the signal to execute him now lethal drugs flow into the prisoners veins in minutes he should be dead but sometimes there is what's known as a blowout during the execution of convicted murderer Raymond Landry in Texas in 1988 the tubes came out of his arm there was no glass that separated us from the inmate he and we're watching the inmate being put to death and all of a sudden I see this liquid begins sporting toward me and you're thinking what if this gets on me yeah the medical team reinserted the tubes and 14 minutes later the execution continued the next time we went into the chamber they had put up the glass and that was the inauguration of the glass that separated us from the inmate there was a second Texas blowout in 1998 during the execution of convicted murderer Joseph cannon it was Jim will its first time in charge the inmate turns his head towards me and he said it came out sure enough the needle was dangling there and so that kind of was a messy deal if there are no problems in the death chamber the first drug sedates the inmate once the drug is completed through the line I can see the flow going down the line then I will flush it with a slave in solution the Saline flush is used because if the lethal drugs were to mix solid particles might form and block the tubes after the saline flush the second drug pancuronium bromide is delivered it will paralyze the inmate as the drugs have take effect their skin color begins turning almost crimson or purplish as the person is dying I think if a fly will fly around in there you could use wings flap that's that quiet it is India the third drug potassium chloride stops the heart I'm standing there in the pulse stocks the execution is not officially complete until a medical doctor has checked the body for vital signs he would do all those things that doctors do in order to be sure that someone's dead he won't look a clock on the wall and give the time of death then we turn around violent if the inmate was executed using lethal gas toxic residue is a real danger the gas chamber is vented and the team enters clad in protective suits they would try to decontaminate the body by running their fingers through the hair shaking off the clothing as much as possible to get as much of the the powder itself off of the person the electrical resistance of the human body causes it to heat up during electrocution afterwards the corpse has left five minutes to cool before being removed if no one claims the body it will be buried the next day at the prison cemetery when you see a grave any grave anywhere out there that has an X on it that means he was executed I remember the faces of the men I execute and they appear in my nightmares I guess for some people is easy but is it for me it was it wasn't easy I wasn't getting paid for this I was doing it because this was the state of Virginia's head do you know this is this is it all I've gotten in trouble among death penalty opponents when I say that it's done with great dignity but I think it is I have no regrets having participated in the execution process I always viewed it as a mandate from the court we were the tool by which that order was carried out

National Geographic Documentary – Mystery about Gates of Hell Full HD , Science Documentaries



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Nat Geo Wild The Great Bear Rainforest Nature Documentary



An impressive documentary about the Bear and the beautiful Canadian forest.

Sutorias not in this video has only disseminates educational purposes.

fogg it hides the northern pacific coast of canada for most of the year this is the Great Bear Rainforest a forest full of mysteries and wild creatures and it's one of those wild creatures the rarest of them all that we are looking for much more the spirit bear there are no roads in the Great Bear Rainforest this labyrinth of islands is best accessible by boat these people scientists have to approach this rugged coastline from the water to reach the unique temperate rainforest and discover the secrets it holds few regions on our planet produce as much biomass as this rainforest it's the world's largest and most productive temperate rainforest and thrives along the west coast of Canada a vast 300 mile long expanse of fjords and islands along the North Pacific since time immemorial these islands and forests have been home to sentient nations of the get guard community the get guard believed that they are one with the land the forests and the ocean in their world the animals are their brothers and sisters and the time when the last ice age covered the west coast of Canada is also a part of mists legend Bravin the creator wanted to leave on the mento of the Ice Age and so he decided that every tenth bear should have white fur this they say was when the spirit bear was created the white bear of the rainforest to this day these bears live deep in the forests on the islands and along the wild rivers of the northern British Columbia coast only very few people have been lucky enough to catch sight of one like a gigantic wall of granite the coast mountains block the clouds that roll in from the Pacific Ocean causing them to rise up and drop their moisture this almost incessant precipitation is the motor that drives the rain forests never stops and never fall silent everything in the rainforest the rocks the living and dead trees are covered with a thick growth of mosses that have an important task they hold the moisture in in this way they keep the forest humid and cool and stabilize living conditions for all animals in the temperate rainforests of the north biomass doesn't decay as quickly as in tropical rainforests the destructive organisms here are slow and need a lot more time to do their work yet this rainforest is more productive than those in the tropics in this remote region it isn't easy to do research or even travel at all very few smaller boats venture this far north along the wild rainy coast the only chance to find the Bears is when they come down to the streams for the one big event of the year the arrival of the salmon in late summer for now though all is quiet is this the quiet before the storm [Applause] [Applause] on the outer islands the group discovers a pack of coastal wolves these rather small wolves are a genetically distinct subspecies of the gray wolves that live further inland they've been isolated here on the islands since the last ice age and one aspect of their behavior is unique they're the only wolves that feed on fish in fact they live on fish and beached carcasses of marine mammals food that also attracts other hungry visitors but the pups have nothing to fear from the black bear during the spring and summer months the Bears eat berries and grass and they move slowly to save energy because there are not enough nutrients in the grass to help them gain weight the river otters living on these islands have also adapted to the saltwater [Applause] the bear is no threat to them either they're quick and clever [Applause] [Applause] the intertidal zone is their buffet muscles small crabs and fish are their favorites and they're always inquisitive explorers [Applause] the Ravens the heralds of the rainforest announced a visitor Marvin Robinson is essential guide and a member of the gate guard First Nation he's also looking for the salmon and the Bears the secret spirit bears this forest means a lot for me like about 18 years ago this is the very spot that I've seen my first spirit bear so prior to that it was all hush-hush about this bear the sacred bear really to us and we never we weren't even allowed to talk about it anytime we were told to keep quiet if we seen one don't tell nobody it was a special treat to who ever got to see one you know there was very few that got to see one of these rare bears and ever since I started we found some really special places that we keep to ourselves and indeed the places here are special on the outer islands waves and winter storms have created magical beaches most of the islands in the Great Bear Rainforest a rocky and precipitous wide estuaries and shallow coves are rare but the steep cliffs also offer food here with a little luck a visitor could get a first glimpse of the mystic animal the experts are looking for the famed spirit bear one of the rarest animals on earth the mayor's prey is glued to the rocks in the intertidal zone barnacles grow in the cold waters of the North Pacific and at high tide when they're covered with water they look almost like animals from another world they're feathery arms filter plankton out of the water it's hard to believe that these little creatures are related to crabs this bears barnacle hunting shows again how important the ocean is for the nourishment of the forest dwellers there's enough nutrition to feed even the largest animals that roam the waters the whales at low tide barnacles and mussels are exposed along the rocky shores their shells are closed tight for the spirit bear detaching them from the rocks is no problem and the reward is a very tasty snack some of the oldest and largest trees in Canada grow here the giant Sitka spruce the ancient yellow and red cedars and the hemlock trees that need the cool the fog and the rain they are the foundation of the temperate rain forest in August the sweet fragrance of ripening berries wafts through the forest bright red huckleberries elderberries salal and blueberries and many others grow in abundance for the Bears the berries are a crucial staple to tide them over the leaner months of the summer before the salmon arrived the spirit Orca Modi bears are not Albano's but white black bears a mutation that probably dates back to the last ice age and between the rocks and the trees white is a good camouflage the Bears sweet tooth also helps the bushes to spread they pass up to 400,000 seeds per day in their droppings thus the plants colonize new territory [Applause] in the temperate rainforest fog can cover the land in a graver hell within minutes and it can plunge a sunny landscape into deep gloom along the mainland coast the islands of the Great Bear Rainforest live close together at high tide millions of gallons of nutrient-rich saltwater rush inland through the narrow channels to flow back out of low tide thus linking the ocean and the land the currents sweep along everything in their path creating a rich broth full of life in August huge schools of young fish migrate into the waters between the islands close behind the fish other humpback whales they throw nets of air bubbles to trap their prey success thousands of fish are caught in their gigantic mouth they're balloons filter krill and fish out of the water again and again the whales will feed for days but Mother Nature is prepared and sends a constant stream of fish north along the coast and into the archipelago of the Great Bear Rainforest get their large and small young and old this is the land of milk and honey the Galapagus of the north the productive zone extends far below the water the species here are not as numerous and varied as in the tropical coral reef but the vibrant colors and the sheer size of the underwater organisms can easily measure up to the tropics deeper down among colorful mollusks and cold water corals the ocean harbors another secret of this region a life form from the age of the dinosaurs a glass sponge the intricate and beautiful structures of this 300 million year old organism are made of glass and very fragile the rivers and streams of the Great Bear Rainforest washed sediment into the ocean constantly and the nutrients slowly sink down and feed the coral its red branches that can thrive in this six degree cold water are the perfect hideout for small crabs and fish the silica from the rocks provides the building material for the sponges with a little help in the form of sand and water they can make glass there are even whole glass reefs on the continental shelf about 600 to a thousand feet below the surface these ancient organisms build complete reefs powered by nutrients and runoff from the rainforest high above the reefs a female humpback is playing with her calf thanks to the rich feeding grounds the little one is growing fast in a few months when they leave the cold waters and head south they'll need all their strength the mother reaches a behavior that can be seen quite often here nevertheless it's a spectacular show now it's the beginning of September and the fish run that all the animals here are anxiously waiting for is approaching the group steers the boat west to the edge of the open ocean where a colony of sea lions await the fish on windswept islands at a safe distance from bears and other predators the stellar sea lions are the largest of the eared seals they're an endangered species that lives on the rugged outermost islands along the Pacific coast the strong territorial males can grow to a length of more than 10 feet and weigh up to 2,500 pounds each of them has a dozen or more of the much smaller females in its part of the colony since the 1970s their numbers have plummeted and scientists have yet to find out why overfishing of the Gulf of Alaska could be one of the reasons the weather turns the first heavy rain of approaching autumn triggers the epic fish run after two years in the ocean the salmon are now returning to their birth streams are the fish here yet a mother bear and her two white Cubs patrol the shores of Princess Royal Island here one in ten black bears is white the white fur color is passed on through a double recessive gene white Cubs will only be born if both parents carry that gene and bears with black fur can also carry the spirit bear gene Eagles and river otters are the first to discover the approaching salmon run which they are waiting impatiently at the mouth of the river [Applause] further upriver and black bear mother checks the water level it's still too low for the salmon to come this little bear will see the salmon run for the first time in his life it won't be long now it's early September and the time has finally come for the big feast Eagles and Bears sea lions otters even the trees are waiting for the arrival of the year's biggest single source of nutrition and the big feast will also complete the yearly cycle shortly afterwards the Bears will start looking for winter dens Ben trekker Marvin Robinson is hopeful the rivers are rising he's checking for clues on the islands as well as on the mainland across the channel from Princess Royal Island a grizzly mother and her two-year-old are also checking the waters grizzly bears live on the mainland leaving the islands to the black bears Grizzly's usually live higher up in the mountains but for the salmon even they descend to the estuaries along the coast Marvin is concerned the rains came late he hopes the salmon run won't be affected now at last the water levels are rising the Grizzlies used the waiting time to stock up on sugar trying to pull the last crab apples off the trees along the riverbanks for the mother bear and her young this will be their last winter together if she can fatten up enough for the winter she'll have a new cub next spring but if the salmon run isn't good enough she'll reabsorb the already incubated egg in her womb during hibernation [Applause] still no salmon but now the autumn rains have really picked up this region gets an incredible 4500 millimeters of precipitation per year that's four times the rainfall of a wet city like Vancouver further south along the coast this is a true rainforest autumn has arrived and the first beasts are migrating finally the water level in the rivers is high enough for the salmon to migrate to they'll return to the self-same waters where they were born among the gravel banks upstream at 12 hour intervals at high tide new waves of hundreds of thousands of fish will rise in the river deltas on the coast and make their way up the streams the clear waters of the wild streams along the northern coast of British Columbia are the habitats the salmon need to reproduce in this fish run humpback and silver salmon are returning swimming up the rivers until they taste their birth waters they're here the Ravens the heralds of the forests spread the news it takes stamina and blind determination for the fish to get to where they have to go it's now or never this is their only chance to reproduce but the Predators are already lining up from the seagulls to the otters they all want their share for the animals of the Great Bear Rainforest the waiting is finally over now it's time for the and caviar the fish that don't make it are swept away by the raging current ending up on the rocks and in the kelp of the intertidal zone right at the feet of the waiting bald eagle it's sharp Beach is perfect for tearing up fish the gulls will get their fair share but here on the rain coast the bald eagle is the true king of the skies on the verge of extinction only a few decades ago these magnificent birds have made an amazing comeback [Applause] on a bank in the stream The Raven patiently waits for the black bear to finish his breakfast without the bear he wouldn't be able to get to the food the skin of the fish is simply too thick come on haven't you had enough yet one salmon that never fulfilled his reproductive destiny he died on the home straight the coastal wolves are also joining in the feast the ester is are now full of fish the youngsters are still learning the tricks of the salmon trade they follow their mother and she tries to teach them but for them catching fish is still a game in the shallow tide pools it's easy to see and grab the salmon which are tired in fact almost exhausted from their long journey the death of this fish seems futile there are so many of them easy prey for the hunters but it's not the individual fate that counts here with their sheer numbers the salmon feed the whole ecosystem further back in the forest Marvin often finds leftovers sometimes the Wolves carry the fish deep into the woods the Wolves don't consume the whole salmon they only eat the the brain so they carry the salmon off and maybe a little bit further up the sides of the valleys and stuff because there's a parasite in salmon that if the Wolves to get it it could kill them so basically what happens with the Wolves is they've taught each other that it's only safe to eat the brain the gushing waterfall further upstream seems insurmountable butterfish keep trying again and again for them it's quite literally do-or-die and for the strongest stamina eventually pays off this salmon was born here three years ago now it has returned to its birthplace to spawn in perfect sync with all the others of its generation in the first few months after hatching the fry would stay in their birth streams then during the following summer they'll drift down river towards the sea where they'll feed and mature they'll stay in the Pacific Ocean for two years then they'll return to the Great Bear Rainforest to spawn and die in a rush of hormones and wild abandon the fish become oblivious to their surroundings and their predators but even now on their deathbeds the male's fight each other hooking their deformed jaws together expending their last ounce of energy for a better position to pass on their genes the unique cycle of life in the temperate rainforest will be completed once again as it has been every year since time immemorial the gulls and all the other animals of the coast are the lucky beneficiaries foraging has become an easy task for the bear as well the fish are in a daze without much perception of their surroundings they'll only react when the poor almost touches them and jump is not an option anyway the fish look battered the journey has taken its toll now the Bears can afford to pick and choose this spirit bear even leaves a half-dead male salmon discolored by fungi that have developed on its return to fresh water the females that are still carrying their eggs taste much better during the ten days of this salmon run every bear and every wolf will each carry about 1600 fish off into the woods but it still isn't easy to find the spirit bears even for experienced trackers like Marvin who take researchers and visitors to these streams it's a special treat to watch the white bears during the salmon run so far they've only seen black bears and squirrels but they can watch various other animals and their behavior during the run a black mother and her cubs feeding for example [Applause] let's see how to get to the fish in the crystal-clear water they're easy to see and they seem tired enough so they should be easy prey hmm that wasn't too successful the cat might need to practice a bit to become an expert in salmon hunting marvin the tracker has been walking the creeks for days now then suddenly there it is much mo the prodigious spirit bear one of the rarest animals on earth and one of mother nature's miracles right in front of his eyes according to a scientific study their white fur could give the komoti bears a slight advantage in catching fish to a salmon the firm might look similar to a white cloud a black shape would be more threatening Marvin prefers to believe the legends that the fur is a memento of the Ice Age and the Cloud hypothesis isn't proven anyway in lean years the white fur might make a difference but at the peak of a good salmon run mo bear whatever its color has any difficulty catching fish the Bears almost worked themselves into a feeding frenzy during the rest of the year the white and black bears rarely mingle but now they all converge of the prime spots on the streams overall the black bears seemed more aggressive and wilder than their white cousins but they're also more wary could it be because unlike the white bears they've been hunted before but wary or not all the Bears have to come to the streams they have to store fat for hibernation there has been enough fish here for man and beast for thousands of years for the Great Bear Rainforest it's a matter of survival let's hope for these young bears of their first salmon run that the future will hold the same life for them as the present according to native law the black bears discriminate against their white siblings when they meet it's usually the white bear that backs off even if it's larger you [Applause] well one last fish for the road should be alright there are so many of them but the envious competitor is watching and so the spirit bear withdraws [Applause] the Bears often prefer to eat their fish in the quiet of the forest they use daybeds in hollow tree trunks or small caves under roots where they rest and digest maggots bugs and many microorganisms help the process of decay and decomposition mosses can macerate the organic nitrogen and make it available to the trees the salmon are actually feeding the rainforest the thickness of the tree rings alone can show which years were good salmon years just a few weeks later autumn sets in the salmon run is over but the forest and its animals have gathered crucial reserves and strength for the winter the now it's time for some of the smaller ones to stash away seeds and other winter provisions you now that the stomachs are full silence returns to the Great Bear Rainforest herons and Ravens take care of the leftovers of the feast the remainder decays in or along the streams and is scavenged by the ever-present Ravens what Evers left is swept into the ocean and becomes fertilizer feeding the krill their nature almost seems wasteful but this brief overabundance as a deeper purpose the carcasses pass nutrients on into the water this is their last gift to a new generation of salmon thus the end of one fish run lays the foundation for the next the parents make the ultimate sacrifice for the sake of their offspring this cycle already many thousands of years old is the motor that drives the entire ecosystem of the temperate rainforest along Canada's northern Pacific coast but it's not just the motor that makes a system function only if all the individual parts are in place and in the right place we'll the rare and special life-forms along this coast survive this is the insight the experts have come to on their way back from the expedition it's a lesson on the people of the rainforest learned a long time ago their songs and icons tell of all the creatures of the forest and the ocean but the spirit bear is the one special animal the iconic species that symbolizes the spirit of the rainforest the freshwater streams and the mountains the forest and the ocean the winds the plants and the animals they all had to play their parts just right so that this temperate rainforest of Canada's Northern Pacific coast could develop over thousands of years it's a system that needs to stay intact because only then will much more the spirit bear have a home for the future [Applause] you

How to Film a Documentary Interview in 60 Seconds



Interview in a documentary is normally to satisfy one of two criteria. I’ll explain both of these as well how to shape your questions, in 60 seconds.

The reason for having an interview in a documentary is
normally to satisfy one of two criteria. Even to off a eyewitness testimony of
an event would have an expert explain something. Interviews are a great way to
add credibility to whatever it is your documentary is about. A voice over or an on screen
presenter who relays information without some sort of
quantification can appear weak. Throw in a sense of the source interview
and the credibility rises greatly. Always use open questions. Who, what, where, when, and why. Who was there? What did they do? Where did it take place? And why did it happen? These lead to longer answers and allow the interview subject to
expand on their information. To aid in editing have the subject
re-frame the question in their response. What did you see is answer beginning,
I saw and so on. Always ensure that the information
you interviewee offers is accurate. It's up to you as the creator of
the documentary to check facts and ensure that anything that ends
up in your film is correct. I'm Mark Thorburn and that was
documentary interviewing in 60 seconds.

Inside View: Documentary Non-Profit Video Workshop



Get an inside view of the 2015 Documentary Non-Profit Video Workshop. Produced and edited by Docs In Progress Intern Joanna Weaver

Learn more about Docs In Progress:

I work for a nonprofit called a bachina it's a dance company incorporates a lot of social commentary into its pieces one of the most beneficial elements of the nonprofit documentary filmmaking course is that we get to tell the stories behind the performances I am the communications and marketing director for CCI health and wellness we have people from hundreds of countries many different languages and I think a film is one of those mediums that really allow you to transcend those language barriers it was a great introduction and hands-on experience with documentary filmmaking great to work with the group and incorporate completely different ideas even if it was a bit challenging in the editing room trying to make decisions probably had a great deal of fun and we already are talking about a serious and info health series I think this is a great means to learn how to tell the story of the nonprofit having that experience and major motivation to do that on my own I would encourage anyone out there to absolutely take advantage of this invaluable resource

How to Get Your Documentary Financed



Kimberly Browning, producer of Hollywood Shorts, give advice for how first-time documentary filmmakers can get funding/financing for their films. Documentaries have unique funding sources like IDA (International Documentary Association), Sundance, and art grants. Many documentaries have a social/issue/political component to the subject matter that will help you get funding for certain organizations, for example AIDS research, cancer research, Alzheimer’s Syndrome, PTSD and war-based issues. ITVS. Crowdfunding through kickstarter is not always the answer.

Part of the International Documentary Association’s Doc U seminar series. Shot and edited by Viva Videography.

How to Write Music For Documentaries: Wildlife



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How to Write Music For Documentaries: Wildlife —————————————————————————- Join Guy as he ventures into the world of wildlife …

New Documentaries 2018 – Unbelievable Hidden Wildlife Nature Earth | Documentary [BBC Documentary]



Views:1207|Rating:4.00|View Time:50:3Minutes|Likes:4|Dislikes:1
New Documentaries 2018 – Unbelievable Hidden Wildlife Nature Earth | Documentary [BBC Documentary]

The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States), Finland, Greenland (Denmark), Iceland, Northern Canada, Norway, Russia and Sweden. Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost (permanently frozen underground ice)-containing tundra.

Arctic seas contain seasonal sea ice in many places.

The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth’s ecosystems. For example, the cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions.

In recent years, Arctic sea ice decline has been caused by global warming.

Life in the Arctic includes organisms living in the ice, zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants and human societies.

Arctic land is bordered by the subarctic. the Arctic hare, lemming, muskox, and caribou. They are preyed on by the snowy owl, Arctic fox, Grizzly bear, and Arctic wolf.

The polar bear is also a predator, though it prefers to hunt for marine life from the ice. There are also many birds and marine species endemic to the colder regions. Other terrestrial animals include wolverines, moose, Dall sheep, ermines, and Arctic ground squirrels.

Marine mammals include seals, walrus, and several species of cetacean—baleen whales and also narwhals, killer whales, and belugas. An excellent and famous example of a ring species exists and has been described around the Arctic Circle in the form of the Larus gulls.

impact on societies around the globe I found this then is the story of the Arctic today the spectacular frozen top end about that the Hardy wildlife that lives within it and the very real threats to buck in this wildest Arctic [Laughter] the frozen north of our planet covers a bewildering array of conditions and landscapes bordering the vast Arctic Ocean our countries and cultures as diverse as Greenland and Canada through to Alaska Siberia and northern Scandinavia one creature that flourishes right across these icy extremes is of primeval appearance draped in long shaggy hair the musk ox at first appears tranquil especially now in the bitter depths of winter when they remain stationary for long periods to conserve energy with temperatures way way below zero and in winds of vicious ferocity even the hardiest of arctic creatures like polar bears will retreat to shelter but not so the Hardy musk ox they alone will stand stoic ly in the open insulated by a double set of hair musk ox are the only large mammals that can live all year round in the same territory massive vegetarians that forage for lichens and mosses and frozen plants when thick snow blankets the ground but as tranquil as musk ox first appear they infect our anything but dose Isle especially when the males are rutting it begins with one ball challenging another for control of the herd at first the challenged ball simply runs off to avoid confrontation as the anger intensifies the balls come together head-on it all takes on the aura of a ritual shaking their bodies swinging their heads as they become more enraged they back up still further inflicting maximum pain as they crash head to head yet despite this ferocious behavior the muskox came perilously close to extinction hunters wiping them out in Alaska hunting has since been banned in many countries and herds reintroduced with healthy populations of muskox now existing once more across the Arctic it's midwinter and the frozen north is turning on its harshest face such conditions are perfect for that ethereal feline of the woods the Lynx distinguished by pointed Tufts of hair rising from its ear tips the Lynx at first appears like a large dose I'll cat in truth they're cunning predators equipped with long legs and very big feet they track across thick snow with ease this one has spotted a small squirrel instead of eating it straight away he prefers to play with it with even hungrier competition it's not a smart tactic the battle for possession is truly on today the intruder wins stalking away to devour its prey at leisure watching all of this alone snowshoe hare they and rabbits are a favorite for the Lynx the big cat kills his victim by jumping on its back and biting its neck before tearing up to pieces Lynx kittens grow very quickly this mother has given birth to two kittens in late spring and all three now spend healthy portions of each day grooming one another as if imitating the musk ox these youngsters indulge in some head-butting but in this case it's strictly play when the Arctic turns on its most forbidding blizzards the gray wolves are at their most United traveling in packs these intelligent social wild canines make a powerful hunting team alone they're still a formidable force this lone wolf has picked up the scent of a goat he's quick to knock it down more cautious to tear it apart the initial approach is on the gut soft rear underbelly the rest of the pack are not far behind one by one they approach what follows is a mast feast on the goats carcass then with much of the body dismembered the remains are carried away it's over this last supply of fresh meat the tempers flare the final ritual in this process of slaughter is to clean themselves in the snow a smaller but equally energetic canine that's adapted to the frigid far north is the arctic fox in the whitest of landscapes his snow-white fur provides a perfect camouflage through the depths of winter arctic foxes can be spotted running long distances in search of food amazingly this is an animal that changes colors with the seasons as this group demonstrates in winter some of them wear a coat of light gray even the whitest of them will turn to brown in summer to blend with their environment alone or working in packs they'll scavenge whatever animal or vegetable material is available and when they're satiated they'll often burrow underground or find shelter under ice to seek refuge from the elements one Arctic resident that at first appears to be very shy is the Wolverine the largest member of the weasel family in fact they're extraordinarily fierce and cunning Wolverine will stalk much larger animals like caribou and mountain sheep even moose and have been known to climb into trees to drop onto their prey while their ruthless killers they're so feared by other animals that nothing will attack them not even bears that knowledge has made them fearless and it's not uncommon to see them playing in the snow without a care however the same fur this Wolverine is taking care of is also highly valued by man the fur is renowned for its protective and insulating qualities which is why hunters to this day still pursue them so remorselessly another Arctic creature that can still be hunted legally lives here midway between Scandinavia and the North Pole in the ruggedly spectacular island group of small bird the Svalbard reindeer is much shorter and stockier than its southern relatives having adapted to tolerate severe cold and sparse vegetation even with shorter legs these reindeer still find it difficult to move on the ice overhunting was driving them towards extinction and while hunting was banned for a period locals can now be issued permits for limited hunting each autumn rather than living in herds Svalbard reindeer travel in small flocks surviving on lichen and moss that grows beneath the snow today their population stands at just 10,000 it's the highest peak in North America Mount McKinley a mountain the Athabascan Indians called the great one McKinley overlooks an outstanding Wildlife Refuge the Denali National Park which shelters a huge array of birds and animals Alaska's national bird the ptarmigan can be found here partridge like grass that change their plumage to white in winter hair like feathers cover their feet enabling them to walk in the snow and to eat they find nourishment by browsing and trees picking away at bark on the branches several species of squirrel also live across the Arctic all of them cheeky and noisy North American red squirrels are both inquisitive and agile and can be found throughout the pine forests during winter they'll munch away on the large collections of pine cones that habitually stored they're one of 37 species of mammals found in Denali with the biggest and most impressive that grizzly bear as winters snow gives way to springs warmth the Grizzlies can be found within new progeny mother has given birth in February the cub now 3 months old and very playful not every cub is so lucky adult male bears in Denali have been killing off a high percentage of Cubs even their own offspring this young cub is still suckling but he's in the process of being weaned in the few days our cameraman tracked him the cub followed his mother's lead and started to eat his first shoots of grass in this period of rapid growth he's developing many of the skills he needs to survive alone his hunting skills are being honed by chasing gangs like this one being played out with a black billed magpie just how large he'll grow is demonstrated by this family the two cubs are just over one year old and already they're approaching their mothers size once he's fully grown our young cub will be the largest carnivorous land animal in the world there are magnificent creature feared and revered regretable then that hunters have made them almost extinct in their former territories which extended down into Mexico thankfully they're legally protected around Denali allowing spring Cubs like this to display their boundless capacity for play without fear of attack playful as they are at this stage of life once they're fully grown their instincts are far more savage this female moose is fleeing for its life the grizzly in pursuit here's nothing that it's crossing Alaska's busiest Highway today the Moose escapes but such chases are often fatal Grizzlies usually target female moose particularly now in spring when they're trailed by a vulnerable calf this mother and offspring have survived a season of slaughter that has seen dozens of other moose calves killed the Alaskan bull moose is by far the world's largest deer weighing as much as an average calf those huge antlers are so impressive moose have been widely hunted and virtually eliminated from the southern part of their range in both North America and Europe now they're generally protected roaming large distances to earn themselves the reputation as nomads of the north on the move there are creature for humans to avoid particularly any female moose which feels its calf is threatened right across the Arctic Spring is now in full bloom this is a time of new life that brief period when most species give birth to maximize their chance of growing before the next winter the doll sheep have just had their lambs they're the only white wild sheep in the world and in Alaska it's not uncommon to see us being trailed by up to 3 lambs in spring they'll walk will above the treeline in search of succulent new growth mother raccoons are also busy caring for their newborn this delightful litter of three is foraging with mother for crabs they delight in hunting near water where they can engage in their curious habit of washing their food before eating it inquisitive methodical and intelligent raccoons are still to this day trapped extensively for their fur and flesh spring not only heralds new life like this babies Sitka deer it also heralds a feeding frenzy right across the Arctic grass frozen over by heavy snow is sprouting again and animals of all kinds are making the most of it from giant elk shedding their winter coat to the Marmot feasting on spring vegetation they're strictly vegetarians but not so the European weasel Swift and agile they're renowned for pouncing furiously on any living creature their voracious carnivores will known for taking on animals much larger than themselves having killed this bird the weasel will maneuver its body into a hole to tear it apart the master carnivore in the arctic of course is the brown bear the coastal version of the grizzly they grow much larger than their inland cousins due to their ability to feast on huge quantities of salmon each summer tensions are high when that challenge for the best fishing position the interloper is the one to give ground at the height of summer bears will position themselves wherever there's running water in a bid to ambush the sound the annual feast they're waiting for will last for just a few short weeks as the salmon swim upstream to spawn at first it's a frustrating affair as salmon after salmon leap right past them some bears have become inventive searching wherever they think the salmon could be waiting many will immerse themselves while others find success simply leaping into shallows alive were thrashing fish but it's the Bears on top of a small waterfall that finding greatest success salmon after salmon literally leaping straight into their mouths for the younger bears there's still a lesson to be learned caching is not necessarily keeping most though we'll keep a firm grasp on their cash the orgy of gorging has begun it's now six months since the brown bear cubs were born already they're put on substantial weight and have begun to travel further and further in search of sustenance with the salmon having completed their run mother has reverted to grazing on grass but as large as they are the two Cubs continue to suckle right across the Arctic brown bears are enjoying the short summer warmth some find amusement harmlessly sparring with one another but like this create quite a thirst after the two Cubs life at the top of the predation ladder means they can rest without fear of attack as the brief Arctic summer draws to a close there's a flurry of activity before the onset of winter many species of birds have laid their eggs and an hour busy maintaining their nests that most diligent of aquatic rodents the beaver has constructed new lodges of sticks and mud so protective is this beaver of his home that he patrols it relentlessly as if he's guarding it from time to time he'll flap his thick tail and dive highly prized for their fur beavers have been killed in huge numbers by trappers another summer spectacle to behold is the migration of caribou huge herds of them can be seen walking long distances between they're carving grounds and winter rutting areas right across the Arctic from Greenland to North America 30 major herds have been identified in all some two million caribou are on the move these calves born just one month ago are already old enough for the long trek across the tundra they're still very vulnerable to attack Grizzlies claiming many of them the bear gives chase the caribou were spooked running on mass to escape just how huge and menacing the bear is becomes apparent when it stands to get a better view of his quarry today the caribou run clear of their predator crossing a river to distance themselves often though deep water and fast flowing currents will claim their own victims for the next month the caribou will walk for most of their waking hours an annual pilgrimage back to their winter breeding grounds off the Arctic coastline aquatic creatures are equally as active stellar sea lions are a play [Applause] communal creatures that not only swim together but all out and huddle alongside one another on their Island rookeries on ice floes families of harbor seals are taking refuge all around them both the world's fastest marine animal the doll porpoise swims they're capable of speeds of up to 30 knots which is just as well when they're confronted by killer whales a part of eight killer whales is found an even bigger school of downpours the water turns white as the and the porpoise try to avoid them both species are colored black and white with other whales a much larger more threatening these whales really are killers nan de ter porpoise apart if they can catch them it's an amazing display one that lasts several hours and only ends when the purpose eventually outswim the killer whales during the Arctic summer humpback whales are also highly visible having just completed a long migration they're in the mood to cavort it's in the waters of the Arctic but they also display their very successful fishing technique it's known as bubble netting several humpbacks at a time break the surface together their mouths are gape to swallow hundreds of fish at a time before each of these catches the hum facts will have swum up under the school of fish releasing bubbles simultaneously to surround and trap the fish it's a process there are feet time and again slowly decimating the school of fish as they associate their own massive and voracious appetites one species that was almost hunted to extinction is the sea otter a ban on hunting means they're enjoying a remarkable comeback particularly along the Alaskan coastline where most wild animals stop playing once they become adults not so the sea otters feeding is something they accomplished laying on their backs breaking up in giant muscles and tearing away at the flesh to keep warm they'll often wrap themselves in kelp and to rid themselves of irritating sea lice they'll scratch furiously mating occurs on the water's surface the results of which are a litter of between 1 and 5 carried by mother until they're quite mature all around the Arctic oceans a whole range of birds are remarkably active brightly colored puffins can be seen nesting alongside the water where they'll lay a single egg known as sea parrots the puffin is easily identified by its colorful compressed beak on the wing they can often be seen flying with several small fish in their beaks and on the water they'll group together in colonies puffins are among a number of Arctic birds which use their wings to propel themselves deep below the surface in pursuit of fish another notorious diver is the surfs Kota these migratory birds will all dive one after another in their quest for muscles half a minute or so underwater and they all resurface together but if any bird can claim itself emperor of the Arctic it's the bald eagle wherever there's a group of small fish the bald eagles will congregate swooping together on a mast fishing hunt with their talons extended they swoop scooping the fish straight out of the water they actually eat their fish while they're still flying even the juvenile Eagles take part joining their parents at the end of the hunt these palled eagles will mate for life and with hunting now banned their numbers across North America are at last rising strongly the onset of winter brings with it a far harsher life for all the creatures of the Arctic caribou now have to find nourishment from the frozen bark and lichens of The Woodlands they're become adept at digging through the snow to find vegetation and the beautiful snowy owl uses his camouflage feathers to escape predators right across the Arctic oceans sea water turns to ice overnight as the Seas begin to freeze over many other species have to adapt walras begin gathering their ice floes they've been equipped with two huge tusks greatly enlarged canine teeth which they used to defend themselves this specimen puts his tusks to good use lodging them into the ice to hold him steady thus allowing him to sleep as the ice thickens still further that lord of the north the polar bear is forced to change his hunting tactics his quarry are the many species of seals that haul out on the ice this seal where's the freshly bloodied scars of a bear attack the bear remains close by foiled in his first bid he eyes off another seal and its newly born pup they have surfaced through a hole in the ice and are now exposed vulnerable to attack spotting them the bear charges off in pursuit his enthusiasm is too late this time the seals have escaped they've swamped were weakened hollow below the surface which the bear now tries to smash into using all of his weight and power he repeatedly crunches down on the ice it's a tactic which eventually pays off for the next hour the bear will devour as much of the carcass as he can it's a feast he'll sleep off content that he at least will survive in his wildest Arctic [Laughter] you

CureViolence Short Documentary Trailer

I'm from the hubris dark outside late nights you can't walk outside without a gun oh my god we was reading in letters and then a few minutes later we heard the shots down the street all I want is justice and I'm trying not to hear street justice first time I got shot at 18 then I got shot again at 21 I was just on a rage of revenge revenge revenge my first case I got caught with two guns a hundred bundles at two sending bundles of rocks and a stolen car I was 13 it's a violence profession program we're trying to prevent violence on the frontier whenever someone is shot staff to jumped on either myself or someone from my team go talk to the victim and the family right then in a crisis that's possible I was shot paralyzed at 18 I'll be 42 this year I ain't just change overnight all their life they've been in the streets they've been around high-risk situations they incite enough I incited them it was a dead end either I choose neither one when I came home I was looking to sell drugs she was like that ain't the way of life when I'm like can't do it cuz my criminal background she like I did it like why can't you do it it's good brother right here came to me and taught me how to let go when Eric dies actually came to took the gun out of my hand I'd be back in Jeff it wasn't for them we give them the platform and say you could change the life when everybody to be back you get these young balls see it differently if they could definitely win it that's it their violence works here on the island of Puerto Rico just as it does in Chicago Philadelphia and other parts of the world we're beautiful you

The Rob Ford Story – the fifth estate



Crack cocaine. Alcohol. Friends who have criminal backgrounds. Just over a year ago, Toronto Mayor Rob Ford stood next to Police Chief Bill Blair promising to fight gang crime. Now the two most powerful men in Canada’s largest city are locked in a struggle only one is likely to survive. the fifth estate’s Gillian Findlay has more on the man who has become the world’s most controversial mayor – and the real story behind that first notorious video.

Original airdate : November 8th, 2013

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have you done any illegal drugs since you've been there have you tried to obtain the video sir first it was denial no pain nor six months later confession yes I have some multi crack cocaine tonight on the Fifth Estate the story of Rob Ford the secret police surveillance the mayor and his friends the notorious video and for the first time the man who was trying to sell it he's in a chair he's sitting back there's a person off camera asking questions in between the answering questions he's he's smoking the pipe good evening I'm Jillian Findlay if you have a pulse and you own a television set we're going to assume you've heard something about our story tonight every media organization certainly every late-night comedy show has taken its stab at explaining the saga of Toronto's Mayor Rob Ford well tonight we're going to piece it together for you in our own Fifth Estate fashion the real story of that crack video that started it all from one of the key players who's decided to come out of the shadows the whole tale is so sordid and bizarre so fast changing and unpredictable no one knows where it's going to end but it's a tale that has rocked this city to its core it was chaos two summers ago in Toronto's biggest downtown shopping mall a shooter had just opened fire gang's settling scores had long plagued some of the city's troubled suburbs but now it had arrived in the center the center was really as the victims were rushed away two bystanders injured an alleged Somali drug dealer dead Toronto's mayor arrived on the scene to offer assurance tonight it was absolutely terrible and I'm down here just offered my support to the police and we want to make sure these people are apprehended and arrested on whoever committed this terrible crime but the shootings continued it would be a bloody summer as groups of young criminals battled it out for territory and supremacy in July the mayor appeared with his chief of police promising a crackdown the two most powerful men in the city what neither could know is that in less than a year one would stand accused of being part of the drugs and gangs culture he was vowing to stamp out the other would be among the accusers we're all shocked by by icing for that kind of brazen kind of violence take place in a public area like that the mood was we knew it was it was not good mohamed farrah is a community organizer in one of the neighborhoods often associated with violence Dixon it's called home to thousands of Somali immigrants in a tough place Farah has earned a reputation as a peacemaker he says few and Dixon had much hope the mayor's crackdown would make a difference nobody really paid attention to the message that came out of the chief and the mayor because it wasn't something that that we could relate to you know what I mean like it wasn't like that we could say okay you know okay yeah well they're at they're good they're gonna protect us like people get shot every day they didn't believe that it was gonna make any difference in your neighborhood no no no you would not what the people of Dixon didn't know is that the police already had a massive undercover investigation underway watching some of the neighborhood's most notorious suspects listening into thousands of conversations via wiretaps the operation would later be revealed as project traveller and what police heard on those wires would implicate dozens in the community but also eventually reach high into the corridors of city power right to the office of Toronto's mayor but all that was yet to come that's summer of 2012 Rob Ford was confidently telling the city he was a guy to clean it up this is definitely like I said before the safest city in the world I encourage people to come to the city to go out stay at our hotels eat our restaurants go to our museums like catch a game at the Rogers Center and the people that live in the city go about your lies like you do every day Rob Ford City has never been the downtown core his support has always flowed from the outlying suburbs from the immigrant communities like Dixon but also from the leafy streets of places like Etobicoke where he grew up as teenagers he an older brother Doug were known as the party guys Rob still remembered as the go-to kid for drugs oh I smoked it with Rob probably smoked marijuana or hash five or six times this man was a high school friend of Fords Rob was a drug dealer at Scarlet Heights collegiate in my era Rob would brag about it and even 25 years later he's afraid to be identified I don't know what you can expect from the Ford family and their friends associates and the type of people that he's hanging around I've long associated drugs and violence together and I don't want to have any part of that affecting mine in my family's lives the Fords have always been slightly intimidating Rob Ford's father Doug senior he was the family's first politician a plain talking conservative back-bencher who from nothing built a multi-million dollar printing business that would finance the ambitions of Ford politicians to come and a lot of people know me and they know my attitude and I'm a straight shooter I talked to people face-to-face I went in the Somali community I went in the Chinese people I went into dark people black people whatever you want those oriental people work like dogs Robert seemed had his father's penchant for straight talk and as a newly elected councillor a reputation for swimming against the tide it's a matter of Legion that there were countless votes of 44 to 1 and Rob Ford would be the outlier with the one vote in opposition to everyone else John Parker sat on City Council with Ford and later supported him for mayor what but he revels in is the the image of a battler who's whose who sees the bureaucracy who sees the enemy out there who sees the lefties who sees the bicycle riders that bean sprout' eaters and he's doing his best to represent the interest of ordinary folk against all those as it were elites who seemed to be in positions of power and influence and authority in a city hirato a battler on council he had a pretty rough-and-tumble private life too in 2006 a drunken Rob Ford was removed from a hockey game after calling a fan a right-wing commie bastard and asking his wife if she wanted to get raped in Iran when the couple complained Ford at first denied even being at the game he later apologized all I can do is say I'm sorry I've said that and they sincerely mean it and he's got to keep doing my job sound familiar when a story went round that he'd once been arrested for drunk driving in Florida Ford insisted that hadn't happened either when reporters found proof he had to admit the DUI and that Florida police had also charged him with possessing marijuana I entered a guilty plea for failing to provide a breath sample in 2008 though the allegations turned darker police were called to Ford's home his wife was accusing him of assault there's no secret our families had some trials and tribulations and I just got a weather the storm and keep moving on the charge was eventually dropped but the family's trials continued his sister was publicly revealed as a recovering heroin addict whatever personal turmoil that may have caused in public Ford advocated a get-tough policy on drugs here in a 2005 CBC documentary about Toronto's growing problem with crack cocaine but I mean tough like no-nonsense and this bleeding heart approach is not working what are they going to do to our families what are they going to do when they break into your house for five dollars if it's as highly addictive of everyone saying they'll go crazy for tough guy tough love whether it was coaching at-risk high school kids or saving taxpayers another dime counselor Ford was always in the game to win and in October 2010 he did becoming mayor of Canada's largest city almost overnight you could feel the shift at City Hall his predecessor had chosen Ontario's top judge to swear him into office as his special guest Rob Ford chose this man palak's Lam we're at pickle for all the pickles out there that ride bicycles and again never a natural in front of the cameras it's clear in those early days the new mayor was trying courting the media with his public efforts to lose weight but somehow things never seemed to cut his way soon this video was making the rounds on YouTube the dieting mayor popping in for some fast food he was caught reading when he should have been driving flipping the finger to another motorist but then there was this the mayor out on the town with fellow council members and then when we post for the photo and he grabbed my my ass I kind of went okay this is wrong for denied that – there were other stories of drinking random photos popping up on social media the mayor clearly having a good time and clearly not at City Hall and we started seeing a real drop-off in the workload so we knew something was going on Robin Doolittle cover City Hall for the Toronto Star and then there were all these photos that kept popping up on Twitter of him at L CBO's buying mickey's of Russian Prince vodka what does that mean who knows it's just another piece of this puzzle the puzzle wasn't yet clear but it was disturbing especially when stories leaked out about what happened at this pub on st. Patrick's Day and they are so drunk he could barely walk he later returned to City Hall where security guard saw him stumbling and swearing brandishing a half-empty bottle of brandy he started talking to his staff and very early on they were saying you know this this guy needs help and we really are hoping we're trying to get him we're trying to get him help or trying to convince him that he needs to go to a treatment center and get help it doesn't appear he took the advice the Stars next big headline Toronto's mayor so intoxicated he was asked to leave a charity ball you've all known about it that this has been the worst kept secret city hall councillor adam vaughn is one of Ford's biggest opponents you have a drinking problem does he have a drug problem I think that I think that if if you show up at work with an open bottle of alcohol and you're clearly out of control whether you have a drinking problem that night or a drinking problem in your life it's it's it's it doesn't really matter anymore you've you've allowed alcohol to have an impact on your performance of duties so when those duties are public duties you've betrayed a trust to the public it doesn't matter whether it's alcoholism or or binge drinking or just a bad night you've crossed the line but on May 16th it would all be trumped by this the star and a u.s. website reporting the mayor of Toronto caught in a video smoking what appeared to be crack cocaine and this photograph Rob Ford with three young men from Dixon when we come back the story of the notorious video he's in a chair he sees he's sitting back he's smoking the pipe the Toronto neighborhood of Dixon has a long reputation for guns and games but tucked in behind the high-rises a bungalow that will play an important role in the story of Rob Ford I heard his name come up as someone that kind of hangs out once in a while comes their drive-through and watch his hockey game has a few beers jo suji's you know what some of the guys in the house that was 2011 but community worker Mohamed Farah says soon the rumors weren't just about beer last summer that's when I heard that the mayor those hardcore drugs crack cocaine for example and and and and that was the conversation I had with young people that I mentor so you were hearing from these kids that you were mentoring that Rob Ford was doing hardcore drugs at 15 winter Drive it was yeah yeah and that was that was a general room that I was in in in the community and then one day last January a young man approached him with something very specific so he showed me one video of me often and when I seen that video it was pretty shocking arm I think I'm I was taken back by it you were one of the very few people who has actually seen this video so can you describe what you saw he he's in a chair he sees he's sitting back there's a person off camera asking questions he just caught he and in between the answering questions he's he's smoking the pipe it was Easter morning when Toronto Star reporter Robyn Doolin got a call I got a phone call around 9:00 a.m. from a young man and he said he needed to speak with me urgently and he was very nervous he said that he had a video of the mayor of Toronto smoking crack mm-hmm somebody you knew it had previous encounters with no I had no idea who this person was but there was just something about is what he that the tone of his voice that it sounded sincere so Doolittle asked the man for a meeting in its coverage of the story the store describes the man as the broker his identity secret we can now reveal the broker was none other than Mohammed Farah tonight telling his story publicly for the first time Mohammed why are you doing this interview people need to know the truth I think people need to know what happened from the beginning of the story telling what's going on right now I think I'm in a personal actually fill in those gaps why did he so he comes to you he says he's got a video what did he want you to do with it he been up his mind that he wanted to solve the video at that time he said look I want to get married you know I have a girl I do love her she's not happy with with having she wants asked him more concrete for her future and and I feel like I need to leave the city to start over again fara won't name the man who showed him the video but the star reported it was Mohamed Siad an alleged Dixon gang member and drug trafficker in the beginning doolittle was confused about what the two men were really after initially they were talking about just doing this for altruistic reasons they want this story out this is important the mayor shouldn't be doing this he's exploiting these these young people and then on the other hand saying well we want $100,000 the store wasn't about to pay that especially since their reporters hadn't even seen the video and so Farrah arranged another me so we're sitting in this Plaza it's about ten o'clock at night in and around ten o'clock and he picked us up he said leave your cell phones and your bags in your car and get in this car he drove them to the parking lot near the Dixon high-rises and a another young man came and sat in the back and he had scabs up his arm and he looked very nervous he pulled out a cell phone and didn't want to talk just wanted to get down to business so what did they show you the second that the phone turned on it was obviously Rob Ford and he's wearing a white button-up shirt that's kind of about short sleeves and it's hanging open by the chest and he's obviously completely out of it the mayor says yeah just Justin Trudeau's a fag and around this point he he holds up what's in his hand and it's a clear tube and then in the other hand with a lighter he cooks it from below and inhales and exhales and smoke comes out and he was clearly kind of cooking it from below as a boat like a crack pipe as opposed to curling it around like a marijuana pipe or a tobacco pipe and then it ended the phone rang in the in the video we were watching and the mayor looks directly at the camera and says that better not be on and then it goes black the negotiations with the star went back and forth for a month what the reporters didn't know is that Farah had also shown the video to the American website Gawker when it looked like the star was backing away from the negotiations Gawker moved in and on May 16th the story of Toronto's crack smoking mayor went viral neither Gawker nor the star had the video but both had been given this a photo of Rob Ford posing with three young man it didn't take reporters long to figure out where the photo was taken that house at 15 Windsor Drive or who the young man really were gang members according to police one of whom Anthony Smith had been murdered just two months earlier the next morning at his house mayor Ford had to deal with reporters for more than a week he would keep his silence refusing to explain anything therefore is this hurt so far but back in Dixon there was no end to the talk about that now famous video when Gawker announced it was raising money to buy the tape it became hot property and Dixon became a magnet for all kinds of visitors there was some people in the neighborhood I would say people that are an organized crime that drove in and insured people suitcase of money said hey look whoever has video put him in contact with us this is their cash that's dumb money they were literally showing people suitcases oh hush yeah yeah coming in in in fancy cars in showing cash look I want you know Tom here's my number give him a call but it wasn't just gold diggers who were looking for the video Farrah started hearing about phone calls from people he was told had close connections to the mayor there was phone calls coming in from people claiming to be ex-military claiming to be a police officer saying look if you guys don't pass the video or find the video well arrest you guys or we'll have you guys executed or something some crazy stuff like that there were threats made a rational threats made yet on behalf of the mayor or the mayor on behalf of the mayor's away they said they were calling on behalf of robbers right right we're people scared during those days I mean yeah be more scared yeah now don't forget while all this furor was happening over the video police still had those wiretaps running for their guns and gangs investigation dozens in Dixon were under surveillance so whatever was being discussed was now part of a police investigation that would soon be expanded to include that video Farah says as soon as the media storm hit his contact disappeared he was gone before the article and the next day he was in the papers that same night he left and what happened to the video I have no idea did you ever hear of it or see it again no that was the end of it eight days later Toronto's mayor finally gave some answers as for a video I cannot comment on a video that I've never seen or does not exist when we come back police descend on Dixon and the mayor's behavior puts the chief in a tough spot reason any illegal drug free shipping there have you tried to obtain the video sir this story of Mayor Rob Ford in the crack video hit Toronto like a bombshell step aside until the area's clear weeks the questions did not stop careful deputy mayor has don't lose resign as the embattled mayor hid from the media police were planning a bold move early morning June 13 tactical teams from 17 different police agencies descended on the neighborhood of Dixon it was the culmination of that secret guns and gangs investigation they'd started a year earlier among the apartments targeted the one will mohamed farrah and his mother lived i heard two bangs I thought I was someone was shooting the hallway or those so kind of fight going on so I came running out of my room Chauncey was going on and as soon as I came out there was a hole in my door and it threw a stun grenade through it so I ran into a grenade like a stun grenade or whatever it was flash grenade so I ran into that and it kind of got me a little bit woozy so I seen tactical guys come in there with their machine guns you know I knew this was something serious so I kind of cooperated hammer hands down to this day fara has no idea why police wanted to search his place he has no criminal record though his brother has history with the law and at the time was registered as living in the high-rise after searching for an hour the police discovered a gun people that know me I mean I've only been you know what to carry gone around and then my mother's not a person that's you know and she she never been in trouble as long where did the gun come from they found the gun in the laundry room mm-hmm it was rolled up in a carpet or something like that so I don't know whose turn it is I don't know how I got there forty-four people were arrested that day including farah his mother and his brother also arrested Mohammed SIA the man fara had been helping shop the Rob Ford video and the two surviving young men in that famous photo the charges laid that day had nothing to do with the photo or the video but that didn't stop people thinking that all of this was really about the mayor all he told me was the only it's not only your unit it's the whole building and this is happening because of Rob Ford when he was asked whether the raid had anything to do with Rob Ford Chief Blair had a chance to exonerate the mayor but he ducked the question not able to disclose any of the investigative methodologies that were employed in this case or to dispose any of the evidence that has obtained as an appropriate place for that evidence to be made public and this record of law what wasn't made public that day is what we now know that 48 hours after the story about the video broke police indeed had started another secret investigation to look into it they would go to astonishing lengths deploying huge resources to track a single black Range Rover police would tail it for months all across the city they even tracked it from the air the journey would take them into some of Toronto's darkest corners because inside the Range Rover was a man with a history of violence and drugs Sandra Lee see who the surveillance would soon reveal had a remarkably close relationship with Toronto's mayor your focus on this wouldn't necessarily be directly with Mayor Rob Ford it would be the drug dealers and because Alexandra Lisi has the criminal record involving drugs that to me is where the focus of the investigation should be we asked retired detective Mike Davis to help us understand the parts of the investigation police have made public they started monitoring Lisi one month after the video story broke tracking his phone calls watching him with cameras night and day among the places they followed him to was that infamous house at 15 Windsor Drive and to more than twenty meetings in all kinds of places with the mayor on several occasions police watched as packages were left and then there was an evening in July security cameras caught some strange comings and goings at this Esso station the station is just 350 meters from Rob Ford's home and yet there's the mayor heading to the bathroom a few minutes later Lisa is spotted arriving carrying a manila envelope he by something he looks around and then still holding the envelope he passes very close to the passenger side of the mayor's car three minutes later the mayor is back and gets into his car and drives away and you're all pretty suspicious to Mike Davis well first of all the behavior of Lisa I mean his behavior is typical of a person involved in drugs that is either trafficking drugs or or being a you know he's participating in the drug trafficking business his behavior is it cries out but despite that behavior police do nothing to stop either lessee or the mayor they certainly don't get a search warrant and who's to say afford would ever allow you into the car to to search his car you had no grounds to do that anyways as far as that goes even that even though there's published reports accusing him of smoking cocaine he's associating with known drug dealers you've you've had him under he and lessee under surveillance for months at the time with all kinds of suspicious meetings you don't have grounds at that point to check his car and say excuse me mayor Ford but we want to know what's in that package no no you don't have grounds if that was a black kid from some neighborhoods in this city do you not think that that car would have been searched no you have to have the grounds to do that or else we're doing something illegally and people out there a kid can can say that the police should have done this should have done that should have pulled mr. Ford over and they would have seen for sure whether he had drugs or not you know that's not the way the police operate the police operate on evidence clear evidence and before they they make any move but clay Ruby longtime defense lawyer and Rob Ford critic calls that nonsense if I watch Lisa do a a drop-off to the mayor's car and the mayor's somewhere else that's the whole point of the drop-off to separate the mayor from the drugs I pick a phone that called JP and I got a ton a warrant three minutes later I'm lawfully in that car seizing those drugs taking a sample putting them back this is not rocket science police eventually caught Lisi in a sting operation and after all that costly surveillance charged him with trafficking marijuana as for the mayor he was never even questioned so why didn't they arrest him to me it is inexplicable but Chief Blair acts as if it needs no explanation like it was perfectly obvious well why would we arrest the mayor there was a zillion pieces of evidence going through their hands and they never picked it up they doesn't let it slip through their hands what would soon become clear is that whatever the concerns about drugs police were pursuing bigger things – as part of their investigation they retrieved all of Lisa's phone records and quickly zeroed in on three specific days May 16th to 18th immediately before and right after the story of the video broke the pattern of calls was revealing Lisi calling Muhammad SIA the man who had the crack video Lisi calling 15 Windsor Drive and in-between 13 times Lisi on the phone with Mayor Ford on October 31st Lisi was arrested and charged again this time with the more serious offense of extortion allegedly threatening violence in an effort to get that video but just hours later it would all be overshadowed by this stunning announcement I've been advised that we are now in possession of a recovered digital video file yes police finally had it the crack video the mayor was still insisting didn't exist it was a game changer and the chief knew it well I think as a citizen of Toronto I'm disappointed this I know this this is a traumatic issue for the citizens of the city and for the reputation of the city and that concerns me the chief and the mayor who'd once stood shoulder-to-shoulder vowing to fight drug crime together now locked in mortal combat the mayor comes clean sorry yes I have some look to crack cocaine but no do I and might addict know when have you have I tried it um probably in one of my drunken stupors the speed at which it all unraveled was breathtaking for half a year Toronto's mayor had insisted there was no video showing him smoking crack cocaine now a man a close friend of the mayor's had been charged with extortion allegedly threatening people to find the video for any other politician that might have been fatal but these are the Fords a political plan that never says die the mayor's first response on his weekly radio show was calculated I'm not holier than now so I'm not gonna sit here and say I'm never gonna drink again that's not realistic absolution but don't say for what then attack big brother Doug sent out to take on his new sworn enemy the police chief calling on Bill Blair to resign we have the most political police chief I've ever seen the police chief believes he's the judge the jury and the executioner but something had clearly happened less than four hours later there was Rob Ford again almost begging reporters to let him make a confession you asked me you asked me a question back in May and you can repeat that question do you smoke crack cocaine exactly yes I have some look to crack cocaine from there it was the short familiar path to the apology and the promise once again to move on I have nothing left to hide but the past is the past these mistakes will never ever ever happen again but this time it may not be so easy there are serious questions he still won't answer what exactly is the mayor's relationship with those people at fifteen Windsor Drive the three young men in that photo one of them dead two now up on gang related charges if his friend Sandra Lisi was indeed extorting people to get the crack tape what was the mayor telling him in all those phone calls and just how many more embarrassing videos can there be this one recently obtained by the Toronto Star shows a very agitated and angry mayor of Toronto with so many people friends and foes pleading with him to resign and get help it's hard to believe Rob Ford still thinks sorry is going to cut it but apparently he does all I can say is again gain of a mistakes in contrast to all of that back in Dixon life is quieter dozens of people still face charges from those raids Mohamed Siad is in jail waiting to be tried on drug trafficking and gun-running charges what's probably safe to say the Rob Ford video is the most explosive thing he's ever handled he felt like he had a live grenade in his hand as for the would-be broker Mohamed Farah he's awaiting his own trial on that gun possession charge but he has no regrets about his decision to come out of the shadows I felt like if I didn't come out and tell my story and and kind of I just at this moment at this crucial moment that um that the mama community would be affected and our voice would be lost why should we believe what you're saying I'm telling you the video I've seen I'm not trying to make him believe anything I'm telling the facts the fact he finds most troubling is what he calls the hypocrisy revealed by the whole saga of Rob Ford if there was an investigation happening everyone should have been a symbol he lied to the people follow he's a sorry all's forgiven a lot of these guys are sorry to get arrested okay I'm sorry I'm sorry from being arrested Who am I being forgiven right now I'm not I'm being held accountable ready so daily did he need some held accountable for his actions the deputy mayor has resigned believe you normally ask you to join Bob Sanders Day 2012 where those obligations about how to take true bear now it's hard to believe that in a story that's already had so many twists and turns that everyone is predicting even more bombshells to come as amazing as it may seem there is another city that once went through this an embattled mayor caught using crack cocaine Bob McEwan brought back that story from Washington DC and you can find it on our website but stay with us now the Fifth Estate will return

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it's like being dead for ten seconds like everything's just gone we're in Kalispell Montana it's in the Flathead Valley it's just really available you can go out back and get a bag of dope you know it's just so prevalent here that it's the drug to do and it's not just us Punk teenagers a lot of people are doing this James alright those holy fucking a yeah yeah it's just it's like the biggest head rush in the world like you can't hear for a little bit can't breathe so you can't see to understand how we could get addicted to this but I feel so good right now better than any any sober person has ever felt the whole entire life that's what they don't know who got this stuff follow me Graham and Kenny are all to me how much the bad cost $50 how much did he does and you're good I used to be strong athletic kid I was i run the mile now i wanna belong though i have i have stretch marks on my back from i lost like 30 pounds it's it's hardcore like my my muscle tone it heats your muscle but this all happened in like the first month if that but it just drastically affected my body like that then was the last time you got huh that's how i purchased a ground yeah it's not quite a bit of it now you're gonna hide it's in addiction this is like $35 worth which you can't normally get but actually this will get them one ball and this'll give me one shot all you can think about you don't have any other priorities in life if you're doing this stuff you don't have aspirations to be anything else what a user but that's all you end up to be because that's what exactly what it does it just makes you want to use more and more and more I mean I was doing fine I had a job you know I had a really nice truck everything my truck got repo'd I got kicked out of my apartment I was fired you know just and it happened so quick and even even have a chance to realize it happened until it's already there what are you doing there Chris I'm putting it in the spoon why cuz I'm gonna cook but I don't even bother smoking yeah I can't even get high yeah yeah what are you doing they're dissolving it I was under the impression that that was done to boil the impurities away horseshit the whole thing isn't impurity you take it and take the risk whatever the heck happens yeah well I'm gonna look in a mirror man okay I can't see my oh you're still in the neck buddy I burst the two veins in my arms before some biggest things around a day big shots like half a gram for one shot and then keep going on and on I was a perfectly fine person I was skipped ahead in school I joined the military I did everything right first day I was back in Montana through the military first person that I met offered me it because that's when I started it's a head rush I can't even describe it's a horrible head rush it's just a poor way of self-medication basically it's just a way to hide your feelings when I look in the mirror I discuss it with myself and ashamed there's I don't know what happened to myself wasn't a druggie in high school or anything like that I just happened to be at a party one time where they had it and I was willing to try it because everybody else did more of a peer pressure type deal before math I had a ton of friends I was outgoing you know I ran six miles everyday I had the trust from people I was very well-liked in my community meth took all that away from me meth takes such control over you and it's something that your body feels it needs and you're gonna do anything and be willing to do anything to get it I would sleep with men for meth mainly my dealers and stuff like that or my boyfriend would put me out there to sleep with men for math after doing a shot of meth the main thing to do afterwards was have a hard sex whether it be them tying you up on the bed and pouring candle wax over your vaginal area to put you through pain the guys got off on that you know using knives to cut you in any part of your body just to make little slits taking bigger objects towards your vaginal area objects that shouldn't have been there one instances they used a bat at one point baseball bat yeah yeah when I look at myself in the mirror you know without clothes on and I see those scars yes it brings up it brings up all the memories you know all the horrific things that we're done all the horrific things that I agreed to do it doesn't happen trying to get your next fix there's no shame when it comes to this stuff you know you lose a lot of what you are as a person you know pretty much everybody I know who who's involved with dope it's all the even lying lying cheating and stealing that's all it is this is my kitchen I think you see I don't do it very much clean oh this is just dirty dishes us one of my bicycle then I have a dog and they ran a yard for him to run around and some days it gets pretty bad you become uncivilized if my grandma came here and seen saying my house look like fish she'd kick my ass I went out when I'm going to my grandma's house up in Rocky what I do nothing but clean and help her cook and yeah she keep eatin but in my eyes this is a normal life the dope game is pretty much the only thing I know I've been doing it a lot of like remember and I don't know very many other people when they're 11 12 years old rolling around with a pocket full of doping as much money as I shit I wish I could still be 12 years old how the money and dope I had now well I know it's all gonna come to an end and it's all gonna come crashing down and I'm going to be going to jail for it they think when you get like this you think that's only way of life there's out there it's not it's not it you don't exist I lived in my bedroom for the past six years you don't exist do you really don't show yourself out my dope Kawas came first and my girls didn't mean nothing to me I don't meant more I'm pretty much after her kids got taken away from her she just kind of brought on a downward spiral in sorry I ever since they got taking like it's been one big haze for just one big long stretch of just getting high and constantly yeah they were just they wanted a mom and I wasn't the mom I know I want to have a normal life with one but it's hard to get out of her life because it's easy it's son get-rich-quick some some babies right here which like to put your drugs and these to sell and how much how much don't you move I like to use this right here is a locally this is what you put your meth in there's some meth crystal meth devil's dandruff what I like to call it that was a $25 I just smoked up right there in about five or six hits it was pretty much worthless because now it's just about gone and you know I want more and it's just pure evil and I hate myself for just doing it right now but that ain't gonna stop me from doing more no if I remember who gave it to me the first time I did it I probably wanna shoot them very first time that they used methamphetamine they're in big trouble methamphetamine Jazz's the nervous system this is everything is sped up heart rate blood pressure you know that the everybody knows the term fight-or-flight this the first time I take methamphetamine I can have a stroke or I can have a heart attack clearly if you're a middle-aged person using meth you're just like Russian Roulette and if you're using big-time stimulants that can even kill a young healthy college athlete for people who smoke or inject methamphetamine it's going to hit the brain very quickly within seconds it's an ecstasy unlike any other drug that works on the neurotransmitter dopamine causes dopamine to just dump into the synapse start charging all the cells around it and it causes an incredibly fast euphoric rush this is very much like the euphoria that people get with orgasms in addition to dropping all of that dopamine out it then gets into the cell and explodes the vesicles that carry dopamine so eventually then any pleasure that a person feels who's using the drug they're only getting it from the drug their body ceases to be able to create that sense of pleasure people want that feeling again people often are self-medicating trying to get out of their depression I'm a Chippewa curry from rocky boy reservation everything is totally different of them there's just some traditions that you stick to like elders and stuff people respect the elders a lot you know and stuff like that but most of them you know in traditional Indians they don't stick to the traditional ways in the 30 years that I've been teaching we've had problems with drinking using pot but I've never seen it escalate in such a hurry meth is more dangerous it's so easy to get on the reservation and it's cheap young kids can get their hands on it I'm afraid we're going to have a tribe full of zombies it is just it's just so sad methamphetamine is an epidemic on this reservation I don't think the crow nation can stand by and lose a generation of its young people this methamphetamine use is chilies we have to realize that our kids have to realize that you know I look I look back on history and I look at you know how hard tribe has been put on reservations and smallpox and things like that but it didn't wipe out our reservation this has been the worst and just experiencing it personally I mean I know how terrible it is I know how hard it is to kick the habit my biggest regret from using from using mass husband what I've what I've done to my children and to my family when my mother was on meth it was tough trying to take care of my two brothers me and him when we were younger my mom and dad would leave us at the mall from the morning till the evening till closing just so they could do they do meth there's one thing I want you to know you know I had one son four years ago February 17th I lost my son we got in a real bad car accident but it was because of methamphetamine use and that hurts me you know I don't want other parents to go through what I go through every day thinking about the son I had my only son I should have been more close to him I should have said son I love you let's get together let's take care of this problem together I didn't do that I should have done it people need to know what their kids are doing they need to be involved with their kids I really could not imagine a world without our tribe in it because initially I guess I I think about my children and their children's children usually gotta figure out my dodgy magically gggg I'm hoping the Native Americans and the white society in the state of Montana if they could just come together and work together to save all our children in getting rid of this plague that's upon us maybe we can we can beat it I lied to my mom I spend way too much money I do things I shouldn't do I it's eventually you just do things to get money where all your money goes towards like I could have so much stuff right now it's the amount of money I spend on drugs and people you know people I own I've heard a lot of things about people doing degrading and embarrassing things I never did anything sexual for drugs but I watched how much the other girls do it all the time they would or guys mostly because one of the biggest connections around here just happens to be a gay pedophile so if you're a young boy and you want to get high go over to his house I don't know maybe he'll just sit there and you'll jack off in front of you and he'll give you a ballpark I was playing with my 10 month old nephew down on the floor and I had a couple of eight balls of meth my pocket and when I left I got back into town and I realized that I was missing one of them and all I could worry about was where my drugs were at at that point I went back to the house to see if I could find the Evolve meth laying on the floor somewhere without my mom noticing and when I got there she told me to leave and the cops were on their way because my nephew at home picked it up and it almost swallowed it I needed to get high so I was robbing a bunch of people's houses and this guy woke up when I was in his house and I'd smashed his face God has stitch it from one side of his face down to the other side of his face and all I was worried about was getting high and getting away I guess be present for him I mean the stunt she's been pulling tonight I mean I'm afraid to come home sometimes right there on my hand I had my head cracked open with the baseball bat somebody thought I had some dope I've had people I can come down and shoot me just because he's been ripping people off now this really made him a demon I do just about anything for drugs but still for my own dad my brother and I'm glad I don't have no kids because I'd probably robbed them of their futures I'd sell myself if I had to not not to a guide them why is he still alive why they call him weasel he's just crafty sly and he's just has dodged a bullet it's gonna catch up with him our congressmen have identified that Cascade County is a high intensity drug trafficking area we worked dope 24/7 that's all we do right now with the emphasis on meth because it's our biggest problem last week we did a series of drug busts it's gonna be a CI by at the Lidl here's a picture of our friendly where you go they're a tough guy a couple was in a motel room and had some meth or narcotics in their room we located some marijuana cash methamphetamines scales and paraphernalia any no no see oh there so they were selling out of their room we gave them the option not to go to jail today and to help law enforcement out we had them call some of their suppliers and also some of their customers let's call Kris just play the game so why do you know what get anything no do you know how to get any dope we say about 15 minutes we would take him down Hey you called us up and ordered up dough you got caught game over now you know you had a map on ya you know you came and tried to buy dough okay who's the dude you really have to help herself out here okay lunch of Jesus a conversation Paulo was kind of she's obviously an addict but she was wrong place at the wrong time the night of our bust rested me handcuffed me and I gave them all the stuff that I had on me who else is playing a doping might tell me the whole town of great falls asleep you don't know but I can't arrest the whole time write out a complaint against the town of Great Falls oh pretty much she damn near rested half the people that hurt the main hot cups in town okay war who's the other half the local law enforcement alone will not stop the meth problem in Montana we can barely make a dent in it without the public's help and again going after the demand for meth it's gonna be a continuous problem my mom helped me get into another apartment um she got me a car I bought so much money from her couldn't keep my own jobs and my car broke down I got evicted mmm I realized my little brother was watching me go from you know 190 pounds to 150 in a matter of months never seem to sleep gone for weeks at a time just appear for a little bit to maybe get food or get something else a house I could pawn my parents made me give my dogs away I only have nothing no responsibilities what so do anything just float by and I suppose it's not just teenagers it's not just your early 20s it's women as well as men but women who have children what it is doing to that environment I think one of the most outrageous effects of methamphetamine is the total disregard that these addicts have for their families when I would call their call it April's house the kids were answering the phone all moms in the bedroom let me go get her all I wanted to do was at first I didn't think she was because I wasn't seeing the effects I wasn't seeing the dramatic weight loss I had a very good job then then I picked up meth and it went downhill from there I started dealing meth and found that it made a lot quicker money than working nobody was working and there was money I kept saying April it better not be what I think it is and it's no mom no it's not going on I had just separated from my ex-husband and I was down and thought that might bring me up yeah brought me up for a while and then they came crashing down there was a substantial risk of death or serious bodily injury to your children yes sir Ben is convicted thereon of the offense of criminal endangerment of felony as alleged count three of the information when I found out for sure that April and her boyfriend were using meth a lot I became very very angry with her every conversation was a fight what the hell are you doing if you choose to go do drugs then that will be your choice but I will take your children away from you for their safety there was a stabbing at my house he got stabbed in the face by men that had kicked in my front door over 14 grams and then two weeks later there was a shooting no I don't belong in jail somebody said she was nothing but a predator I think anybody who has children if they do not have that instinct to protect then they shouldn't be a parent to begin with and I don't care if they're 4 or if they're 40 when somebody calls your child a predator it hurts it hurts that's pretty good you don't get none I'd like to things were pretty close natal me yeah i crystallized up nice doing you have to crack back mess it tasted really dopey because i think we don't just all we have is each other but it seems like we've all drifted way apart I mean my daughter doesn't want my granddaughter around me because I him and also because of his you know effect on me here right this like right match for me my brother met Sicily both effective lights and they both got good things come from my dad did raised and good he taught me right from wrong and he gave me the choices and I made the choices myself and I I made the wrong choices because I might Kim like he made the wrong choices and this is really killing my girlfriend right now she really wants to try some of it but I'm not gonna let her one is because I'm stingy and two is because she's too good to do it just to see that cloud of smoke I want to get high no no no I'll piss you off first if I let you ice is the best when you're pregnant I went through foster homes basically my whole life so I really never was taught anything about drugs I just knew that my mom was a user the night I first got high it was a conscious decision I was going out that night to get high me and my first kid's dad broke up I found out he was cheating on me and I took my first hit of meth it was powerful it made everything kind of go away everything that I was thinking about but that first high is the only really good high that you get you never feel as good as you did the whole rest of the time you're using you're just chasing that first high when the people in your life are worried about you and you hear people talking about how upset your family or your friends are they're the enemy because I looked at it like I wasn't hurting anybody not even myself his seemed like anything that made me feel so good you know couldn't hurt I don't steal from people I'm not scandalous I sing I'm talented you know and then when I'm on meth it's not anything you think about it all like how quickly you're going downhill within six or seven months my electricity was off my house was just filthy I was neglecting my child because you just can't connect with your kids when you're high you know I had two previous pregnancies and it was never a problem for me not to use and it was just weird how this time I didn't it's like I couldn't control it I wasn't thinking what would I do if this meth would ball my baby's heart you know I wasn't thinking about how fucked up that would be if my baby died inside of me how it just I worried about it and that just drove mine that just drove me you can time more because you don't want to think about it and then what if I would killed my baby you know to get high I'm not I mean that's not me at all you thinking I I just can't even believe I did it can't believe I used meth at all my pregnancy if you look at these are the ingredients iodine charcoal lighter red devil lie hydrogen peroxide heat we pour in our gas tanks Drano or drain cleaner their only ingredient here that is not a deadly poison is the sudafed and people are shooting this stuff into their circulatory system and consequently into their brain this was an exhibit in a in a trial these were found in the trunk of his car and it included this butane stove and he could go out into the National Forest very isolated and cook the meth there and he's not the only one doing this he's one that we caught all rise District Court is now in session the Honorable Ted look whispers writing please proceed first matters on the calendar of the state of Montana in count one meth is a factor in 80% of the cases either either in cases involving possession manufacture or sale or distribution of meth or cases involving behavior as a consequence of meth we first saw methamphetamine five years ago on a very very minor scale within the last two years we've seen a tidal wave of meth use hit here in Montana today I would say 80 to 85 percent of the people in the jail have some involvement with methamphetamine like the part I'm in right now you're looking forward to getting beat up getting checked out to know if you're a snitch or not you know they're gonna be hitting when they're checking so basically you're coming into a whole different world when you come into the jail no here it's kind of the jungle you know I mean you know if you're like a rattle boom you know you're a you've you dealt with on if you're talking to the cops no one just give them names of shit oh yeah you could dealt with you know broken arms get them out do you pay you get thrown off like the top tiers and anything you know the guards can't watch out to you all the time there's mean people here they're gonna make you do things that you don't want to do they'll call you a faggot all the time you could become homosexual you can become somebody's bitch a bitch is somebody that will get stripped down and they will rape you in jail will they will do they will rape you in jail they will you come here with money didn't took and they like that ask her take your ass to you know like John with Trey he's not a very nice person you know you don't you don't want to become somebody's bitch you don't it's no good in Montana women using meth is a big problem not that men isn't but they frequently will start out thinking it's a good way to lose weight two thirds of the women are a state prisoner therefore meth all young females are looking for acceptance they're looking in the wrong places here and once they get sucked into this culture it seems to be incredibly difficult to get away from it I graduated high school with honors I had a scholarship to SC a sports scholarship I chose drugs over that scholarship a boyfriend and I lost so much of my life because of that I'm a 16-time convicted felon before I started selling drugs I would saw myself for drugs I would you would do anything for the truck sex blowjobs things like that I didn't look as a prostitute because I'd never received money I just received drugs so basically I was a prostitute for drugs instead of money I was quite of a roadie on my senior year in high school I didn't graduate high school I was short credits to graduate because of my addiction the crowd I was hanging out with they were the older kids you know there were the seniors in high school they were you know they were the popular kids I wanted to fit in and they handed me a line and they said you know it feels great you'll never want to go back and I never did you know I mean you think you have all this time in the world but you don't because then you end up here but then if you look in that time the extent that I would go to I'm asking my analysis I would drink bleach and I used to get high only on weekends come Friday I would drink bleach go to my ear analysis for my probation officer and well kinda they're smiling and ready to do another loaded rage what a needle full of dope it's just the insanity of it and you would think after filling that way that you won't go back to it that just makes you want it even that much more because then you kind of start liking the insanity of it and you find comfort in it because it's familiar territory for you I was so spun I sat for over a day on my butcher block in my kitchen with the machete in one hand and knife in the other on my tiptoes the disease of methamphetamine use is addiction that's the disease the secondary manifestation of methamphetamine use people can become parkinsonian problems with movement problems with facial expression problems with tremor the Methos effects the mass change my whole speech and everything it I can't it's gave me like a lisp kind of thing sorta it's like it's like it won't come out as clear as it should I don't know it's chemicals or something did it it's changed my whole body it ruins you for good figure to think the talking thinking comes like because if your jaw doesn't your jaw hey it's missing it messed me up like it's gonna be long-term effects there probably won't go away some of them people who use the drug tend to continue to have negative effects even with two years of sobriety behind them so let's just go through your mouth real quick seven is missing 23 the destruction in her mouth is catastrophic the enamel wears away and is eaten away by this acid of the bacteria and invariably every tooth is affected there's very little we can do often and use it it means that we end up removing most of them and they end up with dentures at a very young age 7 years ago I started using really heavily meth has eaten them from the outside in I will most likely lose all my teeth before I leave give me a break we don't have to dig for any little root tips or anything so mess it tears you down tears you down it makes you so unhappy you think it's making you happy but it makes you so unhappy it makes you so unhappy that the only time your hat beat is the one you're on it the calm down it's horrible the worst thing in the world it's the worst depression you will ever have all you want to do is just like slit your wrists he just wanted to stop just anything he's nothing to make you feel happy there's no comfort anybody can give you when I see Krystal shoot up the the main thing that goes through my mind is what is she doing she had such you know such a promising career in front of her she did top placement in her classes and you know all their courses to be certified for police officer and then she just ruined it for a bit of powder room right now is I he has this whole life ahead of him but I really don't think he's gonna make it that far if he keeps doing what he's doing he's like dropped out at school got in trouble with the police pretty much revolves around getting high now he never looks at you straight anymore he's always moving around like his face and all he's doing weird stuff he's spun most of the time and I really haven't seen him sober a whole lot grams you started with first time with Johnny in his bedroom you know walked in on Johnny when he was smoking and and I got high with him and pretty much took off from there the next day he comes to me so suck me up again man I said oh we got a little feed do we you know and I gave him a lot of hell and I made fun of him and called him a fiend and a junkie and I made him feel like a real real asshole but I still hooked him up one day some people got ahold of Johnny told him that that they banged Grande they shot him up I said you shot up Graham do you know how fucking old he is he's all you had you I'm pretty sure that kid's gonna be a junkie man gran was only 15 at the time and you know he's already bangin and that's just the beginning of the end for anybody I'm like I don't like to look at it everything is pretty much gone downhill from there if he keeps doing this he will be dead before it reaches 30 just because of how quickly it escalates and then how fast your tolerance builds up I don't expect Graham to have the character to turn it around and figure his life out I expect him to overdose on meth then I don't want my kids to know this this is the reason of my accident because of the map yeah I did try to commit suicide math had to do with the depression and if I hadn't been depressed I wouldn't have been out there driving like I was and I would I wouldn't have thought of committing suicide and I went as fast as I could I was probably doing about 90 I just cranked it in the ditch as hard as I could and I had hit a tree um I knew at that point I couldn't move my legs I mean I knew right now I knew it if I can help one child out of this I will I'm sorry I just look at my own kids and my gosh they ever tried it I would oh I just I never want to see my children do this ever and I don't care whose child it is you know if I have one child it would be all worth it I probably wouldn't be clean from us today had the law not stepped in and forced me to go to treatment I went into in and out of jail so many times and that never seemed to work it took me going to an inpatient treatment center and I'm on my second or third outpatient treatment center right now this is TC 0 5-6 I've been a part of the treatment court program for a little over a year now it's an 18-month program how are you and it's been difficult but it's gave me a life that I once had what would be your alternative prison I've got four or five felonies on my record right now so that's where I would have gone what is a very critical component to a program is the relationship that the judge has with the participants because this is all about the accountability and responsibility so what happened to your job that's it why because I went to jail and for what other reason for drinking there's been lots of consequences because of that decision yes so what are you doing looking for another job yes have a job can't just be sitting around I understand that I became judge in 1997 before then I was the prosecutor in this county for 14 years I wasn't in favor of this program in the beginning I thought this is one of those touchy-feely kinds of programs I have the opportunity to see these people weekly or every other week to go through their whole recovery program with them and I'm gonna let you go to work it's the accountability them having to come here and confront me not only about the good things that they've done but about the bad decisions that they've made and to accept responsibility for that when there's a violation there's an immediate consequence and there's and we have a problem here this morning we recognize that a person who is in recovery probably will relapse what he used and you lied there's no hearing there's no delay there's an immediate consequence so you're going I'm going to send you to jail for 24 hours then you could be sitting over there for 18 months if you don't get through this and there's also rewards when they're doing well you have been in this program six months sober but look at what you've done you can just list them all off you have a place of your own to live you have a good job a steady job you're little much less fidgety we compliment them we praise them we applaud them what does the blue chip symbolize I see the blue skies are happen I'm still going to have three days six months of sobriety well I'm very grateful that you're here this morning so here's the chip first we set Graham up to Graham to his little dinner and had the cops arrest him at our dinner table yeah well you know you had to get him safe so then Graham got to get out of jail free because oh yeah they ran out of space so they effort it took me to get into a safe spot I got called how many days later Graham because they were crowded so that's the help you get um he's been stuck to me for 24/7 for the last six weeks he goes to work with me in the morning goes to lunch with me we tuck him in we give him the sleepy time tea a lot of counseling and probation mm-hmm a lot of stuff so it's all overwhelming I haven't talked to anybody I don't associated with anyone anymore it just hasn't come up you take a kid that's a straight-a student that can't even stay in a classroom now that is more interested on numbing himself then living life has some kind of preconceived notion in his brain that it's a lot easier to go that route versus reality I mean he is he does it mean to be it's not him but he's become deceitful he lies about the tiniest little things I it's I don't know I don't know he said that you only used it four times that's what you say so what does that mean that you don't use it as much you use it you don't use it you don't use it anymore at all no I did do it one for four times and so you haven't used math for how long come on mom's like this hon how do you do that how do you give up from what I hear one of the most addictive things on this planet how do you how do you give that up not as the attentive is you think it's not by my doubts how could I not how do you just use something and then just give it up something that's that powerful something that made him do things that he would never do so I don't know is that possible I mean what are we left with I mean I don't have the tools it takes I don't have what it takes I you know cob there will come a time where I'm tired if you turn 18 you'll look at me and if he's still doing this you'll say you know I'm 18 I'm gonna do what I want and then what then what do I have it sound a little bit more time if I have to play the gel or 24/7 that's what I'm gonna do how does it all end I don't know you tell me how does it all end my my body is nothing compared to what it was before for instance my thermostat in my body I can underline oh people are capable I know what I was capable of but the most consistent thing I've heard about meth is that meth is the devil that's the most consistent thing I've heard about every person even the people that are still using that will tell you that's the devil and their notes do it anyways but I guess I'm just in such a disbelief it's so hard to even project how you feel with such a devastating thing I don't know it's horrible yeah how do you how do you tell people how crappy it is you can't tell people it's just don't understand you just got to finally take somebody's word for it that it's shitty gonna fuck up your life so why even try in the first place but I think about that now I'd shoot myself in the head before I ever touch that shit again in my life you you trying to get your next fix there's no shame when it comes to this stuff you lose a lot of what you are as a person you know pretty much everybody I know who who's involved with dope it's all thieving lying lying cheating and stealing us all of these this is my kitchen very much clean oh this is just dirty dishes us what am i bicycle then I have a dog and they ran a yard for him to run around and some days it gets pretty bad he'd become uncivilized if my grandma came here and seen saying my house up like this she'd kick my ass I went up when I'm going to my grandma's house up in hockey what I do nothing but clean and help her cook and yeah she keep eatin but in my eyes this is a normal life the dope game is pretty much the only thing I know I've been doing it as I like to remember and I don't know very many other people when they're 11 12 years old rolling around with a pocket full of dope in as much money as I shit I wish I could still be 12 years old how the money and dope I had now but I know it's all going to come to an end and it's all gonna come crashing down and I'm going to be going to jail for it they think when you get like this you think that's only way of life there's out there and it's not it's not it you don't exist I lived in my bedroom for the past six years you don't exist do you really don't show yourself out my dope Kawas came first and my girls didn't mean nothing to me I don't meant more I'm pretty much after her kids got taken away from her she just kind of brought on a downward spiral in sorry ever since they got taken like it's been one big haze for just one big long stretch of just getting high constantly yeah they were just they wanted a mom and that wasn't the mom I want to have a normal life with Glenn but it's hard to get out of that life because it's easy money it's some get-rich-quick some some babies are here which like to put your drugs and these to sell and how much how much don't you move I like to use this right here is a locally this is what you put your meth in there's some meth crystal meth devil's dandruff what I like to call it that was a $25 that just smoked up right there in about five or six hits it was pretty much worthless because now it's just about gone and you know I want more and it's just pure evil and I hate myself for just doing it right now but I didn't gonna stop me from doing more well if I remember who gave it to me the first time I did it I probably won't issue them very first time that they used methamphetamine they're in big trouble methamphetamine Jazz's the nervous system this is it everything is sped up heart rate blood pressure you know that the everybody knows that your fight-or-flight this the first time I take methamphetamine I can have a stroke or I can have a heart attack clearly if you're a middle-aged person using meth you're just like Russian roulette and if you're using big-time stimulants that can even kill a young healthy college athlete for people who smoke or inject methamphetamine it's going to hit the brain very quickly within seconds it's an ecstasy unlike any other drug that works on the neurotransmitter dopamine causes dopamine to just dump into the synapse start charging all the cells around it and it causes an incredibly fast euphoric rush this is very much like the euphoria that people get with orgasms in addition to dropping all of that dopamine out it then gets into the cell and explodes the vesicles that carry dopamine so eventually then any pleasure that a person feels who's using the drug they're only getting it from the drug their body ceases to be able to create that sense of pleasure people want that feeling again people often are self-medicating trying to get out of their depression I'm a Chippewa curry from rocky boy reservation everything is totally different of them there's just some traditions that you stick to like elders and stuff people respect the elders a lot you know and stuff like that but most of them you know in traditional Indians they don't stick to the traditional ways in the 30 years that I've been teaching we've had problems with drinking using pot but I've never seen it escalate in such a hurry meth is more dangerous it's so easy to get on the reservation and it's cheap young kids can get their hands on it I'm afraid we're going to have a tribe full of zombies it is just it's just so sad methamphetamine is an epidemic on this reservation I don't think the crow nation can stand by and lose a generation of its young people this methamphetamine use is chilling we have to realize it our kids have to realize that you know I look I look back on history and I look at you know how hard tribe has been put on reservations and smallpox and things like that but it didn't wipe out our reservation this has been the worst and just experiencing it personally I mean I know how terrible it is I know how hard it is ticking – habit my biggest regret from using from using mass husband what I've what I've done to my children and to my family when my mother was on meth it was tough trying to take care of my two brothers me and him when we were younger my mom and dad would leave us at the mall from the morning till the evening till closing just so they could do they do meth there's one thing I want to know you know I had one son four years ago February 17th I lost my son he gotten a real bad car accident but it was because of methamphetamine use and that hurts me you know I don't want other parents to go through what I go through every day thinking about the son I had my only son I should have been more close to him I should have said son I love you let's get together and let's take care of this problem together I didn't do that I should have done it people need to know what their kids are doing they need to be involved with their kids I really could not imagine a world without our tribe in it because initially it's like being dead for ten seconds like everything's just gone we're in Kalispell Montana it's in the Flathead Valley it's just really available you can't go out back and get a bag of dope you know it's just so prevalent here that it's the drug to do and it's not just us Punk teenagers a lot of people are doing this James or myself which it was holy fucking a yeah it just looks like the biggest head rush in the world like you can't hear for a little bit can't breathe so you can't see to understand how we could get addicted to this but I feel so good right now better than any any sober person has ever felt the whole entire life that's what they don't know who have this stuff follow me Graham and Kenny are all – how much – that cost $50 how much did he does I think you're good I used to be strong athletic kid I was i run the mile now i wanna belong besides oh i have a stretch marks on my back from i lost like 30 pounds it's it's hardcore like my my muscle tone it it eat your muscle but this all happened in like the first month if that but it just drastically affected my body like that then was the last time you got huh that's how I was I've heard just a gram yeah it's not quite a bit of it now you're gonna hide it's an addiction this is like $35 worth which you can't normally get but um actually this will get them one ball and this will give me one shot it's all you can think about you don't have any other priorities in life if you're doing this stuff you don't have aspirations to be anything else what a user that's all you end up to be because that's what exactly what it does it just makes you want to use more and more and more I mean I was doing fine I had a job you know I had a really nice truck everything my truck got repo'd I got kicked out of my apartment I was fired you know just and it happened so quick and even you mean have a chance to realize it happened until it's already there what are you doing there Chris I'm putting it in the spoon why cuz I'm gonna cook it I don't even bother smokers yeah I can't even get high yeah yeah what are you doing they're dissolving it I was under the impression that that was done to boil the impurities away horseshit the whole thing is an impurity you take it and take the risks with whatever the heck happens yeah well I'm gonna look in a mirror room okay I can't see my oh you're still on the neck buddy I burst the two veins in my lungs before some biggest names for grams a day big shots like half a gram for one shot and then let's keep going on and on I was a perfectly fine person I was skipped ahead in school I joined the military I did everything right first day I was back in Montana through the military first person that I met offered me it and that's when I started its I hate I can't even describe it's a horrible rush it's just a poor way of self-medication basically it's just a way to hide your feelings when I look in the mirror I'm disgusted with myself and ashamed there's I don't know what happened to myself wasn't a druggie in high school or anything like that I just happened to be at a party one time where they had it and I was willing to try it because everybody else did more of a peer pressure type deal before meth I had a ton of friends I was outgoing you know I ran six miles every day I had the trust from people I was very well-liked in my community meth took all that away from me and that takes such control over you and it's something that your body feels it needs and you're gonna do anything and be willing to do anything to get it I would sleep with men for meth mainly my dealers and stuff like that or my boyfriend would put me out there to sleep with men for math after doing a shot of meth the main thing to do afterwards was have a hard sex whether it be them tying you up on the bed and pouring candle wax over your vaginal area to put you through pain the guys got off on that you know using knives to cut you in any part of your body just to make little slits taking bigger objects towards your vaginal area objects that shouldn't have been there one instances they used to bat at one point baseball that yeah yeah when I look at myself in the mirror you know without clothes on and I see those scars yes it brings up it brings up all the memories you know all the horrific things that we're done all the horrific things that I agreed to do it doesn't happen I guess I I think about my children and their children's children usually gotta figure out my dodgy magically gggg I'm hoping that Native Americans and the white society in the state of Montana if they could just come together and work together to save all our children in getting rid of this plague that's upon us maybe we can we can beat it I lie to my mom I I spend way too much money I do things I shouldn't do it's eventually you just do things to get money where all your money goes towards I think I could have so much stuff right now it's the amount of money I spend on drugs and people you know people I own I've heard a lot of things about people doing degrading and embarrassing things I never did anything sexual for drugs but I watched how much other girls do it all the time they would or guys mostly because one of the biggest connections around here just happens to be a gay pedophile so if you're a young boy and you want to get high go over to his house I don't know maybe he'll just sit there and you'll jack off in front of you and he'll give you a ballpark I was playing with my 10 month old nephew down on the floor and I had a couple of eight balls of meth in my pocket and when I left I got back into town and I realized that I was missing one of them and all I could worry about was where my drugs were at at that point I went back to the house to see if I could find the Evolve meddling on the floor somewhere without my mom noticing and when I got there she told me to leave and the cops were on their way because my nephew at home picked it up and it almost swallowed it I need a ticket I saw I was robbing a bunch of people's houses and this guy woke up when I was in his house and I'd smash his face God has stitches from one side of his face down to the other side of his face and all I was worried about was getting high and getting away I guess he present form I mean the stunts he's been pulling it out I mean I'm afraid to come home sometimes right there on my hand I had my head cracked open with the baseball bat somebody thought I had some dope I've had people actually come down and shoot me just because he's been ripping people off now this really made him a demon I do just about anything for drugs like still from my own dad my brother and I'm glad I don't have no kids because I'd probably robbed them of their futures I'd sell myself if I had to not not to a goggle No why did you so what why do you call him weasel he's just crafty sly and he's just has dodged a bullet it's gonna catch up with him

The Six Day War 1967 Documentary

in 1967 Syria started [a] process that would stir up middle east tensions and unite the Arab states in a war against their hated neighbor Israel But they underestimated the military strength and cunning of the tiny state and up to six days of Fierce [fighting] Israel had destroyed three arab armies and shown that it was a force to be reckoned with It all began with water In the mid 1960s israel began to use the sea of Galilee as a freshwater reservoir for the entire country Transporting water by canal to the NegEv desert Most of the streams which feed the sea of Galilee flow from the Golan Heights which was then in syrian possession? Syria disputed this Exploitation of a shared resource and began to dig a canal which would divert the goal and streams away from the sea of Galilee As soon as the digging started in 1964 the Countdown to war was triggered For 20 years Israel had been on a war footing with its neighbors the United Nations resolution of 1947 which turned a thin slice [of] British control palestine into Jewish and Arab [States] had been rejected out of hand by palestinian arabs and most of the Arab world as the British left in 1948 Seven armies invaded palestine over running the territory meant for the palestinian arabs and attacking the new state of Israel Ever since that war ended in 1949 a state of uneasy truce had existed on Israel's borders between 1948 and 1967 Israel had a problem with defense Because unless you're willing to conduct a first world war style Attritional defense were you you dig a trench and sit in there and and and shoot until everybody's dead Unless you're going to do something like that. You need to be able to defend in depth and the ISraelis had no depth Basically the country was shaped like an hourglass there was an area in the North surrounded by Mountains overlooked by Mount Hermon [9,000] feet high [there] was an area in the south and the negev and it was connected by an arrow Parador now at its narrowest this corridor was only Seven miles wide and so at Jordanian artillery in the Judean Hills could actually drop Shells onto the the coastline of Israel she had a very small population She had a very small landmass no strategic depth But very long borders and she also had a relatively weak economy very narrowly based and this meant that she couldn't find long Attritional war she had to [find] [wars] of maneuver so the Israelis would have to defend at the strategic level by attacking at the operational [level] and preemptive strike became an important part of israeli doctrine because of their strategic situation in 1956 during the suez Crisis Britain and France convinced Israel to go to war with Egypt and for a short period Israel occupied the Vast Sinai Peninsula only the deployment of the [first-ever] un peacekeeping mission returned tensions to their usual simmer in The 1960s as the syrians and the Israelis exchanged border clashes around the Golan [heights] Egyptian president Nasser saw his leadership in the Arab world slipping away He could not allow the syrians to become the main aggressors against the Israelis on the 16th of May 1967 President Nasser ordered the United Nations peacekeeping force out of the sinai Nasser, just wanted him to take maybe some of the peacekeeping force out or maybe ideally who thought would say no that peacekeeping force is going to stay in the interest of international peace [and] security and Nasser could say that the un was bad and the un could say they didn't care and Nasa would have made his show of Force against the Israelis But to some extent to Nasser surprise the whole un peacekeeping Force lock stock and barrel Picks up and [leaves] and suddenly Nasser who has been speaking very belligerently Against the ISraelis who has been saying some pretty? Blood-curdling things about what he's going to do to israel Suddenly, Nasara finds himself with nothing between himself and the ISraelis No, Nasa overlooked the straits of Tiran Israel's access to the gulf of AqaBa With egyptian Forces commanding the straits the israeli port of L at could be cut off from the sea International lawyers knew that this was a frightening development Although the straits of Tiran were within the three-mile limit of Egypt's territorial waters the straits were an international waterway Barring passage to a country shipping was an act of war The Israelis watched with some trepidation as the egyptians built up to war on May the 20th they mobilized their army calling up reserves and bringing the country's economy to a standstill They watched as Nasa Bullied [Jordan's] young King Hussein into joining the Joint Egyptian Syrian Command structure They watched as the syrians dug their canal They watched as Nasa's Forces built up in the sinai Meanwhile the American [Six] fleet went on war alert in the Mediterranean the soviet Black sea fleet began moving through the Dardanelles in response on May the 28th [Nasser] announced we plan to open a general assault on Israel This will be a total war our [bassy] game is the destruction of Israel this firmed up israeli resolve Hawks and doves in the Israeli Cabinet, were united by Nasa's threat And on the 4Th of june a national unity cabinet listened to seven hours of military briefing Then authorized the prime minister to go to war Israeli prime Minister Eshkol told his new Defense, Minister Moshe Dayan To commence hostilities on the 5th of June at oh Seven [Forty-Five] israeli time. Oh 8:45 Cairo time the Israeli Air Force had been doing some routine number crunching They were proud of their quick turnaround time and were interested to see how it would work in a war game The Israeli Air Force could turn an aircraft around in eight minutes That means that from the time the aircraft touched down it could be refueled and rearmed Preflighted and launched again in eight minutes The Israelis could do this eight times a day for each aircraft The question was what if the entire [air] [force] was committed to operations at this tempo? How much damage could it then inflict during one single day? Israeli planners looked at the numbers and looked again Their analysis said that if they operated against the egyptians for one long hard morning They could destroy their entire air force on the ground and still have time left to attack the much smaller Jordanian and syrian Air Force's At oh 800 hours Cairo time on the 5th of June 1967 the egyptian Dawn Patrol took off in a well-organized air force in a time of increasing international tension [what] tends to happen is that air patrols are sent up from dawn and they will overlap throughout the course of the day so that There will be ineffective [a] standing [air] [patrol] up over ones military bases strategic centers Air bases and so on but it's surprising just how often A dawn patrol would go up and then land and there'll be a gap between the dawn patrol and the next [patrol] It's not just the egyptians who make this mistake The Americans for example in the philippines on the 8th of December 1941 lost virtually their entire [Air] [Force] by making Precisely the same mistake B-17s P-40s went up in the morning Landed and while they were being refueled Rearmed Japanese struck now precisely the same thing is going to happen on the 5th of June 1967 At oh 8:45 as if on cue the israeli Dawn Patrol disappeared from the egyptian radar scopes the Egyptian War [Minister] Field Marshal Amaura was in an airborne command post aircraft with his chief of Air staff and a soviet Air commodore Field Marshal Amir watched from the window of his airborne command post as a black cloud Rose over the vast Cairo, West Airfield Nasa had threatened israel with war and the ISraelis had accepted the challenge As [Field-Marshal] Amaz pilot frantically looked for a safe airbase to land his plane [ten] of Egypt's forward Air bases between Cairo and the Israeli Border were destroyed by his rayleigh ground attack aircraft As each pair of israeli planes dropped their bombs they turned [to] dame their cannon and missiles of the egyptian planes [refuelling] on the aprons They made two passes spending no more than seven minutes over their targets Then turned for the 20-minute flight home and a quick eight-minute turnaround As one wave of israeli aircraft were dropping their bombs another was halfway to Target and the next wave was already launching The [egyptian] [Air] [Force] was hammered by wave after wave that day with only three minutes respite between attacks the first [israeli] [mirage] aircraft were assigned to Destroy Egypt's soviet-Built bombers near Cairo the rest pounded fighter bases in the Sinai While bases in the north of Egypt were being pounded Faraway bases and upper Egypt were also not safe These bases which supported Nasa's operations in the yemen were attacked by israeli bombers from the Red Sea First respond us then luxor were attacked by French build wart or bombers the first egyptian planes to succeed in taking off came from her guard in Sinai 20 Mig 21 and MiG-19 fighters charged into the fray at oh nine Thirty Cairo time For opinions were shot down by the Israelis and the rest were forced to break off because of Low fuel states The reuters shock of all for them was discovering that every egyptian airbase within range had been destroyed The fighters all bailed out or crashed as they try to land on Crater runway? Eight more egyptian Mig's became airborne and shot down two israeli, Mr. fighter bombers, but all were destroyed by the guns of iSraeli mirage interceptors by 11:35 Cairo time 250 Egyptian Aircraft had been destroyed a hundred of Egypt's 350 pilots were killed More were injured Israel had lost 19 aircraft [3-2] enemy action Towards noon on the first day of the wall the Israelis turn their attention to Egypt's remaining air bases the syrian Air Force misled by Egyptian Propaganda launched a Sortie against the high for oil Refineries and were destroyed in their entirety by the Israelis The Royal Jordanian Air Force tried to provide close air support for Jordan's forces around Jerusalem, and they were destroyed, too Even elements of the Iraqi Air Force which had been deployed forward for operations against israel were destroyed By noon on the first day of the war israel had absolute air supremacy over israeli-egyptian Jordanian and Syrian Airspace The Israeli Air Force could now be devoted almost exclusively to providing close air support to the ground Forces fighting into Sinai the West Bank and the [Golan] [Heights] Air superiority Was absolutely crucial to the Israelis for many reasons strategically gave them reach. It allowed them to project their Force over vast distances using relatively Few assets Operationally it meant that they could be mobile between the various fronts because [they] had so many enemies surrounding them they knew though very probably have to find one after another after another just as they had to in the 1967 War and this gave them the flexibility to do that at the operational level once Air superiority had been going With the air Frank opened to them they could use aircraft in a close air support role they could actually support the advancing infantry and armor they could interdict the enemy as he reinforced or try to withdraw They could also Transport logistics Using the air [flame] and of course could also importantly drop Airborne forces so that package that air superiority Package gave the Israelis the sort of flexibility that they needed at very many different levels The Egyptian Army had prepared contingency plans for defending the sinai in depth Called Klan car here the plan would allow the ISraelis to Advance. Deep into the sinai where they would be destroyed by egyptian firepower President Nasser told his army to shelve plan car here Instead Nasa ordered his army to concentrate forward along the israeli border to prepare for an invasion of Israel The Egyptian Army wants to defend the sinai peninsula because Cairo is very close but Once this plan has been developed by the egyptian general staff Nasser changes his mind because of his bellicose rhetoric Nasser has to Abandon the idea of using his army to defend Cairo to defend the sinai against an israeli attack and instead He has to go along With his bellicose rhetoric and position his army to attack The new Egyptian plan was to begin with a surprise air attack on the israeli Air force To achieve local air superiority over the negev desert Then while the 20th palestinian liberation army division of the egyptian army attacked the Israelis from the Gaza strip The Egyptian 4th armored division would cut across southern Israel linking up with a cracked Jordanian 60th armored Brigade to cut off the israeli Red Sea port town of Eilat the egyptian six motor rifle division with a powerful egyptian 1st armored division in support would take a lat and Consolidate the Egyptian Hold over Southern Israel the Egyptian armies redeployment really put the Armed forces in A position of great difficulty they weren't expecting it and they weren't Flexible and the redeployment sent them to ground. They didn't know particularly well and hadn't necessarily Trained for it meant that the Organization that was so relatively strong whilst in egypt when put on a new piece of ground all of a sudden showed a lack of cohesion sort of lack of cohesion that the Israeli armed forces knew they had to try and target and exploit when it came to battle They go into Sinai they dig in to defend the sinai. They're told Abandon Your field fortifications move to a new position to attack the ISraelis now dig in The Egyptian Soldier cannot be bothered to dig in again. He's not well motivated he's not well, led he's not being well-treated and Yet another pointless movement in the [sinai] just further demoralizes the [Egyptian] Soldier and That means that when the Israelis come they're attacking not a dug in enemy prepared to attack They're attacking Egyptian soldiers who are not prepared [to] [fight] at all? The Israeli concept of Operations was first to break through the thick skin of the forward egyptian units Next they would exploit Westward to cross the sinai on its three main East-West Routes heading along the coast and towards the passes through the mountains at the western Edge of the peninsula During the exploitation phase they would engage and destroy the egyptian reserve formations The fiercest fighting came during the initial breakthrough on june the 5th the first day of the war Because the egyptian army had been concentrated forward for an attack into israel. It was hard to penetrate at [Abu] a gala the egyptians had a prepared defensive position blocking the Central route through the sinai The position Had been prepared according to soviet doctrine belts of Trenches were anchored on the Ride by Rocky crevices [and] hills and on the left by shifting sand Dunes to their front were Minefields covered by machineguns in the trenches and artillery to the rear a Few miles away [an] armored strike Force stood ready to counter-Attack [Brigadier] Ariel Sharon sent his tanks by a roundabout route to block the egyptian armor He sent his paras by helicopter to assault the egyptian artillery shooting the gunners [in] their pits His tanks and guns waited in front of the egyptian defenses as his infantry moved through the shifting sand dunes on the egyptians left when they had word that the egyptian artillery had been silenced the israeli tanks and guns Fired on the left edge of the egyptian trenches as the fire shifted the israeli infantry poured into the trenches Lighting colored flares to Mark their progress Israeli tankers and [Gunners] used these moving beacons to shift fire israeli sappers moved across the Minefields clearing paths for the Israeli armored During the furious progress of the battle for the Trenches, Brigadier Yaffe radioed chiron Asking to move forward through the a below gala position Sharon's mission was to allow yaffe to move forward into the sinai so he agreed [to] one of the most dangerous operations in war Passing towards the enemy through friendly forces who were already fighting? even before the [egyptian] Trenches had been secured The leading elements of yah, fees division were moving along the road past a [blue] gala and crossed the sinai because the egyptian Army had been Concentrated so far forward once the ISraelis burst through the battle of the sinai turned into a pursuit once the ISraelis are through The Egyptian Forward Deployed forces once they're through the forces who are prepared to invade [Israel] the ISraelis have a much easier time of Exploiting onwards because the egyptians are on the back foot from the time the [Israelis] get through the forward egyptian defenses The egyptians are always reacting to what the ISraelis are doing the ISraelis had a fairly comprehensive intelligence picture of egyptian Deployments They've been able to pick this up from a combination of human intelligence and signals intelligence and some reconnaissance patrols And in essence they knew that a gap had opened up between the palestinian Xx division Which is based in Gaza and the egyptian 7th division. Which was based [two] to the west of Gaza There was a place called [Rafa] junction, and [they] knew that if they struck North and [rother] junction They would be actually driving along the bound between the Egyptian Seventh and the Palestinian twenty of divisions they knew their objective than they could get behind the egyptians and Destroy their cohesion and then destroy the egyptians actually institute in the sinai itself and what it shows us [is] splendid Israeli military doctrine they knew what objects as they could achieve they had the All Arms corporation with which to achieve that they got the initial preemptive strike then they had the speed and momentum to carry them through and they get to the suez canal in just 100 hours and he's got to go down as one of the remarkable Maneuver Warfare Victories in the 20th century [15,000] egyptians were killed or wounded in four days of fighting 5,000 soldiers were captured along with [500] of their officers [80] [percent] of Egypt's military Hardware had been captured including hundreds of [tanks] and hundreds of guns Israel had lost 300 killed and over [a] thousand wounded It took four days of the six-day war for the Israelis [to] overrun the egyptian army in the sinai By the 8th of june the egyptians were ready to accept a ceasefire The task Force set to drive to the Southern tip of the sinai were not needed Israeli sailors came ashore at Sharm al-sheikh to Raise the Israeli Flag over the straits of Tiran Israel expected to fight Egypt and syria possibly Jordan plus forces from elsewhere in the Arab world [but] [they] did not have the combat power to fight two or even three enemies at the same time They therefore pursued Napoleon's strategy of the central position When fighting a more powerful enemy Napoleon said put yourself between the enemy armies and fight them one at a time While the ISraelis were fighting egypt they defended against Jordan and Syria When they saw that the battles in the sinai were going well late on the 5th of june they threw their reserves into battle on the central front around Jerusalem The Jordanian Army with some egyptian support had six infantry brigades defending the West bank three in Samaria to the North Two in Jerusalem and one in the Judean Hills South of Bethlehem another [Brigade] was in reserve near Jericho two armored Brigades made up Jordan striking Force 40 Brigade in the Jordan [Valley] and 60 [Brigade] ready to link up with egyptian forces in the south When the egyptian attack across the negEv desert was checkmated by the Israeli attack 60 Brigade was free to operate against the Israelis around Jerusalem The Israelis faced Jordan with a very large Jerusalem Brigade a reserve infantry Brigade around Lod airport and a reserve infantry Brigade near Netanya at his rails narrowest point one division could be borrowed from Forces facing Syria in the north This was enough to defend against the small, but well-trained Royal Jordanian, Army But not enough to attack Only when Jordan was committed to the war and once egypt was no longer a threat Could the general staff release its operational reserve to the battle against [Joy] the attacking Force against Jordan would be [ten] mechanized Brigade under the Brilliant [Colonel], [Ori] Benari the [German-born] father of the ISraeli Armored Corps The cigar-Chomping ben-Ari was called up as a reservist to command the armoured thrust against Jerusalem With him with a reserve paratroops of 55 para brigade prepared for a combat job in [Egypt], but no longer required [ben-Ari] moved his mechanized Force through the rough hills to the north of Jerusalem cutting the West bank in half by the morning of the 6th of June at The same time the Israeli Brigade at Lod airport moved up to the old British Fortress at Latrun and took it from Egyptian commandos King Hussein encouraged by his allies launched an air attack against the Israelis one may look at King is saying we must remember the geopolitics of Jordans position Jordan was in control of the what was going to become the West Bank and Jordan was deeply suspicious of both syrian motivations and egyptian motivations and in order to keep the Jordanians fighting and in order to keep the Jordanians attacking the Israelis Nasser lies Through his teeth to King Hussein Nasa to his very best to convince king as sane that the israeli Air Force while they had actually Delta a severe blow to Egypt had in fact themselves been shot out of the [sky] in very large numbers Nasa says to her saying that 70% of the Israeli Air [Force] a very strong asset that the enemy have had been destroyed and so the pressure was on for vote for king [Asain] to get involved in fact if you look at the Geopolitics of the situation it is almost impossible To imagine a situation in which Jordan would not have become involved the israeli Air Force its missions in Egypt and Syria completed turn their attention to Jordan and destroyed the Royal Jordanian Air Force King Hussein ordered his 60th armored brigade to move up from the Judean hills to oppose Banaras mechanized Force as They moved out they were destroyed from the air by israeli close support missions The Israeli Powers Unpack their drop bags put desert operations out of their minds and drove to the Jerusalem area They wrapped around Jerusalem from the North and East surrounding the Old City for 19 years the Jordanians have been building defences around the old city of Jerusalem to Stop the Israelis from attacking between ramallah and the Old City And it was very much like a an old first world war system of Defense's it was made up of pre-survey killing zones of trenches of Mutually supporting buildings some several Stories high with cellars That were connected by trenches barbed wires mine Anti-tank anti-personnel mines [in-between] and it was a very very difficult system to overcome but of course in the battle for ammunition hill that's exactly what the Israelis do some people suggest the ISraelis should have bypassed it and certainly in the sinai where you've got miles and miles of territory to work with they might well have But in order to maintain the momentum of the advance the israeli [fifty-five] peres Brigade has got to put in an attack on ammunition hill they have got to be [prepared] to take a lot of casualties from from close infighting in order to get around the Northern perimeter of Jerusalem the [fighting] started at about two o'clock in the morning on the 6th of June and it went on without intermission but for four hours It wasn't until dawn was breaking on the 6th of june that that ammunition hill was under israeli control It is an epoch in the history of the Idf the israeli defense force It's also an epoch in the [history] of the Jordanian Army both sides came out with military honors Just about equal While the fight for Jerusalem raged a divisional task group and a major general elad [peled] was detached from the forces facing Syria and sent into the hills of Samaria Slowly a Brigade fought their way against well-prepared Jordanian defenses through [Jeannine] through Fierce fighting at Kappa Tia towards nablus Another brigade came around the east towards nablus where they were welcomed by the citizens who took them for Jordanians Jordanian Army Elements trying to reinforce in Samaria and Jerusalem were pounded by israeli Air Force Battlefield air interdiction missions on the night of the 6th and 7th of June the Jordanian Governor of Jerusalem saw that reinforcements would not arrive, and he began to withdraw his [troops] from the city At 8:30 local time on the 7th of june the reserve powers of Israeli 55 Brigade Began their attack two battalions climbed the Ridge of the Mount of olives near Augusta Victoria hospital and Moved along the Ridge to the Kidron Valley while a third battalion moved along the walls of the old City [the] [Third] Battalion Led by Brigade commander colonel motta gur Moved through the City Walls at since Stevens gate and spread through the narrow alleys of the old city By 10 o'clock in the morning of the 7th of June the old City was secure Forces of the Jerusalem Brigade moved [Southward] [through] Bethlehem and Hebron to the Judean Hills been Ari's 10th Brigade moved Northwards through the Jordan Valley the ISraelis had lost 550 killed and 2,500 wounded Jordan had lost 6,000 soldiers killed or missing half the populated part of the hashemite Kingdom had been lost King Hussein betrayed by False Egyptian intelligence and empty promises of syrian support Accepted a ceasefire at 8 o'clock in the evening of the third day of the six-day war Syria had started this war Egypt had attacked to show they were fiercer than syria Egypt and Syria Had Bullied King Hussein into attacking [-] The Israelis had defeated the egyptian army [in] four days and the Royal Jordanian Army in three days as Things were going badly for Jordan and Egypt eight syrian Brigades sat out the war on the Golan heights The Villagers of Northern Israel protested that the frowning Massif of the Golan heights Was making it easy for syrian artillery to Target their farms For years the syrians had made life miserable for them attacking them as they worked During the six-day war two israeli Civilians were killed by Syrian artillery and 16 were wounded Guerrillas sponsored by Damascus had been operating in Northern Israel attacking Israeli in freh Structure Targets After egypt accepted a ceasefire on the 8th of june the israeli minister of defense approved an attack on the Golan [heights] The Golan Heights rise about 620 meters above the sea of Galilee It is a great huge plateau flat on top covered with huge volcanic basalt Boulders cut deeply by Ravines and canyons and it looms over the [lower] Galilee in Israel when you stand on the brow of the [Golan] [heights] overlooking the [sea] of [Galilee] and overlooking the lower Galilee itself You can see everything it is also if you like a barrier bit more than a speed bump But certainly not mountainous between two opposing States So the state that actually holds the heights has a very great strategic [advanced] advantage The ISraelis can use it as a [Launchpad]? Towards Syria and Damascus The syrians if they take and hold it can use it to bombard nor and Israel gallon All indeed to attack at a point where israel has very little strategic depth So the Golan [Heights] has very great strategic importance to both sides and as a result of that Both sides very much focus on it The massive Plateau of the Golan Heights is bordered by the steep yarmouk canyon to the south the bluffs overlooking the sea of Galilee to the Southwest and the comparatively Shallow Valley of the Jordan River to the West The Southern part of the heights are cut by a series of deep canyons which make it nearly impossible to operate tanks of the One Good Road The syrian Army defended the heights with three groups of brigades The 35th group of Brigades had two regular infantry Brigade groups forward had an infantry Brigade group and a mechanized Brigade group in reserve this divisional task group defended the rough Canyon Country of the Southern Golan the 12th group of Brigades defended the Northern Sector of the heights with a regular and a reservists infantry Brigade grouped forward and reservists infantry and an Armored Brigade [group] in reserve Mixed in with these brigades were five battalions of Syria's Republican guard The infantry Brigades were in concrete bunkers and well dug in they were fresh well supplied and ready for an iSraeli attack The forty second group of Brigades formed a mechanized strike Force it had one armored Brigade group to regular mechanized Brigade groups and two [reservists] infantry Brigade groups This strike Force was in reserve along the axis from Damascus to [Kenitra] City The ISraelis had to find places where [that] plateaus slopes were too steep [for] the syrians to have fortified them but still shallow enough to Operate tanks and [half-tracks] on The Israelis Committed to divisional. Task groups to the Golan heights one [under] [reserve] Brigadier Don [Laner] would approach from the North with one armored Brigade and the Elite [Golani] infantry Brigade The other would attack up the Harsh southern slopes of the heights This group consisted of Brigades which had been fighting around Jerusalem? Which would have to redeploy to the Golan while [Lana's] task group fought in the north They would be supported by the israeli Air Force who bombed and rocketed syrian positions on the Golan heights? for two days before the attacks went in Lana's Armored Brigade group under colonel Albert [Mandler] waded into Concentrated syrian artillery fire as it advanced up the slopes of the Northern Golan On its flank with a young conscripts of the Golani Brigade who cleared syrian defensive positions at tel fire? Tell fire was a well defended position with Minefields and barbed wire covering all approaches There was no room for clever maneuver here the ISraelis had to charge in dismounted attacks The first attack got at the fortifications with only three men left standing in The second assault [Golani] soldiers threw themselves over wire obstacles to create human bridges for their comrades to cross The Brigade reconnaissance force and supporting armored joined in the attack and by 6 o'clock in the evening of the 9th of June Tell faha had been taken By the end of the first day the Northern Edge of the heights had been taken by the Israelis during the night of the 9th and 10th of June Albert Mandela's tanks Moved Towards [quneitra] City as They fought elements of 55 reserve Para brigade and mechanized forces were moving northwards from the now quiet Jordanian front to join in the fight On that night [of] complex maneuver the syrian regime quietly withdrew their main mechanized striking Force the forty second group of Brigades closer to Damascus Israeli high come on knew that it would have to recycle assets From [one] front to another especially if there was an Arab alliance Which will mean perhaps taking the first [foremost] military power egypt and then actually going to say? Jordan and then the Golan Heights and the syrians or even ari the commander of The Brigade Calls all of the drivers in the brigade Into into one room a few hundred men sitting there in the room and he says gentlemen we need to go up to the Golan heights and We need to be there by 4:00 o'clock tomorrow morning And he gave them all a grid reference. They said this is the endpoint of our movement between here [and] there that are going to be military police trying to exercise traffic control there are going to be logisticians who want Signatures and paperwork in return for fuel. I don't care how you get from here to there just be there by 4 o'clock tomorrow morning, and all the drivers go out get into their vehicles and because the Israelis are prepared to operate in the Chaos of the battlefield the entire Brigade was able to pick [up] and move to this grid reference without without getting lost without getting crossed up with other other forces without running out of out of diesel and petrol on the way and the entire Brigade is able to be where it has to be the following morning Because [of] the Israelis willingness to cope with the Chaos the battlefield rather than try to impose order on the Chaos Elements of two Brigade groups crossed into the central goal an early in the morning of the 10th of June after lunch a quickly assembled israeli divisional task group Again an attack from the south at the steep bluffs and [leapfrogging] across the difficult country Beyond Syrian opposition was faltering as Damascus withdrew Brigade [group] after brigade group from the fight Syria could afford to lose the Golan heights, but it could not afford to lose its army On the night of the 10th of June Syria and Israel agreed to a ceasefire [2,500] syrian Soldiers had been killed five thousand had been wounded and 591 taken Prisoner The Israelis had lost a hundred and twenty seven killed and six hundred wounded during the fighting After the six-day war israel at last head defense in depth Israel had territory territory with which it could could trade It could trade for for peace it could trade for for recognition They had for the first time in the history created buffer zones around there an initial state In fact that the sinai was occupied by the ISraelis was seen as something that was extraordinary now perhaps they didn't have enough forces to actually occupied in the way that it needed to be occupied perhaps it led to complacency but between 1967 and 1973 The sinai was an absolutely crucial buffer zone they also taken the Golan heights from the syrians an absolutely central Strategic point that allowed the Israelis all Sorts of Advantages in Northern Israel, and then of [course] They'd also taken the West bank an area of great religious strategic and operational sensitivity But Israel also had a huge problems Israel had occupied the the West Bank and the West Bank had a substantial palestinian population now this was going to create all [sorts] of difficulties because not only [would] the international community not recognize Israeli annexation of the West Bank But within israeli society itself there were elements who are arguing that this territory this west bank territory Was in fact part of the story Israel and therefore should be settled by Israelis Israelis with their long tradition of of settling settling israel by by Building building Israeli settlements begin building settlements in the Golan Heights in the West Bank and in the Sinai and For certainly for political and religious reasons one can understand why they're building settlements on the West [bank] Because that is that part of the biblical [land] of Israel As as as I suppose the Golan was as well But they build settlements in the sinai which means that they need to defend the sinai it is no longer really part of their Strategic Depth likewise they build settlements on the Golan heights Which then have to be defended and which reduce their strategic depth yet again to nearly nil the Israelis Gained depth on a map, but they ruin the depth by building settlements in it Before the war Israel had been subjected to an egyptian blockade of the straits of Tiran [she] also suffered syrian artillery attacks and threats to water supply Jordanian barbed wire had divided Jerusalem denying Israelis access to the Old City In six days the Israelis had conducted a strategic defense by attacking Egypt Jordan and Syria in turn The United Nations resolutions, which ended the war called on the ISraelis to give up some of its territory and return for peace More than ten years later and after a disastrous war israel returned the sinai peninsula to egypt in exchange for a peace treaty More than 20 years later israel and Jordan also agreed an open peace treaty Even so more than 30 years later Israelis. Do not feel any more secure than they did before the [war] of June 1967 you