From rainforest to charcoal | DW Documentary



Huge areas of tropical rainforest are being destroyed to make charcoal for barbecues. The global deforestation is leading to growing problems. Nigeria and the DRC Congo – two of Europe’s main charcoal suppliers – are also affected.

Every year, Europeans use approximately 800,000 tons of charcoal for barbecuing. Seventy percent of the charcoal comes from outside the EU, and the bags often contain remnants of tropical woods. Officially, tropical woods are subject to strict import conditions. But when it comes to wood charcoal, these do not apply.
Worldwide, 2.7 billion people cook and heat with wood or charcoal. The related emission of greenhouse gases is enormous. 55 percent of global wood is used as fuel per year, and much of it is cut illegally in Africa’s bush and tropical forests. Nigeria produces most of its charcoal for export. Especially during dry periods, local Nigerian farmers use coal production as a lifeline to make money and feed their families. At the same time, charcoal mills travel the countryside in family groups, charring all the trees they can cut down. The consequences are hair-raising. Nigeria lost 36 percent of its forests between 1990 and 2005. At present, twelve percent of the country is still covered with forest – but charcoal production continues to rise, eating up 350,000 hectares of fertile land here every year. According to the UN, charcoal production is one of the main causes of deforestation in Africa, which in turn is closely linked to massive deterioration in soil quality and a growing risk of crop failure. But African legislation has been slow to respond to the problem. The coal business is highly lucrative business, and rakes in some 7.4 billion US Dollars a year. According to recent estimates, the current illegal trade in charcoal is worth almost three times as much as the trade in illegal drugs.

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put this on South Korea hardly anyone knows how non-transparent this market really is for that one ton of charcoal requires five to ten tons of wood this has an enormous impact on the environment done the way the wood comes from there's often terrible human rights abuses there's poverty this deforestation is desertification in places of Africa alas no go it's completely unacceptable that tropical rainforests are being destroyed just to produce cheap charcoal this shouldn't be happening it's madness Nigeria with 186 million inhabitants it's the most populated country in Africa this is where most of the charcoal imported to the EU comes from it's a huge business not only in Nigeria Paraguay in South America is another big global player according to the UN over half the trees cut down worldwide are burned to produce charcoal with severe effects to the climate Nigerian merchants praised the high quality of charcoal derived from tropical wood it's particularly durable and its embers last much longer but these traders don't have to certify where they get their charcoal the wood could be from one of the few sustainable plantations for tropical timber in Africa or it could have been illegally logged in the rainforests Kingsley a canoe specializes in export ready to be filled with choco merchants who want to import tropical timber to the EU have to certify its origins the process is strictly regulated but those guidelines don't apply to charcoal 88% of the charcoal used in Germany is imported Nigeria alone supplies 31,000 tonnes a year but most consumers have no idea what they are using to grill their sausages these goes to Germany in part on packs the Germany when it'll be forming into yeah yeah aggressive Jeremy hey fill up one container all these feel about 40 feet container charcoal from Nigeria made in Germany made possible because there are no restrictions on importing charcoal made from tropical timber to the EU the spoke Agard and trade fair in Cologne this is where the outdoor grilling industry comes together many distributors can't see any problem with charcoal from the tropics the trade association however would rather not comment yeah Olivier what's her from France has been fighting against imported tropical charcoal for years he works for the NGO the forest trust or TFT they want charcoal to be processed only from sustainably cultivated forests and for consumers to easily see if they're buying charcoal from native or illegally logged tropical wood there is no transparency to tell what is the real prediction because some importers pretend to be producing but we are producing are not there we can create a European working group on that part because if we don't do that it will not be clear so for the crystal it is actor Bob Dora Mae MC the detector for a cast there are distributors who keep importing but the market will force their hand the moment we changed the market everyone who wants to carry on as usual will be left in other choice in France TFT has already managed to change the market most buyers for large retail chains have come to reject charcoal from tropical forests Peola VA is meeting a belgian who imports african charcoal the man is convinced of his products quality and even has a seal to prove it's been produced responsibly he can't understand the concern about tropically sourced charcoal you have to realize that there are also sustainably managed tropical forests I don't see why these products should be banned you can't forget that the charcoal market is helping feed thousands of people in Africa we'd be making things too easy on ourselves if we suddenly decided to just ban everything sourced from Nigeria we need to actively deal with the problem in Nigeria it's true that many people depend on the charcoal business in places where qualified jobs are hard to come by there they often live in the humblest conditions people like Kobi he and his family make charcoal for a living they travel across the country as nomads and log trees wherever they can in the wild not unsustainable estates the process is simple enough the wood is stacked covered with dirt and then lit these so-called kilns seal off most oxygen allowing the wood to burn down slowly in about 11 days it's reduced to charcoal 500 cuts that are strong it can produce about 200 dogs within a month we don't enjoy the work to BCCI we don't enjoy the work is a hard job it's a hard labor most times when you come back you're retired and that's why most of us use drugs after coming back from the work you know that to regain your strength for one ton of charcoal the workers need up to 10 tons of wood most of the energy escapes as excess heat exhaust leaks from the piles and the surrounding soil is contaminated with toxins deforestation is a huge problem in Nigeria a study by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization found that four hundred and ten thousand hectares of forest were cut down each year not only does that have a major impact on the climate it also leads to erosion and the forming of new deserts but the forests aren't being destroyed just to make charcoal they're also being cleared for farmland and yet 87% of all trees logged in Nigeria are used for firewood or charcoal Harry Hoffman is a scientist for years he's been concerned about the charcoal production in Africa to some it's the only way they can make a living during the dry season or towards the end of the dry season before they return to their fields there's nothing left to pay for school so they go to the forest and cut down trees to make charcoal they can sell on the street corner even if it is illegal when they do they risk their fields drawing up back to Germany Johannes sannen is a wood specialist at the World Wildlife Fund today he's brought bags of charcoal to the TuneIn Institute in Hamburg he too wants trade restrictions for charcoal and he's backing up his arguments with facts if it were up to him importing illegal timber into the EU would be banned as with the charcoal produced from it so gay I'd call and his colleagues want to see just how much wood from tropical forests these bags contain there's a lot of pressure from consumers not just for these products coal in particular is almost a cultural asset for Germans finding a legal wood in their charcoal would leave a bad taste in their mouths businesses can't afford that a few months or years ago this product wouldn't have gained such broad attention some consolation forum to date importers don't need to show that the wood for their charcoal was legally sourced and any product information on the bag doesn't show the country of origin either for kaha is one of Germany's leading specialists in determining wood he can't say where the charcoal is from but he can discern which type of wood it was made from even if it isn't printed on the bag he instantly recognizes some native tree species before before I put it under the microscope I do a pre examination sometimes I use a magnifying glass to determine what type we're dealing with the Scottish moss I've already dug a bit out from the bottom of the bag and as you can see what makes charcoal so special is that unlike wood it's brittle when I break it up it creates these clean edges I can look at those with my magnifying glass here for example we have an ash tree this bag doesn't contain any tropical timber but other bags do women in the tungsten encircles kulikov do you swing by the nearest gas station to pick up a bag of charcoal of course you have no idea how far it has traveled already and what ecological footprint it has left behind the entire forests are being cut down in countries like Nigeria or in Eastern Europe sometimes even protected forests are being plundered when that has an immense impact on the ecosystem or biodiversity and on the climate overall we need to act here we have briquettes here we have a product that we're looking at yes WWF this is pure charcoal here we have a different product with the slogan for the sake of the environment that's the co2 neutral Foca hog inspects 20 bags of charcoal that johannes sanan had bought in various hardware and grocery stores in many cases it's evident the wood isn't native before I've had a look at the man to the microscope I can't say for sure these samples are definitely of tropical origin it's not that simple but I can say that the ones I've looked at are definitely not from regular wood so we know for certain that it isn't oak ash Elm birch or Beach compressed briquettes are especially hard to examine they consist mostly of coal dust and starch but even here the expert is able to find traces of wood amid totem identifying wood species is called wood Anatomy we identify types of word based on their anatomical structure people have been examining plant structures for two or three hundred years what's important is to have reference material the island that's why the TuneIn Institute of wood Research stores thousands of samples of various trees but instructor mahes illness structural features we can see here we can definitely say this wood is not from a temperate or even boreal region that a boy we are in swinish dumps that means this charcoal was definitely tropically sourced eight of the 20 bags they examined did contain wood from rainforests that amounts to 40% of their samples five bags even contained red list species of endangered or restricted wood the findings are upsetting for Johannes Sonnen of the World Wildlife Fund not the omission Sophie this has been a topic for so many years us to find such catastrophic results here in Germany with shopkins it can't go on like this many distributors won't take responsibility for their products origin sustainable cultivation Environmental Protection labor laws none of it matters production costs are much much lower than operating a Congaree here in Germany so that makes it attractive transporting it over the ocean from Nigeria to Germany or Europe is a fairly small portion of the total cost most Germans have no idea that their charcoal is sometimes produced with people's bare hands and Kobe would never have guessed that his charcoal was used to grilled German sausages many industry make use of charcoal apart from hookahs there are some industry to them make use of it like those people that have a poultry farm they also make use of charcoal also people take it from different industry but I don't know what they use it for but we just produce it for them and they take it to town Kobe and his workers get $3 for each bag of charcoal even in Nigeria that's not a lot of money but the supply chain in Africa is long transporters sorters distributors everyone wants to turn a profit the jobs are highly sought after most jobs provided are at the urban level at a city sentence what charcoal the Chuckle does is one of the few jobs and actually brings jobs down to the rural areas to the local women through people who order otherwise they have no education I have nothing to fall back to they have nothing for them here is a lifesaver there's really no major industry here they cry they call me the same boss bring bring charcoal let us walk we need to work because there's no other thing and this sector is growing one study estimates the market could be worth up to 12 billion dollars by 2030 with 12 million people working in it that's a shadow market most of the money made in that sector will stay with the powerful distributors the money isn't made in Nigeria it's made in Europe over here we have the products we're ready to ship to places like Poland this is ready whenever the container comes in we ship it out in 2015 alone exports from Nigeria to Poland grew by 51% and buyers from Africa most times they repackage and then sell to other European countries here supalen is a very big hope they buy a lot of Nigerian markets the charcoal is shipped to Europe in containers the TFT organisation has seen to it that less Nigerian charcoal is imported to France but exports to Poland are on the rise here conservationists say charcoal from tropical wood is simply repackaged and distributed throughout Europe peer only ba what turn continues his search in Poland we're here to see if this factory really does produce charcoal we want to know if all the wood was locally sourced and processed on our previous visits to Poland we learned that some only pretend to be producers actually import charcoal repackage it and then sell it and then they claim it was produced here in their factory today prae and his colleagues are visiting europe's largest charcoal producer the company greece gand has three factories that produce fifteen percent of all the charcoal consumed eu-wide the managing director is guiding a tour through the facilities the conservationists want to find out if all the charcoal is truly produced here in Poland or if it's mixed with charcoal from tropical woods for kog the most important clue is a look in the business books he's interested in the amounts of charcoal and wood coming and going so far he's been acting on behalf of French chains that have committed themselves to offer only sustainable charcoal the forest trust checks that no tropical wood finds its way into the bags their biggest difficulty is figuring out how many tons of wood the company needs to produce one ton of charcoal based on the method employed the amounts can vary greatly now it's ple B's job to estimate how efficiently the plant works and compare the wood purchases with the charcoal sales competition in this sector is fierce as is the temptation to cheat with illegal African charcoal its countries keep production costs down and companies managed to buy raw material from dubious sources who presume they can earn higher profit margins on import and trade important hunter if a demon while importers pay very little for their raw material European producers must dig deep into their pockets for the wood producers traders everyone looks to cut corners to make sure that they can meet those price reductions that are forced onto them by the market by consumers in fact and unfortunately that often leads to the cheapest wood the illegal wood getting into the system the largest producer in Europe states that its wood is purchased from native forests that's a big cost factor there's lots of wood what's important is that the wood is actually from this region cultivated sustainably and it's so that it can be labeled as responsibly produced charcoal shovel boss boss native wood from responsible forestry that means the amount of wood that can be logged is limited to how much can regrow european foresters have known this principle for centuries that's how they responded to the massive clearing of forests in the early 18th century they call it sustainability to make sure the charcoal is as sustainable as the managing director said it was their next appointment is with the Forester again ple bhx the production the books and the woods origins he makes sure the forests are large enough to supply the amount of wood the manufacturer needs he takes careful note of the numbers of hectares the age of the trees and the amount of wood extracted cut down from the forest the plant or he hasn't found a bug in the system yet but he keeps asking the manufacturers Quality Manager and the Forester both take all his questions unlike in Africa the amount of woodland in the EU is growing in Poland it went from eight point eight million hectares in 1990 to nine point four million hectares in 2015 that only works with truly sustainable methods PL on TV what time is very pleased with what he's seen here so I'm prone to stone for it's just for these don't count they have a forest cultivation plan set up for ten years with a registry for each logging so that way they know exactly how much wood they're allowed to take from each plot this means traceability right back to where it was felled and we know they've been cultivating sustainably for years this wood here for example is 60 years old biomes acidity working space on top would four guilt-free charcoal thanks to traditional forestry guidelines modern technology and careful documentation this forest will continue supplying as much wood as it does today for centuries to come this naturalness Fidelma there's plenty of wood right here in Poland you don't need to buy it in Africa that add there's enough deciduous trees to cover the demand for charcoal Pia Olivier hopes to someday find charcoal in supermarkets that is only produced from sustainable wood but in Europe there aren't many sustainable manufacturers like this one in Poland and companies that produce charcoal and electricity are the exception to the rule and so he sets off for France one of the most modern charcoal factories in the world is here in the Champagne region the region is also home to vast deciduous forests and yet France still imports most of its charcoal this manufacturer wants to prove that producing charcoal in France can in fact be profitable what it lacks in size the business makes up for in innovation the French government supports it with subsidies the managing directors were even invited to the world climate conference in Bonn in 2017 to talk about eco-friendly charcoal production at home and in developing countries here comes from the forest buggies so son thanks to modern technology they only need 2 and a half tons of wood for each ton of charcoal they produce that means they can preserve 40% of the wood in comparison the earth mounds in Africa only have an efficiency rate of about 10% meaning their kilns require four times the amount of wood the charcoal is dried in huge baskets with the excess heat given off during production here is proof that we're able to make renewable charcoal all it takes is sustainable forestry and today's technology using this method we can produce charcoal electricity and heat three products at once from one single resource that's what makes this product competitive and profitable in Europe this site provides 10,000 homes with steady electricity the tropical charcoal producers can only dream of having such a modern plant worldwide we're experiencing the deforestation of several million hectares each year that is so much in so relevant that it makes up about 15% of manmade carbon emissions consumed by Tate satellite images reveal that 30 percent of Africa's oldest national park has already been destroyed the national park is very old and has been particularly affected by people illegally extracting wood to produce charcoal the Virunga National Park lies in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo the charcoal produced here isn't exported 97% of the people in the region use it for cooking and heating the areas surrounding the National Park have already been cleared according to the World Wildlife Fund ninety percent of the trees felled here are used to produce charcoal four years ago this whole area was full of trees now four years later all the trees have been cut down and not only that even the roots have been pulled out of the ground the World Wildlife Fund foresters are shocked the demand for charcoal is so high in this region that even digging up and charring tree roots is worth the effort nearly three billion people on the planet cook with wood and it's not just cooking they use wood for heating – it's essential to them and there's no way of replacing it producing wood sustainably requires space space they don't have the population in Africa will quadruple by the end of the century capacity limits are often exceeded now one big problem is the lack of infrastructure only three percent of the people living in the huge city of Goma and its surrounding villages have access to electricity cooking with gas would be easier healthier and more eco-friendly but charcoal is often the only source of energy they have people need to be certain that they'll have gas when they need it otherwise they can't cook it's a crucial source of energy for many people and it will be for a long time to come the last 10 years have seen huge forest areas vanish the WWF workers are certain the ongoing political conflicts in the region are contributing to the deforestation here this all used to be forests monkeys lived here now there aren't any left to save the national park the WWF workers want to turn around their charcoal market and are reaching out to all parties involved even the transporters they ride their bikes 30 kilometers to the next city here they say it costs $20 and in Goma it costs $23 we asked them if they produced the charcoal themselves but they just buy it to resell it in Goma it's legit boo alle vongole mo the destruction of the V Rangga National Park is immense the region is one of the most densely populated in all of Africa the conflict in neighboring Rwanda have only made matters worse countless refugees are seeking shelter and using charcoal for cooking the World Wildlife Fund in Goma is very engaged in the topic of charcoal chili Lesage and his team hoped for lasting peace in order to save the national park since 1996 this region has gone through a lot of unrest before that there were the looting wars from 1992 onwards and then came the first liberation war in 1996 that forced many to flee all that had an impact on the environment in Goma the number of residents has nearly doubled in the last seven years especially due to the many refugees who have come only eleven kilometers separate the city from the national park so it's no wonder that 80% of the charcoal used here is illegally sourced from Virunga like in most places in Africa the charcoal business here is also a shadow market the dealers by their charcoal in villages and then sell it here the price range depends on how old the tree was that's used to make the charcoal charcoal from young trees costs 20 US dollars the older the tree the more energy it supplies and the higher the price nike lawyer can I be retailers prefer cheaper softer charcoal because they can sell it in small portions some households buy the higher quality tougher charcoal and I personally delivered to the wholesale dealers just as in Europe here too it makes a difference where the wood for charcoal is from but it's also just as important to reduce the charcoal consumption the men and women of Goma stove are contributing to just that with direction from the WWF they conducted several tests and studies that helped them develop a particularly energy-efficient oven it only uses half as much charcoal as a traditional oven under the metal plating is a clay core that is baked the first time the oven is used a la première the first juste should be for something that needs to be cooked for a long time that's the case for most things cooked regularly here such as beans zombie or corn fufu that long first use bakes the clay core the demand for efficient cooking is huge Goma stove has produced and sold more than 80 thousand ovens since 2009 they've even delivered their product to the capital Kinshasa we produce a lot we used to make seven ceramic inserts today now it's 30 35 even hundred fifty this customer just bought her second Goma stove the savings have made a noticeable difference in her household budget the oven manufacturers smart marketing water over straightaway Muscovy demonize some households were uncertain about how they would cut their coal consumption in half zowie ask them how much they used with their traditional stove they'd answer two bags so we told them to go and buy two bags and when they do we give them our stove as a credit and tell them to use it and pay us at the end of the month to use then by the end of the month they realize they still have one bag of charcoal left bread em what you know Gloria stuck it in my color one bag lasts a month each family can save one and a half tons of charcoal over the two-year life expectancy of the stove and it's affordable the cost can easily be paid off in a month at the end of the month families are left with more money with efficient cookers it's possible to drastically reduce per capita charcoal consumption sustainable charcoal production on the other hand is more difficult outside of the national park hardly any trees are left and inside armed rebel groups from Rwanda have a tight grip on charcoal production they wouldn't dream of giving up this critical source of income papow Houston lives in a small village on the edge of ruin ganash '''l park he still clearly remembers when the Rwandan rebels came into his village and turned everything upside down they invaded the park and cut down all the trees since then the environment has been out of balance we don't have any rivers or streams and then the dry periods have become longer well that's when we decided we need to plant trees and we started looking for partners who would help us Felicia she taught a part in a 2v2 stem as a companion a separation bosie palooka became their trusted world wildlife fund partner he's a forester and knows what it takes to create a plantation you need to keep a close eye on the seedlings LaPlante so they reproduce at the right time tree must be planted at the beginning of the rainy season if you miss your window even by just a few days your plantation might not survive the WWF support plantations across the region with their eco makalah project Busey knows the people here well and understands that close contact with local chieftains and mayor's is just as important as a tree nursery FASTA is also an advocate on the hills this will help us fight erosion water there flows down the slopes and destroys our fields it even tears houses down the advantages are already visible after just a few years the WWF was successful now 100 tree nurseries 13 thousand hectares of plantations and nine thousand farmers have joined the project Jeff village chief is also convinced of the advantages ever since the project began he's been working to persuade the six thousand seven hundred families in his tribe to plant trees in order to secure the villages future at the eco makalah plantations they taught us a different way to cut down trees and build kilns that way we can produce higher quality charcoal that we can sell in Goma for a higher price so we have charcoal we can cook with ourselves we can sound chunko and that will pay for our children's education and the medical treatment and also for food today he's showing others how to plant trees to protect the fertile soil from erosion and landslides in five years these little saplings have become fully grown trees perfect for producing charcoal when they're ready for harvesting they provide a clean legal alternative to trees from the National Park lafon so this we can save the Virunga National Park if we plant more trees and at the same time we reduce our consumption our use of charcoal do you it like oh so much improve methods for coal making have doubled the amount of charcoal we can produce combine that with our improved stoves and we're saving on both ends on the one hand we're improving charcoal yields while on the other we're using less charcoal so basically we're raising supply and lowering demand demand the charcoal makers have learned that drawing the wood for two months before charring it is more effective this dense pile will be covered with dirt later and set on fire ventilation shafts to light the pile and a chimney made of old barrels will double the amount of charcoal this kiln can produce in addition the quality will be much higher fifteen percent of the charcoal used in Goma is sourced from the WWF's eco Makana project the long-term goal is to raise that to 30 percent the farmers have already begun to notice positive effects on the environment the proposed ever since the project started we've noticed an upward trend for example the times for planting used to be messed up as we risked losing our crops thanks to the plantations we planted with the Eco McCullough project we've seen the ecosystem restoring we can now go back to planting based on the old calendar a donkey lucuma saw respectfully calendar paratha but 30% is all this plantation can cover anymore wouldn't leave enough room for farming the project has helped slow down the destruction of the National Park but it can't stop it altogether further solutions still need to be developed and new energy sources tapped into back to France the charcoal pioneers are working on making their method more attractive for developing countries lower wood requirements reliable electricity and quality charcoal together these three things might be able to save the Virunga National Park the charcoal visionaries and Pia LED owatta are convinced that all it would take is enough political will to reach a sustainable solution for africa's charcoal problem without the correct circumstances however they don't want to introduce their method no Graham Duplantis plantation programs are a necessary condition for setting up the factory like ours in Africa Mayor Victor for growing schedules supported by the government or local groups would make that absolutely possible one particular advantage is that they'd not only have charcoal but electricity – too many people in Africa charcoal is a necessary energy source in Europe it's central to the grill culture efficient production and sustainable forestry can make charcoal a renewable resource only the combined efforts of governments businesses and consumers can stop the destruction of our tropical forests you

"If We Don't Protect Nature We Can't Protect Ourselves" Harrison Ford | Extinction Rebellion



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We are facing an emergency resulting from our toxic economic and political system. The way we relate to each other and to nature is destroying Earth’s capacity …

David Attenborough on climate change: 'The world will be transformed'



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An extract from Liberatum’s documentary In this Climate, in which a range of cultural and environmental figures including Noam Chomsky, David Attenborough and Mark Ruffalo respond to the threat of climate change and to the deniers.
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I'm not a big believer in manmade climate change I can't understand why there a group of people who just discount it completely I just think where is your brain you know how can our brains be so different how can you not notice all the things that are changing and just go no there is no there's nothing happening everything is the same there's no climate change there's no nothing we don't we don't care about those things so I think that a group of people are doing more and another group of people are in denial and I'm not sure there is hope I think it would plunge us into some sort of American dark ages and and I believe the country will never be the same again and I know that seems radical and dramatic but it's it's what I believe there are two threats that dominate everything else annihilation through the nuclear war for the other wasn't recognized until really the 1970s effect of the human use of fossil fuels and other actions including industrial meat production on others is leading to a rapid increase in carbon dioxide and the environment which is a changing which is warming the environment at a rate not seeing that the historical record the Paris agreements really did achieve something substantial and the bilateral arrangements now between China and the US and the agreements that were shored up in early September between Obama and president seeping these are the two most powerful polluting countries in the world if they make a bilateral agreement it is really significant again I know people are weary of politicians and they're weary of what governments do and there is a domotic kind of crowd-pleasing instinct among some politicians too just to deny the whole thing experts are to be hated but in fact we we are seeing simply because life in China when the cities is getting massive move against coal burning their self-interest as I've said before self-interest and actually interest in profit is going to drive this as much as idealism in the short time that I've been making television programs the population of the world has tripled three times as many people on earth as well six years ago and they all need places to live food to eat schools to children we all need them and all those things need space and where's that come from it comes from the natural world we know that the seas are warming up I'm a city flying lesson air space go food and they're more more people so all those things mean that the world in which I grew up were transformed the only people who are willing to act are the people on the front lines who are directly in harm's way right that's what got me into this living in in what would soon be a drilling field where they were going to poison the water in my community that's what activated me yes I believed in these things yes I was sympathetic to them yes I don't want to see you know people of color be just inundated by water by water and floods or droughts or whatever misery that's coming down the line towards us right but at the end of the day unless there's action it doesn't mean a goddamn thing and so I'm sick of my own voice in it and so when I look around and I see what things are happening where things are really happening or in the places where people's lives are on the line and those are the people who are going to begin this revolution that has to take place it's literally a revolution it's a political economic historical cultural revolution that we're talking about you

Scientist Explains Climate Change Using Maps | WIRED



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A new interactive map from researchers at the University of Maryland shows how cities might be transformed by climate change. WIRED’s Matt Simon talks with environmental scientist Matt Fitzpatrick about the map and why San Francisco could feel like Los Angeles by 2080.

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Scientist Explains Climate Change Using Maps | WIRED

climate change is the most epic threat our species has ever faced it's a really difficult thing to conceptualize because even though climate change is touching literally every square inch of this planet it's hard to show people how it might be affecting them personally but what scientists are finding recently is that maps can help communicate with threat we spoke with one of those scientists Matt Fitzpatrick who created an interactive map to show what the future climate of cities may be click on San Francisco for example and you'll see that in 2080 its climate will feel closest to present-day Los Angeles Chicago will feel more like eastern Kansas and Washington DC will feel more like the middle of Mississippi so the scientists and a science communicator what is the biggest challenge you're facing when communicating climate change to the public one it's it's a complex topic but one of the biggest things is the amount of misinformation out there right people see and read and hear all sorts of things that are presented as facts and they're not and the science is often attacked even though the science is very robust all that collectively is is trying not to speak in abstract terms trying to speak about personal values personal experiences personal stories that people can relate to and I think that's the angle that that this approach climate analog mapping tries to take so can you explain to us what this map is and what it is showing so what the map shows for 540 cities in North America is the current location that is most like that that city's future climates speaking in terms of a particular city is helpful so we can take New York City and we can say what location now has a climate like New York's is expected to be in 2080 we can do that for two different futures if you will one future assuming we don't put policies in place to change our behaviors and fossil fuel use so that's kind of a high emission scenario in the second scenario assumes that we address the emissions problem and reduce emissions to look at those two possibilities and understand how addressing change can can help if you see any kind of generalizable trends here yeah I mean the strongest consistent patterns were actually about the eastern half of North America or so so cities in the East their closest match in ms all cases was to the south or Southwest if you're a resident in a city in the East you would have to drive about 500 miles to the south to find a climate today like your cities can experience in 2080 if we think of Eastern cities we think for seasons we think snowy winters a lot of those cities are moving from those kinds of climates to the more like what we might consider subtropical humid southeastern deep south us the West is a little bit more complicated mainly because of the terrain right there's mountains and things like that the weather patterns a little bit more complicated and precipitation tends to be a lot more seasonal in the West right you get a lot of winter precipitation and droughts in the summer but all places in the West are warming up as well a lot of the places in the West are becoming more like Southern California more desert I think another powerful thing about this map is the implications for things like public health so in a place like San Francisco here we have very few residences with air-conditioning because it's just it's a mild climate that will not be the case in the future where we start looking more and more like Los and just how might a tool like this inform really public health policy going forward into a much warmer world I think there are opportunities for people involved in in that area and to look at these maps and say if our city is going to become more like a city in the south how are they handling heat waves what do they have to deal with higher temperatures how do they protect their most vulnerable population during those times I think another big component of this is water not just rising temperatures but the way that rainfall will be changing so places like Los Angeles is projected to have fewer storms but those storms will be more intense dumping more water at one time in LA is actually preparing for that with some catchment systems but we talked about the importance here of considering climate change both as a temp change but also a change in rainfall a lot of similar work to ours that had been done previously and still being done it mainly focused on temperature and we experienced temperature directly right I mean of course we get rained on but it's easier for us to experience a heatwave than it is a 30% increase in precipitation but precipitation is really really important for the reasons you mentioned right we of course rely on fresh water and so places that have built infrastructure and have planned around a certain amount of precipitation falling in a given year drastic and changes in that it's going to affect a lot of people so I think it's really important to bring in the dimension of of rainfall and to incorporate that into the analysis can you talk about what kind of ecological effects we might see in the coming years as the planet warrant your climate is a really important determinant to what organisms live where right so that means plants insects animals what have you and when we start changing the environment and climate starts changing animals tend to move around to an essence find their preferred habitat you know some of these organisms that are moving around our disease vectors more mosquitoes certain species of mosquitoes and certain diseases that they carry are all going to be affected and respond to climate change and that's gonna directly affect humans when when those are vectors of disease and other things like that so given the enormous scope of climate change the dire nature of it for the future of the human race what as individuals might we be able to do in eliciting change well a couple of things I like to say we've we all contribute to the problem so we can all contribute to the solution if we look at what contributes to emissions you transportations a big one power generation is a big one I live in Maryland in Maryland we were able to choose our power supplier and so we're able to choose a supplier that purchases renewable energy so if people live in a state where they have that that ability to pick where their power is coming from they can switch today they can switch from so fuel source to renewable sources that would have a major impact what's the utility of a map like this and communicating the the really dire consequences of climate change the climate change is hard for people to not now understand per se but but maybe to appreciate the the the risk because one you know we experience a lot of variability and climate daily weekly seasonally right we might see a twenty degree fahrenheit change from night time to the maximum temperature of the day but then we hear climate scientists talking about climate change and being worried about you know four degree change in mean global temperature and it's like well you know that doesn't seem so bad and and so I think the utility of this tool is to translate those those abstract global averages that we hear all the time into an actual impact assessment of where people live I think it's powerful for people to see the the magnitude of change that we expect just given relatively small changes in mean global temperature okay well thank you very much for joining us my pleasure man

Climate Scientist Jason Box: “Our Economic System Is Crashing With Reality”



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A heat wave is causing unprecedented melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Meanwhile, the World Meteorological Organization just declared July 2019 the hottest month ever recorded. We speak with Jason Box, professor and ice climatologist at the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, about the intensifying climate crisis. He says humanity must move toward living in balance with the environment. “If we don’t reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ultimately stabilize CO2 … there’s no real prospect for a stable society or even a governable society,” Box says. “Perpetual growth on a finite planet is, by definition, impossible.”

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this is democracy now democracynow.org the war and peace report I'm Amy Goodman as we bring you part two of our discussion of the climate crisis its effect on Greenland in the world the massive heat dome that shattered all time temperature records across much of Europe last week has settled in over Greenland driving temperatures across the vast region to as much as 30 degrees Fahrenheit above normal in July Greenland's ice sheet lost almost 200 billion tons of ice the equivalent of around 80 million Olympic swimming pools this comes as the World Meteorological Organization said Thursday that July was the warmest month in recorded human history that followed the hottest June on record as atmospheric carbon dioxide levels climbed to a record high of 415 parts per million earlier this year we're continuing our discussion in Copenhagen Denmark with Jason box professor and ice climatologist at the geologic survey of Denmark and Greenland Jason thanks so much for continuing with us explain why you have worked on Greenland for so long why Greenland is so significant in the world and for people who are watching this from the tip of Latin America to Asia to Africa why should we pay attention to Greenland what is so unique about it and what does the surge in temperature hot temperature mean I've been working studying Greenland starting with my studies in the u.s. at the University of Colorado working with some excellent people and for 15 years we worked on Greenland I then took a job in Copenhagen doing a lot of the same work we are running a monitoring system at the surface where we get hard numbers to check models and satellites and Greenland is is iconic because of its large size it's like three times the area of Texas it has a huge potential for sea-level rise until now larger smaller ice bodies in Arctic Canada Alaska and the Alps have actually been contributing more relative to their area than Greenland has now Greenland has taken the lead position for the last 20 years in its sea-level contribution so it's kind of stealing the show but meanwhile like just this month last month alpine glaciers in the Alps setting all-time loss records Arctic Canada Alaska so this is a global pattern it is the result of elevated natural greenhouse effect we've almost increased co2 by 50 percent above pre-industrial levels it's unequivocal that the observed climate warming is the direct result of this excess co2 in the atmosphere and so we shouldn't be surprised to see record warm temperatures records being set year after year going forward and it's actually intensifying I think it's no longer a subtle signal and so we you know the land ice it definitely tells a story and it reacts to to warming but much more immediate consequences come from the continents which are warming up twice as fast as the rest of the world and and that is a direct directly undermines the food systems and water security and what does Greenland look like in summer you have a seasonal snow cover that builds up this year is actually really thin snow cover winter snow and then that melts off exposing a really dark bear ice surface it kind of looks like concrete but it has a lot of water coursing over the surface a huge amount of water production at the surface over areas and that water then drains in actually heats the ice internally warmer ice is softer it flows faster the same water then lubricates the ice of the bed speeding it towards the sea the same water then ejects out into the marine and and actually drives more heat exchange with a warming ocean so there's lots of connections that we've established in looking at large ice bodies like Greenland and we see a lot of interconnection the story of course doesn't end when the icebergs break off Greenland or melt into the sea that extra fresh water is disrupting ocean circulation in the North Atlantic one of the key parts of the global ocean circulation system that is being disrupted heavily now it's probably going to increase storminess in the northwestern Europe we've seen some conspicuous examples of that this enhanced greenhouse effect is got putting a lot more moisture into the atmosphere so actually the Arctic is getting wetter the continents drier we have a profound shifts in the hydrologic system globally and they're really starting to be not so subtle anymore and and we're gonna see this year after year as various records are said not just dry and hot but sometimes wet and even cold because the extremes are increasing as our jet stream gets a lot less steady it's normally the jet stream should go flowing more east-west but now we have these big dips in the jet stream and that that's how you can get really warm air to the north really cold air to the south and then along those boundaries sometimes severe weather storms and that's going to make it really hard for farming to predict how to you know for irrigation farmers used to be able to depend on on weather being a certain way and knowing when to plant and harvest and that reliability and climate is is we're starting to lose that can you talk about the major report that you did about the Arctic that you helped write an April concluding the Arctic biophysical system is now clearly trending away from its 20th century state and into an unprecedented state with implications not only within but beyond the Arctic explained I was part of a study where we looked across multiple disciplines and we kind of zoomed out because we tend to you know focus on our favorite region but this was a pan Arctic study also interdisciplinary we were looking at the bio biological system at the surface the the ocean system and when you zoom out you you actually start to see more of the connections and how profoundly the Arctic system is changing the Arctic is warming it twice the rate of the rest of the world because of a number of feedback processes like the removal of a reflective cover of snow or sea ice leading to the large increase in the absorption of sunlight the increase in rainfall and precipitation actually leading to more plant growth the so called a shrub af– ocation of the Arctic increasing lightning ignition is now clearly linked with the increasing temperature and precipitation there's more lightning that provides the trigger mechanism for the the increasing wildfires that we're seeing this interconnected system because it's warming so fast it makes the signal that much easier to see then this study looked forward into the future and and there's no real prospect under the most likely climate scenarios either business-as-usual or some kind of Paris climate agreement type scenario we we we see even in the the Paris climate scenario a permanently transformed biophysical system of the Arctic with with effects that radiate outside of the Arctic like sea level rise like the disruption of weather patterns that that is now being already felt in the mid-latitudes so the the Arctic plays an important role in hemispheric climate and the signal is very clear a new study finds even modest shifts and government subsidies away from so fuels and toward renewables could lead to a dramatic drop in greenhouse gas emissions the International Institute for sustainable development says governments spend some three hundred seventy two billion dollars each year subsidizing coal oil and gas if as little as 10 percent of that money was invested in wind solar and other renewables countries could see a nearly 20% drop in carbon dioxide pollution Jason box can you explain the significance of this many people may not understand for example in the United States and that's where you train were educated that we continue to subsidize the coal the oil the gas industry in this country gasoline is so affordable in the u.s. because it's heavily subsidized and that enables the US economy to to rev up like it does and and it's it's not surprising that they're proponents who who want to continue subsidizing petroleum to keep the existing economic system running however the externalities of that economic system are producing radical environmental impacts like climate change it to a point that we can't really ignore them anymore it's good news that studies are showing that that by reducing carbon emissions and putting investments into lower carbon energy systems that that we can we can achieve the needed reductions in in greenhouse gas emissions if we don't reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ultimately stabilize co2 and we also have to draw down a lot of carbon out of the atmosphere if we don't achieve that there's no real prospect for a stable society or even a governor bowl society going forward on on a perpetual growth on a finite planet is by definition impossible so we have to confront the reality that we need an economic system that recognizes the important services that that that the atmosphere provides to us for free and and so where our economic system is is is crashing with reality and so reports that are detailing the the sustainability prospects of shifting investments into cleaner energy are not only welcome there they're necessary if we want a stable global society finally the significance of President Trump being a climate change denier what this means with the United States the historically greatest greenhouse gas emitter how this affects the rest of your world as an American you are now looking at the u.s. through a vantage point outside of the United States how this kind of climate change denial affects policy in the world the effect recently with the European elections has been the so-called Green Wave there's been a progressive I think it might be a reaction to the publicity that the climate change has been getting and and so we see a more rational more kind of humanitarian approach to environment and climate emerging in Europe because the facts are very clear and and there's there's less of there's less denial of this of science and and and the environmental crisis that we face in Europe for one I think a lot of the world that like here in Denmark there watching the u.s. very carefully but but not really falling into the the the lies that are being spread by the the Trump administration which clearly want to maintain a status quo because it's extremely profitable for a lot of people that that are supporting they just to perpetuate and I think to be able to exploit petroleum while while they still can I think those days are numbered uh hopefully you know the truth prevails and the world realizes that we need to not only leave fossil fuels in the ground we need to protect existing forests and re-establish forests in in some attempt to stabilize and the this increase in atmospheric carbon that threatens global society Jason box wanna thank you so much for being with us professor a nice climatologist at the geologic survey of Denmark and Greenland speaking to us from Copenhagen to see part one of our discussion go to Democracy Now org I'm Amy Goodman thanks so much for joining us

Arctic Amplification, Sea Ice, Jet Stream and Weather [EXTENDED CLASSIC EDITION]



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Features Arctic/Polar Research footage ranging from 1956, 1969, 1975, 1981, 1982, 1985, 1991, and more recent items. SUBSCRIBE *Support CLIMATE …

Climate change: Europe's melting glaciers | DW Documentary



It is far too late to save the Alpine glaciers. And now, the dangers caused by tons of melting ice are rising sharply. Every year, climate change is destroying two of the currently 70 square kilometers of glaciers left in the Alps.

The permafrost in the Alps is thawing, and transforming what used to be sturdy slopes into loose screes. In addition, climate change is leading to significantly more extreme weather conditions every year, while heavy rainfall causes serious erosion. The result: avalanches and landslides like those in Bondo, Switzerland, or Valsertal in Austria.
In Switzerland, residential areas are shrinking as people are forced to leave their homes forever. The disappearance of glaciers as water reservoirs is already posing a major problem. Farmers in Engadine, who have been using meltwater for irrigation for centuries, are already facing water shortages. Last summer, they had to rely on helicopters to transport water to their herds in the Grison Alps. Above all, alpine villages depend on winter tourism to survive. Yet experts are forecasting that by mid-century, there will only be enough natural snow left to ski above 2,000 meters, which will spell out the end for about 70 percent of the ski resorts in the Eastern Alps. But instead of developing alternatives, lots of money is still being invested in ski tourism. Snow cannon are used to defy climate change, and artificial snow systems are under construction at ever higher altitudes. As usual, it’s the environment that is set to lose as the unique alpine landscape is further destroyed by soil compaction and erosion. Some municipalities are now working on new models of alpine tourism for the future. As global temperatures continue to rise, the cooler mountain regions will become increasingly attractive for tourists, especially in the summer.

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the spectacular Alps dazzling ice against a brilliant blue sky Danny Arnold and his friend are extreme Mountaineers here on a quest for the ultimate thrill they're climbing the pits Pulu a nearly 4000 meter peak you position your ice axe you hear the tension cracks and hisses when it breaks up the ice blocks it's really cool but an increasing number of scientists are warning that such adventures might soon become impossible global warming is melting the glaciers Danny Arnold can see for himself the effects of climate change the days when you could really go climbing in winter Clayton con 10 years ago there were lots more of them lcx experts say we're at a turning point there's less snow less ice and glaciers are retreating it won't be long before the Alps as we know them no longer exist Sage's d in spring 2018 the mood in a glacier 3000 ski resort in Switzerland was euphoric even among scientists a team led by Glacia expert matthias who's from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich visits the mountains twice a year once in spring and again in autumn when the season begins they investigate how much fresh snowfall there was in winter and the thickness of the snow cover over the ice the more snow there's been the better the condition of the Glacia today the 25th of April 2018 it's in better shape than it's been for a while more than five meters of snow fell in winter we've measured snow water equivalent at seven glaciers across Switzerland our measurements showed that in 2018 snow cover was well above average there wasn't quite as much snow depth everywhere in Switzerland as there was here but it does look like there was perhaps as much as 50% more than in a normal year meal Alton Animalia Matthias hosts will be back in autumn there are plenty of people who see the healthy snowfall as proof that climate change is a myth but in Europe's high mountain ranges the evidence is all around in Italy Switzerland Austria Slovenia and Germany the environmental research station Schnee fauna house is located just beneath the peak of the Turkish pizza it's the highest altitude research post in Germany for professor Aneta Menzel and her students from the Technical University in Munich it's the starting point for an Alpine expedition she tells them that they can see the signs of global warming every day high levels of pollen for example that can be potentially life-threatening for people with allergies one result of global warming is that the pollen season starts earlier but doesn't end earlier there's a lot of pollen about even in autumn due to invasive species and increased levels of carbon dioxide in the air also raises pollen production the Eco climatology students will meet dozens of experts on the Alpine study trip starting with Mikaela cloud Blatter a scientist of international renown his area of expertise is permafrost and landslides erosion and natural hazards now the temperature increase means the permafrost in the Alps is starting to melt there is a growing risk of rockfall the mountains are simply not as cold as they used to be car Blatter explains next the group sets off to sea in sight that sucks pizza measuring the thickness of the permafrost is a bit like performing open-heart surgery or inspiring and intense this tunnel is just 50 centimeters high the scientists have to crawl on all forms the permafrost in sight that sucks Pizza is between a couple and a couple of dozen meters thick depending on our side temperatures nowadays it's possible to measure it precisely the rock is illuminated with countless electrical sensors increasingly less rock inside the mountain is permanently frozen even here at Germany's highest peak the permafrost is visibly thawing we've been observing a clear reduction in the permafrost since February of 2007 so more than a decade ago the occasional cold winter can slow the process slightly but over the years we've seen the thought Vance rubble and rock stabilized the ice in the critical areas where the thaw has set in but we have to keep a careful eye on it in case instabilities arise Alpine instability the residents of the small village of bondo in the Swiss canton of graubünden know all too well what that can mean Alvarez alice is saying goodbye to her parents home the house she spent her whole life in it has to be demolished when I see my house dying this slow death it makes me very sad I'm ready to leave now soon before her eyes in summer 2017 a massive landslide at pits cheng gallo brought three million cubic meters of rock crashing down into the valley i suddenly heard this terrible noise i looked up at the mountain and saw huge chunks of rock cascading down the side of it it looked like lava but moving very slowly and soundlessly it was ice water and soil a surveillance camera at a local carpentry business recorded these images eight hikers were killed part of the village was destroyed the landslide was a result of climate change there used to be houses here now there's just rubble Elvira's alice's house was full of boulders and rocks it's in the prohibited area of the village where people are no longer allowed to live 82 year old Elvira's Alice had to leave bond oh she moved in with her son in a neighboring village her house was 345 years old her great-grandfather bought it initially I was just very sad I cried a lot I was glad that I was there when it was torn down it's the same as it is with people you don't let people die alone I didn't want my home to die alone I hated a home in this the 200 residents of bondo is still at risk another 3 million cubic meters of rock fall from pits chenge low could hit the village at any time LaMontagne alifair baba the mountain has a fever they say here was the landslide that devastated bondo a one-off for our such disasters set to become more frequent to answer these questions professor McKee Alucard Blatter has put together a team of scientists today they're heading to what they believe is one of the most intriguing spots in the entire house the helicopter has hardly any room to land here on the hawk for breath the border between Germany and Austria runs over the summit not far from Oberstdorf in 2014 a crack appeared in the mountain that has since widened there is an acute risk of rock for one of two paths at the top of the mountain has been closed off an aerial view reveals the full extent of the danger several hundreds of thousands of tons of rock could hurtle into the valley collecting data at an altitude of 2,600 meters is a risky undertaking what could happen if the summit collapses doesn't bear thinking about there's about two hundred and sixty thousand cubic meters of rock mass we began taking measurements here in 2014 and since then it's moved 30 centimeters right now it's moving several millimeters a month the deformations underway are so strong and can change in such a short space of time that it won't be long now it could all come crashing down this year or next year we can't rule that out Oh season the Alps are effectively held together by permafrost not just here in Al Gore Germany and bondo Switzerland but everywhere the cracks are showing literally in the Alpine itll today the students are visiting scree slopes it wasn't long ago that these were covered in snow all year round Europe's high mountain regions are highly sensitive to climate change they react to the slightest rise in temperature by even a tenth of a degree to any extended period without rain to every interference in nature with dramatic consequences the temperature is rising and then there are a lot of activities which are anyway going to hurt us so basically it's our deeds that are going to lead us even more worse in the future for example if you are using fossil fuel somewhere on the planet it's going to affect not only the same country another it's going to affect Lobley it matters to me because it affects my future the future of my children and the whole ecosystem I love nature I love being outside that's why I want to learn about all this and find out what the future holds in mountain regions opening bag I have seen things here and then if if I can transfer the technology or the knowledge that I have gained here there then I believe that we can lower the climate no we can mitigate not exactly lower we cannot do any that but adapt to the climate change happening with its all year round snowy caps Germany's highest mountain is a major tourist attraction that sucks pizzas Glacia is no longer growing it's melting away by 2040 at the latest it will have retreated completely snow plows scraped together the last of the winter snow it's stored in snow depots at the start of the new season it will be used to get the beasts ready that way the season can get started as early as possible but the lack of snow is becoming increasingly problematic in 2018 even with snow farming the skiing season couldn't start in November because the temperatures on the touch Pitzer were just to warm even resorts in high altitudes now rely on artificial snow which is water and energy intensive demand is so great that ski lift operators sometimes buy snow from private suppliers almost every village in the Alps is dependent on tourism and therefore on snow keeping the visitors happy is all that matters whatever the cost no one wants the party to be over [Applause] in summer the cost of all that fun is written into the landscape the resort of Silve rata is located above ishka the slopes are littered with countless snow machines maintaining the resort is a huge financial investment the damage wrought by tourism is substantial hydrologist commander Yong from the University of Strasbourg researches the effects of artificial snow on the Alps even she is taken aback by the extent of the erosion caused by winter sports this channel is very wide almost two metres you can tell from where I'm standing that it's really deep if the ground is eroding completely there are channels all over the slopes big and small the young wants to establish if the ground can still absorb water she measures the density of the soil the snow cats and the heavy artificial snow have left the soil extremely compacted it's a struggle to position the measuring rod she's never seen results like these before this fossil vetti and all the water will just flow off the surface as a result the piste will be completely impermeable the water flowing here doesn't get absorbed it just runs off the surface and causes widespread erosion and open field so safley this is normally a really pretty meadow with permeable ground that's able to absorb water enters Vasa our found water yet new snow machines are being installed all over the Alps like here in San Moritz where two kilometres of pipeline are being laid ski feasts are created at ever higher altitudes for many resorts it's the only way they can survive but costs are exploding and eventually many ski lift operators simply won't be able to afford to stay in business the winter sports industry is being outstripped by climate change the production of artificial snow calls for vast quantities of water man-made reservoirs are fed with meltwater and mountain streams water that's needed elsewhere unique landscapes are being altered beyond recognition and gradually destroyed ski resorts are not insured against climate change if there's a temperature rise of one or two degrees then there's no guaranteed snow cover here and there's no proper ski season anymore meet me at Dorking I know she says all the time according to the latest studies we may see a temperature increase of four degrees Celsius by the end of the century for the time being there are 630 ski resorts across the Alps from Slovenia to France by 2080 five 80% will likely have no more guaranteed snow cover and will therefore shut down a study conducted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich predicts that they'll only be natural snow cover upwards of an altitude of 2,400 meters but despite this gloomy outlook many ski lift operators of failing to react many jobs depend on the winter sports industry but while they look the other way the unique natural world of the Alps is slowly but surely degrading the fledgling climatologists are now on their way to the lake fashion power plant its waters flow through the pipeline's 200 meters down the mountainside to Lake cockle and powers turbines the increasing scarcity of water originating from high-altitude sources is a harbinger of potential desertification in parts of the Alps meltwater is especially in short supply on the edges of the Alps in upper bavaria in the past the water level in lake fashion had to be deliberately reduced there was a risk of flooding due to the vast amount of meltwater in the spring there used to be so much snowmelt here that we had to make room for it in the lake but for a while now there's been much less the lake can absorb it so we don't need to reduce the water level they speaking same converging sea of niche Musselwhite up everything here in the Alps is linked power generation and water supply rising temperatures and the increased incidence of rock for the thawing permafrost and the developing aridity for years eco climatologist Aneta men soul has been taking students on study trips to the alps how much has the situation here changed in that time well we definitely need to worry in alpine regions the temperature has already risen two degrees Celsius that's a bigger increase than in the lowlands and a lot more than the global average forecasts back this up there will be more of a temperature rise here than in surrounding regions and that's why there are such massive changes in nature from the glaciers to the forest from hydrology to water supply for example all trees require a specific temperature to flourish as temperatures rise ideal tree habitats are now at higher altitudes what that means is to be where the temperature suits them they actually need to be 500 meters higher up the slopes than they are that includes tree species suited to mountain peaks but the problem with that is they can't be 500 meters higher up because obviously they're already at the summit so where do they go back to end on there's no shortage of evidence that the Alpine environment is changing here in Austria teams of specialists work tirelessly to avert landslides disasters are becoming increasingly common not only landslides but also torrential rain and flooding climate change is also causing periods of sustained droughts and heat which leads to forest fires such as here in Piedmont Italy in October 2017 aggravated by strong hot and dry winds wildfires raged across the region for weeks on end some 1000 people were evacuated from their homes including 200 residents of her retirement home Renato Bruno was in charge of dozens of firefighters from across the region who battled the inferno one of the worst hit areas was outside the small town of mom Pantera the flames were up to a hundred meters high recalls Bruno many houses were completely destroyed even iron paths melted in the blaze it was an inferno it was bad enough for the people in the valley you could see it raging but it was worse for the people who were nearer those involved in trying to put it out there were some highly critical moments the situation was dangerous because of the wind you'd think you were safe but then the wind would turn and suddenly you'd be surrounded by flames potentially pressure meds on a leaf yummy the amount of forest destroyed by wildfire in Italy in 2017 was three times greater than in the previous year in periods of extreme heat all it takes is one tiny spark to start a huge conflagration Bruno says that 70% of Mon Pantera was destroyed this forest will never regenerate not with the basalt amend these trees can be salvaged if they're not deciduous trees that could recover they're completely charred there's nothing you can do but chop them down chipulu Luciana shinola but Demento devastation on this scale is unprecedented in the region but even the older firefighters have ever seen anything like it Sinhala if climate change carries on at this rate and there are no longer dry periods in the summer and less and less snow in the winter then the situation is only going to get worse Laconia Pajar people in n garden in Switzerland are also struggling with drier conditions the centuries local farmers have been relying on melt water to irrigate their fields but meltwater has become a finite resource rate Odense meanwhile relies on rain water between February and August there was hardly any rain his meadow is completely parched as you can see it says dry as hay on the nothing's grown since May the boxin is tight my the grass should be knee-deep at this time of year and the cows will soon be coming down from the mountain meadows while DQ about from the wrong corner his cows are still grazing in pasture at an elevation of 1,900 meters but they are too the ground is far too dry and the cows aren't getting enough to drink in the summer of 2018 their supply had almost completely dried up every drop is precious greater dancer checks on the cattle regularly he fears for the future of his alpine pasture I've got 90 cows and their calves and the water here isn't even enough for a single calf if there's not enough water the cows graze less and then produce less milk clouds are gathering it looks like it might rain but no it's yet another dry day the farmer has to rely on an alternative source of water right now this is the only way of ensuring a water supply on the meadow the helicopter delivers 700 litres ago and it takes several trips to fill up the well at a cost of one thousand three hundred euros it's only enough of four to five days for farmers like rato done sir water has become a critical issue there's not enough for their animals to drink and there's not enough to keep the meadows green and that means not enough animal feed we aren't going to have enough animal feed for the coming winter so either we can buy and feed which is very expensive or we reduce our cattle Radio Tulsa had no choice but to slaughter some of his animals this year farmers ski resorts tourists nature everyone and everything needs water and it's running out hydrologist commander Yong is measuring natural evaporation the results are alarming she says the climate has become as dry as the Sahel region in the Sahara this little rain and large-scale evaporation fair distribution of water will become an increasing challenge in dry alpine valleys authorities will have to do the best they can to confer this padorin does this Eva mayor in pain future there will be more and more bottlenecks there simply won't be enough water to irrigate all the meadows there have to be stricter partitioning gate like in dry countries in Africa and on in Africa sort of alleys descent into the underworld ice climber Danny Arnold is exploring inside the plane Mort glacier in the canton of bern in switzerland deep in the crevasse he finds spectacular rock and ice formations not many people have ever been down here Danny can get to the very bottom only because the ice is solid enough this permafrost is thousands of years old it's a steep and dangerous climb back out a unique experience it might not be possible to do this in the foreseeable future makes me think if you bear in mind that researchers say that none of this will be here anymore in 90 years time this annoying secure no more glaciers that's pretty tragic isn't it this is your new country you can beat rock this yeah the Arledge class here in Valais Switzerland is the largest in the Alps 20 kilometers long and in parts nearly 1 kilometer thick Guillaume Gervais from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich is researching this massive natural wonder will it survive in a close future we can't really do anything because now all the glacier is reacting to the shift in the climate to the increase of temperatures that we had in from the 90s so it means that even if we don't what ever happened in the future in terms of climate the glacier will keep retreat by at least 5 kilometers and what would happen if temperatures rose by 4 degrees as experts now predict guillaume j'ouvert has calculated that by the end of the century the alleged glazier will have almost completely disappeared so if we I mean if we assume that this climate scenario is right we don't cure its most likely that there will be very little ice by 2100 in the edge it's obvious that here in this landscape there will be no more ice no longer ice at the end of the century the Concordia Alpine heart is situated a few kilometers higher up for the last few years it's been run by Christoph Sagar and his family today he's getting it ready for the summer season it can accommodate a hundred and fifty-five guests alpine hikers skiers and glacier enthusiasts from all over the world thanks to its panoramic views the Concordia heart is one of the most popular Alpine hostels in Europe it's the most beautiful place in the world to work I know other Alpine nuts that are lovely but to me this is just the most amazing place in the world to work in but it's under threat half way down steep metal steps Christoph saga points out the evidence that the aaalac is dying the hut was originally built on this spot in 1877 back then the glacier reached roughly the point we're standing at so in the course of 140 years everything beyond that point has melted it's retreated about 150 meters 150 meters in 140 years about a metre a year the ice is melting faster sometimes 2 sometimes 3 meters a year the Arlette gracias days are numbered tourism in the Alps needs to change and become more gentle and sustainable in some regions this shift is already happening in Slovenia for example rafting in the picturesque Logan Valley [Applause] the countryside here is a Dilek Slovenia hasn't always been on the tourist map but its popularity is growing as a destination for Alpine tourists who respect the environment Jennifer and Josh come from Alaska this is their third vacation in Slovenia they love its unspoiled nature still and then also water think on the far side we tend to look for someplace that's off the beaten path that just is the the type of I think people we are and so we just a little bit of research and we decided that this sounded like a good place to perhaps explore three years ago and we came and we were delighted there's this country it's small but it seems to have almost anything you would want to find anywhere in the rest of Europe [Applause] like Jennifer and Josh a growing number of tourists are looking for landscapes off the beaten path that flourish naturally places that don't need snow machines in winter and a left barren in summer Slovenia is exactly what they're after fly fishing in the crystal-clear waters of Lake sylvania 400 kilometers northwest in a wrist Bock Tirol on the border to upper bavaria this is where the climatology students four day excursion ends they're not really here to learn how to catch fish but about how increasingly warm waters are affecting fish stocks many species can't survive the impact of climate change in the Alps is impossible to overlook what I find especially worrying is that many people don't seem to want to believe it's happening or they don't care even though it's visible all around without glaciers anymore in the Alps we won't have as much water flowing downstream and feeding rivers like this one right here so there will be many many environmental impacts with without melting glaciers over the summer time things don't look good but there's no point being pessimistic it's more constructive to be optimistic and to take the lessons we've learned here and use them personally and professionally to do what we can and to fight climate change as much as we can and to try to stop it there has always been human intervention in the Alps it's been farmed paths and roads have been built on the slopes villages in the valleys have grown sometimes on spots that are now high-risk the people who live here will have to adapt to drier hotter conditions and a future without glaciers in mid-september Glacia expert Mateus horse and his team pay another visit to Glacia 3000 their findings in April were positive how are things looking now the ground crackles and hisses as the researchers make their way to their measuring kits that's not a good sign the glaze here their crossing is dying all the snow that should be covering it is gone in the space of just a few months we're here in April there was an incredible snow cover five meters deep the snow was thick and compact just think about it five meters of snow 3,000 meters above sea level has melted in the course of a summer wouldn't have thought that was possible five meters of snow and 1.3 meters of Glacia [Applause] the melting of the glaciers is irreversible mattias horse is watching his beloved glaciers die it's nothing less than a tragedy you

Can We Trust Scientists?



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A look at the disconnect between science and public opinion.

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the scientist intellectual superhero infinitely clever and charming they dedicate their life to unravelling the complexities of the universe for the benefit of all mankind if a scientist says it believe it baby no this is actually a pretty close approximation of the view most people have of scientists according to the 2014 National Science Foundation report on the public perception of science and engineering so then how can it be that on scientific issues these same people don't trust scientists just 67 percent of Americans believe the earth is getting warmer and only about half of those people attribute that to human activity contrast that to what 97% of self-identified actively publishing climate scientists a 98 percent of the top 50 climate researchers say so what's going on here and if the people surveyed lie about trusting scientists I don't think so only 62% of Americans agree that most scientists believe global warming is occurring that's pretty much in line with the public opinion so it would appear that all of the people who believe scientists say climate change is real believe themselves that climate change is real the problem here might not be so much a mistrust of scientists but miss information about what scientists are actually saying so what is this scientific consensus that 97% of climate researchers supposedly adhere to that's tricky because there isn't a president of science to declare that mighty consensus has been reached instead it's really rather more unsatisfactorily wishy washy for the general public and even other scientists outside of a discipline because remember climate science is just as much a mystery to geneticists and pathologists it is to economists and Tupperware salesmen it's essentially based on the official positions of scientific organizations across the world which in turn have independently based their conclusions from the entirety of published research NASA the American Medical Association the World Health Organization the United Nations the Science Council of Japan the russian academy of sciences the french academy of science the australian academy of science the Canadian Academy of Science every major national and international scientific organization from here to Timbuktu agree independently of one another human-caused climate change is happening with you choose to act on it or not in some ways it's unfortunate there's not any kind of metric for scientific consensus to show the public on a sliding scale just how overwhelmingly supported certain theories are consensus is important it represents careful judgment from the most respected scientific institutions from all over the world who review every scrap of data available to them and independently arrive at the same conclusion there is no better metric for certainty not trusting such well evidence conclusions is foolish but what about these dissenting scientists we hear so much about why are they being censored they're not they're just wrong if there's a mathematician on TV with a PhD to their name it's a pretty good bet that they've never published a single paper on climatology they'll have reviewed the evidence for themselves non experts telling you that 97% of experts are wrong should raise a red flag occasionally however there will be a bona fide publishing specialist voicing opposition to the position statements of scientific organizations scientists do have and voice their opinions they do so in the discussion section of papers in letters to journals essays and books but that opinion is not always based in evidence and in rare instances can accompany some unsettling financial conflicts of interest more on that in a future video discussing scientific fraud a good scientist is supposed to be able to change fallacious opinions in the light of new evidence unfortunately that doesn't always happen some notable characters have refused to give up pet theories and move on from their original conclusions even when faced with overwhelming new evidence two excellent examples of this are Peter Duesberg and Andrew Wakefield both of whom invested heavily in their sins dismissed notions of reality but doubled down when evidence falsifying their conclusions was published and continued to this day to declare their ideas scientific does this confuse the general public apparently yes because despite ardent trust of science conceptually poles of public opinion continue to show opposition and certainty regarding long since settled science issues a 2009 survey by the American Association for the Advancement of science shows that 76% of scientists blamed the media for this disconnect by making no meaningful distinction between well evidenced science and weakly supported speculation but drama gets high ratings and intentionally or not the news media has generated vast amounts of fake controversy because they can't help but present two sides of any argument as equal even if that massively distorts reality there are two important takeaways here first individual scientists and studies no matter how well-respected or devised can come to the wrong conclusion or be an incomplete account of a larger picture so considering them apart from other research is usually a very bad idea second when theories are falsified they are binned by mainstream science as the best explanation of the data no two ways about it climate change evolution germ theory general relativity nothing is sacred in science these exist as theories today because they've stood the test of decades of scrutiny and have grown to incorporate new evidence and accurately describe previously unavailable data that's not to say that any established theory is necessarily a complete description of reality but all theories must accurately model some part of it but whoa hey wait a minute if all this crap once held the revered status of theory but was thrown out for being wrong who's to say that won't happen to all these theories some pundits peddle this is proof that science says whatever it likes that is untrustworthy today's theory is tomorrow pseudoscience up is down black is white nobody can ever know anything so anyone's opinion is just as valid as than others but there's a metric we're not being shown here and that is wait most of these theories were devised so long ago or describing such a new phenomenon that there wasn't that much data to fit and so long as all the data points fits the theory remains unfalsifiable XO bytes of data from dozens of different fields and it can get to the point where there's so much overwhelming evidence supporters of alternative theories can earn the title of denialist people like this tend to cling to single outdated studies which support their claims and exclude hundreds of others which don't one of the better analogies that i've heard for climate change denial and Trust in scientific consensus relates the issue to a more familiar science medicine you visit your doctor and he tells you that the evidence points to cancer but not only that he tells you where the cancer is what caused it and explains that certain risk factors may make close relative is more likely to develop the disease in shock and disbelief you seek a second opinion the second doctor independently confirms that yes according to state-of-the-art medical science you have cancer and unless treatment is started immediately your chances of survival could be as low as 5% again you refuse to accept this in all you get through 32 of the world's most qualified oncologists before finally you find one who tells you I do see evidence of cancer but there's not conclusive evidence that it's malignant it could be benign or even in spontaneous remission let's wait a few months and see if anything develops still unsatisfied with this notion of cancer you seek the advice of holistic healer and self-described disbeliever in modern medicine Andrea Beaman who gives you yogurt that sounds pretty nuts to me individual doctors can make mistakes and getting 32 experts to agree on the best course of treatment might be tricky but what they're not wrong about is the existence of cancer and your odds of surviving it trusting in the wishful thinking of somebody who has no medical training whatsoever who says that modern medicine is a hoax is so ill-advised that her doubt I could resist the urge to try and physically shake the silly out of anyone who suggests it this same principle applies to all of science one daft idiot with a PhD in mathematics doesn't affect the evidence for climate change any more than someone with a PhD in nutrition is going to rock the foundation of medical science so we begin to get a sense of where these blurry trust lines are individual scientists aren't infallible but when it comes to theories we've got to make a decision on one way or another and when the landscape looks like this it's a pretty damn obvious one but of course the media portrays everything like this that's obviously got to stop misrepresenting science on issues of public health and environmental damage has real consequences but it's not going to change anytime soon so what's the answer we've got to be able to tell that climate change is real but that MMR vaccines don't cause autism while there are scientists on TV arguing that both of these things are true if the media insists on unrelentingly presenting two sides of any scientific issue is fair and balanced how is the public supposed to measure the weight of evidence behind each claim the answer rather satisfyingly is this the internet most people in my estimation have pretty good analytical skills if only they have access to clear information not listed with technical jargon and the internet is chock full of it there are some amazing science videos to see and some junk too but just like in the world of scientific research the good stuff out numbers the bad a hundred to one here on the Internet we're all part of a kind of social duplicate of scientific consensus where we reach our own public consensus based on the quality and prevalence of clear untechnical explanations for scientific discoveries we do trust in scientists but aren't so naive is to take one single source as fact humans are explorers we search for truth and when we weigh the evidence before us the overwhelming majority will eventually arrive at the correct answer

UN IPCC Scientist Debunks UN IPCC Lies



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STOCKHOLM, Sweden — The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (UN IPCC) is misleading humanity about climate change and sea …

Climate change on track to reduce ocean wildlife || Global Warming



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Education and Environment related information, news and analysis will be available on this channel. So, Please Subscribe our

Climate change is set to empty the ocean of nearly a fifth of all living creatures, measured by mass, by the end of the century, researchers have calculated. AFP, Paris

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researchers have collected climate since is a seat to empty and ocean nearly 1/5 of all living characters measured by mass by the end of century in a world that hit up three or four degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels 17% of Marin biomass burn many circle Pantanal 200 onwards we'll be wiped out they reported in the u.s. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science to date our surveys had wormed a full degree one point eight degrees Fahrenheit bigger fish and marine animals already diverted by overfishing pollution and ship strikes we'll see a spatial sharp declines due to recent temperature even in a bass cars scenario of limited warming to two degrees Celsius the the cornerstone target to Paris climate treaty the ocean Bahamas will drop off by five percent shallow water corals who is a harbor 30% of modern life our focus to disappear almost entirely under this condition art is currently on course to be around 4 degrees Celsius hotter by 21 century every additional t2 will see the ocean biomass shrink by another 5% art is currently on course to be around 4 degree Celsius sorted by 21 century the pressure of marine ecosystem will depend heavily on climate chance said ginger Shane a bi losses – a difference and stitute of development research and 135 experts from a dozen countries contributing to the study thank you for joining with us so for today I'm super Mahad cut back

When will Florida's red tide end? We asked a scientist



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A red tide — a choking cluster of toxic algae — floating off Florida’s southwest coast has killed 115 manatees, more than 350 sea turtles and hundreds of tons of …

Prince William humbled to interview David Attenborough



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Prince William stepped out of his usual royal engagement role at the World Economic Forum in Davos on Jan. 22, by interviewing nature documentary icon …

A chat with 'Mathematics and Climate' Authors



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The book, Mathematics and Climate, published by SIAM in October 2013, has been honored by the Atmospheric Science Librarians International (ASLI) as the …

Sir David Attenborough calls for 'urgent' climate change action | ITV News



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Sir David Attenborough has issued a stark warning that the collapse of civilisations and extinction of much of the natural world is “on the horizon” without action …

Naomi Oreskes: Why we should trust scientists



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Many of the world’s biggest problems require asking questions of scientists — but why should we believe what they say? Historian of science Naomi Oreskes …

UQx DENIAL101x Full interview with Sir David Attenborough



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Climate change is real, so why the controversy and debate? Learn to make sense of the science and to respond to climate change denial in Denial101x, a MOOC from UQx and edX.

Denial101x isn’t just a climate MOOC; it’s a MOOC about how people think about climate change.

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Cook: You've been visiting the world's ecosystems
for over 50 years now. What changes are you seeing in places that you're going back to
like the Great Barrier Reef? Attenborough: Just recently I've been in Borneo,
and I've been going to Borneo for 50 years or so and it's very evident there, particularly
if you fly by air and take a helicopter journey across the width of Borneo or sections of
it anyway. It's very revealing. The Kinabatangan River, which used to be a really wild area
when I first went, there's a fringe of about, I suppose, a couple hundred yards on the other
side of the river where there's riverine forest and then beyond there there is uniform oil
palms. Cook: As you talk to scientific experts, what
is it that convinced you that humans are causing these kind of changes, particularly climate
change? Attenborough: Well, I think you put your finger
on it. It's when you talk to the experts because by and large looking for human effects on
the natural world you just don't go out and walk into the bush and say, "Oh, yes, that's
human effects." You need much more solid observations than that and particularly observations through
time. What convinces you is measurements of the component gases in the atmosphere, for
example. When you have got records, as we have in Europe, going back to the 18th century,
the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and you suddenly see the figure of CO2, for
example, and other gases, too, steadily increasing. If you plot against that population, as well,
you have not much doubt that human beings have had an effect upon the atmosphere. Cook: Based on what you've seen and talking
to the experts, how do you think that life on Earth will be affected if we don't resolve
the climate change problem? Attenborough: Well, I think one of the most
sensitive places is here in eastern Australia in Queensland. The two effects of climate
change that I think we can be absolutely certain about, beyond any question, is that the temperature
of the ocean is rising and the acidity of the ocean is rising. Work has been done here
in Heron Island and elsewhere that makes it absolutely clear as to what the effect those
two factors will be upon coral growth. The increasing, the time passing, increasing those
figures lead to disaster unless something is done. There are those who say that there's
nothing that can be done except, and my response to that is that it will be worse if we do
nothing. There's not an excuse for doing nothing saying you can't stem it – you can slow it
down, that's for sure. It will be really culpable if we don't. Cook: Are you optimistic that we can make
the changes we need to avoid the worst impacts? Attenborough: I have no real evidence to feel
one way or the other. It's only gut feeling, and gut feeling is not a good way of going
around and judging things. All I know is that a responsible biologist has to say what these
facts are and to take very chance of influencing those people who can change or can influence
those circumstances and those are primarily politicians. Cook: I guess that brings an important question,
what advice would you give scientists and experts who are trying to communicate the
realities of climate change to the public and the policy makers? Attenborough: I don't have advice to give
them really because all the circumstances are different. Except that we have to go on
proclaiming the truth. That's what science has done ever since Galileo. For 500 years
that's what scientists do. Thought scientists don't take notice of fashion and don't take
notice of political influence and don't take notice of any other kind of influence. The
only kind of influence that they should take notice of are the evidence which they find
and which their discipline teaches them to assess. Cook: You must get a lot of feedback from
people who watch your shows. How do you respond to people who don't accept the science of
climate change? Attenborough: It's very difficult if they
don't, if they won't take notice, if they won't believe the figures, what can you say?
It seems to be an extraordinary offensive thing to do to say to a scientist, your figures
are wrong. Of course there are complex statistics and simple statistics and we know that statisticians
and the science of statistics is a sophisticated one. Figures don't automatically yield up
the truth, but you can only be honest and you can only work to the facts as you see
them and as your discipline teaches you to deduce them.

Hurricanes can cause toxic algal blooms? We asked a scientist



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For the last 24 years, Hans Paerl has been a guardian for water quality along North Carolina’s coast. His lab has found that coastal hurricanes are leaving behind toxic algal blooms, a silent but suffocating threat to water quality, for weeks and months after the storms pass.

Producer:
Nsikan Akpan

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Rob Thompson
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Climate Change Debate: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)



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John Oliver hosts a mathematically representative climate change debate, with the help of special guest Bill Nye the Science Guy, of course. Connect with Last …

The Menzoid's fake climate change theories make as much sense as “real” ones | David Menzies



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David Menzies of TheRebel.media reports: An Air Canada jet experienced such severe turbulence earlier this month that it left 35 people …

Anti-Capitalist Chronicles: CO2 Emissions and Climate Change



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[S1 E19] CO2 Emissions and Climate Change To our Patreon community: thank you for supporting David Harvey’s Anti-Capitalist Chronicles on Patreon!

NASA | Ask A Climate Scientist – Extreme Weather and Global Warming



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Is the frequency of extreme weather events a sign that global warming is gaining pace and exceeding predictions? Bill Patzert, a scientist at NASA’s Jet …

Antarctic engineering with the RRS Sir David Attenborough



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Captain Tim Stockings, Former Head of Operations at the British Antarctic Survey, explains how the engineers behind the RRS Sir David Attenborough research …

Consider The Lilies – Answers News: July 18, 2019



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Tyrannosaurs race; Attenborough urges climate of population control; Reefs move; Lily fossil looks familiar . . . and more during today’s episode of Answers …

Making Oil History



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With the NZ Govt’s historic announcement that there will be no new offshore oil exploration, the tide has turned irreversibly against big oil. It’s a huge win for the climate and for people power.

With the thousands of people, iwi, hapū and other groups who took action over the last seven years, we have changed the course of history and given hope to the world.

It shows that when we stand together, we win.

The job’s not done yet – more is needed – but this is a huge step forward. Get in on the action:

Track is Utopia (insturmental) by YACHT. Licensed under CC-by-nc-sa
Video is licensed under a CC-by-nc-sa

Special report: A Plastic Tide | #OceanRescue



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More than eight million tonnes of plastic is thrown away each year and washed out to sea.

It takes centuries to break down. It’s eaten by marine creatures. And it’s in our food chain. Your seafood supper may have a synthetic garnish. Scientists just don’t know what effects it has on our health.

Sky Ocean Rescue is doing something about it.

Find out more and get involved by visiting the Sky Ocean Rescue website:

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What If The World Went Vegetarian?



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What if everyone became a vegetarian right now? Becoming Vegetarian for 21 Days: Subscribe for more: …

Is our climate headed for a mathematical tipping point? – Victor J. Donnay



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View full lesson:

Scientists have warned that as CO2 levels in the atmosphere rise an increase in Earth’s temperature by even two degrees could lead to catastrophic effects across the world. But how can such a tiny, measurable change in one factor lead to huge, unpredictable changes elsewhere? Victor J. Donnay uses billiards to illustrate tipping points, chaotic motion and their implications on climate change.

Lesson by Victor J. Donnay, animation by Karrot Animation.

المترجم: Eman Abdel-Gawad
المدقّق: khalid marbou بالنسبة لمعظمنا، درجتان مئويتان
تعتبران اختلافًا طفيفًا في درجة الحرارة، لا يكفي حتى لجعلك تفتح النافذة. ولكن العلماء حذروا أنه مع ارتفاع
مستويات ثاني أكسيد الكربون، يمكن أن يؤدي الارتفاع في درجة حرارة
الأرض حتى بهذا القدر إلى آثار كارثية في جميع أنحاء العالم. كيف يمكن لتغيير طفيف يمكن قياسه
في أحد العوامل إلى تغييرات هائلة وغير متوقعة
في عوامل أخرى؟ تكمن الإجابة في مفهوم
نقطة التحول الرياضية، والتي من الممكن أن نفهمها من خلال
لعبة البلياردو المألوفة. القاعدة الأساسية لحركة كرة البلياردو هي أن الكرة ستمر بشكل مستقيم
حتى تصطدم بحائط، ثم ترتد بزاوية مساوية
للزاوية التي جاءت بها. بغرض التبسيط، سنفترض عدم وجود أي احتكاك، وبذلك ستستمر الكرة في الحركة
إلى أجل غير مسمى. ولتبسيط الوضع بشكل أكبر، فلننظر إلى ماذا يحدث لكرة واحدة
على منضدة مستديرة بشكل تام. بمجرد ضرب الكرة وبدء تحركها
وفقًا للقواعد، تتبع الكرة نمطًا منتظمًَا على شكل نجمة. إذا بدأنا تحرك الكرة من مواضع مختلفة، أو ضربناها من زوايا مختلفة،
فستتغير بعض التفاصيل في النمط، ولكن الشكل العام سيظل بدون تغيير. ومع بضعة اختبارات تشغيل
وبعض النماذج الرياضية، يمكننا حتى أن نتنبأ بمسار الكرة
قبل أن تبدأ في التحرك ببساطة اعتمادًا على ظروف بدء تحركها. ولكن ماذا سيحدث إذا قمنا بتغيير بسيط في شكل المنضدة من خلال
تمديد المنضدة قليلًا وإضافة حافتين مستقيمتين صغيرتين
بطول الجزأين العلوي والسفلي؟ يمكننا أن نرى أنه عندما ترتد الكرة
عن الجوانب المسطحة تبدأ في التحرك في جميع أنحاء المنضدة. لا تزال الكرة تتبع نفس قوانين
حركة كرة البلياردو، ولكن الحركة الناتجة لم تعد تتبع أي
نمط يمكن تمييزه. وبتغيير صغير فقط في القيود التي يعمل في ظلها النظام، قمنا بتبديل حركة كرة البلياردو من التصرف بطريقة مستقرة يمكن التنبؤ بها إلى التقلب بطريقة عشوائية، وبذلك خلقنا ما يسميه الرياضيون
"الحركة العشوائية". إضافة الحافتين المستقيمتين إلى المنضدة
يعمل كنقطة تحول، والتي تقوم بتبديل سلوك النظام
من نوع سلوك (منتظم) إلى نوع سلوك آخر (عشوائي). إذا ما هي التضمينات التي يحتوي عليها هذا
المثال البسيط لواقع أكثر تعقيدًا بكثير لمناخ الأرض؟ يمكننا أن نفكر في شكل المنضدة على أنه
مماثل لمستوى ثاني أكسيد الكربون ومتوسط درجة حرارة الأرض: القيود التي تؤثر على أداء النظام في صورة حركة الكرة أو سلوك المناخ. خلال الـ 10,000سنة الماضية، كان تركيز ثاني أكسيد الكربون الثابت
إلى حد ما في الغلاف الجوي الذي يبلغ 270 جزء في المليون يُبقي المناخ
في نمط مستقر ذاتيًا، منتظم إلى حد ما ومناسب للحياة البشرية. ولكن مع وصول مستويات ثاني أكسيد الكربون
إلى 400 جزء في المليون، وتوقع ارتفاعها إلى ما بين 500
إلى 800 جزء في المليون خلال القرن القادم،
قد نصل إلى نقطة تحول حيث أي تغيير إضافي بسيط
في متوسط درجة الحرارة العالمي سيكون له نفس تأثير تغيير شكل المنضدة، مما يؤدي إلى نقلة خطيرة في سلوك المناخ، مع مزيد من الأحداث المناخية
الأكثر شدة وكثافة، وقدرة أقل على التنبؤ، والأهم من ذلك،
مناسبة أقل للحياة البشرية. قد لا تبدو النماذج الافتراضية التي
يدرسها الرياضيون بالتفصيل دائمًا مثل المواقف الفعلية، ولكن يمكنها أن توفر إطارًا عامًا
وطريقة تفكير يمكن تطبيقها للمساعدة في فهم
المشكلات الأكثر تعقيدًا في العالم الفعلي. في هذه الحالة، فهم كيف أن تأثير
التغييرات الطفيفة في القيود على النظام يمكن أن
يكون له تأثير هائل يعطينا تقديرًا أكبر للتنبؤ بالمخاطر التي لا يمكننا إدراكها فورًا بحواسنا. لأنه بمجرد أن تصبح النتائج مرئية،
يمكن أن يكون ذلك بعد فوات الأوان.

Can wildlife adapt to climate change? – Erin Eastwood



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With rising temperatures and seas, massive droughts, and changing landscapes, successfully adapting to climate change is increasingly important. For humans, this can mean using technology to find solutions. But for some plants and animals, adapting to these changes involves the most ancient solution of all: evolution. Erin Eastwood explains how animals are adapting to climate change.

Lesson by Erin Eastwood, animation by TOTEM Studio.

المترجم: alaa habboub
المدقّق: Ghalia Turki درجات حرارة وبحار مرتفعة، جفاف واسع النِّطاق، مناظر طبيعيِّة متغيِّرة. التكيُّف بنجاح مع تغيُّر المناخ
تنمو أهميَّته بشكل متزايد. بالنسبة للبشر، هذا يعني استخدام
تقدُّمنا التكنولوجي لإيجاد الحلول، مثل مدن أكثر ذكاء
وإدارة أفضل للمياه. بالنسبة لبعض النباتات والحيوانات، التكيُّف مع هذه التغيُّرات العالمية
يشمل أقدم حل على الإطلاق: التطوُّر. يحدث التكيُّف التطوُّري عادة
طوال فترات زمنيَّة من الآلاف إلى مئات الآلاف من السِّنين. ولكن في الحالات التي تكون فيها الأنواع تحت
ظروف انتقائيِّة قاهرة وخاصَّة، مثل تلك التي تسبّبها
المناخات المتغيِّرة بسرعة، التطوُّر التكيُّفي
يمكن أن يحدث بسرعة أكبر. في العقود الأخيرة، شاهدنا العديد من النباتات، الحيوانات، والحشرات تغيِّر مواقعها والتي تشهد تغيُّرات
على أحجام أجسامها، والتواريخ التي تزهر أو تتزاوج. لكن العديد منها شكلي، أو تغيُّرات غير وراثيَّة
للصِّفات الجسديَّة للفرد. وهناك حدود للمدى الذي يمكن
أن يغيِّر الفيزيولوجيا الخاصَّة لكائن حي لتلبية المتطلَّبات البيئيَّة. ولهذا السَّبب يبحث العلماء
عن أمثلة للتغيُّرات التطوريَّة مشفَّرة في أنواع الحمض النووي التي تورَّث، طويلة الأمد، ويمكن أن توفِّر مفتاحاً لمستقبلهم. خذ مثلاً البومة السَّمراء. لو كانت تسير عبر غابة شتويَّة
في شمال أوروبا قبل 30 عاماً، قد يكون هناك احتمالات السَّمع،
بدلاً من الرُّؤية، هذا الطَّير المراوغ. على الخلفيَّة الثلجيَّة، قد كان من شبه المستحيل
أن ترى ريشه بأيِّ مكان. اليوم، المنظر الطبيعي مختلف الى حد كبير. منذ الثَّمانينات، قد أدَّى التغيُّر المناخي
إلى تساقط ثلوج أقل بشكل ملحوظ، ولكن لا تزال
البومة السَّمراء تناضل بكلِّ مكان لأنَّها في الوقت الحاضر، بنيَّة اللون. اللون البنِّي البديل هو وراثي
الشَّكل السَّائد للرِّيش في هذا النَّوع، لكن تاريخيَّاً، الرَّمادي الباهت الرَّاكد كان الغالب بسبب ميزته الانتقائيَّة في مساعدة
هذه الحيوانات المفترسة على التمويه. ومع ذلك، غطاء ثلجي أقل
يقلِّل الفرص المتاحة للتمويه، حتى مؤخَّراً، هذا اللون الرَّمادي البديل كان يخسر المعركة
ضدَّ الانتقاء الطبيعي. نسل اللون البنِّي يتحوَّل،
في الاتِّجاه الآخر، لديه ميزة في الغابات المكشوفة، لذا البومة السَّمراء البنيَّة تزدهر اليوم. مرَّت العديد من الأنواع الأخرى بتغيُّر مناخ تكيُّفي يماثل
التغيُّرات الجينيَّة في العقود الأخيرة. نبات إبريق البعوض
تطوَّرت بسرعة للاستفادة
من درجات الحرارة الدَّافئة، فيما بعد الدُّخول بمرحلة السُّبات
وفي آخر العام. جماعتين من الخنفساء المنقَّطة، تشمل واحدة من عددٍ متساوٍ
من تحوُّل الفراشات وغير الفراشات، لم تكن قد تحوَّلت كلَّها تقريباً
إلى تركيبة لون غير الفراشات. ويعتقد العلماء أنَّه يبقيهم
في درجة حرارة مرتفعة. وفي الوقت نفسه، تكيُّف سمك السلمون الوردي
في المياه الدَّافئة قبل وضع البيض في وقت مبكِّر من الموسم
لحماية بيضها الحسَّاسة. ونباتات الزَّعتر البرِّي في أوروبا
تنتج الكثير من الزُّيوت الطاردة لحماية أنفسها
ضدَّ الحيوانات العاشبة التي تصبح أكثر انتشاراً عندما يكون دافئاً. هذه النباتات والحيوانات تنتمي إلى مجموعة
من حوالي 20 نوعاً تم تحديدها مع التكيُّفات التطوريَّة
لتغيُّر المناخ السَّريع، بما في ذلك سلاحف العض، ضفادع الخشب، الأعشاب العقديَّة، والفراشات السريعة المضيئة الفضيَّة. ومع ذلك، يأمل العلماء في اكتشاف
المزيد من الأنواع المتطوِّرة استجابة لتغيُّر المناخ
من 8.7 مليون نوع على هذا الكوكب. بالنسبة للكثيرين من كوكبنا مذهلة
والتنوُّع البيولوجي الثَّمين، التطوُّر لم يكن الحل. بدلاً من ذلك، فإنَّ العديد من هذه الأنواع
سوف تضطر إلى الاعتماد علينا لمساعدتهم على البقاء في ظلِّ عالم متغيِّر أو تواجه خطر الانقراض. والخبر السار هو أنَّ
لدينا بالفعل الوسائل. حول الأرض، نحن بصدد صياغة
قرارات على أرض الواقع من شأنها أن تساعد الأنظمة البيئيَّة
بأكملها على التكيُّف. اللاجئين بسبب تغيُّر المناخ بحالة حرجة
يتم حالياً تحديدهم ويوضعون على انفراد، وهناك مشاريع جارية لمساعدة
الأنواع المتنقِّلة الانتقال إلى مناخ أكثر ملائمة. الحدائق العامَّة والمناطق المحمية القائمة
تقوم أيضاً باجراء فحوص تغيُّر المناخ للمساعدة على التَّأقلم مع الحياة البريَّة. لحسن الحظ، فإنه لا يزال في وسعنا الحفاظ على الكثير من
التنوُّع البيولوجي الرَّائع لهذا الكوكب، الذي، بعد كل شيء، يمدُّنا بأسباب الحياة
من نواح كثيرة.

Renewable Energy 101 | National Geographic



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There are many benefits to using renewable energy resources, but what is it exactly? From solar to wind, find out more about alternative energy, the …

The Brutal Logic of Climate Change



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Full length talk that covers the facts of climate change, the urgency with which it needs to be addressed and actions we can take to stop it. Delivered by Dr Aaron …

How to green the world's deserts and reverse climate change | Allan Savory



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“Desertification is a fancy word for land that is turning to desert,” begins Allan Savory in this quietly powerful talk. And terrifyingly, it’s happening to about …

Polar Bear Man Returns to the Arctic: VICE Reports (Full-length)



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A lawyer was savagely mauled in the Arctic, and we went back with him to investigate why climate change is causing more polar bears to attack humans.

David Attenborough: Climate, politics & Blue Planet 2



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We met Sir David Attenborough to talk about climate change and plastic pollution, Trump and Brexit, science and storytelling, and how young people just get it.

Jimmy Kimmel and Scientists on Climate Change



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Jimmy takes a moment to talk about climate change and the confusing political argument that has emerged around it. NASA says that 97 percent of climate scientists agree that the warming we are experiencing is very likely due to human activity – but some politicians still want us to believe it’s all a hoax. So we enlisted the help of real climate scientists to clear some things up for us.

Deleted Scene from “Batman v Superman” Starring Jimmy Kimmel –

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Jimmy Kimmel serves as host and executive producer of Emmy-winning “Jimmy Kimmel Live,” ABC’s late-night talk show.

“Jimmy Kimmel Live” is well known for its huge viral video successes with 2.5 billion views on YouTube alone. Some of Kimmel’s most popular comedy bits include – Mean Tweets, Lie Witness News, Jimmy’s Twerk Fail Prank, Unnecessary Censorship, YouTube Challenge, The Baby Bachelor, Movie: The Movie, Handsome Men’s Club, Jimmy Kimmel Lie Detective and music videos like “I (Wanna) Channing All Over Your Tatum” and a Blurred Lines parody with Robin Thicke, Pharrell, Jimmy and his security guard Guillermo.

Now in its thirteenth season, Kimmel’s guests have included: Johnny Depp, Meryl Streep, Tom Cruise, Halle Berry, Harrison Ford, Jennifer Aniston, Will Ferrell, Katy Perry, Tom Hanks, Scarlett Johansson, Channing Tatum, George Clooney, Larry David, Charlize Theron, Mark Wahlberg, Kobe Bryant, Steve Carell, Hugh Jackman, Kristen Wiig, Jeff Bridges, Jennifer Garner, Ryan Gosling, Bryan Cranston, Jamie Foxx, Amy Poehler, Ben Affleck, Robert Downey Jr., Jake Gyllenhaal, Oprah, and unfortunately Matt Damon.

Jimmy Kimmel and Scientists on Climate Change

Antarctic Snow Blow Fake Science – Global Unrest Is Nigh – Glyphosate Poisoning



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ARTIFICIAL SNOW LAST DITCH EFFORT TO SAVE COASTAL CITIES FORM GOING INTO THE OCEAN Aspen wilderness rangers report …

Climate scientist Myles Allen on #Fridays4Future #SchoolStrikes4Climate



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Myles says ‘thank you’ to strikers, explains why it’s not too late to solve climate change and asks students to join him in putting pressure on the one group that …

Scientists' Crazy Plan To Refreeze The Arctic



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As the mean global temperature continues to rise, the arctic ice caps continue to melt. What are scientist planning to do about it? Here’s a hint: it involves 10 …

Five Reasons To Thank Plankton



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For too long plankton have slaved away in obscurity, making the world a better place for generations of ungrateful humans. Until now. Find out how much you …

25 NASA Scientists Question the Sanity of the Global Warmists



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Here we see four former NASA scientists trash the global warming hysteria. Dr Hal Doiron Leighton Steward Tom Wysmuller Walter Cunningham Back in the …

How Climate Scientists Predict the Future



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Over the years, scientists have made a lot of predictions about how Earth’s climate is changing, but they don’t just pull those predictions from thin air. We’re …

Sir David Attenborough – Time Is Running Out



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Sir David Attenborough has given a speech at the opening of crucial climate change talks in Poland. He has taken up the People’s Seat, called COP 24. It is a platform made up of climate change comments submitted by the public to put pressure on world leaders. He is supposed to act as a link between the public and policy makers at the meeting.
Sir David implored leaders to act, saying the ‘natural world upon which we depend is in your hands’.
03 Dec 2018

right now we're facing a man-made disaster of global scale our greatest threat in thousands of years climate change if we don't take action the collapse of our civilizations and the extinction of much of the natural world is on the horizon the United Nations provides a unique platform that can unite the whole world and as the Paris agreement proved together we can make real change happen at this crucial moment the United Nations has invited the world's people to have their voice heard by giving them a seat the people's seat the people seat gives an opportunity for everyone to join us here today virtually and speak directly to you to you the decision-makers in the last two weeks the world's people have taken part in building this address answering polls sending video messages and voicing their opinions I am only here to represent the voice of the people to deliver our collective thoughts concerns ideas and suggestions the world's people have spoken their message is clear time is running out

Ocean Chemistry by the Alliance for Climate Education



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Learn about how climate change is affecting our ocean’s chemistry. Alliance for Climate Education is the national leader in climate science education and we’re …

Sir David Attenborough at COP24: "The world is in your hands"



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Political leaders on Monday began arriving in the Polish coal city of Katowice where two weeks of talks have begun to revive the landmark Paris 2015 deal on …

Age of Reason #44 Fossil Fuel Industry Lobbying Influence



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I talk about the lobbying power that fossil fuel companies exert on politicians. Please support my show! Book: Support …

America's Climate Choices: Advancing the Science of Climate Change



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In the face of a changing global environment, knowledge is power. Advancing the Science of Climate Change, one of four …

David Attenborough points climate change finger at UK | ITV News



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Britain owes it to the world to take a lead on tackling climate change having “started the problem” with the industrial revolution, Sir David Attenborough has said.

Climate Change: What Do Scientists Say?



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Climate change is an urgent topic of discussion among politicians, journalists and celebrities…but what do scientists say about climate change? Does the data …

David Attenborough: it's 'extraordinary' climate deniers remain in Australian politics



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Sir David Attenborough says he finds it ‘extraordinary’ that leaders in Australia continue to deny the science behind climate change. ‘Australia is already facing …