Part Three of ‘The Black Man’s Trilogy; A biographical portrait of Kenya’s first President Jomo Kenyatta and a case study of the “pitfall’s of nationalism” as a political force in Africa narrated by Keefe ‘Simba’ West & Msindo Mwinyipembe , produced and directed by award winning filmmakers Anthony Howarth and David R. Koff.
“A treasure store of old stills, buried newsreels and contemporary interviews, supported by meticulous research and synthesized with the most sensitive acumen. A unique record of what colonialism means in human terms.”—Judy Stone, San Francisco Chronicle
“A rare, penetrating and yet sympathetic look at African nationalism.”—Peter Mwaura, The Standard (Nairobi)
“A solid historical document skewed, valuably, to a distinctive African point of view. By affording a forum for black leaders, past and present, it conveys the sense of an enduring dignity that no colonialist rationalizations can eliminate.”—John J. O’Connor, The New York Times
Views:519621|Rating:4.82|View Time:11:23Minutes|Likes:5186|Dislikes:195 This chemistry tutorial covers how to solve for the enthalpy of reaction for an given reaction by using Hess’s Law and the delta H values for other known chemical reactions. This tutorial involves several examples demonstrating the use of Hess’s Law, which allows for the calculation of an unknown enthalpy of reaction from other reactions due to the fact that enthalpy is a state function.
Views:2133|Rating:5.00|View Time:14:15Minutes|Likes:7|Dislikes:0 The history of the Canadian Lung Association and the important role of Christmas Seals in helping fight tuberculosis (TB).
The Canadian Lung Association movement began in 1900 to control the spread of tuberculosis and provide better services for TB patients. Christmas Seals campaigns played an important role in public health and they symbolized the grassroots support that waged and won the fight against tuberculosis.
Today, the mission of the Canadian Lung Association is to lead nationwide and international lung health initiatives, prevent lung disease, help people manage lung disease and promote lung health. Christmas Seals support the work of our provincial and national offices who work together to help the one in five Canadians who have breathing problems. Visit www.lung.ca to learn more.
Christmas seals for generations Canadians have used the colorful stamps to decorate holiday greeting cards and parcels this tradition began a century ago as a way to raise funds for the fight against tuberculosis they proved to be powerful against TB and remain a powerful symbol even today for those with lung disease Christmas seals a much-loved symbol of hope and good cheer for all Canadians the Lung Association story began in 1900 when tuberculosis was the number one killer in Canada the fight against TB was a people's battle it went way beyond doctors and nurses there was no public health system in place to fight the TB epidemic so the common people had to do it themselves back then very little was known about TB or consumption as it was called then except that it was deadly highly contagious and incurable every time the clock struck the hour during the day another Canadian died of TB and every time the clock struck the hour during the night two more died of TB there was a great stigma attached to having tuberculosis once it was discovered that TB was caused by a germ and wasn't hereditary and that TB was contagious some consumptives became outcasts TB hospitals called sanatoria offered isolation in rural settings where over a lengthy period of time TB patients might regain their strength the rich could afford lengthy sanatoria treatment but in the days before universal healthcare the poor could not in 1900 Lord mental the Governor General of Canada at the time launched the national movement against tuberculosis in Canada at Rideau Hall where he called the first meeting of what was to eventually become the Lung Association several very concerned citizens gathered to form a national anti-tuberculosis Association to fight the deadly epidemic there was no money there were no resources just dedication and drive at that time Canada had no Department of Health and there were fewer than 50 tuberculosis treatment beds in the entire country although 10,000 people died from tuberculosis that year Canada needed more TB sanatorium and resources were needed to educate the public about TB so with that in mind we issued the first Christmas seals in 1908 in Toronto Hamilton and Winnipeg other cities across Canada joined in 1928 marked the first national Christmas seals campaign dr. George Porter was a trailblazer for the Association as executive secretary in 1908 his only pay free passage on railways across Canada dr. Porter spread the word about TB prevention during his first year dr. Porter visited every major town on the Canadian Pacific Railway from Victoria to su st. Marie giving lectures above TB dr. Porter was a great orator and talked to anyone who would listen he encouraged a grassroots movement urging everyone to become involved in the fight against tuberculosis establishing local and provincial TB organizations building TB sanatoria initiating travelling TB clinics and convincing governments to increase the number of visiting nurses at first the only treatment for TB was bed rest fresh air good food and more rest and even then thousands died Melville John Tim Beck Lam's Ford Hugh art Square Hill Lillian Galloway Lake Valley violet Helen Duff Empress Keith Havilland Pinkham Reginald Bowerman possible TB was contagious people who had TB had to be isolated from society from their families from their friends lest others also catch TB as well those who could afford it went to sanatoria for many months and years to either recover from their disease or die early on Canada set out to provide sanatorium treatment for tuberculosis patients when the Muskoka Free Hospital opened in 1902 it was believed to be the first free TB sanatorium in all the world in 1929 saskatchewan became the first province to offer free treatment to all TB patients this laid the groundwork for the introduction of medicare by premier tommy douglas 30 years later and it paved the way for the universal healthcare system we have today in Canada Christmas seals campaigns played an important role in public health from to see to see and they symbolized the grassroot support that waged and won the fight against tuberculosis billboards and parade floats kept TV in the public's eye these campaigns inform people that TB was preventable and treatable especially when diagnosed early funds raised by Christmas seals helped the anti-tuberculosis organizations across Canada to provide public education fund research and trained TV doctors and nurses Christmas seals provide funds to prevent tuberculosis sanatorium board gratefully acknowledges the support of thousands of Manitoba citizens who buy and use Christmas seals helping finance free clinic saving countless lives Christmas seals worked the year round to protect your home from tuberculosis early diagnosis of TB was key and chest x-rays could reveal TB in the lung because the TB epidemic was so widespread all over Canada the association encouraged and in some provinces conducted massive x-ray campaigns across the country mobile x-ray units went all over Canada to diagnose TB even in remote areas Newfoundland launched his floating clinic dubbed the Christmas seal and sailed the x-ray equipment from out port to out port many TB patients needed three to five years of treatment in a TB sanatorium in 1938 the number of beds in canada's 61 TB sanatoria had grown to 9,000 but still nowhere near the number needed by 1953 there were 19 thousand beds after World War two high rates of TB in returning vets caused a big spike in TB cases in Canada our membership group in 1946 a medical section was established for TB doctors this group in 1958 became known as the Canadian thoracic society in 1948 a nurses section was formed in 1960 a Research Committee all these activities were made possible by donations to Christmas seals in the 1950s antibiotics became the first real weapon to kill the TB germ time spent in sanatoria was dramatically reduced and a miracle happened TB sanatoria began to empty during the 1960s when t v– started to come under control in canada we began sharing our hard-won knowledge with the developing world with dr. bill genes as medical director of the canadian tuberculosis Association as we were then called our international involvement increased to a new level TB is still the number one infectious disease in the world every year 1.6 million people die from TB we share our world-class TB expertise with high-risk countries such as Ecuador and Peru because of our extensive history in fighting TB the vast majority of knowledge about all lung diseases was concentrated in our association as TB came under better control in the 60s and 70s it was natural that we broadened our focus to fight other lung diseases to reflect this we changed our name to the Lung Association celebrities such as Chief Dan George skater and Olympic medalist taller Cranston jazz pianist Oscar Peterson and folk singer Murray McLaughlin helped promote donations to Christmas seals and the association's good work our organization was built on and has relied on the efforts of many both professional and volunteer whose lifelong diligent work has built the public health system in Canada that has benefited the health of all Canadians today we continue our tradition of supporting education prevention research advocacy and treatment of lung disease even though TB is under control in Canada it isn't eradicated every 20 minutes another Canadian dies of lung disease almost 3 million Canadians have asthma sleep apnea is the most under diagnosed chronic disease in Canada 5 million Canadians smoke 90% want to quit but they need help in 2008 21,000 Canadians will die from the effects of air pollution COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in Canada COPD takes the life of one Canadian every hour one of those Canadians was Peter zosky I'm Peters Oskie and I have COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease the lung association family includes a wide range of health care experts in the Canadian thoracic society and the Canadian respiratory health professionals the strong partnership along with our century of service makes us Canada's trusted voice for lung health our good work continues and we are still at the forefront leading the development of Canada's new lung health framework donations to the Lung Association provide funding for researchers who are developing better treatments and hopefully cures donations also support public education for awareness and Prevention patient education to teach coping skills and self-management and advocacy to raise lung disease on the health agenda donations help improve the quality of life for those living with lung disease donations provide hope together with health care professionals volunteers and donors we're working to help the one in five Canadians with breathing problems to breathe easier over one in three Canadians will be affected by lung disease at some point in their lives the lung association works to improve life one breath at a time because if you can't breathe nothing else matters and you you
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Views:1062284|Rating:4.88|View Time:15:19Minutes|Likes:22306|Dislikes:548 Hello and welcome to Feature History, featuring the Seven Years’ War, an overdue video, and the reason you don’t record after just waking up
The credit for this video goes to Feature History’s employee of the month, me, for the art, animation, script, voice-over.
Kevin MacLeod – Sonatina in C Minor
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Andreas Waldetoft – For God and Queen
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the Seven Years War a legendary conflict that involved every great power of Europe spanned five continents and affected the world for centuries to come its legacy now lives on and dull history courses at bore me to tears I'd to read those for this I hope you appreciate that hello and welcome to feature history featuring the Seven Years War the world's war before World Wars were cool this war of history forever lived on as a listed reasons for the American and French Revolution honestly I think it's way cooler than those two conflicts I think I'm safe and assuming we've all heard of it maybe even some aspects about it but what were the cause of the occurrences and the effects the nitty gritty so to say well turns out I made a video on ER and you're watching it should keep doing just that so I'm going to attempt to delve into the Herculean task as some what have you think of explaining the causes of the Seven Years War I'll disclaimers well I fully understand why people describe as such difficult tasks because it's hard not to sound like a spastic as you try to cover so many things at once we'll start with the European side of the long torturous story the most clear cause for the war would bring us back to 1740 with the holy roman emperor charles the six is passing his daughter maria theresa would be the one to succeed him inheriting his many titles and becoming the queen of Hungary Croatia behemoth and most importantly subsided this video the Archduchess of Austria and also for the purpose of noting she'd become holy Rome Empress later in 1745 Butterick ii of prussia or as history was reported in frederick the great questioned her inheritance like a saucy lawyer cited salic law as the reason she could not inherit these titles but rather he just wished to challenge Habsburg power he would declare war against Austria and be joined by France Spain Sweden and other countries I don't care about the war of Austrian succession would rage on for over half a decade and Frederick took the chance to prove it strategic or superiority at every opportunity in doing so he was able to seize control of the Austrian region of South Asia dealing a serious blow to tourism the war would end with the controversial Treaty of La Chapelle and 1748 its dominant focus was that of Prussia annexing flow Asia leaving France out of the picture and seriously offending Louis the 15th in the process alongside Louise degrading opinion of Frederick so had Theresa's opinion to her a lie of the war towards a second George had managed to escape had decided to feed at the cost of Austria and he was attempting to pressure Theresa into just cutting our losses and letting go so asia alliances would switch the longtime rivals of britain and france decide to sort out our lies britain now back in Russia and France Austria Britain in France with the conflict in Europe aside have been brewing their own future conflicts ashore in North America tensions grew but 1754 Spain's colonial claims to the America has lost a significant proportion of said significance and the British and French were invested in the eastern seaboard of North America the British possessed most of the long days u.s. is Eastern speed line whilst France laid claim to a large area of the Midwest Louisiana and Eastern Canada these claims also the French won so not by any stretch of the imagination is densely populated many regions only deserves a sign that my credit either French or British the land the native tribes of the area were also heavily invested in the conflict as they traded with these colonial powers often and many operated their Wars and state of the resources of foreign powers so many decades they have been able to play the French and British off of one another to retain a form of independence and control a line was to be drawn in the sand and the major native powers of the region would have to choose a side the Iroquois and the Cherokees had sided with the British walls pretty much everyone else big the Hurons Algonquin urban are keys and Micmacs would join the French the French would need it as well given their significant disadvantage in numbers due to their sparsely populated colonies the war in the americas would start earlier than the conflict in Europe being dubbed the French and Indian War the combat began in 1754 the scuffle would usually go something like the British saying you might have a claim but I've got off for it and the French would return where you might have your heart the day is got three hearts and the British would play rematch to sports battle soon and then fighting began you're welcome for those impressions live with the 15th we call this an act of war and George would shrugging shoulders 1754 to 1763 would generally be considered as favors for the British because whilst not losing much ground they weren't able to gain too much either with the exception of their victory in Acadia the situation so far was somewhat weak North America of course wasn't the only colonies at least eight combat India would see its own fair share of warring in the subcontinent the ones dominant mu : pyres power had been waning for some time Britain's state-owned company the East India Company had been waging economic war against Dutch French and independent companies in the attempt to seize a monopoly over the valuable spices in the area the Mughal empires decline and the infighting has been experi with entities such as the Maratha Confederacy the area was left wide open to a European annexation whilst the East India Company had certainly been a top dog in the area for some time it wished to officially cement its position against the French and the Dutch ideally in a war with boats I've heard Britain likes boots back in Europe Theresa's desire to take back Silesia grew more and more her wishes would be accompanied by Louie's wishes to see France rival British colonial power and Elizabeth of Russia's wish to conquer eastern Prussia Frederick's fully understood the odds that were beginning to stack against him and he was not one to sit around with his thumb up his ass he knew his enemies saw his growing power as highly threatening but he was not one to give up crushes near the stage with ease to avoid being surrounded on all sides have been invade the electric of Saxony on the 29th of August 1756 igniting the powder keg the world has become in the process welcome to the Seven Years War the war began in 1756 or 1754 or 1740 will discuss 1756 the war would be fought between the two alliances or war parties of the convention of Westminster and the Treaty of Versailles – no not that one the former featuring the states of Great Britain and Prussia and France Austria and Russia being one Vlada Frederick's invasion into Saxony was a success and he was able to capture the state but he was not granted the momentum he desired to push into the Austrian territory of Bohemia meanwhile in the Americas his luck had begun to turn around as the British government poured more and more resources into the theatre that would mean though that Frederick could not expect much assistance from the British on the continent Britain had allied with Prussia as they saw him as the best fit to defend George's title in Hanover where he had inherited the title of electorate due to hereditary monarch bath and return Frederick could hope that the British would be able to economically cripple France by eliminating their colonies which Britain would have gladly done anyway as Frederick's enemies moved in they threatened to tie a noose around Frederick's custom splat of a country in 1757 France moved its forces to Prussia's west attempting to seize Hanover to accompany this the Austrians began to move in as well heading straight for Saxony furyk did not falter though and he stood his ground and convincingly defeated the two army to the Saxon despite this heroic victory the mood for the Prussians for dampen as Austria was able to reunite as old territory of Silesia in late 1757 in addition Sweden saw weakness in Russia and sought to reclaim some of their own estranged territories in the pomeranian war adding yet another threat to the north hope for the Prussians would only continue to degrade as Russia seeds Russia's eastern territories and in defense of Austria was met with failure Britain's war on the colonies was for them thankfully on the lighter note on July 17 58 they had taken a great victory at the Battle of Louisbourg signaling the beginning of the end to the franc as said earlier though to claim such a victory they had been forced to focus almost entirely on the Americas leaving Prussia and what seemed a death grip 17:59 seemed as if it would be the end of Prussia the combined Russian and Austrian offensives threatened to wipe a Berlin off the map after they took victory at the Battle of kunais or further could be saved and what he entitled the miracle of the House of Brandenburg the Russian and Austrians had failed to take advantage of the opportunity to feed pressure – what revenue mask France decided support from a multitude of native groups as unable to rival Britain's inventory and naval cousin from the continent as Lewis indecisive attitude left his country split between the war in Europe and the war in the colonies losing both because of it France and Britain along side their scuffle and the colonies would fight a long war at sea attempted to see who truly had enabled supremacy sure we all know who that is the day but pretend new rules the wave wasn't it solidified a concept at the time the fleets that each nation held with so large they were capable of fighting battles all over the globe on five continents should be able to find French and British ships fighting or rather sinking off the coast the warship became the centerpiece of any Navy it held the firepower of an army and were cost roughly the same as one the worid sea would become a vicious cycle where every battle mattered the one with more ships was able to better defend its trade routes with wish to obtain greater wealth to build more ships on land the British would continue their push after their success at Lewisburg moving into Canada and capturing Quebec and then later Montreal stripping France of its footholds and any chance of a comeback back in Europe France decided they wish to take up its own offensive and clean up Austria and Russia stupid mistake yet again being split between the colonies of seas and the continent there capable of seeing any success regardless of Frederick's earlier miracle he still stood on the brink of defeat not able to launch any senses into enemy territory without certain defeat all fogger could do now is sit and wait between 1760 and 1762 the conflict in Europe began to slow so I can afford to touch on some other features such as the conflicts in India European Wars there when other new things also been fought between rival companies on leading soil before and the Seven Years War but only served to renew these squabbles Lily had wished to finally see his struggle against the East India Company come to a close and the originally named French East India Company become the company on the subcontinent the fighting was mainly oriented around the south of India and the British would thanks to their robust Navy and military discipline were able to seize many French settlement and forts in the area despite the French having the support of than vehicle Empire with credence to what is becoming a trend here the French being spread too thin the British were able to see victory when they took their rival companies capital of one day in 1761 effectively ending the war in India the war at sea also told the quite familiar story at this point Britain being an island nation had focused heavily on being good at one thing in this context Navy the French had not lui would find himself in the losing side of the cycle of its growth earlier and as a consequence of supply lines were cut thin and as they continued to lose the war see they would only increase their chances of losing the war on the continent to return to the aforementioned continent Frederick's Locke had not seemed to add Rendell that oh it was once again saved when the sudden twist of fate his rifle Elizabeth died – the largest killer of all history health complications she was succeeded by her intensely German nephew Peter the third in 1762 who just so happened to be Frederick's number one fan and would sign the treaty of st. Petersburg that would see Russia withdraw from the war and shortly later Sweden as well in the shape of the Treaty of Hamburg with Russia's exit from the war all was not yet lost for the Treaty of Versailles as earlier in 1759 the Spanish monarchs Ferdinand the six had died and was succeeded by his half-brother Charles the third whose ambitious plans to Spain would see him and suburban Spain into the ward in 1762 allied earth of course servin France Spain itself targeted Portugal who had been predominantly neutral to this point Portugal was still recovering from the devastating Lisbon earthquake of 1755 and Joseph the first of Portugal had stressed the need to rebuild rather than to militarize Spain's invasion of Portugal would be dubbed the fantastic war as despite Spain and Frances overwhelming advantage and numbers most troops was succumb to hunger disease in low morale despite Spain during the war even they were not able to research the struggle in North America Britain had become far too dominant in the colonies down south and the new will though a new conflict would emerge Portugal's colony of Brazil was to be attacked on all sides where the Spanish colonies had surrounded it the Portuguese would have to fight a game of strategy avoiding entering battles he could not win they would lose some territory but nowhere near as much as the Spanish had been counting on France had his own idea to turn the war around at the proposal of the French Foreign Minister shows well a plan with certain action to attack Britain directly the plan was ambitious costly and frankly stupid as Frances expensive suite was sunk by the British navies before they were even halfway to Britain France had lost the naval arms race with Russia out of the war Spain preoccupied with Portugal and France and shambles Frederick's only enemy left was the Austrian who we would defeat in models battles in the closing months of 1762 Frederick's war ended in 1763 with the trigo Hubertus Berg the pre-war conditions were to be restored save the million dead people were now crippled economies the Seven Years War would take four treaties and two of which bring the earlier mentioned Treaty of st. Petersburg and Hamburg in 1763 with a combination of the Treaty of Paris and the Treaty of Hubertus Berg that would be find on the 10th of February and 15th of February 1763 respectfully the war ended in Europe as a pre war scenario was to be restored and have little some no border changes commenced as a consequence of this victory Frederick had been able to cement each country's position as an official great power of Europe another consequence this time in the more negative connotation of the word France began a rapid decline from the Seven Years War onward which would famously conclude in the French Revolution that would subsequently lead to Napoleon's reign which would change the face of Europe forever if you Honda for a moment you might ask now that britain's rival was out of the picture what is left for britain well a little thing called building the largest empire to ever exist after the resounding success in the Seven Years War it seemed as if no one could stop them in favor of not being too Eurocentric here I should also touching the colonies they are important to some people 320 million people to be a bit more exact France was made to cede its possessions to Canada Britain and partition Louisiana between Britain and Spain France would also lose their territory and India to the British leaving the British to soon dominate all of India and forth the Indians under colonial rule in the Americas the natives no longer held any power to play the two rival empires off one another leaving them to be almost entirely subject to the will of the colony the will of the colonies would also be shown when they preached no taxation without representation and had cost a lot of money and put Britain in a lot of debt to win the war in the Americas given the fact that the colonists saw the most reward it seems only right they put the bill in the form of new taxes I'm pretty sure we all know how this little story ended the struggle in South America between Spain and Portugal would also lead to a future war between the two thousand 1776 which I'm sure means something but for the love of God I'm sick of researching the stuff all in all the Seven Years War is this epic behemoth of a war that whilst it does get mentioned is severely unexplored by other people today whilst it is easy to get lost in the millions of things that happened the Seven Years War it really is a fascinating setting it's an 18th century world war like how cool is that alright and the societal and historical impact players in if we can pardon our history that they have elephants and redcoats it's so awesome yeah that's the note I'm finishing the video on no deep-rooted meaning no philosophical that's just what you get as always I'd like to thank my patrons and personally thank you said fur and now as well Roberto Lozano means dinner probably butcher that horribly yeah yeah
Views:361325|Rating:4.79|View Time:6:15Minutes|Likes:8417|Dislikes:364 The mantis shrimp punch is fast enough to boil water! How much force do they create, and how is physics preventing them from being any faster? Find out how mantis shrimp cause cavitation!
Deep Look talks about crazy Mantis Shrimp eyes →
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Many thanks to Dr. Maya deVries.
Dr. Sheila Patek
Creator: Dianna Cowern
Editor: Jabril Ashe
Animations: Kyle Norby
Research: Kate Furby
Videography: Eric Birkemeier
Thanks to Kyle Kitzmiller for providing the vacuum chamber! I forgot him in the credits.
Maya/Kate footage: Geoff Palomino and Debbie Meyer
Force Graph Credits:
“Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus” – S. N. Patek, R. L. Caldwell, Journal of Experimental Biology 2005 208: 3655-3664; doi: 10.1242/jeb.01831
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so in this video we're seeing the mantis shrimp about to get really angry at a tiny cell hi I'm Diana you're watching physics girl and I'm about to get curious again I'm here at Scripps Institution of Oceanography and I'm going to talk to my friend dr. Kate Furby about registrants they have to get really mad to eat oh I believe you mantis shrimp are amazing creatures right so you're in a pickle it was this paper I guess toxic spill oh my gosh the moment that they hit last a fraction of a millisecond which is why this footage was captured by scientists Mya DeVries at 20,000 and 40,000 frames per second there are hundreds of different species of man districts and they live all over the world it's kind of crazy how prolific they are and they come in like all different sizes and all different colors and these shrimp are smashed so they have what's called raptorial appendages that's this modified claws I first heard about mantis shrimp in a viral video by say Frank true facts and I don't know about you but this animal just keeps popping up so one thing finally convinced me to make a video about them and that was the force mystery in the early 2000s biologist Sheila Patek was studying the force of a mantis shrimp punch she found that they were capable of getting 200 pounds of force which is like me setting a rock on your finger and lightly jumping on it yeah I could probably break it but even more strange she saw that there were two spikes in the fourth graph one for the initial punch probably and then something else is going on the mantis shrimp punch is fast obviously but how fast unfurl as fast as a 22 caliber bullet such as Ava's 22 caliber bullet with the force of a 22 caliber bullet at the speed of a 22 caliber bullet well what does that mean the acceleration of the claws similar to a 22 caliber bullet acceleration that's what's going on come on guys always fast as such a stroller is going to force the speed of a 22 caliber bullet pull it together y'all the acceleration is like going from zero to 60 in point two milliseconds in fact the club gets up to 45 miles an hour hit a shell with that speed and you'll get one nice for speak hit a shell with that speed in water and something else will happen looking back at DeVries footage there's one frame where something shows up right there it's a bubble the crazy acceleration and force cause cavitation which is this the bounce back causes the club in the shell to move apart so fast that they leave behind any area a very low pressure approaching a vacuum but when you drop the pressure real low in water what happens water in the crook yeah vacuum pump is on pressure so enjoy boiling oh look look look look yeah yeah boy what water is boiling that's goodness they're boiling this water is still at room temperature but when you decrease the pressure the water boils so you have low pressure and then the water boils and then you get a vapor bubble but it doesn't last very long almost immediately the bubble collapses and when it does energy and light are released in a violent process violent enough to cause the second fourth peak in that graph it's caused by cavitation and the temperature in that bubble gets up to the temperature of the surface of the Sun right the temperature inside of a tiny bubble as it implodes next to a tiny fruit small and fierce so why are these animals so aggressive so the the mantis shrimp are actually they eat a wide variety of things in motion but in that group of things they eat a lot of them live in hard shell the fact that this Smasher type of mantis shrimp eats a wide variety of things including prey in hard shells and soft bodied prey is actually a very new finding of dr. DeVries so the mantis shrimp is really good at smashing shell they're also quite territorial I like the more aggressive they are as a better footage they get and so it's pretty funny trying to lady you're either trying to make the mantis shrimp like feel hungry so it smashes the call the shell or trying to like make it annoyed I like it out of my god yeah you do your best impression of a mantis shrimp so I saw one one time in my life I've been to course around the world for years and I've seen one so we made this from comes Alex it was pretty accurate Kate you are a rock star thank you so much to dr. Kate Fermi for helping out with this video and to dr. Maya degrees and one more shout out to deep look they're an awesome channel on PBS Digital Studios if you haven't seen their video about mosquitoes it is terrifying and fascinating I've got a link to them in the description at the end of this video they provided all of the footage of the colorful mantis shrimp in this video so a million thanks to them thank you guys so much for watching me get curious again and happy physics things
Views:|Rating:|View Time:Minutes|Likes:[vid_likes]|Dislikes:[vid_dislikes] Class 12 ( SN Dey ) Mathematics – LIMIT ( Solution ) | CALCULUS ,CBSE BOARD this is solutions of S.N.Dey book mathematics on LIMIT Chapter For solutions …
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Views:890081|Rating:4.86|View Time:12:48Minutes|Likes:22078|Dislikes:637 People have struggled to understand some hypotheses scientists had, which are correct but were disclaimed back then. So here’s the 5 scientists and their ideas that nobody believed.
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[ ♪ INTRO ] The role of a scientist is to make observations, do experiments, and form hypotheses about how and why things happen. Sometimes, thousands of years of evidence can support ideas, like the geometry of the Earth. But many people have struggled to understand things in the past and present for a lot of reasons — from preconceived notions about a field of research, to technological limitations. So it’s fun to look back at whose ideas were ruled out by their contemporaries, even though we now know these 5 scientists were onto something. Born in 1862, William B. Coley was a bone cancer surgeon in New York. He had seen many a patient die even after a tumor was removed or an entire limb was amputated. Physicians knew that rapidly-dividing cancer cells could spread. But the mechanics behind metastasis, where cells hitch a ride in blood or other fluid and start growing somewhere else, weren’t well understood. So Coley was determined to find a more effective way to stop cancer from taking lives. He began looking through records at the New York Hospital, where he worked. And he came across a patient from 1883, who had a cancerous tumor in his neck that couldn’t be removed through surgery. That tumor seemed to vanish after the patient developed a skin infection called erysipelas, usually caused by Streptococcal bacteria. Coley tracked that patient down and found that, 7 years later, the tumor hadn’t regrown. And he found dozens of papers describing infections somehow reducing cancerous cells. So in 1891, Coley injected Streptococcal bacteria into a patient dying of bone cancer, who made what seemed like a miraculous recovery. Now, keep in mind that the ethics of many medical treatments at the time were super questionable or nonexistent. And this was no exception. After this first success, Coley kept trying. And while his next few patients had tumor shrinkage, they died from bacterial infection. Coley published those findings. And then he tried to make his technique less dangerous using a combination of a heat-killed Strep species with another bacterium. The mixture became generally known as Coley’s Toxin. He treated nearly 1,000 cancer patients over the next 40 years with it, and published more than 150 papers about his work. Although Coley was often reportedly successful, his tests were inconsistent. For instance, he switched up the bacteria he injected and the injection sites, and he didn’t reliably follow up with treated patients. Needless to say, this led to a great deal of skepticism from other physicians. Which totally makes sense. In 1894, the Journal of the American Medical Association released a statement that deemed Coley’s work a failure. It reported that “no well-authenticated case of recovery” had been reported because of toxic injections. But Coley continued to practice with his toxins until the end of his career in 1933. And by then, other doctors had started using them too. Even Journal of the American Medical Association changed its tune. In 1934, they agreed that these toxins may have some medical value in treating persistent cancer. Once radiation and chemotherapy came around in the mid-1900s, Coley’s Toxin all but disappeared. In 1962, the FDA refused to back it as a legitimate way to treat cancer. It wasn’t until the 1980s that researchers started looking into the idea of cancer immunotherapy. We started to understand ways the immune system could be activated to recognize and kill rapidly dividing cancer cells, and now scientists are working on all kinds of different treatments. Just… not with a bunch of questionably harmful bacteria, and with patients’ consent. [2. Francis Peyton Rous] From 1909 to 1911, scientist Francis Peyton Rous made what is now thought of as a major discovery in the field of virology. At the time, though, his work didn’t gain much momentum. Rous was working at The Rockefeller Institute in New York, when a woman came in carrying a hen with a massive tumor. Apparently that’s the kind of thing that just… happened when you were doing cancer research back then? Scientists were already starting to think that cancer could be transmitted between living things, based on observations of cervical cancer in humans, lung cancer in sheep, and avian leukemia. These ideas weren’t given too much attention at the time. But Rous was curious to see if material from the hen’s tumor could cause cancer in a healthy chicken. And it did. To learn more, Rous passed more tumor material through a filter that strained out bacteria. And he found the same thing: When he injected a healthy chicken with the filtered tumor goop, it developed a tumor. At the time, this was enough evidence to rule out bacteria as the perpetrator. So it led Rous to hypothesize that a virus must be responsible. Rous kept at this research, and found that other chicken tumors were transmissible too. So this hen wasn’t just a strange case study. Unfortunately, the scientific community’s lack of interest meant that this discovery didn’t really make a splash. And there were bigger fish to fry: the U.S. entered World War I in 1917 and Rous shifted his focus to blood transfusions and making blood banks to help injured soldiers. Over a decade after the war, Rous’s research into a connection between viruses and cancer was reinvigorated. And he was part of a team that discovered a virus that caused benign tumors in rabbits. Still, progress was slow until the 1950s, when an enzyme called reverse transcriptase was discovered by researchers. Reverse transcriptase helps convert RNA carried by some viruses into DNA that can get into the host’s genome to churn out more viruses. Like how HIV works. With more molecular mechanisms coming to light, viral oncology was picking up speed. Scientists were studying how viruses can cause cancer, and discovering things like oncogenes — the genes that can cause a normal cell to become cancerous. And in 1966, at 87 years old, Rous was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, marking the longest time between a discovery and a Nobel Prize being awarded. [3. Ignaz Semmelweis] Ignaz Semmelweis was a Hungarian-born physician who began practicing in Vienna in 1844. Semmelweis worked in obstetrics, delivering babies and working with parents before and after birth. And he observed that people who had midwives deliver their babies only had a mortality rate of 2%, compared to the much higher 13–18% when physicians and medical students did it. Those deaths were largely due to puerperal fever, a dangerous bacterial infection of the reproductive tract, which set in one day to just over a week after giving birth. Giving birth can cause quite a bit of bodily trauma, which makes people highly prone to infection. And this was back in the day when handling corpses and doing autopsies was routine for medical students and physicians. So Semmelweis hypothesized that people not washing their hands between handling corpses and delivering babies caused this sickness and death. Semmelweis instituted a hand washing policy for medical students and physicians with chloride of lime solution, which killed bacteria and was used as a general disinfectant. After that, the mortality rate dramatically fell to match when the midwives delivered babies. And eventually, Semmelweis disinfected the medical tools and even more people lived. But Semmelweis’s superior was not a fan of his ideas. He believed that the hospital’s new ventilation system was responsible for this lack of death. That fit the popular miasma theory of disease at the time: that diseases were caused by “bad air.” So Semmelweis basically got shunned from the hospital in 1849, went back to Budapest, and became head of obstetrics at a hospital there. He instated hand washing for doctors and nurses and, just like in Vienna, this lowered mortality rates. In 1861, Semmelweis wrote a book about puerperal fever and his ideas about disinfectants, but the medical community didn’t bat an eye. And a few years later, he died in a mental institution. Presumably, of frustration. It took researchers like Joseph Lister, Louis Pasteur, and Robert Koch studying germ theory, the idea that microbes like bacteria can cause disease, to have these ideas taken seriously. So even though recognition came too late, Semmelweis was still considered a “savior of mothers” because of his strong belief in disinfectants. And he’s still being honored today. Including by us, thank you. [4. Gregor Mendel] Gregor Mendel was born in 1822. He was an Augustinian friar living in what’s now the Czech Republic. Mendel is best known for his experiments with pea plants. He bred them and studied seven main traits, from plant height and flower position to seed shape and color. He didn’t know it at the time, but this was a lucky pick. These pea plant traits were only determined by two alleles — or variations — of one gene. Usually genetics are much more complicated than that. But because they were pretty straightforward, Mendel noticed some clear patterns. For example, a tall pea plant bred with a short pea plant would produce tall offspring. But if he bred those offspring, around a quarter of the next generation was short again. Words like “allele,” and “gene” didn’t exist yet because these experiments were pretty radical at the time. So Mendel called these things that influenced traits factors. Each parent had two of them, and passed one down at random. And he came up with recessive and dominant to describe how some traits outweighed others in offspring. Plus, he proposed that different traits, like seed color or plant height, are controlled by different genes that are passed down independently. All these ideas were wildly different from the understanding at the time. Scientists were all-in on blending inheritance, which is the idea that offspring are an average of their parents. Like, if one parent has dark brown hair and the other has blonde hair, their child will have light brown hair. So even though Mendel published his work on genetic inheritance in 1866, he didn’t get recognition for it and just sort of… went on with his life. Around 1900, over a decade after Mendel’s death, three scientists were studying plants and discovered Mendel’s then-obscure paper and hypotheses along the way. Two also worked with peas, one worked with evening primrose. And they all saw Mendel’s work as validation for their own. In the early 1900s, our understanding of cells and chromosomes sped forward. And eventually Mendel became known as the “father of modern genetics.” [5. Alfred Wegener] In the early 1900s, German geophysicist, meteorologist, and polar researcher Alfred Wegener proposed the idea of continental displacement, now called continental drift. Wegener came across a paper in 1911 that talked about identical plant and animal fossils on either side of the Atlantic ocean. At the time, things like that were explained by land bridges that supposedly connected continents in the past and then sank into the ocean. But Wegener did not buy it. He also noticed that maps of coastlines of Africa and South America seemed to line up, and so did geological features like mountain ranges. There were also other weird fossils that suggested some sort of radical change, like tropical fern fossils discovered on an Arctic island. And all those observations planted a seed of an idea: maybe these continents were once joined together but drifted apart. In 1915, Wegener’s book, The Origin of Continents and Oceans, was published. In it, he coined the term Urkontinent, meaning “original continent” in German. This became Pangea, roughly meaning “all the Earth” in Greek. Although Wegener wasn’t the first to suggest that continents were once connected, he did so with more evidence than before. But he was met with resistance, because there wasn’t enough. One major flaw was that he couldn’t explain how the continents moved. Wegener believed they just sort of plowed through the ocean floor. Which, by the way, we now know was very very wrong. So I guess you can’t really blame his contemporaries for being skeptical. In the wake of this “meh” reaction, Wegener went back to doing more meteorology research and died at a young age on an expedition to Greenland. So he wasn’t around in the 1950s and 60s, when researchers began making more discoveries about the ocean floor, Earth’s crust, and phenomena like earthquakes and volcanoes. The idea of plate tectonics began to take shape, and Wegener’s hypothesis about continental drift didn’t sound so controversial after all. So science isn’t a straightforward path to answers about ourselves or the universe, and sometimes hypotheses hold up decades after they were dismissed. Thanks for learning about these scientists here with us on SciShow, and thanks especially to our patreons on Patreon for helping us make these videos. So if you want to join our community and support free education online, you can go to patreon.com/scishow. [ ♪ OUTRO ]
Views:|Rating:|View Time:Minutes|Likes:[vid_likes]|Dislikes:[vid_dislikes] Here there is some improvisation over the jazz standard Ornithology (Charlie Parker) I’m using a Seydel 1847 Classic, Key of C customized by Ben Bouman …
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Views:|Rating:|View Time:Minutes|Likes:[vid_likes]|Dislikes:[vid_dislikes] In this stunning new project Attenborough takes us on a journey through the world-famous Natural History Museum in London, revealing it as it’s never been …
Views:100|Rating:5.00|View Time:9:29Minutes|Likes:9|Dislikes:0 Common bird calls/songs and tips on how to remember them! Northern Cardinal, Song Sparrow, Eastern Towhee, Barred Owl.
This video is meant for beginning birders (bird watchers) to learn new bird songs.
what's up you guys Nick here and today I wanted to go over some basic bird calls that you'll hear in your yard or when you're out on the trails really this video was a build off of my previous video five basic Berger calls you'll hear in your yard and I'll link to that so you guys can check it out but really I was thinking about the birds I went over there and realized that you know there's a ton that we missed out on and so without further ado the first one that I want to go into is the eastern toki now the eastern toby is in a family of birds known as to–he's and the eastern toe he is well seeing on the eastern half of the United States Atena cutoff is really the Great Plains but you don't know why I'd be able to find that there are different parts of the year as far south as Texas and as far north as Maine and even some parts of Canada now when you're looking and sort of envisioning is this an area where I could see an Eastern tokey kind of envision some some thicket or some brush almost similar to a wren the toe he is in the sparrow family it's a larger ground-dwelling sparrow and so you'll often see it hanging low to the ground and not very high up in the trees and so just sort of close your eyes and a vision maybe you're seeing some brush a little bit of thicket and you hear this call now we really say that that is the quintessential classic call for these third and tokey and it's so classic it has its own pneumonic device pneumonic devices are really disassociated words to noises that these birds make and I think it's the greatest way to make a bird called click and so the pneumonic device for Eastern talkies is drink your tea and it's really more like drink your tea tea tea tea drink your tea tea tea tea tea so let's listen again see if you can pick that up all right it's there all right we can kind of see it and so that's the Easter and togi in Division some thickets are some for us but know that really at different points of the year will be as far south as Texas as far north as New York those more northern states we're gonna get the eastern Toby in the summertime really the south East and the minute land tech is going to have the third toe here year round and that southern parts like Texas might have the Easter Toby direct periods in the winter now the next bird we're going to go into is such a classic I don't even want to give it away in the beginning just maybe envision you're you're gone you're walking throughout your neighborhood this is a bird that's hugely popular again the split is really the Great Plains but it's year-round and all of the Easter half the United States states and all the way up in the Canada so just envision your in your yard and you might hear this about very back any memories often times when people hear just bird call may know they know that they've heard it before but they can't exactly place what it was and oftentimes that's because murder tolls exist in the background of our lives we're not always hunting down and looking to find the source of the noise but we know that we've heard it before and this bird call is the Northern Cardinal now I would say that while northern Cardinals make a few different calls this is really the most classic and there's no beautiful mnemonic device so say it with it but what I like to do is whit whit whit choo-choo-choo so one more time whit whit whit to to to a few guys in here so you can see that you know maybe the pneumonic device isn't perfect it sound off in the comments if you guys could come up with one that you think sounds a little more accurate but it's really the sequence of maybe three or four booths and then three or four cues now I didn't want to go over one they're called the cardinal because I hear it all the time it's not exactly their quintessential song but I think it's really important for making that identification and that is the tick of a cardinal it goes a little bit like this so you can tell it's very different than what we're listening to before it's this sharp and high tink tink tink tink tink tink tink tink sometimes you'll hear Cardinals making these noises hiss back and forth to each other around in your yard it's a quick way to pick up you know I know this isn't the classic call it's a much shorter abbreviated call that birds making you're not exactly sure what it is it's this tink that is pretty much exclusively associated with the Northern Cardinal and so when it comes to the Cardinal what I really want to stick with you guys is the wit and qu and then also its tink neither of them sound perfect again I'm open to some other words it's trying to put something together here for this video but it's this tink noise that we'll hear very frequently and the wind chew is the most classic call now the next bird that I want to get into is the song sparrow this is a hugely popular bird you can find on the East Coast the West Coast all throughout Canada and even up and do a little bit of Alaska and now this bird is sort of a smaller brown bird but it's really noticeable based on its heavily streaked chest with this darker Brown orb in the center and you'll hear it fall pretty regularly I think especially in the summer time when we're out walking outside more often you don't have to be deep in the woods to find this really even just around your neighborhood or in your own backyard to give a really good chance of hearing a song sparrow and there's again no perk of pneumonic device but the way that I sort of keep track of song sparrows is that they often count off in the beginning one two three four one two three four followed by a trill and then maybe a few more yeah I think it might make more sense if we just close your eyes and listen so I never had one – that's the trail again did you get that one two three trade oh now I know that this one moves around a lot it's very inconsistent and really I would say even more so than any other bird you've covered in this video or the previous but because it is such a common bird that you will see it at so many different places I think if we can begin to pick out sort of the main body of this song it will help us to be able to differentiate when we're out in the field or sitting in our own backyard exactly what we're listening to now really it's this count off in the beginning a 1 2 or 1 2 3 before this trail at the end and it's a pretty characteristic trail that is the most readily available way to differentiate a song Sparrow from any other bird and you might hear in your yard and now the last bird that I want to go over with you guys today is one that you might see when you're out camping sitting around the fire it's getting dark outside you're with some friends and this bird is really again the cutoff sets are right around the Great Plains area but it's found year-round really up into Canada and even if you dip down a little bit there under Washington or again you'll be able to hear this bird it's calling at night and so you might begin to think is this a novel of some sort it is you know I actually talked about this color briefly in an earlier video so you guys can check that out if you're interested but this is gonna be the barred owl now I choose the barred owl because it has a very characteristic call and a really solid pneumonic device now the pneumonic device for the barred owl is who cooks for you who cooks for all I've heard it first couple different ways but that's the one that really sticks with me is that's who cooks for you and so let's give it a call and see if you guys can pick it up good here [Applause] and so it's not perfect it's sort of this booming echoing noise but it does begin to mimic and it's pretty repetitive this who cooks for you who cooks for all I like to exactly right through all maybe the owl doesn't always but this is really the quickest way to identify what Apple you're listening to I think this is a good one to learn because not many birds are calling or singing at night it's primarily owls and this is a really different owl tone that you can hear a lot of different places year around and you're able to pick it up because it has a very clear pneumonic device and so that's it for more bird calls that you guys can add to your repertoire I really hope this video was helpful and you feel like I missed up any birds that you would like to learn or that you feel like you see in your yard all the time but you don't have to calm down please comment down below I'd be happy to make another video you guys can follow us on Instagram stop and listen dot channel and if you really enjoyed this video I would really appreciate it you hit that like button and subscribe it really goes a long way thank you
Views:4054|Rating:4.71|View Time:1:6:50Minutes|Likes:147|Dislikes:9 What math should you know to become a better C++ programmer, and how can you use C++ to become better at math?
Let’s revisit some basic facts about numbers known since antiquity and taught to us in school a long time ago, but from a modern C++ programmer’s perspective!
StockholmCpp #23 2019
Original video was published with the Creative Commons Attribution license (reuse allowed).
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[Applause] yes so once upon a time a long very long time ago there was a people known as the Romans and of course you all know a lot about the Romans they are famous for being very good engineers they created paved roads aqueducts great great buildings are still standing today a little bit less well-known is that they also invented the modern sleek tablet computer so this is actually it's a pocket-sized bronze abacus that from ancient Rome that Roman engineers could use to do a lot of advanced calculations and they had to use a computer because the number system they had the Roman numerals are not very good for doing arithmetic of course yeah they're pretty much good for one thing and there is writing down a number it's easy to see that this is a 23rd see plot Sweden C++ meetup or stockings it was just made up but have you tried doing arithmetic where Roman numerals it's addition subtraction is relatively easy but multiplication it's quite a lot more complicated and yeah also engineers need more numbers than the natural numbers but let's go back even further in time so where do the natural numbers come from that's basically how math started and this is a picture of the Shango bone this is very early archeological finding from a mathematical nature it's it was from the Shango region which is modern-day Democratic Republic of Congo it's over 20,000 years old and it's not very clear here perhaps but there it's full of this little scratches they're made by some human hand and they are not just random scratches actually if you look at them a little bit closer there are kind of three rows on the first row there is kind of series of doubling so you have three six four eight there is a ten followed by two groups of five and the second two rows are all odd numbers in fact of the second middle row there is all prime numbers and they both add up to 60 so there's seems to be some mathematical thinking going here and yeah this is how we believe that natural numbers started like you just count things and make some kind of marks so like a prehistoric definition this is a unary system you make a doctor line or something to count things and we could implement such a number type and C++ if we wanted to so this is a stone-age natural number type it's just a standard string of dots so we start with 1 and if a stone-age person comes with a string of different characters different things they want to count we just create the string of dots not longer we can do Mareth Matic with this but of course it's not very practical the strings grow quite long if the number grows large it becomes difficult to see like how many how big is this number it's a lot of work to do the calculations so the next natural step is to group the numbers into equal sized groups somehow and invent new symbols which many ancient civilizations came up with independently of each other so that's an example from Babylonians used a base 60 system we pressed reads into clay tablets and they used a different way they did it in a different way for the temps to keep the digits manageable like on a different continent the Mayans they had a base 20 system where they had like horizontal lines for the fives and so on and of course this is how Roman numerals work as well is the same basic idea makes it possible to write much larger numbers and the next step of course by the time the Roman Empire started to disintegrate the Indians of course invented the modern number system that went through the Far East and the Arab world and it took a very long time until the beginning of 13th century when Fibonacci brought these numbers to Western Europe yes this is a Mayan numbers this is a bubble ona's yeah and I don't know exactly if they thought of it as a normal number or like a special kind of way of writing zero but many ancient civilization had some kind of zero but yeah it was some kind of weird thing and it was with the Indians that it sort of became a real thing but yeah so it took a long time to go into Europe and even when it came to Europe it took a very long time before it was adopted by anyone acceptable like were very well-educated people here's a proof of this this is a woodcut a picture of an astronomical clock that was in the cathedral Uppsala sadly it got destroyed in the city fire in 1702 but this is this was my 300 years after the hindu-arabic numbers came to Europe and still apparently there was a written need to have two clock faces – so that you can see what the time was and also clocks are interesting they have kind of relics from ancient civilization like the 24 hours in a day that comes from the Egyptian timekeeping system and the six days in in minutes and hours comes from Babylonian base 60 system and this 24 and 60 are very practical numbers because they are highly composite there are so many ways you could divide them into equal for integer fractions which is very practical for timekeeping very practical for trade and so on so of course ancient civilizations knew a lot about fractions our or as you call them today rational numbers so here's like a modern definition of rational numbers as you remember from school it's an ordered pair PQ of integers where Q is not allowed to be zero and we write them as P over Q where that like horizontal – it's related to division but it's not division the number is this pair of two integers mathematicians say that rational numbers form what's called a field which is a mathematical type with addition subtraction multiplication and division in the normal sense so we're going to go into that a bit more later so let's try to implement rational numbers in C++ and see what we can learn from that because C++ it it doesn't have a rational number type for runtime use so that's it implement our own so we can start simple with two int to approximate integers and it makes sense to initialize it to zero right it's useful to be able to convert from in to irrational so we can carry the constructor from that and of course you want to be able to construct the rational from two ends and then they're there there's a precondition of course x1 is not allowed to be 0 that's not a badly rational number so you can check that in various ways but what I did here was I use this new new C++ 20 contracts syntax Bjorn Fowler's talked about this before and meetup group great talk but I don't have contracts enabled compiler yet so I just put it behind comments it's just uh just for the future but even as documentation I think this is quite clear yes ok so now we can go on to the fun stuff implement some operators and starting with the relational operators first of all the quality as you remember from school two rational numbers are equal if you can do this when you this crosswise multiplication of the integers from these two integer products are equal then the rational numbers are equal which also means there can be many equal implement definitions of the same rational number one half and two fourth three six four eight it's exactly the same number just a different representation why is it quality important well of course it enables equation or reasoning we're gonna have put two rational numbers and equations and there's the equal sign in the middle of every equation so there's that the laws of arithmetic for rational numbers are defined in terms of equalities so we need this they're a more like C++ programmers view of this is that equality enables linear search if you have an array of rational numbers I can put some number in a random position you can find it again we still find comparing for equality okay so let's implement the quality operator and already there's a problem right what happens if P and Q are large integers we could overflow and that's undefined behavior so it can break equality so you have some design decision to do here right so you can make up cost it the bigger type you could try to store it in reduced form factoring out all the common factors to keep the numbers low or you could use some unlimited precision in to your type from some library maybe but I I don't want to worry about that for now so let's just assume we have small integers of course when you have an equality operator you always need to implement in equality operator as well and there's a post condition on the inner code right it's the compliment of equality when one returns through the other one turns fourths and the other way around you can produce a there's a post condition and equality as well but the standard ways to just implement equality and your implant inequality by calling equality and negating the result because like these two belong together any sensible programmer will expect that they can use if they can use one of them like each other what's the name of that operator by the way well I think the C++ down there calls it not equals could be wrong I found this Dykstra the famous Dutch computer scientist he was very particular about word naming things correctly it was very important in programming this opinion so he called this operator this is from a letter like beginning of 80s I think where he discusses what is going to name mathematical symbols in his future texts and he calls it differs from just to emphasize that just one may be implemented in terms of the other but to the user they are symmetric so you shouldn't think of inequality as being something kind of less importance or less fundamental thing I thought that was kind of interesting some properties of equality that always need to hold if you implement equality operator and object all is equal to itself right and if you can compare to obvious or equal you should be able to compare them in the other order and if you have three objects were the first is equal to the second second sequence of the third you never should need to check if the first is equal to the third so if you have those properties you have with much mathematicians called equivalence relation and there can be many interesting equivalence relations on some type for example here in a stupid function that takes two objects and always returns true always that will be an equivalence relation but perhaps not that interesting but yeah if you want to write immune tests or something for a quality operator these are things you should check rational numbers are also ordered there's total ordering it's the same formula but with a left sign instead of equality which is also important for numbers it enables fundamental algorithms within math like taking the absolute value of a number like is it bigger or smaller than zero you need an ordering it also enables sorting so if you have if you implement relational operators you can store your objects instead set or as keys instead map so it becomes much more powerful type and of course if you can sort you can do a binary search in in an ordered set in an ordered sequence instead of linear search and find something much quicker yes yeah I don't assume it yet perhaps and you say I need more than just ordering that's true I yeah I will come back to that but it's one of the things you need is ordering ok implementation pretty straightforward but since there it's not symmetric like it's not an equivalence relation so you have the four operators instead of just to the complement greater than equal the converse if you flip them you get greater than and the complement of converse if you flip and the gate you get less than or equal so you only need to implement one and the other three you just call that one it doesn't matter which one you implement but the convention is to use less in C++ okay so what what is this total ordering it's there are many kinds of orderings and maybe not all of them are important to know I think it's for programming there are two that are really the most important it's weak ordering first well which is a it's transitive just like an equivalence relation so if X comes before Y and Y it comes to prefer said then you don't need to check if it hey X should always come before said if you couldn't know that then sorting would not be possible to implement in an efficient way for example and the other thing is the weak trichotomy law that says that you can compare any two objects like any two rational numbers you can compare and it's one of three cases either one the first is lesson the second or a second lesson the first or if none it comes before the other then they are equivalent in so there's some equivalence relation there and then and the other the thing you need to do to make the total ordering is simply to use equality as that equivalence relation so this is like how all the these relational operators tie together so in c++ xx we will get this new spaceship operator and think before you start playing too much with that it's you should know what a total ordering is and think about using it correctly okay so now we have like what basics what we need to implement addition multiplication subtraction and division ok so let's do a little detour here so this is a piece of pseudocode it's obviously not C++ might look like some language you know but it's not it's I just made this up so what do you think this would print threes and cpp you're right it's make sense what about this one good what about this one doesn't make sense thank yes it's regular I think it makes sense I think it should print Sweden's TPP but that's wait a minute here so which one of these are correct we have two operators they do the same thing that doesn't make sense this is badly designed language so which one should we pick yes yeah the could be a possibility yes yeah so yeah think about for a second which one you would pick and let's see if we don't right so I think standard string got it wrong but we're in good bad company here because the same thing in Java Python will just list the popular languages all use plus for string concatenation so how can it be wrong that's a good thing right we have some tradition here all these programming languages are consistent so if you move to a new language that you're not familiar with you will recognize what that plus means right but sometimes traditions can be problematic they could clash with other traditions and there's a tradition in mathematics here that says that whenever they use Plus whenever mathematicians use plus it's usually used to denote a commutative operation so if you swap the terms you get the equal results it holds for all the standard number types polynomials you can add them together it's commutative vectors matrices like give me any mathematical type that has plus if it's not commutative a mathematician will have to explain that and say oh no it's non commutative plus so what about strings string concatenation commutative with this to print the same string I'm gonna get to that so what about multiplication right it's also commutative right well usually yes for all common number types that we learn in school for polynomials you can multiply it by themselves or by a scalar it's commutative either way vectors can be multiplied by scalars or the commutative but matrices remember matrix multiplication like you have to do every value and there is resulting matrix is and in their product you take a row and a column and you multiply each the elements and then you add them together because of that in order to even variable swap matrices they have to be square matrices and when you swap your the rows and columns which rolls so usually you don't get the same result right same think returned Ian's reusing computer graphics as also like in general if you don't know the type of x and y there you cannot be sure that it's a commutative operation so from that perspective maybe multiplication is okay to use for Strings for concatenation you could then you could use the same symbol to x number or another string or and also there's another tradition in mathematics that you usually don't print the multiplication sign right you say 3x not 3 times X and that you can do in C++ with string literals right you put a space between and they are concatenated a compile-time so if you ever implement the string type so think about which tradition you follow right yeah so that that multiplication follows from a series of additions that holds four natural numbers and not for all mathematical types though it could be a completely different thing so yeah something to think about so let's say you want to implement either multiplication or addition so there's a much more you important law that then commutativity it's the associative law like the second thing we second lower arithmetic that we learned in school so if you have a serious sequence of three or more and you want to add them all and multiply them together you can put parentheses and do them in different order as long as you don't move them around this is hugely useful for programming right you should always look for societal operations in your code and why is that well let's look at a simple example so here we have a sequence of strings separate words and I want to reduce them all into a single sentence single string string concatenation is associative right this very simple to see that which means that yeah we could do this we could turn this into one string sequentially below just appending a word at the time but since it's associative we can actually put parentheses and we can do this two sub strings in two or sub sequences of strings in two separate threads or two separate processes or computers in a network like whatever resources we have we could paralyze this right and it's kind of trivial to paralyze there's no shared state here there's no need for locks or mutexes any kind of synchronization there are two separate parts and when they're done we just concatenate them together and we get the correct result the cost of a subjectivity and it doesn't depend on being strings or string concatenation this could work for any type that has an associative operator so mathematicians have a name for this ver use the thing they call the semi group so how many know what the semi group is hello how many of them yeah a few right so it's if you're unfamiliar it's a very basic idea so you can think of it as some data type T right together with a binary operation represented by that Circle so this could be plus could be multiplication could be any named function that takes two T's and returns a T combining them in some way if that operation is associative then that whole thing is called a semi-group now T it doesn't have to be a complete data type even like mathematician think of it as a set so it could be the subset of values within a type on some subset on which the operator is defined so C++ is full of semi groups they appear everywhere like int with plus or multiplication name function like stood min min is clearly associative as well all the boolean binary operators stood string with concatenation like in all these cases you could do this parallelization trick right but not every type for example floating-point numbers are problematic there are many problems with floating-point numbers it could be a whole talk like the I Triple E floating point standards are kind of designed by commit to things where they forgot about basic mathematics more or less so which is a big problem like my makes it hard to parallel Allies code with floating point numbers and get consistent results yeah so many semi groups also have an extra bonus feature and yes sir yeah I mean it has to do with overflow and underflow and so on there is research in that there is I looked into it a little bit it's a difficult thing to change because it's implemented in hardware floating-point numbers but yeah there is a guy called John gust Gustafson it's not he's not Swedish even if his name sounds like that and yes there's a type younam's a type that is kind of yeah there are it's quite new things so they all right yeah theoretically possible of to fix this but it will take a long time to do it in practice but yeah yes so many semi groups have this extra feature that there is a special value in the set special value for a type that when you combine that value with any value it doesn't change anything if you have that kind of value you have what's called a monoid and that's called an identity element or e so actually all the examples of semi groups that I had are also mono it's because there's an identity on for int and plus it's zero right to add zero nothing changes from multiplication it's one multiplied by one nothing changes for mean it's the biggest int like the mean of any int and the biggest ents the other one for Strings empty string right concatenate them to string nothing changes so Mahanoy two are very common very useful as well one thing they do is they allow you to deal with empty ranges so think about like what's the sum of no integers what's the string you getting for concatenate no strings what should you return empty string Oh thank you yeah so it's good to look for an identity element as well and third law of arithmetic that we learn in school Howard multiplication and addition connected with distributive law to do multiplication first you it distributes over addition and of course mathematicians have a clever name for this well called the semi ring which is simply a type with two operators right it's one we call addition with zero being the identity one we call multiplication with one being the identity so they are both monoids the plus is commutative the identity elements are distinct from each other and the distributive law also if you have that whole thing together it's a the type is a semi ring so again like classical into normal addition multiplication bool where you use or as addition and and this multiplication like am distributes over or that's a boolean semi ring another famous one is so tropical semi ring where you use min as your plus and there's plus as your multiplication so like plus distributes over me and this good luck exercise to convince yourself that works these are yeah so it doesn't have to be literally plus your multiplication but here yep sorry yes definitely this is this tropical algebra you can use it for path finding algorithms for example it's yeah it's worth looking into it's quite cool okay so this is like old theory for now or abstract algebra so now let's look like how do you add two rational numbers we'll learn how to do it it's cool you have the common denominator so you multiply them and then you have to multiply on top to compensate so it's kind of a expensive operation right you have three multiplications and one addition just multiply the right rational numbers and it also make them quite a bit this enters a bit large so but this is both commutative and associative and there's an identity element the rational number zero so here's like and proof of that you can easily see it's just on either side you just be get the other one so we implement addition exactly as math textbooks multiplication is easier cheaper to do on an addition you just multiply the PS and QS and you get the product also associative and commutative and identity element one there's the proof of that so we have multiplication so we have addition multiplication so now we have a new semi-ring of this rational number type but we also want to be able to subtract it's the same formulas addition but with – on top so we could implement it like that but there's more general way to do it also so that you need to go one level up from monoids into a group and the group is just a monoid with another extra feature that you have for every element you can find an inverse element and when you combine them they cancel each other so their salt is the identity element so the only one here that is qualifies as a group kind of is int with plus because yeah you're positive int find the negative int and then you combine them and they become zero there's a slight problem there so like do you see it how are it's implemented usually exactly it's a two's complement there's one extra negative into the smallest one that has no inverse okay so we have to sort of okay yeah we really don't care about that one we yeah but like overflow is also a problem and that's yeah but it doesn't mean that addition is broken or anything like that we are worrying about overflow and this kind of bad things happening at the limits we're used to dealing with that so so but what's the point of group well imagine you have a group your operation is plus what is the name of the function that gets you the inverse element in C++ your honor – yes so an additive group is just a group with plus and 0 where the additive inverse is a unary minor so this function added to be inverses is the bogus function call you have what you have to do there is whatever you have to do for the type to find the inverse element it's built in of course for him ok but if you have that you know – you can implement a proper subtraction just by taking the first time element plus the negation of the other one ok so we could do this rational numbers it works so we have to how do you negate a natural rational number values negate the numerator okay and it turns out it's a exactly the same thing – to add the negative rational number rational number so let's implement it like that so we have the unary operator – just negate the numerator and we implement my binary – with plus and the unit – it already did so that function is different from the previous ones it it doesn't use a piece and QS directly so and this should work for any group and edit your group I should say not just rational number so we could consider making this a template right so G is some additive group type we could implement – for any such tea but I don't really like the tightening keyword it doesn't say anything about the type and of course this is something but this is what concepts come in it's this new C++ feature where you can design a concept that says it describes that the type has to have a plus and a minus for example but if you if you don't have concepts yet if you're not familiar with them that's ok we can sort of sheet so I'm going to make a macro and say that again yeah so tie additive group is just a different name for type name so then we can put say additive group there it's just documentation but it's it's good it actually is better than the type name and then later when you have concepts maybe you can implement the concept and check that and get better error messages ok so I'm gonna do this in the rest of the talk like if you see something out the other than tightening your threes is tightening okay so now we have the minus and that means our rational type forms a ring so the semi the missing part was that the addition was just an additive monoid not agree so they were not inverses but we have inverses with no group and then its color ring so the rational numbers form a ring and the traditional or they like the canonical example of a ring is the integers inch you can add subtract multiply and you get done in it but integers have more properties than just this so they form what's called integral domain something integer like so an integral domain is a ring where multiplication is commutative and there's another thing another property that I think it can be expressed in different ways but one way is to say there are no serial divisors so if you multiply to int and the result is 0 you know that one of them or both are 0 or conversely if you multiply in the result it's not 0 none none of them could have been 0 and that leads to division so that's rational number division yeah it's just multiplication over the integers but to do it this crosswise way and of course it's undefined if the numerator becomes zero so P one cannot be zero because it's an integral domain if piece q0 can also not be zero but then you didn't have a rational number to begin with there in the top but you could have division by zero is p1 with 0 and that's undefined so division has a precondition again like it's yeah you're not allowed to divide by 0 and that's now all we have that leads to a field so the rational numbers the field it has all these four operators in this particular way so field is just an integral domain with a inverses for multiplication as well except for 0 and you could if you want to implement division sort of like you did subtraction but using multiplication instead of plus okay so that's a lot of words a lot of rules to remember and it kind of it's hard to keep track of so but I think it helps to like draw them in a diagram like to see how they are connected to each other and how they are related to the operators for the like this and this I call the algebraic concepts so like this new feature concepts what does it come from it suggests something in the standards committee wants to have to improve compile times to get better their error messages with templates no literally the idea of concept comes from abstract algebra so it's it's modeled after this very kind useful idea from mathematics mathematicians don't call them concepts they call them algebraic structures but it's the same thing almost concepts also say something about computational complexity so we want this to be fast as well which many mathematicians don't care about but they should probably but yeah so so this is a like a good way how to think about concepts they come from mathematics okay so so we aren't with this all this theory we could look at this rational number type and think about generalizing it right so we put an int but we didn't know the operators used in directly they just used equality less than addition negation and multiplication and they assumed those properties right so we could make this whole rational number into type into a template as well where you should work on any integral domain I so it could be like a library integer type for example something you make up yourself and there's no change you would have to templatized the operators as well but this is varying great but there's one extra thing here that I don't really like okay so it's this there's an extra property we sort of require the type I to have a constructor that takes in working convert to int and where the interior literals 0 and 1 mean the additive and multiplicative identity elements like a serum one is for whatever that integral domain type is so maybe we don't have that so what can we do to fix that well we could replace 0 and 1 by 0 and 1 britainís text instead ok so what are the zero on one here clearly they are some kind of templates because you have low angle brackets clearly they are still values because you need values here not types or anything else but what you really should do is like take off your C++ classes take on your math classes and look at that as a function call right so serum 1 or some kind of mathematical function where you pass in the type I and it returns at compile time the what's Iran one represents for that type so this is a type function and you cannot implement that with a normal C++ function they only take values no types but you can implement them using crates classes this was standard library that's a lot so the function is actually a struct called 0 TF 4 type function it's a template destruct which contains only a static constant called value which I default initialize to calling the constructor with 0 so if s is an int values is the number 0 but the beauty of this is of course if you have some other type where 0 is not implemented like that you could specialize that striked and provide your own value and to access that you would have to say c OT f of s comma colon value that's a little bit much type so i think it's nice to use variable templates that came in c++ 14 there so that's that's just 0 is just a different name for that so that's that's what 0 was in there up there it's just a static constant and 1 is the same thing default initial is 2 1 but of course rational numbers now so now this works for int for example but rational numbers also have this 0 and 1 so we could specialize we should provide this for rational numbers as well so it's a bit of a wall or code here but first you have the specialization for 0 and here I put the definition outside so this value is what rational default constructor returns so it's 0 / 1 + 1 is 1 / 1 for that into your type okay so now let's sort of we create the rational numbers and they are completely abstracted away but the interior type is okay so we could use use this to implement a lot of other types without even knowing what specific int type use so what I did I implemented this little C++ program you can download it later if you're interested it's it's not a library or anything it's just a single CPP file no dependencies on anything but the standard library should work in all three major compilers and it just has some unit tests and a bunch of mathematical types so I built this rational number type and on top of that for example if you simple geometry to the Yama tree you can construct 2d vector just x and y coordinates as rational numbers and you add some operators to make it a vector space you can do scalar multiplication and all that stuff implemented to the point type of course making sure it's an F fine space over the vector space so if you didn't see the top by audition with them your unfollowers you should really do that great talk and with three rational numbers you can represent any line and you can see lines purely algebraically you can check are they like I forget the words okay anyway yeah yeah like if two lines cross was the point where they meet you can create triangles you can check the Pythagorean theorem and do all this stuff you can also do I also implemented polynomials just a state vector of numbers it actually works on any ring but if you plug in an integral domain like int the whole polynomial type becomes an integral domain which means you could well and rational numbers are integral domains so you could make polynomials of the rational numbers but you can also make rational numbers out to polynomials if you want so that's called rational function and it's like very the type starts to produce self and this is very nice this is very nice right so you can do all storage sorts of stuff but what if you don't even have the integers right what if you don't have natural numbers well you can also implement the integers much like you do rational numbers it's an ordered pair of natural numbers M&M rift and ass this backslash you read is less so it's M less M it's kind of like subtraction so you can think of geometrically you can think of M is going in the positive direction on the number line and n is going in a negative direction so you have minus 2 there and like rational numbers you could have M and M could be different lengths so you can have many implementations of the same number yeah so we could implement the integers and it doesn't need to be a built-in natural number type like unsigned it could be any kind of semi ring that is similar so we only need we're only going to need addition and multiplication which is really interesting so total ordering those are the formulas it's like for rational numbers but with plus instead of multiplication so there's implementation and the other four operators just call these two they're arithmetic to add to add two integers you do this it's it looks like multiplication does for rational numbers would be plus instead multiplication is more complicated but yeah and negating you cannot negate and natural number but you just need to swap them and then think about it on a number line it's makes sense and then we could use our template – just using the plus in line and negation so implement those three so now everything in this math C++ file still works just fine just using natural numbers so we could plug in unsign but let's have more fun okay first of all of course the interior also have identity elements so they serve yeah natural numbers your own one okay so let's go back to this could we could all this math work with Stone Age math yeah it actually could so I just extended it a little bit include zero which yeah maybe they didn't know about zero but we like mono it's so we have zero so a default constructor we have the old constructor for Stone Age people and we have a new constructor for us modern Renaissance people so we've passing them we can pass an unsigned so all this nice feature yeah exactly so it's like C++ minus 20000 standard yeah so hopefully if Stone Age people could understand this code okay how do we do the total ordering how do you check if they are equal well strings are equal lengths then they're equal same number of dots so that works less than the same thing yes count the dots addition how do you add well that's actually string concatenation now right oh three plus five is eight yeah good so we implement that but remember string concatenation is not commutative we want plus to be commutative oh actually this because we're not dealing with the general case of any possible string we are stealing the strings with the same character repeated and then it is commutative so that's nice it works then we come to the problem multiplication so multiplication for natural numbers that's repeated addition right that's a lot of work if you have a lot of dots so to multiply 12 times three it's like 11 string concatenation sometimes you need a computer to help you write so yeah of course we could just do it simple naive loop computers are fast so that's good so we have our multiplication works and we just need the type function so empty string is zero string with one dot this one so at this point it's I mean it's this is how the numbers types are built up logically so it should be obvious but it still kind of boggles me when I think about okay so I take like derivatives of a fifth degree polynomial or like checking Pythagorean theorem and it's all done with some complex combination of string concatenation and checking the lengths of strings it's all it tough of course really inefficient slow but it works just try it out it's in the code and yeah that's kind of marvelous ok but is it good enough ok obviously it's super slow inefficient thanks a lot of memory but yeah and where is the slow part well is this right there's a loop here it has to be there that we should optimize ok so this is quite stupid to do it like this can we do it better so remember what what's the important property of string concatenation it's associative right so if you want to multiply 12 times 3 we could do this linear same silly way or we could use threads right we split it in two perhaps and we get down and half the time but that would be kind of stupid as well right because we're not dealing with the general case of different strings where do we know that both of these will be equal so why don't we throw away the threading and just do it just take the first one and we double it ok so but we're trying to implement multiplication we cannot multiply it that's a problem but how do you double a number if you don't have multiplication just add it to itself ok so we saved 1 2 3 4 5 string concatenation that's good okay so this works on even numbers because you could split in exactly in half but maybe we want the x 13 so that's the problem right so we have this extra one at the bottom but we can still fix this we could put that aside and round it down so we have still 12 times 3 or 6 times 3 twice and then with just an extra one to add the end probe numbers and since every natural number is either even or odd we can do any multiplication and the next logical step what is that recursion yes use the search tippity and we are down to 1 2 3 4 5 instead of 12 concatenation so number scroll large this becomes better and better okay so how old is that idea you think it's very very old so this is a piece of papyrus called the Rhind papyrus I think it's about 5 meters long it's over three and a half thousand years old and it's it's full of examples of how ancient Egyptians did arithmetic and geometry and so on and it has this algorithm in it okay so that looks very very ancient to us but actually the idea must be much much older because well this is the first written evidence but ancient Egypt lasted for a crazy long time so to go back to these famous buildings it's a millennium before that and I don't know we don't have any actual proof but I don't think it's a far-fetched to think that Egyptian engineers knew something about multiplying large numbers efficiently even that's my theory anyway so whoever invented this it was very long time ago so here is that algorithm in sort of modernized to C++ still using that old type but it's just five lines of code and it'll include zero as well which the options didn't have in that way but let's just look at them lines quickly so first of all if you're multiplying by zero we're done this returns zero second line if you multiplied by F first numbers one we're also done we return the other one otherwise we call ourselves recursively passing in half of the first number round it down and twice of the other number where we double yes by adding to itself and then we're done if we have an even number but we might have an odd numbers we need to check that in that case we have to add one extra and then we're finally done and it's easy to see like how fast this is what's the complexity of this algorithm log n yeah we divide by half so we quickly get down to the base cases so this is this makes this you could use some Roman numerals for example it makes multiplication so feasible to do by hand even in such a primitive system that's really nice but it's also using two functions that I didn't implement right half and it's odd so we need to do those so how do you check how do you divide in half what do you do a bit shift over the length right that's rounding down oh it's perfectly okay so if you if you think about the binary representation of unsigned well you're like if if it's an even number the least significant bit is a 0 so with that sort of gets thrown out but we don't lose any information but if it's not number we lose a 1 so you think of that one it's representing that extra X that you have to add back in for odd numbers and of course to check your phone numbers odd let's check the leasing FN bit now I take I create a new number how to have two lengths so I'm not bit shifting that I'm a bit shifting the but notice that these two functions are using bits operations that are machine instructions really fast so this actually is very simple those are simple to implement in binary hardware so I'm not a hardware guy really but as far as I understand this AI algorithm it's used by hardware people to implement multiplication in binary computers it's a good way to do it so but it's good for software people to know as well because we can do more with it so but I'm gonna leave that as a challenge so if you have not if you don't know the answer to this I really recommend don't look it up the result try it yourself and see what you can discover because it's really great exercise try to optimize this algorithm so the first thing you don't want recursion right so that cost memory and function calls whatever so try to convert this into a loop version that is not too reveals it so that itself is a good exercise in turning recursion loops it's good to know if you manage to do that you will see that maybe see it already there's a lot of unnecessary work here a lot of shifts and if you have the loop version you can sort of unroll the loop knowing what you know about natural numbers and you can optimize quite a lot actually there's an answer to this in Knuth in the art of programming the second book and Knuth solution is not optimal you can beat him if you try it it's it's doable I don't think it's yeah so work on it a bit and see if you can beat it well should make you feel good then also think about how you can generalize this what are those what are the semantic requirements of X 0 and X 1 are they even same so what's most abstract way you can represent this algorithm that's also leads to a lot of interesting stuff so have must be pretty hard to generalize yeah it's it depends very much on the type you have to think about yeah it's so it's such a deep thing this it's looks this five lines of code but it's it even leads to some like unsolved problems in mathematics yeah it's worth looking to and yeah if you yep yeah well that's an extra exercise for you to implement so take my code yep write more in spirit is inspiration for this talk and I really recommend if you think this is fascinating stuff to check into this to youtube series first guy I learned about from Harold actually in this meetup group long time ago I know who this guy is is a mathematician in University of New South Wales I think very active in YouTube has great courses on math from like even kindergarten level up so with this series he has has been going on for like 10 years and it has an agenda he's he has very interesting opinions about modern mathematics and that many things are wrong with it it doesn't believe the real numbers even exist or there's no working definition of real numbers actually it's just something mathematicians sort of yeah not treated in the good way so you need to go back actually to all their ideas and to rational numbers particularly so it's very interesting and it's like a minority view in mathematics but to programmer I think it's seems very sensible like we never we're never used to real numbers it's always something were discrete and of course Alexander Stepanov also this series of talks which was basis for this book later really good he also goes into this abstract algebra fascinating history about all the people who developed it very fun to watch useful stuff for every programmer and it's it's a big investment in time to watch this probably take you a year to watch it so but I think it's well invest invested time I have not finished first years okay more inspiration for this talk of course this meetup group so I think big thanks to everyone who has been filming this talks for three years now like Harold and Paul and Sheila yharnam yeah I forget a lot of people but and we have this high quality videos there have been many previous talks that have some kind of relation this is not all of them s what I could fit in a slide so you can go into this these talks as well again re-watch them and dive into other areas of math I think this is really cool that we have all these videos you're certainly build up this treasure trove of great information that you can build on make new talks like I did here some final takeaways I think it's good to know about total ordering I think it's good to know about the soceity especially I think when you're overload operators don't be to create it it's the rules should be defined as they are defined in math and to some degree C++ otherwise you're gonna have a lot of bad surprises I think C++ is provides a good framework for exploring this abstract algebra and it's like I think it's much more fun than doing problems in a math textbook to actually implement this math types and learn how they work in practice and I hope I convinced you that ancient elementary math is good to know about and study so there's the links to a talk into the source code and that's another joke thank you yes question I've seen the pros of linear but no not yet I that's interesting to look into and see I see what they what choice is saying yeah yeah so I've seen a talk by what's-his-name hi Dave exactly he talked about it but I have not looked at proposal itself yeah it looks like more mathematical types more mathematical algorithms are coming in C++ probably yeah yes now it's the time to find the big bugs yeah definitely Thanks yeah yeah that's the the name Sarah one could be a little bit suggesting a little bit too concrete the thing but maybe maybe yeah save space on slides but it also maybe make McKnight look too abstract also to people so I don't know but yeah I think it's words do really matter that's a that's another example of that yes yeah yeah okay someone needs to do a talk about category theory at some point here I'm not I don't understand it it's yeah monads and yeah whatever but yeah yeah there might be good name sir to look into there's a lot of this yeah category theory and a lot of modern mathematics is based on set theory and that has been it's a dogma and there's many strange and bad things about sets so there's a lot of mathematicians are trying to use category or type theory or yeah all this it's a difficult thing to change all the mathematical communities view but yeah it we might have been led astray a bit with sets it doesn't infinite set even exists it's like ya can do an infinite amount of work very deep questions yeah still a lot of new things to discover yes question former person no I have not I'm it's yeah yeah it is and it's definitely interesting to look into her no no and it's yeah this is like yeah exactly say pleased to inform proof C++ is not a good language I think but yeah and this is like he had talked about Dijkstra he was very much about formal proofs and thanks but it's yeah I don't know enough about that subject either so but I think just the fact that it works like it does with this kind of crazy tile it's some kind of sign that things are correctly defined I think yeah yep thank you [Applause]
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هل تسمع "ياني" ؟ ام "لوريل" ؟ وجد استطلاع حديث في موقع تويتر ، أن ٤٧٪ من الناس يسمعون "ياني" ، بينما ٥٣٪ يسمعون "لوريل" من الواضح أن هذا خلق جدال في الإنترنت مما ادى الى تقسم الأمة إذن ما هو العلم وراء الجنون؟ واحدة من الجوانب الأولى هي الاعداد إذا كنت تلعب هذا المقطع دون توفير خيار "ياني" أو "لوريل" ربما لم تكن قد سمعت أيًا من هذه الكلمات ولكن من خلال قراءتهما ، فإنك تستعد لسماع واحد أو الآخر. ثانياً عندما تتحدث ، فانك تنتج موجات صوتية تنتشر عبر الهواء هذا تصوير مرئي للموجات الصوتية لتسجيل ياني/ لوريل الأصلي أنشأها "براد ستوري" ، أستاذ الكلام واللغة والسمع هنا هو تصوير له قائلا "لوريل" يمكنك أن ترى أن الخصائص الصوتية متشابهة جدًا هنا هو تصوير له قائلا "ياني" المميزات الصوتية هي أيضا مماثلة إذاً ، كلمات "ياني" و "لوريل" صوتيا هي أكثر تشابهاً مما تظن سواء كنت تستمع على كمبيوتر محمول أو هاتف أو سماعات سيؤثر على ما تسمعه بناءً على جودة الصوت ولكن ماذا لو كنت تستمع من خلال نفس الجهاز ولكنك تسمع أشياء مختلفة مع شخص ما بجانبك قد يكون لهذا علاقة مع عمر أذنيك الأصوات في "ياني" تلعب على تردد أعلى من الأصوات في "لوريل" مع تقدمنا في السن ، تكون آذاننا أقل قدرة على سماع ترددات أعلى فإذا كنت تسمع "ياني" ، قد يكون لديك آذان أصغر سنا لحسن الحظ بمساعدة الإنترنت ، يمكننا سماع كليهما نشر مستخدم تويتر الرائع "[email protected]" مقطغ لنبرة الصوت جلبت لاسفل واعلى عندما تستمع إليها منخفضه ٣٠ ٪ ، سوف تسمع "ياني" ياني ٢x ولكن عندما تستمع إليها بنبره اعلى بنسبة 30٪ ، من المرجح أن تسمع "لوريل" لوريل ٢x يمتلك دماغك الكثير من التحفيز في جميع الأوقات بحيث يستخدم المعلومات الموجودة والمسارات العصبية الدقيقة لتركيز انتباهه هذا هو السبب في أنه في حفلة صاخبة يمكنك الاستماع إلى صديقك بجانبك ولكن انتبه جيدًا إلى محادثة آخرى إذا لزم الأمر وبالمثل ، فإن دماغك يختار دون وعي أي ترددات في التسجيل ينتبه إلها إذن … ما هي الإجابة النهائية؟ إذا سمعت "لوريل" ، فأنت على صواب! التسجيل الأصلي هو يقول لوريل ولكن مع ترددات أعلى مضافة ، خلق الغموض تحب التعلم عن أشياء مذهلة ومثيرة للاهتمام في العالم؟ في الواقع ، بدأنا للتو بودكاست جديد يسمى "SIDENOTE" حيث نستكشف الأشياء التي تعيقنا أو تجعلنا نشعر بالفضول في الحياة ثم ادخل كل العلوم التي تثير الذهن خلفها يسرنا أن تتحقق من ذلك على iTunes أو أي تطبيق بودكاست تستخدمه دعمك يعني لنا الكثير حيث ببطء نقوم برحلة لاستكشاف المزيد من العلوم في وسيلة جديدة مرة أخرى يطلق عليه SIDENOTE وهو جديد، لذلك نحن متحمسون لمعرفة ما هو رأيك سنترك بعض الروابط أدناه واشترك للمزيد من مقاطع الفيديو العلمية الأسبوعية كل يوم خميس ترجمه بواسطة angel:girl
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a tiny toy town world beyond the reach of most of us the plaything of a privileged elite who dominate politics once more is this what Westminster has become 3/4 of the coalition cabinet are millionaires David Cameron Nick Clegg and George Osborne went to schools that now charge fees higher than the average wage and a third of today's labor front bench went to Oxford or Cambridge so how has our politics become the preserve of the privileged once more why did it happen especially at a time when cuts and public services are at the top of that places agenda does our new political elite understand or appreciate what these cuts could mean for ordinary voters people whose lives are light-years from their rulers in this film I get under the skin of the new political ruling class people vox populi vox Dei to reveal a system that's blocking many bright youngsters from reaching the top i'd love to go to sanders but it's a very little chance that again said we don't know anyone that's cold it's got it all for a reason for generations our public school boys have been bred to rule you knew a great many people simply by having been to Eton and doors were open to which were close to others but for a time it seemed like politics was changing for the first 18 years of my life I lived over the shop which my father owned and now public school boys are back dominating public life like they used to if David Cameron they've gone to a really comprehensive it'd be lucky to dig ditches for a living and the Labour Party's getting more middle-class – I'm a member of the Labour Party 47 years I've refused to vote this year because I couldn't vote for a working-class candidate and and that's got to change politics is getting posh again and it's driving people away you're not just saying things getting pop sure you're seeing things getting narrower as well Westminster has become a closed shop for the privileged but do we have to resign ourselves to it getting poorer still never mind his politics Gordon Brown's departure from Downing Street last year was historic they marked the end of Britain's great post-war experiment in political meritocracy how it went a grammar school boy the only University educated prime minister who hadn't gone to Oxford at Cambridge coming the other way to public school boys who both went to Oxbridge and who were both part of the political elite by their 20s Prime Minister do you now regret when once asked what your favorite joke was he replied Nick Clegg and Deputy Prime Minister what do you think of that we're all going to have I'm afraid I did we're not so much p.m. and Deputy PM as head boy and deputy head boy don't be surprised by how comfortable they look together after all they come from the same very comfortable backgrounds David Cameron is the son of a stockbroker Nick Clegg's father a banker mr. Cameron is fifth cousin twice removed to the Queen and went to prep school with Prince Edward his wife is the daughter of an eighth baronet descended from Charles the second mr. Cleg is a descendant of the Russian aristocracy his grandfather was a top-notch financier his wife is the daughter of a Spanish Senate mr. Cameron went to Eton where he met future London Mayor Boris Johnson and many of his current government mr. Cleg went to Westminster School where he acted with Helena bonham-carter daughter of a liberal dynasty after Oxbridge by their late 20s both were political special advisers Cameron to Tory Chancellor Norman Lamont Clegg to Tory euro commissioner Leon Brittan it's one of the great mysteries of 21st century britain made all the more mysterious because almost nobody want to talk about it I'm one of the grammar school generation I grew up part of a post-war meritocracy which slowly began to infiltrate the citizens of power through ability and ambition rather than background and connections of course the public school educated still held a disproportionate share of the top jobs we were in no doubt that meritocracy was here to stay never dawned on us but at the start of a new century who would have ground to a halt few politicians want to admit to what's happening David Davis working-class boy turned leading Tory politician is an exception do you think someone from our kind of background today oh no no I don't think so at all I mean you can never say they'll never be another working class prime minister whatever because right through centuries of history that people made of the bottom the top but the odds are much much worse today than they were when you and I went through school this is a symptom of a much bigger malaise you know and secondly it has has stalled you know we do have a stratified society politicians used to boast of their long journey to power but for Nick Clegg is a mere three minute walk from the back door of Downing Street to the rather special front door of his old school Westminster it was founded in its present form by Elizabeth the first in 1560 and over the centuries has educated seven prime ministers politicians as varied as Nigel Lawson and Tony Benn the headmaster here is dr. Stephen spur I guess if you if you're well educated here and you're interested in going into a political career at some stage it's not a big jump from here so over there isn't it is that why you've had seven prime ministers well I think I think there's there's that's definitely something to do with it Parliament is not something which is a huge distance and unreachable it is it is it is part of the cultural historical and mental space that Westminster has here it's not just for them as exact exactly from these boarding windows here they tell their time by Big Ben because they look they see Big Ben out through there we use it as it were I think to try to inspire very bright children who are here it's an academically selective school to inspire them to have that intellectual reach that appetite that ambition and that ambition was certainly on display when I dropped into an a-level economics class what is it about the school that produces politicians you got Nick Clegg you've got Chris Hume different various others there's something about Westminster aside it's not the teachers that push us to be the best that we want to be it's we want to be the best that we want to be it's this kind of mentality that you that you get being here and it's each other you know you don't want to be the depress or the boss of the class so if you see all your friends working you're not gonna be the one person here so I copied bothered I think the opportunity for networking is great to hear because there's lots of different people there's always opportunities to meet new people and well their parents might do something that you've never liked heard of before you've got lots of opportunities what you might want to do any of you interested in going into politics yeah how could I work that out I suppose the reason why this school does produce quite a few politicians that would so shows the political system I mean there's always a big process going on outside order to make speech being given their helicopters their helicopters all the time people camping out on Parliament Square so we're very much sort of immersed in the political system and that's why whether you like it or not if you're at this school you're going to be interested in to a greater or lesser extent in projects here we're constantly talking about politics we encourage a lot of articulation of the ones own voice one's own ideas one's own opinions we test them however that's part of just the way the teaching happens here at the school like this public schools like this have always been a privileged pipeline into politics and though things seem to be changing after the Second World War today the public schools are back in the ascendant only about 7% of us go to fee paying schools yet half the cabinet and a third of all MP's did and after falling steadily for decades the number of public school boys in Parliament is on the up the biggest conduits in this pipeline to politics Eton the school that over the years has produced 19 Prime Minister's 13 Tory ministers wear the same old school tie even half a century ago labour was able to make political capital out of Eaton's dominance of the Tories here at fascinating to look at the background of Tory ministers and to see how they're linked together by business or family ties former foreign secretary and older Tony and Douglas hurt knows all about the head start of public school education can give you in politics we're taking tea at his exclusive London Club what is it about Eton that has produced so many Prime Minister's so many politicians like yourself did they make you think you were born to rule and it was quite clear that nothing was going to be given you on a plate but it wasn't that you were grooming yourself to be a prime minister that would have been absurd if you were interested in politics as I was well then of course you was a good place to learn about it historically in the big chunk of the 20th century to have gone to Eton was an advantage in a political career to reach the highest levels I don't think it was a substitute for intelligence or hard work you had to add those but I agree I mean it was it you knew a great many people simply by having been to Eton and doors were open to which were close to others but by the time heard stood for the Tory leadership in 1990 being anatolian had become a drawback his poshness was a handicap and a reason why he lost to the humbler John major yet 15 years on when David Cameron stood for the leadership it seemed less of a problem the one piece of advice I gave to David Cameron was don't let that issue gallop away with you and he didn't he nailed it he said at the beginning what I said only said at the end and when it was too late I'm standing the leadership of the Tory Party not for some demented Marxist outfit it was a crucial point to make David Cameron is obviously and strongly intelligent person and that's why is Prime Minister it's not because he went to Eton it's not because the fact that he was a deacon has been a total obstacle it hasn't been of course having had the best education money can buy shouldn't disqualify anybody from high office but it's surely a sign of our fading meritocracy that old Etonians are ruling the country once more there are now 20 old Etonians in the commons up five on the last Parliament and a remarkable eight are in government that's right eight ministers went to the same school the one with the historic buildings there are cake uniforms and a price tag of almost 30 grand a year they protect their privilege jealously fewer allowed inside its hallowed halls ourselves included so we sought out a couple of recent old boys to find out what it is about the school which produces so many ambitious political high fliers you're going up to Oxford this term yeah and you're already there so you both both will be it also together so that's the right University I realized that actually the facilities here a lot better the ones out and it's funny isn't it you'd only sense when you were there why did even produce so many politicians politics wise because all the society is a boy run and often the leader of the society next year will be elected by boys so there's almost already a lot of a lot of politics interested in it in terms of trying to get elected and stuff like that I think that's a very very healthy thing isn't competition exactly encouraged throughout the school because after all life is is a competition so it's a clear advantage to have gone to Eton but there are some disadvantages whenever someone asks what school you went to you always a little apprehensive and you say Eton and there does tend to be a certain expectation that you'll be a posh tough who's very snobbish but I feel it's just part of our job to try and show that what we're not just not that stuck-up nagging what's their time Somerset dairy country a village festival and local Tory MP Jacob Riis MOG just one of the half dozen new old Etonians elected to Parliament for the first time in May and less bothered it seems than the boys about being perceived as a Newtonian talk even in 2010 we seem to be governed by a political elite from a narrow background I think this is the class warfare that Labour Party wanted to fight at the last election that failed I'm having a son on sees that we want to have the best people available to govern us the best educated and the people that the electorate will vote for if the electorate wants to vote people have been a private school that's their right and I think you get in to danger of having a rather trippy argument about people's backgrounds as David Cameron said it's about where people are going not where they come from why did Tony Blair become the leader against Gordon Brown the Arts is obvious because he actually could connect and communicate with people and the fact that he'd been at fetty's was irrelevant to that so III don't think social background helps or hinders a political career y'all think I'm coming at this from a left-wing socialist point of view and though I'm a dare call you a left-wing sage I'm coming from a very different plan being porch didn't stop Jakob winning that it was an issue at the general election for Jacob sister who stood for the Tories in a neighboring seat and lost your sister who was fighting the seat next door her name is annunciator ruiz MOG now we understand Mr Cameron wanted to change that to Nancy monk well what would you have felt about that the good news is she's about to change her name but to anunciar to Glanville answer the question it was how did you feel about that it was a joke it was it was a joke is this a dynasty which might sounds it really narrow social group fighting politics my father's never been a member of parliament he's not an MP right here I think creating a dynasty would be rather ambitious what class are you hiding dis Rather's to do I'm a man of Somerset but that's where you from that's where I'm from geographic say this will probably hurt you I would say sort of upper-middle rather than upper well I'm certainly not part of the aristocracy that's definitely true so we set up four upper-middle I'm a man of the people vox populi vox Dei well class is a complicated business in modern Britain I grew up in a council house in Paisley these days I live in Kensington the Pasha's borough in London I'm not a tough but I now live a lifestyle many posh people live such as having a housekeeper and a driver of course in my case it was hard work and ambition rather than daddy's money but it was also because I grew up at a time when social mobility was on the rise I had a world-class education at the 16th century Paisley Grammar School and the 15th century University of Glasgow grammar schools were the ladder of opportunity kids from ordinary backgrounds climbed into some of the country's top jobs but with most grammars gone I feel it's harder for someone from my background starting out now I'm heading back to Paisley to see how kids there are doing in this comprehensive era hi Vanessa when I was a kid I used to watch all the political programs on television the news panorama world in action what the papers say it's kind of sad it was yeah you see the pic of us you may be heartily sick of a still with sense we are all in view ah the world where weekend's on the grass were with your chums was the norm in the 1950s it was dominated by people like Harold Macmillan and so on but they clearly came from a different planet from me they were from an entirely different class a social background spoke with these strange accent so you only heard on television how many votes did we get at the last election I think something like that they certainly went all the world adore 100 years ago there were deep divisions between rich and poor great cleavages but we made one nation now differences of course but not the deep division I like to come to see you in person to show you but I'm not exactly what they make me look like on the TV screen and then this amazing thing happened in 1964 this guy with a northern accent of Yorkshire accent not a pipe and kind of ordinary suits of the title of my woman Howard Wilson you began to think that something's changing yeah so this is what 1964 can mean a chance for change more than that a time for resurgence a chance to sweep away the grouse more conception of national leadership you type of politician that taken over much more from ordinary backgrounds than than ever before when that happened it looked like it it was permanent the sort of streets in which I grew up were becoming the kind of place political leaders from any party might come from have a look over the hedge of the old place this is the first time I've been back to my old home in years see we are not such a bad place lots of green pants over there with a garden there's the kids are all coming out from my old primary school they're better behaved than we were if you want to be on television you have to tell me who the Prime Minister is that's good answer okay what else can we ask you this difficult who do we know who the Deputy Prime Minister he's a liberal Democrat Nick Clegg by the time I left for university the first in my family ever to go it seemed after mr. Wilson we really were living in the age of the grammar to stay in this new meritocratic game the Tories ditched their grass mer image and chose tent heath to lead them the grammar school educated son of a carpenter she's coming to water now and then most famously a Grammar School educated grocers daughter from Grantham people from my sort of background needed grammar schools to compete with children from privileged homes like Shirley Williams and Antony Wedgwood been for a startling 33 years from Harold Wilson to John Major all our prime ministers were educated at state schools the grammar school generation were taking on the public school kids at their own games and winning even for the top job in the land but by the early eighties only a handful of grammars remained most had become comprehensive selection by ability whose regarded as divisive in Scotland there are no grammar schools left mine still has the old name but today it's what Alastair Campbell might call a bog-standard comprehensive I remember this all right most mornings we used to gather here we all used to have to stand I'd like to say everybody had to stand the first year at the front then as you got older you were able to stand up in the balconies but the one thing I'm doing which I was never able to do before is I'm in this hall and I haven't got a tie on that would have been unthinkable the copper ANSYS were meant to widen opportunity and for some they did but overall unlike the grammars they struggled to compete with the private schools a third of private pupils get at least three gray days at a level compared to just 8% of comprehensive pupils more students than ever are going to university but most of the top universities are once again dominated by the public schools and only 2% of their students had been on free school meals but the head here still thinks the comprehensive system works how's the school day doing well yes when I was here it was highly selected yeah it's comprehensive school yeah yeah and what differences that made I think it makes for a good difference and that we've got a range of kids with a range of abilities a range of skills range of backgrounds we've got extremely high achievers in terms of attainment look at high achievers in terms of music and sport and we've got others who achieve what is their potential but is that really enough to match the fee-paying sector how do you think the pupil was here today compete with the kids that are going to the private schools well they compete in the sense of university places and we're successful in achieving that for them and do you think that the the academically gifted ones are getting is good in education as they got when I was here and the teaching methodologies will be different the range of abilities within some classes will be quite different but the Ebel kids still perform well the examination board is now looking for I'm sure some of the kids will do well but I feel they won't be equipped to challenge their public school contemporaries as we did when I stopped these corridors for the strength of your argument as well as for the evidence which you put forward at the House of Commons really is a political club that is getting more exclusive and I think they'll struggle to get in it's not the same in the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly where there are far fewer products of private schools the meritocracy is more intact in the devolved nations but do pupils here think they're being equipped to fight for a place in the Commons this history class is studying for their final exams in Scotland the code hires good morning do you think that you can go to a school like this as I did you can do that and have a political career I don't see why we shouldn't I think the entity wrestle we get a good education here and we stand we work hard and get our hires but it's hard work enough do these youngsters have one hand tied behind their back in competing with the public schools and these public skills and in the funded skills there's a sort of a sense of an all-boys thought you have this connection and you're gonna get further with that connection that's a losing point you make it's about networks connections matter matter a lot because it's a very big reason most of our prime ministers well going to public schools going to very good universities because they've had that connection they've had that chance you think you have to work harder than the kids going to the private school I think we do because I don't know anyone that's ever went to Oxford or Cambridge isn't Andrews and I would love to go to Andrews but it's a very little chance that again I just said we don't know anyone that's called this got it awkward for a reason Rachele sums it up in one if the public schools have a grip on places of the top universities with the contact they inevitably make there they have a grip on the top jobs in Westminster afterwards consider today's breed of 40-something political leaders for the first post Grammar School generation 30 years on from the end of the grammars it's no coincidence that public school boys have triumphed without the grammars the simply less competition and that means politics is missing out on a lot of potential is not just working-class folk we're at a disadvantage even those from the mainstream middle class and most middle-class kids go to state schools are struggling to compete with this new public school stranglehold on our politics so it's not just a case of the poorest 10% struggling to get a rung on a ladder alongside the other 90% it's a case of the 90% struggling to get a place alongside the top 10% their selling author Tony Parsons himself the son of a green grocer agrees the vast majority of us are missing out on opportunity yeah the working class and the middle class are in this together it's not a question of class warfare it's not a question of being chipping its kids from ordinary homes the overwhelming majority of children in this country that whose parents desperately want them to get a good education an excellent education to be able to take on the pupils from anywhere and they're not getting in so does it matter to the coalition that so many of their top-ranked went to expensive public schools Sara tether is the Lib Dem minister of the education department I think it matters that politicians at the moment don't represents the United Kingdom I don't think that's a good thing I don't think it's good for trust in politicians so so the answer to your question is yes I think it does and I think the reasons for it are probably quite subtle they are partly about wealth you know we already see it's not just politics but in journalism at the top end of business we also see similar patterns that if you come from a wealthy background you're more likely to get a good education so you're more likely to reach the top you see if we were sitting here in the 1950s we'd begin to see some social changes taking place and you begin to see the beginnings of a meritocracy we have seen it speeding up in the 60s and into the 70s and now it seems to be in Reverse I mean are you aware of the figures of your coalition you've got 119 ministers 10% of you went to one public school Eaton 66% of you were privately educated in a country we're only 7% mothers are privately educated well I think there's a lot that needs to change and this is part of the reason why there's such a focus on the education system and also on on preschool because it isn't just about the school that you go to the pattern between rich and poor is set long before you start school but again that was true in the 50s that was true for people in my background but we made it through with this coalition it's tough there's almost nobody from my kind of background in this coalition well I said I think things need to improve I'm surprised but please the leading light of this public school dominated coalition acknowledging we have a problem even though I'm sceptical they've yet found the answer Oxford the next step in the pipeline to the top it's become a virtual finishing school for politicians over the years is produced twenty six Prime Minister's there are over a hundred universities across the UK quite a few world-class so why did over a hundred current MPs graduate from this one institution well even more than Cambridge Oxford is tailored to group the political leaders of the future with its PP eCos its philosophy politics and economics eight of those who attend cabinet and half a dozen of the Shadow Cabinet studied it is about as classy and apprenticeship as you get in the trade of politics bill johnson taught comprehensive educated Foreign Secretary William Hague and energy secretary Chris Hume when they both read PPE here could you see that these were the politicians of the future Oh with William Hague it was already clear because he beamed to the Conservative Party conference as a 16 year old and I mean I have to say that most of my colleagues were rather men as the left and they groaned when they saw that he was in our Lord we don't want that sort of person doing but in fact he was extremely good and on merit you have to have him whatever you have thought about it but it was quite clear he was always going to be a conservative politicians bill Johnson's college maudlin is arguably the classiest political finishing school of all five of its old boys sit around the cabinet table there's more model and men than there are women cabinet ministers of any background you have a highly selective institution and you get very good people and you teach them as hard as you can it's not that surprising they do wrong this business this particular business of doing PE PE at Oxford I mean it is if you want a political career that's doing your apprenticeship isn't it I found that that sort of take on events seeing both the politics and economics of a situation was a very important way of trying to understand what was going on around you and that was true of both William and Chris that they were that sort of person it's not just the high quality of the education that molds future politicals the networks made here by some from day one will sustain a career all the way to the top as a victor and they start building their contact books here the Oxford Union the University is very own House of Commons for beginners students debate here every week alongside leading political figures from all over the world by some coincidence tonight's topic is social mobility this evening they're joined by Tony Blair's former chief speechwriter given two species of such obvious intellectual mediocrity and a senior broadsheet commentator 80,000 15 year-olds on free school meals in 2002 and 45 got into Oxford or Cambridge on the second note I'd like to argue with the notion that university anthems as the sole arbiter of success in life I would much rather the motion is passed this house does believe that today birth matters more than ability and the leg up from the connections made right here at the Union matters – why do so many presidents of this Union go on to become politicians I think because well obviously lots of presidents are very very busily interested you got a good training in debating in a foreign institution you meet a lot of politicians when you're doing it kind of gives you some excitement did they look like a bunch of budding politicians in there yeah that's what the union is it's just breeding ground for politicians but the debates register so yeah anyway but that's that's what they all do it for it's a kind of continuity of the institution the list of former members here is a roll call from the front rank of political history Nigel Lawson he was Christchurch Ken Baker madlyn and the current cabinet who's this chap and the killed here that's got to be that's Michael Gove Michael Peres residence who is now the gun Minister for schools and education and it's not just the top posts and the coalition government that are dominated by Oxbridge fewer leading labour figures may have gone to public school but all five of last year's leadership contenders went to Oxford or Cambridge so did a third of the shadow cabinet live a leader Ed Miliband went to Corpus Christi two one in year guested PPE then pretty quickly into a job in Gordon Brown's office defeated David Miliband went to the same College he got a first in PVE before going to a think-tank and then on to advise Tony Blair [Applause] Shadow Chancellor Ed Balls went to people to study yes PPE he too went on to work for Gordon Brown at Oxford he met his future wife Yvette Cooper now shadow home secretary she did PPE at billy-oh before advising the late John Smith leadership contender now shadow education secretary Andy Burnham broke the pattern slightly English at Fitzwilliam Cambridge but then off to advise players culture secretary Chris Smith they all ended up in the same place safe labour seats in the Commons achieve leave a conference in Manchester there's no better place than this to spot the next generation for researchers and special advisers they're the ones welded to their BlackBerry's so what can I tell you about these exotic creatures called spats which is Westminster speak for a special advisor but they can straight down from Oxford and Cambridge and go into the Westminster village they join as researchers not very well-paid or one of the think tanks many of them is splattered around Westminster and very soon they work their way up the political greasy pole before long they can become special advisers to well-known politicians on both front benches and that's that's the start of their political career before you know it they become MPs themselves and then front benches and just as today's spades are tomorrow's politicians today's top politicians are yesterday's spats that includes all three main party leaders few of these young graduates have had a job outside politics if a div admit abanda sides not to take the job it isn't just labor I brought cats from all three of the big party conferences so many of his supporters are so spitting facts about his defeat and this new breed of professional political animal inhabits each of them the Tories are the poshest both Cameron and Osborne's chiefs of staff are eaten all boys and the female Therese pads tend to be just as upmarket Roedean st. Paul's or fairies to be a SPAD of any party is to be on the fast track to the top and it hugely narrows the range of our politicians and we know all about that narrowing here in stoke-on-trent about his labour heartland as it gets [Applause] rather than meet the new local MP public school and Cambridge educated Tristram hunt the close ally of Peter Mandelson I'm meeting a man who's lived and worked all his life in the area a man who last year was blocked by Labour HQ from even standing in the internal ballot that selected the parliamentary candidate before he resigned Carrie ELLs B had been in the labour party for thirty years somebody born into when a terrorist like this could they make it into politics today I think today you must be an Oxbridge type fellow that's as far as I can as far as I can doom see did you go to Oxford now Cambridge then Open University Open University that's the only flight so somewhat alarming you think if you'd gone to Oxbridge if you'd been better connected in the labour party you've met you might know be MP for this city if I had have been a friend of Lord Mandelson and I had gone to Cambridge or Oxford I would have been in the MP for stoke-on-trent today so having a network of friends that you gain in London and gain from going to an elite University all that gives you a leg up yes it does and then you have to be a photocopy boy or a messenger boy or something like that you have to get inside that inner circle when you're inside that inner circle Mandelson's children as they called they are implanted all over the country to do the bidding of those people in London and not necessarily to be a voice of the people of the areas where they were born it crucifies me to believe that this has actually happened to a working-class party it sounds to me that it's going to get worse before it gets better not according to Ed Miliband it's all going to be rosy from now on I'd like to see any some hard evidence that ordinary local people will be automatically on those shortlist and not automatically kept off them I could to Peter Mandelson the allegation that he and others were responsible for keeping ordinary working-class people off local shortlists to my surprise he agreed that politics has got to posh you know when I was young and growing up no politicians were drawn from a whole variety of different professions now you're seeing the emergence of a generation of professional politicians it's almost as if you had to be some MPs research assistant or a political adviser to a minister or or a party worker or an official in a public sector trade union to get on in politics so you're not just seeing the things getting Pacha you're seeing things getting narrower as well easy for him to say now but there's more the man who did more than anybody to reduce the influence of the trade unions and labor now blames them for not helping more ordinary people into politics the trade unions which used actually many decades ago to be a good recruiting ground actually for people coming for am ordinary people ordinary solid working-class people who haven't made it people who don't who would certainly never born with a silver spoon in their mouth now that the trade unions too soon to be looking to that sort of professional political class they should be doing a better job at recruiting more working-class people into the neighbor party and into elected office wherever you think of them the Union certainly used to get people from humble origins to the top of the party they created the response of our people to make a New Britain will be as magnificent as the workers of Russia and other countries between to improve their country man like Ernie Bevin who went from transport Union general secretary to foreign secretary and John Prescott who went from ships to ER to shop steward to Deputy Prime Minister but Alan Johnson seems to be the last in that line of trade unionists who've made it to the top he became Home Secretary but he spent years here at Slough sorting office as a posting morning where's Alan Johnson oh there is funny oh hi Yankees bring backs all right Georgie I see you later just bring back some man this guy's since he was 16 he was a telegram boy when I was here and this is the old delivery I used to do as well when you were doing this did you ever think you would end up in a political career never never never it's all I delivered to Donny wood which was the residents in those days of either the Foreign Secretary or the Home Secretary it varied there's nothing place John Prisco good that's right that's right then I say to John rockin well I told John I said – no I said – John I said you're at Yoda Tony woody said yeah he said it's really nice that you walk in the front door and there's the I said I never walked in the front door John I went to the servants quarters deliver at the mouth she did yet to go around the back it was the unions that gave him a ladder to the top of politics for someone of his generation and background it was the only route in I can't think of any other route where people came in other than the trade union movement without the Oxford University background usually Oxbridge background you had knife Evans and the only Bevins all of whom came for the tray tournament and more recently John Prescott and me what's the other room that escaped that treadmill can't think of one because that ladder still there today well number one of course the trade union movement is not so not well it's still there it's not as huge as it was thirty million members in my day it's not the pipeline it was no it probably could be again about 60 new MPs came in at the last election and you look at the backgrounds of these Labour MPs a pretty middle class we can only see out of the sixty about six yeah coming from what you would describe as ordinary working-class backgrounds that's late yeah well as I say I think that's changing I think you know in constituency parties they're going to be looking for a mix now will you get the people going and standing for those positions who haven't got that kind of background how you perhaps train them to go to these constituency selection meetings you were talking about the confidence that the University gives you we've if you haven't had that you haven't had the huge benefit that a trade union career gives you incidentally how can you help people none of the parties has been much good in recent years of encouraging people from ordinary backgrounds to stand for election of course diversity has become very fashionable getting more women more ethnic minorities more openly gay candidates even the Tories are all for it but by and large they all come from the same posh backgrounds one.you black Tory MP even went to Eton what about some social diversity we've had all women sharpness I think at that stage it's gonna it's an issue about income right I mean those are the barriers that prevent people at that station going into politics getting into politics is an expensive business my furious were going back to a time when only those with money can afford to become MPs when you see the leaders in this coalition Mr Cameron mr. Hume was mr. laws as well Mr Clegg is kind of back to the fifties they're not just posh they are might as well it is an issue that concerns me a great deal and when I'm going around trying to to encourage people to think about standing for politics it is an obvious barrier it's not until you begin that process you always realize just how bad those financial barriers are financial barriers are yet another obstacle blocking ordinary people's route into politics one result the feeling that the leaders of the coalition and their families are immune from the impact of their own policies as they force through sweeping cuts to public services will they have the moral authority to bring the electret with them or will they end up paying the price at the ballot box Easter house on the outskirts of Glasgow male life expectancy here is up to 15 years lower than the national average can privileged politicians brought up a world away really understand what it's like to live here fair is an independent youth center which thrives despite no cash from central governments Chris came here as a kid and now helps run the place I worked in Westminster within the sound of Big Bend Westminster Abbey the houses of parliament this is a long way away it's a long long that's no big man in about there and it's more fun I've never been now so I don't know but you must just wonder if the people in West whatever their parties do they understand what's going on here I don't think they do a finger for my ID that foreign planet from hosting scheme latest ruse and I think you have to be brought up in the Middle Eastern a understand we as in the community home both of the affects people's decisions of alarms and life Bob Holman helped found fair when he moved here nearly 20 years ago do you think the politicians whether on the left of the right of the center did we understand what these children need on the whole note that there are some exceptions and Duncan Smith is being here he's been here several times but I think many you know in the present coalition government 16 and millionaires they wouldn't know what life is like here and they see throughout the impression that people here aren't making the effort and even the party people here traditionally support seems increasingly remote I'm a member of the Labor Party 47 years I've refused to vote this year because I couldn't vote for a working class candidate and and that's got to change the absence of a single one yep but who knows I think you might be getting worse before it gets better late but funnily enough the cuts are gonna make it worse with people here but it might also be the spark for action it's not just poor of people who feel so remote from our leaders middle-class people do to catch basins are pretty middle-class constituency in Birmingham and it was an important target seat for the Tories to win at the last election the Labour held onto it why I drew Cooper should know he's a pollster who's worked extensively with the conservative campaign team so it was a failure to win seats like this that meant we didn't get an overall majority exactly right how do voters in general look at the social class of their political elite and the backgrounds of their politicians well one of the questions we ask is do they think that the parties are for ordinary people not just the best of 47% think this is true the Liberal Democrats there were Democrats are for ordinary people more than half even now after a defeat 52% think labour are for ordinary people not just the best off but for the Tories 31% less than a third of people in this country think the Tories bhatia for ordinary people so could we really say that if the Tory party wasn't perceived to be as posh as it now seems to be they might have won an overall majority we can certainly say that if more people believe that the Conservative Party was for ordinary people it may well at 1 a majority and the perception that its leaders are posture than than ordinary people is an important part of that yes one two one two three four you don't have to look too far back to remember when Tory politicians would all perceived as posh mr. mrs. Parker applied to buy the house because they liked it very much when they could reach out to ordinary voters and win their support it was a classless revolution David Davis seemed to epitomize the party's newfound classless Ness until he was beaten by David Cameron for the leadership we spoke to a pollster who studied the last election very carefully and his findings well the perceived harshness of the Tory leadership had been a negative in the election campaign had cost the Tories votes and maybe even an overall majority I don't know the old argument was that back in the 50s and earlier that the about half of the the Tory vote was differential and quite clearly that vote actually prefer people from an upper or upper middle class background they thought the Harold Macmillan's of this world should rather well ideally the truth and today's a voter working-class are otherwise printing much more aspirational but I've never got no doubt that some will say oh they like us other people like us that's always been a part in politics and so they will tend to work against somebody who's clearly privily well I think that the Tories failed to win an overall majority because they didn't really have a message for the see once this doctor had a message for them for the stripers Tony Blair had a message for them as well the Conservatives didn't and they were perceived by these people to be posh so they were poor people without a message for these people yeah this is the so-called squeezed middle and yeah but these that these are classically they used to be working-class conservatives these are classically the aspirational group these are the ones who actually want to get on and as a result they tend to want to vote for people like them I mean a Essex man saw mrs. Thatcher as people like that you know and I think yes a more inclusive perspective would have would actually brought some of those most regulars well let me ask the Leninist question what is to be done well I think I mean we've got to find a way of reinstating social mobility so what is to be done surely the key must lie in our education system and finding a way to help state school kids level the playing field with their public school counterparts and of course for today's politicians even those who themselves for the products of grammars like Peter Mandelson bringing back any sort of selection in state schools is a solution that dare not speak its name the old bogey of the eleven plus always rears its ugly head when you look back the comprehensive school experiment which was a great experiment to widen opportunity even more we did not be honest to say looking back that it hasn't delivered in the way people hoped no because what it's done is to remove that appalling selection at the age of eleven in which people are almost you know that sitting in exam almost the flipped over coin you know were people who were going to go on and go through their grammar school and enter the professions and those who were you know forever and a day relegated to you know frankly not only a different type of education but a lesser sort of education all three big parties are unanimous that are returned to grammar schools isn't the answer and the reason why turns green is a secondary school for children who failed the eleven plus they shudder at the very memory of the secondary modernist and I agree nobody wants a return to the black and white system of the 50s and 60s the eleven plus was far too brutal a watershed consigning those who failed to second rate secondary moderns but today we did not be possible to have some selection by ability in the state system more sophisticated more flexible than back then without concerning anyone to the dustbin giving as much emphasis to good vocational schools as academic hot houses unless we do I feel the highly selective public schools will continue to rule the roost everything else the politicians suggests from Tony Blair's academies to the Tories free schools seems just tinkering and what are you going to do Wendy hairdressing are you addressing yes because you want something neat and tidy and something to do with your hands yes sir well you never were one for GCE courses were your yes our mind and some do mind that the political establishment closes down debate on selection in the state system you're not really allowed to say bring back the grammar schools but that's what we need to do would do that yeah absolutely bring back because they worked I don't think anyone in their right mind wants to pull down the private schools you know they're that we need as many great private schools as we can but kids from ordinary harms from ordinary working and middle-class harms that don't have parents who can afford a few grand a term they should be allowed to compete on an equal playing field sadly that seems a pipe dream politics is increasingly geared towards the privileged few who have parents that can pay for expensive public schools who have formed the right networks at university and worked in the main parties central offices today's political elite on the left and right is unanimous in opposing the kind of reforms to our state schools that would reignite the meritocratic revolution as a result we're likely to be even more governed in the years ahead by a narrow elite and representative of the kind of people we are in other words our politicians are already posh we're about to become even Pasha the meritocracy they died around the turn of the century from a mixture of neglect and hypocrisy may it rest in peace can you is this the arbitrator how's the cucumber case gang doesn't Patrick talk to you about all that I don't mix business with my personal life Martin yeah is it the thing is I don't trust you whatever I feel about you I can never trust you baby [Applause] Jen love he do
Views:|Rating:|View Time:Minutes|Likes:[vid_likes]|Dislikes:[vid_dislikes] Panzee the chimp is a remarkable creature who has learned the value of trade. Here she is challenged to pick tokens to trade for food. If she really is as …
Views:3556|Rating:4.88|View Time:4:56Minutes|Likes:42|Dislikes:1 The space between scientific papers and newspaper headlines is a hinterland where scientists aren’t very happy, that we usually leave blank. Why is that, and what can we do? Perrin Ireland, Science Communications Specialist at the Natural Resources Defense Council, sits down with Gavin Schmidt, PhD, climate modeler at NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York, to talk about why scientists should bother advocating.
rule number one about science communication yeah never do it with your muscly really I find that could be quite humanizing you know science is exploration that the gap between what's known and what's under that's why scientists are placed the things that we are focused on all that stuff in the ambiguous finish I know how that stuff might be wrong right and half that stuff might be refined and maybe a little bit making it back onto that whole kind of heap of textbook stuff I mean the things that that should people love mostly is their notion of how science works I'm very careful to talk about science as a process I'm very careful to talk about models as being you know kind of our best guesses of how all these things fit together and so I take a lot of time to talk about that even when it seems like it's kind of irrelevant to the main factor or point I'm trying to get to should I pretend that science is completely value neutral and and that I have no opinion yeah but you can't say at the same time the advocating for greater research funding for your pet projects that you're not or not advocate possibly then I'm not versus our involving POSIX funding decisions of politics education priorities are politics but you know like I became for a you know a higher level of conversation I became for information to be available for people to see advocating against the fallacies and lies in the public sphere those are all good things to be advocating for I don't think you should be ashamed to say I remember the third the first letter to the editor that I wrote about somebody's really stupid story you know I thought they'd thank me for pointing out that they completely misrepresented instead they published my letter was like a whole kind of half an article of how my agenda was so obvious and really really horrible person and I've been through the wars a little bit more since then I try to be a little bit more strategic in how I intervene in things there are some things where there's a little bit more complex would help a lot and there's other places where you're just kind of up against such a tsunami of nonsense then your best bet is to climb a tree in that it goes then I go mass rather than to try and stop it I think it doesn't matter that we as a community quite often just kind of leave the space and the public discourse kind of between you know the headline and the actual papers and and the scientific literature we kind of leave that blank you know it's like a hinterland whether we're not very happy you know I've come to realize that unless we populate that kind of middle ground it just gets crowded out by the people whose whose agendas agendas are active theorem but it's not necessarily conducive to a win form public discourse mm-hmm scientists can provide illumination in a otherwise crowded and another dark space but sometimes you know if you're walking if you're walking through a park at night even if it's dark you can still go from one streetlight to the other and you feel a little bit safer mm-hmm if we're extending this metaphor probably a little bit too far I'm not I'm not speed like this I know for my an urban architect the issue that we that we have to address is why there aren't more lines you can't do anything on your own why is it that when people come up to me at conferences and they say oh gosh oh you know what I really I really like what you do and I'm so glad that you do it because it means that I don't need to that bothers me if people came up to me and said oh you do that and look nothing really terrible has happened to you hey I'll help out and I will do something as well you know and I realized that you know if I do business for this mythical person that comes with me I can do a little bit and then can go to it and together we can provide as much license as is required I'd be much happier with that kind of comment you know if you're gonna have any any real impact you have to find ways of multiplying what it is that you do independently more lights so you can see what's coming up I guess that you love that either part yeah no I don't mean you know the metaphor that yeah it works it's really quite good yeah
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Views:|Rating:|View Time:Minutes|Likes:[vid_likes]|Dislikes:[vid_dislikes] Videos for Cats to Watch : Birds in Birdville – ONE HOUR Video Produced by Paul Dinning – Wildlife in Cornwall Filmed on July 31st 2017.
Views:|Rating:|View Time:Minutes|Likes:[vid_likes]|Dislikes:[vid_dislikes] João Pedro Rodrigues’s ‘The Ornithologist’ will have its U.S. Premiere as part of the Explorations section of the 54th New York Film Festival (September 30 …
Malay Bhattacharya has major reservations against the prevailing idea that films are not only the easiest path for money and fame but filmmaking is an unskilled activity, which only requires getting a financer onboard. Consequently, he is worried about the kind of films being made which are becoming the markers of contemporary society and culture. Unless one figures out a way of putting an end to this, growth and development of Bengali Cinema is impossible!
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Views:|Rating:|View Time:Minutes|Likes:[vid_likes]|Dislikes:[vid_dislikes] Starting college is a big adjustment for anyone, but it can be especially daunting for CS majors. After all, they’re jumping into a tough curriculum that’s very …
Get ready to explore the origins of the #Elixir programming language, the manner in which it handles concurrency and the speed with which it has grown since its creation back in 2011.
Featuring José Valim, creator of Elixir, and several other big names from the Elixir community, including Justin Schneck, co-author of the Nerves Project, and Chris McCord, the creator of the Phoenix Framework, this documentary highlights the power of open-source development and the role of Elixir in enabling developers to achieve things that were impossible, or prohibitively expensive, to do before.
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I remember like my first computer was a Pentium 100 megahertz. I would be in school and then a friend in school say 'I got a computer that's like 233 megahertz' and then like 'how! I just bought mine – mine is new and then now you have something that is like twice and a little bit more faster'. But that's how it happened for a long time this is that the hardware, every two years, it would get, for example, our CPUs, every two years, it would get twice faster and for software engineering in general what it meant for programmers, developers, is that if you write a code today and then don't do anything with this code, two years later you would have the opportunity to run this code twice faster but this is no longer true today so what it means that before we had only one CPU that was getting faster and faster but now it needs to have multiple of them and that actually changes the way we write software and the language that we can see, there are mainstream languages, they are not as efficient, as effective as it could be. Imagine that, you know, like in the 80's, the telephones, it's really getting widespread, everybody's installing a phone. If I have a city with millions of people, right, you need to install a bunch of telephone switches and you have calls coming all the time, right, then the calls going out, so information is coming and going. When it's working hours I have much more people using the phones, right, and all this kind of stuff. So they have to solve this problem three decades ago – and they did! So what happened is that Erickson, they created Erlang, this technology that they created, right, in the eighties, to solve all these problems, it's going to be perfect to solve those issues that we're having right now with concurrency, those issues that we're having with the web in general, right? I think that was the moment when I had the idea of creating a programming language. Like, look I have this absolutely beautiful piece of software which is the Erlang virtual machine. I want to use it more but it's missing some stuff and I want to try adding this missing stuff. So in 2012, it was the moment that I started working on Elixir part time and I think we can use the software to expose an alternative for the programming community if they are interested in solving all those challenges that we're having right now. You can do everything on the internet. You can find everything, you can book everything, but it's still in silos so you will find your flights on Skyscanner and Kayak; you will find your your red connections on Bahn DE. Here you have to figure out: how do I get to the airport? How much will my transition time will be? What is the prices of different tickets from different airports and so on, and the we thought it would be a great idea to have this in one UI. You would enter your direction and you will enter your destination and we find the whole itinerary. We immediately realize that this is something that is very hard to do. For every search that we do we have to open a lot of connections to different transport operators. We have a lot of connections open at the same time to different operators and you have to consume this data and process it in a smart way and it has to be fast. This was basically the point where we thought about what technology is the right technology to go for. One of the characteristics that we were looking for was scalability. We literally have tens of thousands of connections open all the time and in both directions and this is one thing that Elixir is very good for us and very low in terms of the resources you need on the server side. We pretty fast came to the conclusion that Elixir is the right technology for our problem. We used, of course, job boards like Honeypot and others to find people. We also basically train people that did something else before and train them to Elixir. Of course we have some hiccups sometimes, in the code or we have some bugs that we created but we never had outages in terms of the infrastructure which is for me a very good indication that this is the right technology decision because I never experienced this before. So one of the big things about Elixir and we get exactly from building on top of Erlang VM is that we can write distributed software software: software that runs in more than one machine. So you can see here I have two machines and so what I'm going to do is that I'm going to start one Elixir session on this machine and another Elixir session on this machine. So in this one I'm starting something called interactive Elixir on both of them but this one, this is Bob's machine, so I'm going to say, hey these Elixir and this has the name of Bob and we have a secret here; a cookie, which is a secret, but we'll just call it secret right now. So I'm going to start this session here on Bob and I'm going to do the same thing on Alice so I'm starting Alice at a session with the same cookie secret. Alright, the only way to do this is that I'm going to define some Elixir code and I know this is a little bit cliche, right, but I'm going to define a module called 'hello'. We have a function called 'world' in it and I'm going to, and what all this function does is that it prints 'hello world'. So I define this code, ignored the whole gibberish for now, but I define this code and now I can code 'hello' dot 'world', and you can see that it prints 'hello world'. Beautiful, right? So, it works. This is very exciting. So this is Bob's computer but now let's go to Alice's computer. If I try to evoke 'hello world', it doesn't work. Why? Because I defined this code. I defined the module 'hello' with the function 'world' on only Bob's computer, but we can solve this, right, because it's distributed I can make those machines talk to each other. So what I'm going to do here is that I'm going to say hey I want on Alice's machine she's going say 'hey, I'm going to tell Bob to execute this code for me' so I would say, 'hey, Bob', the Bob instance that is running on Bob's machine, 'I want you to execute the 'hello world' code' and now when I do this we can see that we got 'hello world' printed back, we can see that it works right because Alice was able to tell Bob 'execute this code for me'. Bob executed that code and said, 'hey, I executed this code and this code has a hello world message that I'm sending back to you so you can print' and that's it. And what is really exciting about this is that we can build a bunch of interesting technology that just runs on these nodes being connected. So for example, the Phoenix web framework it has a presence feature and has a Pub/Sub mechanism. So with the PubSub, what you can do is that you can send the messages to everybody connected to any machine and with the presence feature you can know everybody who is connected in the whole cluster. You can know who is joining, who is leaving and we can do all that without adding databases, without adding third party dependencies. We just use the distributed feature which is really exciting. One of the things that we did since the beginning is that the development was always open; always open source. So anybody could join at any time and give their ideas, contribute share. So I also knew from the beginning that if I wanted this thing to happen I would have to go out and talk to a lot of people and go to different events and convince developers why they should care about the technology; one of the potentials of the technology and got them excited about it. We really started to see like an uptick in people using a Elixir and that was kind of like the beginning of a turning point because of like, people, they're actually starting to bet on this so you don't feel alone in the sense that you know there are other people believing in the potential wanting to push it forward. And you know, that the interest, it only started to grow and grow. In July 2014 was when we had the first Elixir event. There's such a great vibe, everybody gets along and it's so easy to be able to just approach anybody that's there to ask questions. When I started with Elixir, I was amazed by the documentation that even was available at that time. Elixir is always typically thought of as being great for concurrency and fast and so if you're kind of solving those kind of problems then it's a really good choice. Whether you're building something to run on a Raspberry Pi zero, five dollar computer or a forty core server, like Elixir is going to be fantastically suited for it. You can't exactly replicate the environment in which people from the community are all in the single place. Elixir is gonna be on a track to start to conquer more and more industries. Some of the obvious ones that we've seen so far have been working with web development but the scalability there isn't just confined to building websites. We work together with Chris and Jose from the nerve side of things to be able to try to increase the number of concurrent connections and push the boundaries of how many devices we can actually get simultaneously connected to Phoenix, for example, because we really believe that it has capabilities of Internet of Things connectivity on the scale of millions of devices and having that kind of connectivity starts to really open up the language and the industry to start working in all these different kinds of ways. Phoenix is a web framework for the electric programming language and it really is like a batteries included web framework for the platform. The first version of Phoenix, as written, supported like 30,000 users on one server and then we made like 10 lines of change to the code and that's what gave us 2 million users. What kind of problems or businesses could I build if what before took 100 servers could today take two servers and I think that's enabling a lot of innovation. So I think that's what's kind of bringing people in is this promise of things that were either impossible to do before or prohibitively expensive to do. Now as a single developer or a couple people you can come in and build something really compelling that wouldn't be doable before. Right now we are we are at the Elixir conference in Warsaw. We see Elixir conferences appearing all around the world so we have in Mexico, Brazil, throughout the United States we have a bunch of smaller conferences popping up and then there are all the different talks where we can learn new things and also which is always very interesting is to learn like use cases. You build the two and then people started using those two in these very different ways. If you're like, 'look, I actually realized that this, too, is also very good for these' and then you're like 'it makes sense, like, I watch the talk and it makes total sense', so, all those things are very exciting. If I try to centralize and I try to do everything on my own I won't be able to do it but if we say, you know, everybody can contribute a small part to these and everybody together, the centralized can do that and bring the community forward, then we have a chance of actually making a lasting impact. Beautiful.
Views:7138|Rating:4.83|View Time:6:35Minutes|Likes:85|Dislikes:3 Cuba is a birder’s paradise, home to amazing endemics including the world’s smallest bird, the bee hummingbird. Watch the ending for an epic battle sequence!
this is Cuba an island nation that practically brushes the shores of America but this is a very different place and more ways than one as with most islands Cuba is an evolutionary petri dishes source geographical isolation over eons of time has cultivated an incredible variety of life forms that are unique to this island a huge percentage of its plants and animals are endemic meaning they exist only in a specific place or region in fact about half of all plants and one-third of all vertebrates exists naturally only in Cuba birds are no exception although many birds migrate huge distances with the seasons Cuba's subtropical climate and cooling trade winds make it a hospitable place to live year round why leave if the weather is fantastic and everything you need is right here twenty-seven bird species are endemic to Cuba like the grey fronted quail dove and the blue headed quail dove let's take a look at few of the more flamboyant ones the Cuban parakeet is well suited for island life so is the Cuban parrot when they're not arguing over a favorite perch these charismatic birds chow down on fruits and seeds the Cuban parrot is actually a regional endemic with a small population found in the Cayman Islands this is also true of the great lizard cuckoo which is restricted to Cuba and three islands in the Bahamas it has surprising agility in the canopy and on the ground where it hunts for insects and lizards the nocturnal Cuban nightjar also eats insects though it's a bit more reserved especially when the Sun's up not the case with the Cuban toady also called the carp tacuba these tiny berg zip around like lightnings fun to watch challenging to photograph this Cuban green woodpecker has constructed a fine dwelling for its chips who are happy to accept steady deliveries of tasty crickets the Fernandina flicker prefers savannas sprinkled with towering Sabal palms a dead stable climate changes the perfect tree to hammer out a nesting cavity woodpeckers like the Fernandina flicker the Cuban greening and the regional endemic West Indian woodpecker are the carpenters of the bird world got up in battles to use their Cuban nickname once the chicks are fledged in the cavity abandoned it is recycled by several other species of birds that rely on the carpenter toes carpentry skills for their own nesting habits owls like the bare-legged owl and the Cuban pygmy owl use the woodpeckers holes to raise their own young as does the Cuban trogon or Coco rohtul their distinctive calls are common throughout Cuba and they wear the colors of the Cuban flag a fitting uniform for Cuba's national bird the taco rows squat grill is useful for harvesting fruits and insects not so much for chipping away the Owls hook beaks are also no good for hammering these birds depend on the woodpecker skills and nest sharing for their own procreation this arrangement it seems it's for the birds the impressive cuban black hawk is a true endemic although it occasionally strays as far as South Florida this bird of prey is common in coastal mangrove areas the black hawk feeds heavily on land crabs which migrate from the forest to the sea in huge numbers during the spring the Cuban Black Hawk is large and in charge what Cubans most famous bird is incredibly tiny the bee hummingbird is not only the smallest bird in Cuba but it is believed to be the smallest in the world the female is slightly larger thus still less than two and a half inches long male sport magnificent plumage punctuated by an iridescent red throat these feisty zones and seagulls are even more difficult to film than the Cuban toady seemingly never at rest and constantly guzzling sugar rich nectar if you're lucky enough to find its tiny nest however you can observe a female at our most sedentary but even when sitting she doesn't like to sit still the female is in charge of nest building using bits of cobwebs and lichen when the nest is complete and eggs are laid she alone will incubate them the Cuban emerald hummingbird or zum-zum is found in Cuba and the Western Bahamas it's also tiny even at nearly twice the size of the bee hummingbird the emerald like the bee Hummer is impossibly fast but high-speed cameras give us the opportunity to appreciate their amazing agility female Emeralds are fiercely protective of their vulnerable nests a large nitinol has found this out the hard way after venturing too close for the birds comfort the mother fearlessly pesters Impex the giant lizard reluctantly the anole moves along making its way to the shelter of the tree canopy note to self don't mess with a momma zoom boom
Views:137307|Rating:4.90|View Time:27:1Minutes|Likes:1463|Dislikes:30 Here’s the transcript of the interview:
uploaded with permission from Thinking Allowed. thank you!
thinking aloud conversations on the leading edge of knowledge and discovery with psychologist Jeffrey Mishlove hello and welcome I'm Jeffrey Mishlove today we are going to explore the province of the mind with me is dr. John see Lily a noted pioneer of mystical states and states of consciousness and also interspecies communication dr. lily is a former researcher with the National Institutes of Health the Maryland psychiatric Research Center he is the author of some five books on human dolphin communication including Lily on dolphins man and the dolphin the mind of the dolphin communication with dolphins he has written many books on deep inner exploration including the deep self the center of the cyclone the dyadic cyclone and the scientist and he's particularly noted for programming and meta programming of the human bio-computer in fact he introduced that term the bio-computer into our language welcome John thank you it's a real pleasure to be with you I think it would be good to start with your famous Maxim about what is true in the province of the mind could you begin by in the province of mind where one believes to be true it is true or becomes true as in certain limits these limits are to be found experimentally and experienced early when so found these limits turned out to be for the beliefs to be transcended in the province in mind there are no limits however the province the body there are definite limits not to be transcended you've probably devoted your your whole life in certainly many decades recently into to pushing to see you know what what really were the limits going into new realities taking on the belief systems of those realities and then coming back to your basic working reality and challenging those beliefs integrating those beliefs with with your own in your writings you've explored almost every state of consciousness I could imagine the various mystical levels of Satori communicate with extraterrestrials communication with with other species you've established probably a more significant mapping of inner space than almost any other modern modern person and I think we all owe a great debt to you for that Adobe sucker those have abandoned home it's impossible because they're infinity to the mind I think that's the beauty of your work is that you keep moving further and further further and further out in the center of the cyclone you described as a state that you had a whole system virtually a quantitative system for mapping states of consciousness and you talked about one that I found most fascinating which you call +3 mega Satori and in that state you described going so far out of your body and even out of the physical universe to the point of being at the level of essence in which the physical universe is is created but that almost seemed to me in reading that book like an ultimate state of consciousness but I know you wrote about it some 15 years ago how does it look to you now there's one Stadion plus 3 let's plus 1 but you're not allowed to remember that once you go into it as union is got that's the true yoga and so you're not human there's no way you can recount what happened that no way of saying it says beyond language yes Laurel stated beyond language mine was a very poor instrument to Express you've described in some of your other writings language as being a film a thin film that that separates us from reality really is as much as we try to use language to describe what what we mean it really puts barriers up well there's one use of language to spell them that's the injunctive use telling you how to do things the descriptive ones very poor and William James said it here I was a separation this one by the thermistor screens and I thought this screen is language so you have to bend it when you're going to these other valleys in addition to plus 1 and M plus 3 you've mapped out plus 6 that's a state of consciousness as I recall in which the mind can travel to any point in physical or non-physical space if you maintain your individuality mm-hmm that must be a basic mode of a psychic Explorer I gather from reading much of your work that you spent a great deal of time in +6 right in cluster Oh mm-hmm this 12 is the useful idiot for anybody right here no but anything is happy the coal coal dust particles near these could you can feel energy moving in and out of the different psychic centers of the body those are good cards you heard echoing through the collection mm-hmm but that's not much use unless you can get another bliss near you in the same space but many of the you mystical teachings warn against getting stuck in some of these realities haven't been in any of them since that time mm-hmm what you also refer to in your mapping of states I suppose is plus 48 which is sort of a perfectly neutral state right plus 24 is the professional state of any discipline that you're involved in where you're lost in the discipline for years where you're communicating everybody else and then they're the – States but I don't go into those no but at one point you you wrote about the importance of going into the – states and remaining perfectly aware being conscious in those negative states not trying to block out the negativity you describe that as I recall as burning karma yes and then there's a in the Senators I was a tactical the guided tours hell Memphis – – six it was awful mm-hmm so I never had to get back to that nose never fight again just totally terrified no I suppose it's what the Christian mystics sometimes refer to as the dark night of the soul the words the dark men in my soul it perhaps this is a necessary part of everybody's journey is to go through the epitome of terror right and president said his Iranian psychiatrists an American psychiatrist that put a hundred patients in the mental hospital in there and through what they feared most on ketamine and they are less hostile now I tried the same thing maybe after I wrote the read that that evening after 150 milligrams of ketamine and suddenly North coincident control office removed by penis and headed to scream in terror my wife Toni came running in from bedroom and she said so test so I shouted at the ceiling who's in charge up to a bunch of crazy kids and he came back well you had an unconscious fear so we put you through it just the way the Iranian psychiatrist in the realm of the mind and the province of the mind we can face all of our fears well you may not be able to but you should try it I often find in dreams I mean the things that would destroy the body in the realm of the mind don't that's right the survival programs as I found out earlier during your physiology are built into the brain the rewarding system's euphoric systems and the sexual systems and the painful punishing anger so on systems are all built in and then you realize that the cerebral cortex has many many paths to these systems in front system we're going to go through the stage let's focus a little bit on some of the terms you defined a moment to go or you mention ketamine what is ketamine killing me is the most commonly used anesthetic for very young children and old people and in the literature is the emergence symptoms of emergence being coming out of the anesthetic sometimes their life as emergency crews so they won't use it that others know what they are so they just hold the hands efficient and help them come out it was the most common use anesthetic in Vietnam simply will use it all but a fragment basically what a strong dose of ketamine will do is make you unaware of your body yes I can mm-hmm 11 but it creates in a state where one can enter into inner inner realities free from the attachments of the body people tell me to stop using it and clip back here and how to be human well in your book the scientists you describe going through a period of very intensive explorations with vitamin K is you described it at that point due to the to the extent that people thought and and it's not clear to me whether you were we're not addicted to the substance well we were doing research on substance when taste is so frequently that outside observers can say you're addition but that's a very bad definition addiction mm-hmm I think in many ways whether you were or weren't one has to admire your willingness to always push the frontiers of of our knowledge further and it's clear that that was your motivation for for the work that you did in your good research is obsessive and compulsive you also mention the term echo how what is that go Ecco you know Thalia means this is it but it means to me in the earth coincidence control office which is a a God's Childress and echo runs my lives we won't admit it and if you're an echo agent with indeed very very careful to use the best in Tizen mech of service and you realize there are no discoveries during revelations and that's a that was a come down to the scientists music sighs well I found in my own work on the media and in parapsychology that I'm very much guided by coincidences right and and I guess it's looking to coincidences as signs along the way that defines this relationship with with what you've defined as echo right here's Kristen's controllers Carson's control what they do and they say we control the long-term princesses will control the short-term moon and you find out why we do the long-term ones you know only after men on earth you don't have to return them it seems to me as if your concept of echo is a way of modeling the perhaps a mechanism behind what Jung has defined the synchronicity that's right you defend some kind of the only a good fashion his introduction to each chain and he uses determine occurrences meaningful coincidences the curricular courses in your construction or in the language construction has the events tell us that we'll take two is this at the beginning my workshops the only I say here is a lie no signal is because anything to put in words is not experience it's not the experiment it's a representation a misrepresentation and yet here we are misrepresenting to each other in order that we can learn from these laws yes now as you use language and gentlemen as a set of directions then it's not as bad as otherwise so in in other words for example when you talk about echo when you talk about perhaps going into an inner reality using a sensory isolation tank which is one of the other technologies in which you pioneered or 1954 and then mmm-hmm or using a number of different molecules which can be used for this purpose or mystical disciplines when one enters into these realities each each set of instructions carries with it usually a belief system and basically what you're saying is that all of these belief systems are wrong but one needs to entertain or to hold the belief system in order to follow through the instructions that's right our brains are so small we have to do this so the belief system itself becomes a tool that we work with and then eventually we have to let go of right and using these belief systems you've been able to in effect map out the inner terrain of inner space in a manner which has as rich and varied flora and fauna and and geography is one would find on any continent perhaps richer if you take if you take the same kinds of trip you'll find a different floor in fun time each time yeah all right so the partisan lands are no limits and yet if one if one pushes that very very far I guess one you know no limits almost means nothing there's nothing there limits limits is what defines things at what it's what creates form the I've invented that way uh-huh well no no limits that you put on it previously and new limits may appear which define an entire new way which is much larger that's all I mean I almost have the sense though that if if there are no limits in the province of the mind that we humans and other beings we create limits of our own to make it interesting to make to make the game worth playing you can't live as a human read limit mm-hmm and that's your body yeah the villain you bring the pattern recognition systems your brain senses if one who is that selling cocaine when she's a bush over there was a an old lady crying miss Oliver hit any walk over to burst now some of y'all fixin on the cocaine looks at that same verse there see the old lady was crying so this apparently is pattern recognition systems are built into our brains now give it a birth permanent in other words in certain altered states of consciousness there is an ability I supposed to be telepathic to to cognize the thoughts directly of another person I think it's more than that it's a the noisy pattern in the bush instructing a brain is real ugliness personified by the brain and our bridge is the same thing even if you're not in mental telepathy telepathic communication so you have an alternate there to know about alternative alternative at Sal under 'fl word oh I suppose alternative very dramatically when I came back and cherry ice Aten was with camels and living room in Los Angeles and in what I cried the Prophet meditation was sitting on the floor a nice spying on that state and suddenly a line of light comes down through my spine in there leaves of different valleys all around me I could look into the future and the present is right here each of those that goes on out to any years from now it goes infinity upwards and it's tremendous my power goes from this the next morning I was thrown out of bed by the same on earth quake and I thought gee did I cause that drug-drug the same energy I went through me then I realized that this was hubris when the gods would destroy hubris they first fill with pride yeah and so I lost my prize and every last I couldn't explain it either but alternatives you've described it then would seem to be a space in which you're in touch with with many alternate realities or simultaneously and you get caught with one beside it it seems very similar in a way to what physicists are describing when they talk about the multiple universe interpretation Asylum physics that's right and front of tillage is writing my biography and he describes alternative from the real function of quantum mechanics and when you collapse it you've chosen one moment in future you've referred several times now to the fact that in the province of the body there are limits and and you yourself have thrown yourself up against those limits in many occasions and have have written about it in your writing you seem to be warning people maybe not to do everything that you've done right they don't have to see this head I have to keep it in the appointment because eleven eleven eighty seven I drilled my carpal South Bank turn it over and turtled it and this was the battery acid burned too soon and these knuckles were broken and as hell if I was how about seat belt on it I've been decapitated but echo will show me something that wasn't explained on this property because it was caught with one huh there's a wonderful section in your book the scientist in which you describe a conversation amongst different beings in an alternate state who are describing how carefully they work to create all the coincidences so that you could have an accident in which you nearly died and were resuscitated by your wife Tony who had just learned mouth-to-mouth resuscitation three days earlier right in the otherwise that wanted to close off private key for me where I was a ten-speed buzzer going down Decker Canyon Road and the chain for a cut and hit the nine Born to Run I didn't say the science that I was on PCP to 32 milligrams injection so I've got the hospital for five days and five nights and it's telling by echo two planets are being destroyed by supernova waves by talent warfare and so on it's incredible now try to come back here that's the bag Tony began to grab on to Berlin for $6,000 then they take me back out ahead and finish the lessons what do you think the lesson is whatever lesson that case was hook up the dose for PCP before you take it it's two minutes not 42 and the other lessons of course were I came back one to put on radiation suits so that this planet is not very stable it can be destroyed any time there's a sense in you know the way in which you live your life right out on the very edge of what would be called not just normalcy or the edge of what is conventionally safe to do with the very edge of what is physically possible for a human being severely limits of the welding yes and and that in so doing well of course you've discovered that like the the fool and the turo right deck you you put yourself into this position of nascent wisdom in which you're you're bound to make mistakes one no one can't explore the way you have without making mistakes and yet those very mistakes seem to propel you even deeper how saying there are no mistakes only correct wars there are no errors are only alternate programs notice that each gift to help there is a sense in which you know you've lived your life so much and the internal reality that it almost feel like you know you being with me here and in the TV studio it's like you've come up for air a little bit too to breathe together with us and to share what it's like in these vast vast realms light-years away from from planetside reality I thought out insanity and when we're talking together were in the outside and you should never try to express all of your insanity in the outside yet they'll lock you up but you've in a way you've expressed more or if your insanity then most people would ever dare to when well a lot of people take my workers my books as permission to go further than that one would almost think that you know an entire generation perhaps several generations of people now feel much freer to describe their own inner experiences because of people like you were doing at a time when it was much riskier I'm always surprised at how many people have been pushed magicians phone well I can certainly say that that's the case for me I think you'll like the new edition of the scientist has one of the things I left out of the first one 75 new pages in and 50 new photographs gone and I admit that as ketamine odd okay but you're not using ketamine currently no I don't like it anymore mm-hmm are you still doing work in sensory isolation once in a while I never talk about what I'm doing currently remember the human barking pee yes I was doing that work with LSD in the tank and said Thomas and the National took a mental health I wish I had a fellowship thought I was just working with dolphins so I sent them him back computer is the report for five years of a fellowship they looked back we didn't realize when we get a monograph in this work I don't think of it then they cut off your funding shortly thereafter this is somebody told the people supporting the dog research that had brain damage from LSD well I took that as I got that room room so I took it to the head of the Mental Health Council of supporting work he was the head of the noir watch goes to in New York and he got angry and he said that so he spent three days examining don't had such a thorough exam I got angry and angry so this absolutely I was said do you want any more research money I said no I've quit that so he said all right I'm going to fire two people one in the Institute and one of my committee three did well I suppose for our culture the really special thing about you is the fact that you you really have a foot in both worlds a scientific camp and the mystical camp and in a way you seemed dissatisfied with with both of them neither neither camp seems to provide an adequate enough model of reality for you I'm blue sure and blue and you seem to be saying that it's up to each person to to in effect make the same bridge that you have and to create their own belief system so that in creating that belief they can move into the state that that belief leads them to so that they can then discard it again that's so the Gnostic point of view saft times and it's not gentleness searchers who back fifteen years ago or so you were exploring the mystical States is described classically as in the various levels of Samadhi and your work with Oscar rechazó when in Chile in the Eureka school and you would achieved as we had described earlier some of the very highest states of those mystical traditions and you wrote about them from your own personal experience people in the mystical traditions view these states as being ultimate States I get the sense from you that you don't think of them that way you think of them more the way a scientist would would look at tools where potentially presidents for abuse said when you reach the highest form of somebody your lesser 100 bar was a moron beyond that I agree don't well John Lilly it's been a pleasure having you with me thank you very much thank you – pleasure being you sure do not ask the right questions right and thank you very much for being with us
Views:160608|Rating:4.98|View Time:5:29Minutes|Likes:10686|Dislikes:51 This is based on a very old project I made originally in Game Maker, but I updated it to a new polished program.
Download (Windows 64-bit):
Arabesque No.1 – Claude Debussy
Performed by: Luc Laporte Sr
this mathematical art is an example of what I call chaos equations as I was going through my old GameMaker projects I remembered I used to make a bunch of these with it and they were so cool and so simple I decided to make a new polished version and I do really mean simple you don't need more than middle school math to understand it no imaginary numbers or anything complicated these are dynamic systems which means they change over time time is represented by the variable T it starts at a low value and then slowly increases as the animation progresses at every time step we start with a point whose coordinates are initialized to T then we apply an equation to update the point it can be any equation I just use random ones in the program and surprisingly most of them actually look good anyway once we have the new point we draw to the screen with a unique color and then repeat so for example we draw this point in green then apply the same equation again to update the point maybe draw the second one in blue apply again draw this one in red and repeat and as time changes those points change as well that's literally it I just added some fancy trails and tried to dynamically change the speed so it speeds up when nothing interesting is happening here's some of my favorite so far you you you you so you might have noticed that little code in the corner to make it easy to save and load equations you like I can press them into six letter codes so if you see something you like or want to share your own cool creation in the comments it makes it super simple as usual you can download the program or source code from the description if you want to try it out I'd also like to point out that while my younger self independently discovered this I'm not sure if these chaos equations have a more formal mathematical name I can't seem to find anything it's more or less a discrete version of a strange attractor it also reminds me a lot of the flame fractals used in Electric Sheep but it's not quite the same algorithm anyway just wanted to put that disclaimer out there so give it a try I'd love to see what you make and thanks for watching
In the first of a new documentary series, FourFourTwo talks to the people who spent years working alongside one of football’s greatest managers, discovering the most amazing Fergie stories ever!
Director: Will Robinson | To see more of Will’s work visit his website and follow
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When Sir Alex arrived from Aberdeen in the autumn of 1986, Manchester United were in decline. They hadn't won the league since 1967 and found themselves second-from-bottom in the old First Division. Ferguson set about overhauling every aspect of life at the club, bringing discipline back into the changing by eradicating the destructive drinking culture. “The players didn’t really know a lot about him. One player who did was Gordon Strachan who played with him at Aberdeen. A lot of United players asked Strachan what he was like. Strachan laughed and said, “There’s going to be a big change of scene here’. He gathered the players in the small gymnasium at the Cliff and said, ‘I’m not happy about this culture of drinking. I’m hearing things around Manchester from people saying you’ve been spotted out. I don't like what I’m hearing. It’s not professional’. There was some resistance to that change. ‘This is what it’s always been like… this is what it’s like at every club’… Maybe that was how it had been. But that wasn’t how Sir Alex Ferguson wanted it be. “He scared me to death, pretty much. I played under fear. I was always fearful of his hairdryer tellings-off. I didn’t want to let him down. Probably Liverpool was the worst one. He told me at half-time he was kicking me out of my house and putting me back in digs. My girlfriend had moved up from Birmingham – she had to go back home and we had to split up. My dog had to get sold. My car had to get sold. And I had to go out there and prove to him that I could play.” To execute his root and branch reform, Sir Alex transformed the scouting network and youth set-up. United’s success for the next 27 years would be built on homegrown products. “He put Brian Kidd in charge of the youth in the local area and he got a load more scouts and they got a load more active.” “He kept coming up and telling the likes of me, Paul Ince, Denis Irwin… all players in that kind of time, he’d say, ‘These players – i.e. Nicky Butt, Paul Scholes, Gary Neville, David Beckham – are going to be taking your places soon. He believed in what was coming through and it proved that he was right.” “Sometimes when we were playing reserve games, he’d be watching and after the game, win or lose, he’d come in and say his piece. But he’d always knock on that, ‘You’re looking to play for the first team, you’re one stop away from playing for the first team’. Say it was a bad game, you’d all have to improve.” “He was there at the nights with the youth team players after being with the first team. You’d turn round and he’d be sat on the bench next to you. Of course the players look over to the bench… ‘Oh, the manager’s here!’ And obviously they play harder, they play faster, they want to impress him. He was everywhere. Just that force of energy and ambition and drive that lifted the whole club. Everybody else was then infected by that same sort of drive. The Manchester United of history and the Busby Babes was about youth and that core of homegrown players gave them the spirit of Man United back.” Initially, Sir Alex’s shake-up didn't have the desired affect. It is widely reported he was close to being sacked after a rocky start to his fourth season. But the Manchester United board stuck with him. In 1993, United won their first league title in 26 years adding to their FA Cup, League Cup and Cup Winners’ Cup triumphs under Ferguson. At the heart of his success was Ferguson’s skilful man management. His reputation as a fearsome dictator kept the players on their toes while his softer side earned their loyalty. “He knew how to give you a rollocking. He knew how to put his arms around you and comfort you… wasn’t that often. He just had a unique way of getting his point across.” “Steve Bruce’s wife, Janet, was in hospital – she was having a back operation. We’re playing, so Brucey left his mobile phone on during the game. We came in at half-time, things weren’t going well – this was at Old Trafford. Se we’re sitting in the dressing room and Steve’s phone goes off. We’re all sitting there, looking at each other wondering who’s it is. I knew it wasn't me, I knew it wasn’t Denis – Denis did have a phone but it was never switched on anyway. Big Pete, straightaway as normal going, ‘It wasn’t me’ and maybe his eyes giving away who it was. Then we looked at Bruce and you could just see his face and persona: It was me. The gaffer’s ran across, grabbed the phone, had a go at Steve Bruce, Steve Bruce had a go and tried to tell him his wife’s in hospital. ‘I don’t care if your wife’s in hospital!’ and just threw the phone, against the wall, towards the bin and smashed the phone.” “When Sir Alex used to get on my back it used to make me play better. We were playing Leeds away and I got an absolute bollocking at half-time. If I’m being honest, at the time I was thinking, ‘I wasn’t that bad’. So, I went out and we ended up winning the game. When I came back in, one of the younger lads came up to me and said, ‘You know when the gaffer give you a right go, he come round and said, ‘Ah, he’ll be alright now’’.” In 2008, United’s midfield dynamo , Darren Fletcher, was diagnosed with ulcerative colitis, a debilatating bowel disease. Terrified and embarrassed, he confided in Sir Alex Ferguson. “Obviously, I’ve experienced a different side of Sir Alex Ferguson during my illness and I’ve got the utmost respect for him because he took football out of the equation and looked after me and made sure I looked after my family.” United dominated the 90s, winning 13 major titles, with Ferguson building two trophy-winning teams. His process of regeneration wasn’t just limited to the players. He had the foresight to introduce forward-thinking coaches to help execute his vision. “When I call from Alex, as he was then, I was at Derby County. We went into his wonderful office, we sat down and directly he asked me the one question of the interview: ‘How do I keep my team No.1?’ And I answered: Think, behave and train like you’re No.2. And that hit the spot. His next question was: ‘When can you start?’” “Sir Alex made a decision. He decided to double-up pre-season training and rather than just leaving the players to lay around on the sofas between morning and afternoon sessions, we cleaned out one of the rooms at Carrington, I put in some products which were effectively loungers, so at least up to 12 or 15 of the players could go in there. That was principally the first ever time that a conversation had been had with a club like that or anybody where we were actually encouraging athletes to nap. That wonderful word. To actually take a controlled recovery period and go to sleep in between sessions and to see the levels of if they went a little bit quicker in the afternoon. It was so early days, people started to knock on the door: Sam Allardyce at Bolton, Arsene Wenger and Gary Lewin at Arsenal, the England squad” “He was open to all the methodologies that he thought might help his players to be the best they can be. I had an open book to be able to work with the players all the time. So, I went into the club to do some rehab training with Roy Keane and we ended up producing boxing training which was really important. It was a step different. You've got your weights, you've got your various abdominal core stuff or whatever, but then you've got boxing training." "Something new was happening all the time, I think. It's specific gym stuff, it's not just necessarily banging out weights, it's all types of stuff – certain leg movements, mobility and we did bring that in early doors and a lot of it was for preventing injury." By the time Sir Alex Ferguson called time on his glittering career at Manchester United he had won 49 trophies in the most successful managerial career that Britain has ever known. His unrivalled achievements owe much to his insatiable desire for success and unique fashion sense. "You see some of these managers and their preening themselves and they're very aware of their image. They're a bit vain or they're very image conscious, whereas he's very just values conscious and people conscoius. I remember when they won the European Cup in Moscow and it's chucked it down. John Terry slipped because it was wet and they had these Paul Smith suits and shoes especially for the event and the grass was soaking. These were pointy shoes that probably didn't suit him at all and by the time they got wet, they curled up… they were like Ali Baba shoes. It came to the banquet at the end and he's doing a speech next to David Gill. He's standing there with a pair of white trainers on and this flash suit. He doesn't give a damn about it, the people here are is family and by that stage he's the big granddad in front of his whole family. What does that matter? I could do this in my slippers this!" "He was a master of coming in at half-time when you were drawing or losing and when you didn't expect him to go mental, he did. When you expected him to go mental, he was calm and he'd got to his tactic board and pinpoint one or two little things that were usually the difference to go and win the game. It's hard to explain because a lot of what he did was very simplistic but other times the true genius came out. He mixed and matched really. Some of his team talks before big games were hair-standing-up-on-the-back-of-you-neck stuff and you went out there with so much pride and passion and desire to do well for him and to do well for yourself and to do well as part of the club. That brought out the best of us on big nights." "Driving from the Cliff to Old Trafford the day after they won the league, he was on the phone talking about a transfer. You're thinking, 'He's not stopping… this guy's not stopping for a minute here. He's moving on to the next thing. Once the final whistle blows on that league, you celebrate for a night but there's almost like an anti climax. You've done all the work and then into an anti-climax, but he was straight into the next thing. He was incessant, he just wouldn't stop." "You've just won the treble, you keep the same players again the motivation might not be there as much. If you start signing a few players who are looking to get in the team it all just kicks on again." Ferguson's win-at-all-costs mentality was critical in helping restore United to their former greatness. But it was his ability to observe and understand the human pscyhe that truly defined his leadership. "He used to get there at 7 o'clock in the morning and he would be overlooking the car park where everybody came into. But also he would overlook the training pitches. He would see every player get out of their car and see what mood they were in. He's watching all his players, all the time." "Ronaldo had a really tough time for the first 18 months to two years where the manager tried to toughen him up. When he kept hanging onto the ball too long and he wasn't delivering it into the box and he was beating men two or three times, his end product wasn't quite there, he learned the hard way – there's no doubt about that. He got kicked but that was a way of telling him, 'If you do this, you're not helping the team and you're going to get kicked in games'. I think he'll be the first to tell you that it was a tough school at Manchester United at the time. We all experienced it, I experienced it and I think that's part of what made him the best player in the world. And he also had a desire to achieve things for Alex Ferguson who he respected greatly, and his teammates. I tell you right how: Ronaldo loved every moment of his time at Manchester United." "He was like a personal coach for everybody in the club. Whether it be the gate man, the tea lady, the secretary, each player… he had a personal impact on them – he touched them personally. Just small things. He'd put a hot spoon on the back of the groundsman's neck at lunchtime but that groundsman then goes away and tells all the lads in the groundsman's hut and tells his wife at home, 'That Fergie, you know what he did today?!' It's a personal touch and he had the personal touch with everybody which made it feel like a family." "He definitely mellowed a little bit, but not completely. You still got a rollicking." "It was actually after he retired and I was at his golf day. He came over and I said, 'How you doing, gaffer?' And he said, 'No, no, no… it's not gaffer anymore, it's Alex'. I said, 'Gaffer, I can't call you Alex, it's not in my nature'. He still gets called the gaffer now because all the players have so much respect for him and rightly so." "Genius" "Fighter" "Sharp" "Winner" "Ledge" "Genius"
The story of Bernie Madoff’s colossal confidence scam and how it both reflected and contributed to the 2008 economic crash.
Bernard Lawrence “Bernie” Madoff (April 29, 1938) is an American fraudster and a former stockbroker, investment advisor, and financier.
He is the former non-executive chairman of the NASDAQ stock market, and the admitted operator of a Ponzi scheme that is considered the largest financial fraud in U.S. history.
Madoff founded the Wall Street firm Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC in 1960, and was its chairman until his arrest on December 11, 2008.
The firm was one of the top market maker businesses on Wall Street, which bypassed “specialist” firms by directly executing orders over the counter from retail brokers.
He employed at the firm his brother Peter, as senior managing director and chief compliance officer; Peter’s daughter Shana Madoff, as the firm’s rules and compliance officer and attorney; and his sons Andrew and Mark.
Peter has since been sentenced to 10 years in prison and Mark committed suicide by hanging exactly two years after his father’s arrest. Andrew died of lymphoma on September 3, 2014.
On December 10, 2008, Madoff’s sons told authorities that their father had confessed to them that the asset management unit of his firm was a massive Ponzi scheme, and quoted him as describing it as “one big lie”.
The following day, FBI agents arrested Madoff and charged him with one count of securities fraud. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) had previously conducted multiple investigations into Madoff’s business practices, but had not uncovered the massive fraud.
On March 12, 2009, Madoff pleaded guilty to 11 federal felonies and admitted to turning his wealth management business into a massive Ponzi scheme.
The Madoff investment scandal defrauded thousands of investors of billions of dollars. Madoff said he began the Ponzi scheme in the early 1990s. However, federal investigators believe the fraud began as early as the mid-1980s and may have begun as far back as the 1970s.
Those charged with recovering the missing money believe the investment operation may never have been legitimate. The amount missing from client accounts, including fabricated gains, was almost $65 billion.
The Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC) trustee estimated actual losses to investors of $18 billion. On June 29, 2009, Madoff was sentenced to 150 years in prison, the maximum allowed.
Americans are taking to the streets in anger at bankers for ruining the economy at CEOs for taking bailout money as bonuses at the stock market for demolishing their retirement plans into this arena waltzes public enemy number one the tomatoes what do you think financial fraudster Bernard Madoff who gives a name and a face to all that went wrong and a focus for everyone's anger America thought the boom would last forever for the last 25 years we've had this enormous boom throughout the world there's never been anything remotely like that in the history of finance but in 2008 America found itself at a crossroads the stock market slide continued today in George laundry worth living ever go fell for Japan Nikkei dropping 9% how low will it go when the stock market collapsed people all across the country took a hit I can see myself working for sin or 15 years longer than I might have originally thought I would outraged Americans watched as more than two point four trillion dollars of their savings vanished in a few weeks my money of God my 40k what I planned a little overall it's not they're an infuriated nation began to wonder were the underpinnings that held the American economy together just smoke and mirrors to make matters worse the downturn brought to light an unprecedented amount of fraud when the tide goes out in the financial markets you can see who was overexposed who was cutting corners who was operating for all yours the biggest fraud of all was Bernard Madoff who stole some sixty five billion dollars perpetrating the largest Ponzi scheme in history that's a layup what effect a nation up in arms found one focus for their fury it's very hard for people to wrap their minds around the drop in this S&P 500 or the mortgage meltdown he puts a face on what we've all been feeling the last few years people who you know had absolutely nothing to do with Bernie Madoff could look at this magazine this is the human being who symbolizes the loss in my portfolio he is someone people can focus their anger their attention on and it's going to be remembered as the Madoff era no one was angrier than investors who lost everything so angry that some started showing up at Madoff front door demanding their money behind you concentration readings are good right now call the police I got careless call the police you know what you have another class ah you've got a lot of quest to alright I think Bernie Madoff should go to jail for the rest of his life and pay for what he did Norman Braman the 76 year old former owner of the Philadelphia Eagles football team had 32 million dollars from his Family Foundation invested with Madoff I'm shocked by it and I feel terrible it's the scam of the century like most investors he was introduced to Bernie Madoff by a friend you practically had to have an embossed invitation testifying to your worthiness to invest in Bernie Madoff Ponzi scheme it was a privilege to invest with Bernard Madoff which of course it would just catnap he would do them a favor that was a genius and marketing wasn't it he made it seem so exclusive but no no you can't get in well maybe you can get in there were people then that tried to place money with Madoff that couldn't even place dollars with him he wouldn't take them you had to know somebody for of a friend who have some influence for madoff to accept an account I mean this was a classic Ponzi scheme at every single way the Ponzi scheme is a simple swindle whereby one set of investors are paid unreal returns out of money received from another the scheme is named after Carlo Ponzi who perpetrated the fraud in Boston in 1920 Ponzi is a small-timer shady underground character he arrives in the United States from Italy already a convicted smuggler forger and vegetable peddler he's a man from nowhere Ponzi was offering to double people's money in 90 days purportedly through stamps known as postage reply coupons he would take stamps from one country and sell them in the United States for an enormous profit it was preposterous there weren't enough of these reply coupons to support a multi-million dollar investment venture but it didn't matter I mean all he needed was the excuse was the story a good story and a gift for gab Ponzi schemers tend to be charming Ponzi's case he used a guy you would put at the head of a parade you would follow him anywhere he had that charisma when I met a Ponzi artist the first thing I thought was wow I like him he's so nice his eyes are bringing me in I feel it he's like a magnet that magnetism is essential to keeping all Ponzi scams going the key to perpetuate the Ponzi scheme is to keep attracting new levels of investors Carlo Ponzi started out with just ten people and then it was a hundred people then it was a thousand and then it was twenty thousand all in the course of about six months Ponzi scheme coincided perfectly with the beginning of an enormous stock market bubble in America Ponzi is one of a long line of people in the 1920s who take advantage of this sense of exhilaration a sense of the economy is booming and will beam continually he rode that wave and he knew that the people out there believed that others were getting rich quick right next door why couldn't we have a piece of that action Ponzi and Madoff have tremendous amount in common these are two men who recognized what people wanted and they found a way to satisfy it Bernie Madoff was making people an offer they couldn't refuse steady one percent gains every month 10 to 12% a year despite market volatility Bernie Madoff was promising his investors really the Holy Grail constant steady excellent returns and that is the thing that investors today want as much as anything security stability but you know if somebody is promising them double or triple their money they're going to be doubtful he was promising that don't worry whatever you give me will grow and grow and grow and that was so seductive to people my family unfortunately had all of their money with Bernie Madoff I was just surprised that Bernie Madoff had been arrested as I was when the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor retired stockbroker Joyce Greenberg father began investing with Madoff in the 1970s I did not feel that Madoff ten percent was unreasonable if it had been 20 percent or 15 percent I would definitely have been suspicious but not at ten percent Greenberg's family had heard about the opportunity through an early madoff investor a typical example of the power of social feedback people are making money to tell people about it that makes it safe that makes it attractive then people put money in so the social feedback loop this very important social feedback loop a fancy term for word-of-mouth helps explain the herd mentality behind all investor manias even ones that are not fraudulent like the Dutch tulip mania in 1636 speculators drove the price of tulip bulbs to six times the average annual salary even buying shares in a single bulb more recently in the 1990s word-of-mouth about new dot-com companies drove stock prices to stratospheric highs to investors in a loop all these opportunities look too good to pass up that's part of the human psychology here there's one side of our brain that says this is too good to be true and the other side says this is too good to miss I think the most shocking thing about it is that you know people say well that's what you get you know if you're into get-rich-quick schemes this was not a get-rich-quick scheme this was an investment tool Palm Beach residents Susan Markin saw these returns as a conservative investment when people were making eighteen percent return on their money Madoff was only making say ten or nine so he was a steady performer from most people that looked at it client saw the funds that were feeding money into madoff as the safest part of their portfolio believe it or not there is a tremendous climate of trust on Wall Street you are trusting the people you do deals with all the time you're trusting they're going to execute their part of the trade but they're not going to steal your money it's that basic normal confidence that the confidence man abuses investors thought Bernard Madoff was earning big money for them but the government said he made off with billions he stole from them someone called me up and said turn on your television and so I did and I was shocked I felt sick to my stomach actually like any investment firm Madoff produced monthly statements it looked as though he was buying and selling blue chip stocks like Procter & Gamble American Express and Exxon I kept track of the buys and sells and the monthly statement and the quarterly investment report and we received 1099s at the end of the year there was nothing that would arouse my suspicion it looked very diversified it looked very liquid it looked tailored to your own personal account my level of understanding was very high except for one thing I did not realize until after Bernard Madoff was arrested that apparently he had been writing fiction complete and utter fiction in court madoff admitted he never bought or sold a single share of stock he simply deposited investors money in his bank account what do you think should happen to him I can't say it on the camera Financial Fraud like the Madoff scandal can bring out trepidation in the public running through American culture is a very basic ambivalence about Wall Street a kind of love-hate relationship on the one hand when times are good if nurtures that desire and Americans to Grow Rich and seems to deliver on the American dream but it's also colored by the opposite reaction hatred for the street a hatred for an institution of people who take advantage of other people who become themselves super rich who scheme and defraud and live off the hard work of others we learn about these guys in times of recession they show up when the economy turns Madoff was not the only fraud to show up in early 2009 practically every week another scandal surfaced Richard piccoli charged with stealing 17 million dollars arthur Nadel disappeared with 300 million dollars joseph forte charged with running a 50 million dollar Ponzi nicholas cosmo allegedly absconded with 130 million dollars paul greenwood and stephen walsh purportedly defrauded investors out of five hundred fifty four million dollars allen Stanford charged by the Securities and Exchange Commission with conducting an eight billion dollar Ponzi scheme financial fraud is not new to Wall Street speculative scams ran rampant during the 1920s stock market boom in the 1920s there are investment pools these investment pools are run by the most powerful people in America walter Chrysler Charles Schwab of US Steel William Crapo Durant the three-time bankrupted owner of General Motors they pipe up the price of a stock they buy it in great quantities as insiders and then they quickly sell without alerting the market dumping the stock on the public and all those poor schmoes like you and me who bought the stock wallet was skyrocketing up are left with the losing it's one thing for people to lose faith in an institution is another to lose faith in a trusted individual the madoff scandal is a fundamental breach of trust I had confidence of him personally we had dinner together I mourn his foundation I'd give him substantial dollars to that foundation this man who was so beloved on Wall Street it turned out to be a fraud so many innocent people who really didn't deserve to be hurt because people who trusted him it's overwhelming it's more like a violation than anything else I want his family to feel the pain that they've inflicted on also it's not the money it's um it's just being in the presence of such an evil person if people can't trust where they're putting their money and investing if people stop investing in our businesses and in our government where does that leave us why are you getting rid of all the jewelry mr. laid off why are we getting rid of the jewelry when Bernie Madoff confessed to perpetrating the largest Ponzi in history no one could quite believe it if you were asking yourself who's the least likely person to pull a con it would be a Bernie Madoff the art of the con is not new fraud has been around ever since people learned to tell lies Ponzi schemes have probably been with us since civilization began I mean I can imagine there must have been some sharp-eyed Babylonian who was telling you know with your cattle in my Corral and they'll have more calves and any other Corral in town American history generally is full of confidence games that resemble what do Bernie Madoff was engaged in all confidence games play on that deeply ingrained very American desire to make a fast buck the label confidence man was coined in 18-49 to describe a huckster named william thompson who pulled a scam simply by dressing up as a well-to-do financier and it would go up to another well-dressed gentleman and he would pretend that he knew him and he would talk to him for a few minutes and of course when that happens most people are embarrassed because they they don't want to admit that they don't know the individuals so they may believe they know and then he says we do me a favor do you have the confidence to lend me a watch and of course the gentleman will lend him his watch and they would never see them again the law eventually caught up with Thompson but the nickname confidence man or conman stuck the way the confidence man lures the mark in is by himself being a bit skeptical of the mark he said I'm not really sure that you have full confidence in me you had to show how confident you were in Bernie before he allowed you in America's biggest con man Bernie Madoff got his start in a middle-class Jewish neighborhood in Queens New York not far from the wide Rockaway beaches where he worked as a lifeguard during summer vacation you talk about a kid from Queens who goes to school at Hofstra not at Harvard what you get with the Ponzi perps is they tend to be people who come from humble means they were exposed to wealth but not part of wealth I don't belong here I know the system but I'm not of the system and this enables graphs the kind of people who defraud their own friends and relations and family are sociopaths who don't have a conscience there isn't the same kind of internal mechanism that says I'm doing something wrong they're crooks from the start Bernie started learning about Wall Street at an early age his mother briefly operated a broker-dealer firm out of their home until she shut down rather than file the necessary paperwork he grew up in a family that was already intimately knowledgeable about the workings of the stock market particularly those fringe areas of the stock market the fringe areas of the market over-the-counter stocks not traded on the big boards were where Bernie got his start you need the supposed profit-making venture and so the smartest most effective crooks will actually have some kind of business in 1960 22 year old Bernie founded his legitimate business a trading firm called madoff securities he claimed that he started the business with proceeds from his lifeguard job in reality the father of his new wife Ruth loaned him $50,000 to start the business it was a tight-knit family firm with Ruth helping out early on and Bernie's younger brother Peter joining soon after law school his methods were very up-to-date were very computerized and as a result which was considered to be sort of a pioneer in electronic trading we saw meeting my brother and myself that there was an opportunity to bring automation into the over-the-counter market place and create some visibility transparency in the marketplace so we came up with a concept of developing a screen based trading mechanism and that was the start of Nasdaq the world's first electronic stock market Nasdaq lists primarily high tech companies not traded on other markets in addition to the trading business madoff securities had an investment arm where Bernie took people's money and invested it for them the question investigators want answered is was this investment arm ever legitimate that is the most intriguing question about Bernie Madoff did he start out as an honest man or did he start out seeing this as a really clever ploy that he could use to his own benefit the earliest investors were Bernie and Ruth's friends from school from Catskills resorts and from the Jewish Country Club's the made offs belong to once they move from Queens to the North Shore of Long Island crooks like to start sort of in their own communities it's the trust factor he prayed a lot on other Jewish individuals to start his scheme you're going to give someone who lives in your neighborhood and goes to the church you attend a little bit more trust the journey of someone else schemes like this often are what we call affinity schemes they're people like you in Ponzi's case he was first most appealing to fellow Italian Americans his community gathered around him and said he's one of us he will make us rich in madoff case I think we're seeing the same thing because we've seen how many Jewish Philanthropies and individuals were affected by this in the 1990s Scientologists were duped by a member of their church Reid Slatkin whose success investing with Internet service provider EarthLink gave him credibility Slatkin kind of ingratiated himself some of these people got them to trust him and got them to investment money with him by the time slack Kim's Ponzi exploded nearly six hundred million dollars had been lost just as Slatkin had been able to hide behind his legitimate success as an EarthLink investor madoff hid behind his apparently legitimate trading company you have tremendous efficient by operating in a dealer system particularly one that is automated as AWS on his way up Bernie leveraged his apparent acumen to acquire powerful friends in high places he served as non-executive chairman of the Nasdaq in 1990 91 and 93 because his business model was so innovative he participated at round tables where he his views were expressed he came across as quote the voice of experience he was like the grown-up in the room Bernie became the go-to guy that regulators at the Securities and Exchange Commission turned to for advice whenever I go down to Washington and meet with the SEC and complain to them that the industry is either over regulated or the burdens are too great they all start to roll their eyes but they made the changes apparently regulators and investors alike were all taken in by Madoff there's an individual that was always accessible by telephone if you called him you always received a telephone call in every term when my wife's sister passed away Bernie Bernie Madoff came to the funeral that's the type of individual that we all thought he was a very caring individual when all he was was a first-class crook as Madoff moved up in the world joining the Upper Eastside penthouse crowd the Hamptons set and Palm Beach society is access to ever richer investors grew Palm Beach is about as rich community if you can find and like a third of the membership of the Palm Beach Country Club were victims of Bernard Madoff the Madoff s– bought their Palm Beach mansion in 1994 during the dot-com boom and a rising stock market the economic climate absolutely played into Madoff hands people believed that the stock market could be counted on to go up and up and up and even if he dipped a little bit there were some smart guys some smart people who were able to still beat the market and if you were lucky enough to be with Bernie Madoff you were in with one of the in guys but even this new circle of wealthy marks wasn't enough to sustain the made Ponzi he needed access to the biggest money of all hedge funds institutional investors and even charities how did Bernie Madoff manage to pull off the biggest longest lasting Ponzi scheme in American history like many successful con artists it seems he had his finger on the pulse of his investors this is something that perpetrators are very good at they in addition to sizing up their victims they size up the tenor of the times madoff knew for instance that the crowd he targeted was devoted to charity so he became involved in many of their favorite causes as both a generous donor and as an investment guru word spread along with his victim list anytime you're dealing with philanthropies it gives you a certain legitimacy in madoff s– case it had the added effect of both being stability and legitimacy what he did which i think was sort of an evil genius if you will was to find investors who could be counted on not to withdraw their money charities fit this bill they usually spend only about 5% of their monies keeping the rest safely invested this conservatism makes them a good mark for the scam artists like John Bennett jr. a businessman who in the late 80s and early 90s ran a phony entity called the foundation for New Era philanthropy in the Philadelphia area New Era philanthropy was able to tell its marks we have found a benefactor who will double your money for you people running nonprofits there is susceptible as anyone to hearing a good swindler come along who seems to have nonprofit bona fides and credentials experience promising a way to bring those returns up a little bit by the time Bennett was arrested in 1995 he had collected 135 million dollars from charitable institutions and their contributors of course this total pales in comparison to the amount of money Bernie Madoff took from charities and foundations but in the end the biggest money in Madoff scheme came through hedge funds in the 2000s the market boom was largely fueled by hedge funds privately pooled investment funds for the wealthy here's the site of the investment world which is explicitly designed to be unregulated and aggressive and corner-cutting what a great context for a swindler and no swindler was in a better position to take advantage of the hedge fund economy than Madoff he depended on his connections to the most powerful financial circles a kind of global aristocracy of the super-rich that's who was invited to join Bernie Madoff scheme and what made it all possible in my view is that it depended on a kind of pervasive insider ISM Ponzi was an outside Madoff an insider and we have been running a financial economy in this country for the last 15 or 20 years which has been premise taun that kind of insider ISM I only need to mention Enron Tyco worldcom to remind people of how insider –is– this financial economy has been Madoff used his insider status to attract edge fund money but he also understood exactly what his clients were looking for hedge funds were doubling people's money hedge funds were turning back fantastic return people didn't trust them completely though and Madoff what people wanted which was metronomic returns 12% a year 1% a month madoff technically didn't run a hedge fund himself instead he found fund managers who set up special investment pools for him known as Peter files the theater fund managers like Ezra Merkin of Ascot partners and Walter Noll Fairfield Greenwich Group fed billions of dollars to Madoff and in return they earned hefty fees from the transactions usually 20% of profits those fees were actually typical in the economic boom of the 2000s you have that atmosphere of unreasoning irrational expectations people are really convinced that that they've entered a new period of unending prosperity and the confidence man enters that picture to take advantage of exactly that desire once again the familiar cycle the boom economy creates and camouflages the fraud in the go-go 80s a man named Jay David diamond le cooked up a scheme that played on one of the hot stock market careers of the decade he pretended to be a ruthless and effective currency trader and really he was just operating a Ponzi scheme he was attracting high net worth people to come into his offices in Ohio California they would give him investment capital and he would use it supposedly and these sort of indecipherably complicated currency hedging arbitrage transactions he was running but it was all a sham it took years before defrauded investors who lost about 80 million dollars forced Domon Ellie's hand but Bernie Madoff hand remained firmly on the wheel of his empire for decades in part because so many investors had no idea that he had their money they thought their money was with the fund that they had invested in in some cases even apparently in a bank that was used as a repository and they had no idea where the end result was one of the feeder thongs caught Steven Greenspan's eye in 2007 the close family member was telling me about this investment she was doing with this fund called rye and I looked at the paperwork and their history and it was incredible get the same 1% a month regardless of what the stock market was saying that's really what I was looking for in the wake of Madoff collapse many have asked how much the feeder fund managers knew or guessed about his operation I contend that many of them were basically turning a blind eye to their doubts in order to collect the beautiful fees that were generated from these feeder funds a lot of the people involved with the feeder funds had virtually their entire worth tied up in those funds why on earth if they suspected a scam would they have put not only their own money their family money their firms money their children's money into these investments whatever they thought about the investment these feeder Thun salesmen fed madoff enough money to create the biggest Ponzi scheme in history but still he needed more madoff started pressuring the funds to enlist new capital across the globe this past year before his arrest you saw a much more frenetic pace of money raising as you move past Europe into Asia and on into China when the demands of the scheme get greater you are going to branch out and certainly the Madoff case the modern era it becomes global but even as madoff reap the rewards of the global economy a few competitors began questioning what he was doing and taking those doubts to the US government the biggest changes in the wake of the Bernie Madoff scandal will be at the US Securities and Exchange Commission how could the federal regulatory agency have failed to notice the biggest fraud in the history of Wall Street that's part of this really fascinating story is how could the SEC have dropped the ball so often the SEC continues to roar like a mouse and fight like a flea the SEC received repeated warnings about Madoff from a very determined whistleblower in 1999 Boston investment manager Frank Casey met with some madoff investors who told him about the steady returns they were getting a skeptical Cayce brought the information back to one of his associates a math guy named Harry Markopolos and I said well Harry this guy is producing these beautiful returned streams of 1% a month I mean why can't you do this and Harry said this is a fraud and then four hours later he says this is a Ponzi scheme and I said dolt pons is a strong word in order to prove his point markopolos ran mathematical models to try to reproduce Madoff's earnings Harry Markopolos is an intense and very smart guy he understands the world of derivatives the world of options he could not recreate Madoff performance now you have to remember back in 2000 the largest hedge fund managers might be running 2 billion here was Madoff running 7 to 10 billion the scale of it if it was a fraud was almost beyond belief so Markopolos turned to the Securities and Exchange Commission formed in 1933 to police Wall Street there must be a strict supervision of banking and credit and investment the SEC was formed in the early 1930s in the aftermath of the stock market crash to restore investor confidence rightly or wrongly looking to place blame for the Great Depression many Americans pointed their fingers at Wall Street and for a long time nobody wants to go near Wall Street takes till 1954 before the Dow Jones Industrial Average is again what it was in 1929 and it wasn't until the 1980s that Wall Street regained its central place in the American culture after that for 25 years the market went up and up and Americans clamored to get in on the action the sec meanwhile has struggled to keep up Wall Street and other powerful political interests like it that the SEC is under-resourced spread too thin they're there but maybe not able to do the digging which means you can hide things Harry Markopolos kept trying to convince the agency to dig deeper into Bernie Madoff investment business unfortunately as they didn't respond to my written submissions in 2000 2001 2005 2007 and 2008 here we are today he made repeated attempt to interest regulators in what he saw as the transparent flaws in the Madoff story it couldn't work it clearly has been going on too long nobody can get those kind of consistent returns in up markets and down markets look at this little bitty accounting firm he uses on and on a dozen two dozen red flags that he pointed out to regulators in 2005 an SEC enforcement team finally met with Markopolos he laid out two possible scenarios to explain Madoff's performance one was that he was running a Ponzi scheme the other was that he was front running a form of insider trading Fred reading and having inside information in advance of where a stock is moving just by your position in the industry inside information that's not publicly available so you can get out ahead of whichever way a stock is moving you may remember Michael Milken the big Wall Street guy from the 80s one of the things that the feds finally got him on was Milken's wasn't the first such case some of the worst offenses in the pre sec days of wall street were very similar they have specialists who are market makers on the floor of the exchange they know that if a price gets to a certain point this is going to happen well what they would do was they would tell their friends and so the friends would then manipulate the price they'd sell stock back and forth to each other to get the price up to the new what was going to happen then they cut and run and it was virtually guaranteed profit it was just you know classic insider trading Bernie Madoff business placing trades for large customers was exactly the same as the old Wall Street specialists meaning he was in a perfect position to know what was going to happen in the market people thought that bringing it up knew where the market was heading because he was at a controlling the market was there an extent and they could get in on that they could get in on this front running I'm gonna put my money with Madoff because he's he's on the inside he can get some of that action the SEC did investigate the front-running charge but gave Madoff a clean bill of health in 2006 why having eliminated front-running didn't they come back to markopolos his basic point which is if it's not that way and there's no legitimate way he could be making these returns this must be a Ponzi scheme the possibility that he was just an out-and-out fraud apparently there's something that they dismissed out of hand he just simply didn't believe that such a thing was possible after all madoff sat on SEC committees and his family members served on other regulatory panels did those connections play a role clearly the SEC was afraid of mr. Madoff i gift-wrapped and delivered the largest Ponzi scheme in history to them and somehow they couldn't be bothered to conduct a thorough and proper investigation what any organization does when they just don't have the resources to do their job right you make very rough cut judgments does this look like a real fraud if you rationalize no it's not Bernie Madoff you move on to your next task the lack of resources at the SEC was part of a broad push to deregulate Wall Street over the last decade the SEC was never important to the Clinton administration and then when the Bush administration came in a distinctive change in priorities occurred the SE C's priorities were to make sure that the United States stayed competitive in an increasingly fast-paced global financial marketplace inevitably that pushed other priorities aside that change in priorities made way for a host of problems on Wall Street I think the sincere belief that deregulation was the way to go that it would ensure economic growth made it convincing to people that you shouldn't mess with people like Bernie Madoff they know what they're doing and excessive regulation will get in their way now everybody's a regulator you couldn't find somebody with a pulse who wouldn't say today we have to do something to regulate these people they're bandaged they're out of control you have to regulate the fact that the SEC missed not only made off but the banking irregularities that brought down the markets in 2008 has only fed the anger one guy with a few friends and helpers discovered this thing nearly a decade ago led you to this pile of dung that is that is Bernie Madoff and stuck your nose in it and you couldn't figure it out obviously in the case of Bernie Madoff red flags were raised years before this scheme came apart nobody paid any attention and that's part of euphoria of the moment oh no problem we're just in this boom time and it's going to go on forever but the boom time which Bernie Madoff had ridden for years would come to an end pulling Madoff and his victims down with it if American financial history is a story of the frauds that come with every boom cycle why do people keep getting duped the answer may be that in the euphoria they stopped listening to reason we're in some new world there's always talk of a new world the old laws don't apply is always the siren song and when that new world collapses they are shocked once more we have a long way to go but we are on the way I regret to say that we're in the worst economic mess since the Great Depression start 2009 in the midst of a crisis unlike any we have seen in our lifetime we have had panics on Wall Street roughly every 20 years ever since the beginning of Wall Street in the 1790s and that's roughly one generation and that's how long it takes for people to forget the lessons of the past and so suddenly everybody who comes to Wall Street is going to get rich and you know it seems like it for a while and then the excesses pile up and then finally it collapses and it starts over again it was the market collapse of 2008 that brought down Bernie Madoff it was a classic panic all it wasn't a one-day panic it took like two months to play out but still it was brutal Madoff who had ridden so many economic cycles had weathered panics before in the 1980s and after the.com bubble burst but the panic of 2008 was especially dangerous because now he had taken billions of dollars from hedge funds if you're an institutional investor and you've lived through these past 18 months by December you're saying well thank goodness I still got my money with Bernie you don't want to realize losses on your other investments you want to you know go back to reliable Bernie to get your money [Applause] and he couldn't repay those investors reliable bernie knew he couldn't keep it going anymore he decided to confess now as authorities try to piece together what madoff did they are most interested in whether he acted alone the head of his accounting firm david Freeling has already been charged with securities fraud but suspicion Falls most heavily on members of the madoff family I find it very hard to believe that none of his family knew anything about it for one thing just before the whole thing broke this is made off with drew fifteen point five million dollars on two occasions one the day before he fessed up to his sons other family members worked at the Madoff firm some of them lost money in the Ponzi at a family level it's a fascinating story almost Shakespearean and some of the dynamics that must have gone on as officials tried to unravel what the Madoff knew and when they knew it other families were suffering as well my family has lost millions with Bernie Madoff my stepmother my two stepbrothers daughters the end of her college fund the bold-faced names on the victims list and the immense amounts of money lost have fed an almost morbid fascination we're used to stories about the poor people who have been you know devastated by different financial problems well this is a case where the tornado skipped the trailer park and wiped out the houses on the hill the next round of this drama is a matter for the courts there are early investors who made money from the scheme which they may be forced to repay it's almost like a financial world's version of Lord of the Flies and it's going to pit a victim against victim the losses have been devastating for so many people but the most wrenching story so far is that of a man who staked everything on Madoff thierry de la villehuchet feeder funds called access international committed suicide less than two weeks after Madoff was arrested not only was he a French nobleman he was a nobleman he was an honorable man nearly a decade ago Frank Casey raised with DeLucie the possibility that Bernie Madoff was running a scam he told me if this guy is a fraud I'm in serious trouble he said I've got all my money in it I've got most of my family in it I have every business connection in private wealth management and banking throughout York that I've developed my whole life in it I believe in it I believe in Bernie in the case of villa che this was an extremely proud individual who was so horrified that he was involved in Madoff and caused all of these losses for people that he took responsibility in the ultimate and quite hideous way by slitting his wrists Bernie Madoff scribes have cast a long shadow I've never seen anything like this I've never read about anything like this nothing on this scale nothing that swept so far around the world nothing that lasts so long nothing that brought in so many sophisticated in dust this is not just some engineered financial product that collapsed this thing wiped out people the scandal has destroyed America's confidence in the Masters of the Universe Bernie Madoff was a hero of our time the way a lot of our great financial heroes once were and then came the day of reckoning bringing Bernie Madoff down from a hero to the nation's greatest villain you
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