The Achievers Documentary Trailer


First there was a movie from the Coen brothers called The Big Lebowski then, there was an Explosion of the bizarre
What could have spawned a media frenzy over the course of 5 years, driving over 300,000 hits on the Lebowski Fest website alone and selling out over 17 events from Louisville to London giving birth to a sub culture correctly labeled as Achievers?
What could gather such an eclectic crowd together relegating the best time with one could have with a stranger in a bowling extravaganza?
With interviews from Jeff Bridges and Jim James of “My Morning Jacket”, Director Eddie Chung decided to take a shot on answering this question by creating this amazing documentary with the help of producers Agi Orsi and Cecy Rangel from Riding Giants and Dogtown and Z-Boys.

this thing is the biggest thing I've ever been involved in and it's big and it's huge it's just becoming real you know we have these fests where all these fans get together just like us and we all just like kind of create this strange world of lebowski with nihilus running around and people running around in bathrobes and giant Creedence tape and severed toes the last three years of my life had just been unbelievable housekeepers cured my cancer I am the real Lebowski Chicago trivia championships are coming true I just think it's a weird dream I'm having

Sex and the City Season 5 —Samantha's chemical peel



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Sex and the City Season 5 Samantha’s chemical Peel.

`Honey, I had a little something done and it`s not as bad as yesterday but I have looked better´

I don’t own the copyright.

enjoy the video!

hello I've looked better could you at least separate the two thoughts chemical peel carries publicist why did you do this was an impulse purchase gum is an impulse purchase this is more than gum I wanted to be super fresh hearted well you are you look like beef carpaccio fell down I think no if you knew how many dinner parties I've sat through across from one of these and you were able to eat

The Chemical Brothers – Under Neon Lights (Official Audio)



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Explore more music from The Chemical Brothers The new album ‘Born In The Echoes’ is out now. Get it on iTunes …

The Chemical Brothers – Elektrobank (Official Music Video)



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Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing Elektrobank (2003 Digital Remaster).

The Chemical Brothers – Galvanize (Official Music Video)



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Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing Galvanize. (P) 2005 The copyright in this audiovisual recording is owned by Virgin Records Ltd

The Chemical Brothers – The Golden Path (Official Music Video)



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Explore more music from The Chemical Brothers Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing The Golden Path …

The Chemical Brothers – Wide Open (Joe Goddard Remix)



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Wide Open feat. Beck (Joe Goddard Remix) –

Nominated for The Grammys Best Remixed Recording

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The Chemical Brothers – Sometimes I Feel So Deserted (Official Music Video)



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The Chemical Brothers – Star Guitar (Official Music Video)



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The Chemical Brothers – Midnight Madness (Official Video)



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The Chemical Brothers – Horse Power (Official Audio)



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Buy limited edition vinyl and listen to Further on your favourite music service

Further is the seventh studio album by The Chemical Brothers, released on 14 June 2010. All 8 tracks from the album are accompanied by unique corresponding films made by longtime collaborator Adam Smith and Marcus Lyal.

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Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing Horse Power. (C) 2010 Virgin Records Ltd

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The Chemical Brothers – Free Yourself



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Directors: DOM&NIC

Production: Outsider
Producer: John Madsen
Production Manager: Steve Elgar
Production Assistant: Tom Benkins
Editor: Ed Cheesman @ Final Cut
DOP: Alex Barber

VFX Production: The Mill
Executive Producer: Alex Fitzgerald
Producers: Imogen Pai
Shoot Supervisors: Fergal Hendrick, Matthew Kavanagh, Pavel Mamichev
Suraj ‘Sid’ Harrington-Odedra
Lidar Scanning: Efficacy 4D (Duncan Lees, Jandira Guasque)
Face Scanning: FBFX

VFX Creative: The Mill
Creative Directors: Jorge Montiel & Wes
VFX Supervisors: Suraj ‘Sid’ Harrington-Odedra & Fergal Hendrick
Lead Rigging/Animation: Matthew Kavanagh
Lead Modeller: Ashley Tilley
Lead Lighting: Clement Granjon
Compositors: Declan Andrews, Pete Hodsman, Sole Martin, Jack Pond, Alfie Vaughan, Rakesh Venugopalan
Rigging: Peter Agg, Mario Ercolano, Andreas Graichen, Phuong ‘Karo’ Nguyen
Animators: Nicola Gilbert, Kieran Jordan, Kevin O’Sullivan, Maria Robertson, Jimmy Thomas
Modelling/Texturing:: Will Burdett, Alwin Durez, Oliver Hallas,
Pavel Mamichev, Anish Mohan, Bethan Williams
Lighting: Amaan Akram, Max Auer, Carlo Carfora, Vaclav Cizkovsky, Kate Gabriel
FX: Oleks Panaskevych, Dan Yargici
Tracking: Senthil Murgan Balasundaram, Sendil Kumar J
Concept: Matthew Campbell, Carlos Nieto, Sunil Pant, Ross Urien

Colour: The Mill
Colourist: David ‘Luddy’ Ludlam

Sound Design: Anthony Moore @ Factory

Commissioner: Ailsa Robertson

The Chemical Brothers (Live at Glastonbury) Hey Boy Hey Girl (High Quality)



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Part 2 – The Chemical Brothers Live at Glastonbury 2007 Get Yourself High / Hey Boy Hey Girl (High Quality)

The Chemical Brothers – Do It Again (Official Music Video)



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The Chemical Brothers – Sometimes I Feel So Deserted (Official Audio)



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The Chemical Brothers – Let Forever Be (Official Music Video)



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The Chemical Brothers – Hey Boy Hey Girl



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The Chemical Brothers – Wide Open ft. Beck (Official Music Video)



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The Chemical Brothers – Wide Open feat. Beck

Director: Dom & Nic
Producer: John Madsen
Choreographer: Wayne McGregor
Dancer: Sonoya Mizuno

Taken from the new album ‘Born In The Echoes’ out now. Get it on iTunes | Official Store | Google Play | Share/stream on Spotify

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The Chemical Brothers – Eve Of Destruction



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The Chemical Brother ‘Eve Of Destruction’ taken from the new album’ ‘No Geography’. Listen/Stream here:

#THECHEMICALBROTHERS #AURORA #NENE
#NOGEOGRAPHY #EVEOFDESTRUCTION

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Audio:

Lyrics:

The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction

The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction (Human minds are simplified)
The eve of destruction (Sacrifice is justified)
The eve of destruction (Human minds are simplified)
The eve of destruction (Sacrifice is justified)
The eve of destruction (Human minds are simplified)
The eve of destruction (Sacrifice is justified)
The eve of destruction (Human minds are simplified)
The eve of destruction (Sacrifice is justified)
The eve of destruction

(Human minds are simplified)
We can’t afford the water
(Sacrifice is justified)
Everyone is left to die
(Human minds are simplified)
Keep running, keep running
(Sacrifice is justified)
Keep running, keep running

Maybe I’ll find a friend
Maybe I’ll find a friend
Maybe I’ll find a friend
To spend the weekend

Drunk a sample suicide
Justify a human, I
Enjoy my, enjoy my
Eve of destruction

Maybe I’ll find a friend
Maybe I’ll find a friend
Maybe I’ll find a friend
To spend the weekend

ぶっ壊したい 何もかも
ぶっ壊したい 何もかも
ぶっ壊したい 何もかも
ぶっ壊したい 何もかも

幸福のどん底さ 今
イヴはアダムとする ディナー
白い衣装 黒い未来
Fuck Yo Mind
意味ないはことない
何も知らず踊りたい
気づく胸騒ぎ 出るエナジー
止める人はいない
Keep Dancing

ぶっ壊したい 何もかも
ぶっ壊したい 何もかも
ぶっ壊したい 何もかも
ぶっ壊したい 何もかも

Maybe I’ll find a friend
Maybe I’ll find a friend
Maybe I’ll find a friend
To spend the weekend

The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction
The eve of destruction

Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing Eve Of Destruction. © 2019 The Chemical Brothers, under exclusive license to Universal Music Operations Limited

The Chemical Brothers – Escape Velocity



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The Chemical Brothers – Go (Official Music VIdeo)



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The Chemical Brothers – Don't Think (from 'Black Swan')



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Bonus track (iTunes only, but uploaded for your listening pleasure) from the new album ‘Further’. Don’t think… Just let it flow… © 2010 Virgin Records Disclaimer …

The Chemical Brothers – Setting Sun



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The Chemical Brothers – Life Is Sweet



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Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing Life Is Sweet (2003 Digital Remaster).
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The Chemical Brothers – The Salmon Dance (Official Video)



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The Chemical Brothers – Wonders Of The Deep (Official Video)



Views:1035315|Rating:4.66|View Time:5:13Minutes|Likes:8039|Dislikes:592
Explore more music from The Chemical Brothers

Buy limited edition vinyl and listen to Further on your favourite music service

Further is the seventh studio album by The Chemical Brothers, released on 14 June 2010. All 8 tracks from the album are accompanied by unique corresponding films made by longtime collaborator Adam Smith and Marcus Lyal.

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Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing Wonders Of The Deep. (C) 2010 Virgin Records Ltd

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The Chemical Brothers – K+D+B (Official Video)



Views:262710|Rating:4.80|View Time:5:43Minutes|Likes:2482|Dislikes:105
Explore more music from The Chemical Brothers

Buy limited edition vinyl and listen to Further on your favourite music service

Further is the seventh studio album by The Chemical Brothers, released on 14 June 2010. All 8 tracks from the album are accompanied by unique corresponding films made by longtime collaborator Adam Smith and Marcus Lyal.

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Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing K+D+B. (C) 2010 Virgin Records Ltd

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#TheChemicalBrothres #KDB #Vevo

Cusco Travel Guide | The Ancient Inca Capital of Peru



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Some say Cusco is the Rome of the Americas and to be honest…we’d have to agree. Join Alex and Marko, the Vagabrothers, and explore the ancient Inca capital in the Andes. Cusco is one of the coolest cities in South America and it’s time to travel!

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What's up everybody? And welcome back to Vagabrothers. Right now we're at 3400 meters in the heart of the Andes in Cusco, Peru. Cusco is the oldest continuously inhabited city on the continent. It was the heart and capital of the Inca Empire, and it's been referred to as the Rome of the Americas. Today we'll be exploring its fascinating history, from its foundation by the Inca to their brutal conquest by the Spanish and the living history that survives today. It's going to be fun. It's going to be interesting, and it starts right now. Listo? Vamanos We arrived here last night from Lima, and the first thing I noticed is that Cusco is a feast for the eyes. There's so much to see. All the locals are dressed in these beautiful fabrics, and the architecture is absolutely incredible. The first thing I noticed was the altitude because the Andes are the highest mountain range in the world, after the Himalaya. The second thing I noticed are the buildings because although they look Spanish, they are built with Inca stones, and the Plaza de Armas where we are right now still the center of the city was also the center of the Inca capital. So in short Cusco has many layers. We're going to do our best to explore all of them starting with the oldest, the foundation of the city by Manco Capac over six hundred years ago, but before we do, here's what you need to know about the Inca. The Incas are the most well known of Peru's indigenous cultures, but they're really just the most recent of many. There were the Parcas famous for their textiles. The Nazca famous for the lines in the desert, and the countless others who battled for control of the Andes before the Inca solidified their rule six hundred years ago. According to legend, in the 12th century the first Inca King, Manco Capac, was sent on a mission by the Sun God, Inti, the supreme deity to find the navel of the earth or Qosq'o in Quechua, Cusco in Spanish. He founded a city that would be the capital of eleven more Inca emperors. From the capital of Cusco, the Inca Empire stretched from modern-day Colombia all the way down to Chile and Argentina. It was rich in gold and silver, and its skilled artisans created some of the most beautiful and valuable artwork in the Americas. The Golden Age of the Inca lasted just a hundred years until 1532 with the arrival of Spanish conquistador, Francisco Pizarro who with 170 men, 27 horses, and a single cannon captured the Inca Emperor, Atahualpa, and demanded a ransom so high that the Inca had to strip their beautiful temples of its precious gold. After all that Pizarro killed Atahualpa anyway. The Spanish conquest of the Inca is one of the saddest chapters in history, not only the slaughter and subjugation of countless thousands of people, but the systematic eradication of one of the most advanced cultures the world has ever seen. But not all was lost. Modern Peru is a fusion of Inca and Spanish traditions, and the culture is kept alive through the ancient Inca language, Quechua, still spoken by the majority of people here in Cusco. Here are some useful phrases: Hello, how are you? Por favor Gracias Okay, so we've hopped in the car. We've driven up and out of Cusco, and right now we're at the fortress of Saqsaywaman. If you can't remember how to pronounce it, just think "sexy woman." But it's a Quechua word. Basically, this was a citadel designed to protect the city of Cusco, and what you see behind us is now about 20% of what remained. There're these huge stone walls everywhere, and one of the most impressive things about this building and about all of the Inca construction is that they have these massive stones, some of them up to 200 tons each, and they all fit together perfectly, so closely without mortar that you can actually not even put a piece of paper between them. We're going to go check out the entire fortress. There's lots of little trails going around. There's a viewpoint over there, but the most impressive part, like Marko said, of this fortress is the construction of it. We have rain and thunder on the way. It's just part of being in the Andes. These huge giant stones that sit and slide perfectly in with one another and like you said no mortar. So it's pretty incredible. Actually, the most incredible thing about all this… let's be real, Alex. There are just alpacas wandering this this area. I want to go pet the alpaca. You can get kicked in the face. You know, coming to a place like this really sparks my interest. I studied the Inca in college, and it's been a long time, but I've always wanted to come to Peru and see this place for myself. And just taking a look at these stones, you get a sense of how advanced the civilization was even though they didn't have a lot of the things that we take as necessities for advanced civilization. Yeah, they had no iron; they had no steel; they had didn't have the wheel. And they accomplished all these things from building a huge vast communication system of roads all without even the written language. But they did communicate through these things called "quipus" and a series of runners. There was a certain tribe that was part of their empire that was chosen to be the runners. They were able to run insane distances, and they would communicate throughout their vast empire using the "quipus," which was a series of knots on these ropes that could communicate information like harvests, taxes brought in in different provinces. And it's pretty crazy.. the level of administration that they had. And all the roads that they built back then still exist today. Just like in Rome… all roads led to Rome; all roads led to Cusco. So a fair statement the Rome of the Americas, I think. All right well we've made it back into Cusco. We're in the centro historico, and we're here for lunch. Where're we eating, Bro? We're eating at Chicha. This is a restaurant from Peru's most famous chef, Gaston Acurio, and it basically uses local ingredients from the surrounding area. So two o'clock.. lunch time in Peru. For lunch we've ordered some traditional Peruvian dishes. We have some papas rellanas, which are basically stuffed potatoes. They have carne picada that are like ground beef inside of them, and then they're breaded and fried. We have a ceviche, little twist on it. It's got a trout instead of the typical ocean fishes. And then we have this little sampler right here, which has all sorts of traditional meats. I don't even know what they are. What are they? The idea behind the restaurant is that everything… There're various Chichas around Peru, and each one takes ingredients only from the surrounding area. Everything on these plates here is either from Cusco or the surrounding valley. For example, the ceviche uses trout which is a river fish rather than sea bass from the ocean, and it's served warm with some yuca. And by the way, we're joined by the fourth member of our group, Darren, who's here to help us with VR. Say hi. Hi. And so he'll be helping us with the VR shoot in Machu Picchu, but for now it's lunch time. That's the winner. I think this dish does not come from the surrounding area because it comes from heaven, and it's so good. Lunch is over, so back to the story of the Spanish conquest of the Inca. When the Spanish arrived, the Inca Empire was primed for conquest. They had just finished a brutal civil war, and Atahualpa, the Inca Emperor, was camped out at Cajamarca. When Pizarro came, he captured him through a combination of trickery and deceit and held him hostage. The ransom: his prison cell filled once over with gold and twice over with silver. To pay that ransom, he sent his men along with some of Pizarro's here to the Temple of the Sun. This building is all the remains of a Temple of the Sun, Coricancha, Quechua for Golden Patio because it was literally covered in gold- the walls, the floors, the ceilings, even life-size golden alpacas and llamas. But Pizarro's ransom was so high that to pay the price the Inca had to strip and defile their holiest temple of its gold. Then when they did, Pizarro broke his word and killed Atahualpa. And to add insult to injury, he took their holiest temple and converted it into a Catholic convent. And that was the beginning of the end of the Inca Empire. This is all that's remaining of the Coricancha Temple of the Sun. You can see the architecture here is incredible, and supposedly architects have come. They still don't know exactly how they made it so perfect, but there's a window here that lines up through the entire building, absolutely perfectly. Been an incredible day exploring Cusco, and honestly one day is not even close to enough. This city has so many stories, so many layers of history. Every little alley-way and cobblestone lined street is a new adventure, and we need to come back. Well, we're not leaving yet. I know another day here, but I still want to come back already. Bringing it back though to the first observation of the day of this being the Rome of the Americas, I'd actually say I think it's more like Istanbul because you know Istanbul had the Christian layer, and then the Muslims came and they took all their beautiful churches and turned into mosques. They left the churches preserved with the art that was inside of them, and I look at this beautiful city, and it is extremely beautiful. I do kind of wish that they had left some of the Inca buildings as they were- except converted them into into churches. Although the churches are beautiful, you definitely know that there was something lost. For sure. One of the biggest travesties of all time was the destruction of the Inca culture, but there is some hope there because the people who live here still practice their culture; they still speak their language; they still dress in traditional clothing, and they celebrate traditional festivals. I think that there is a positive note at the end of all of this, and now it's kind of all blended into this very beautiful unique culture that you can only really find here. But you will never stop to wonder…what could have been? What if there have been two separate cultures living together intact? On that note, let us know your thoughts down in the comment section. If you enjoyed this video, give it a big thumbs- up, share with your friends, subscribe and turn on notifications if you haven't already. Stay curious, keep exploring, and we'll see you guys tomorrow in Cusco and then later on Machu Picchu. Stay tuned. Paz.

The Chemical Brothers – MAH (Visual)



Views:3259456|Rating:4.76|View Time:2:25Minutes|Likes:45623|Dislikes:2336
MAH is available everywhere here: Taken from the forthcoming album ‘No Geography’ set for release in Spring 2019.

Show directed by Smith and Lyall
Video directed by Marcus Lyall

Executive Producer – Martin Roker
Producer – Caroline Milsom
PA – Orchid Vishkaiy
PA – Reece Gibbins
Lead Camera – Ricky Patel
Camera FOH – Andrew Foster
Camera FOH – Richard Scott
Audience Cam – Andy Hui
Audience Cam – Cecile Le Bon
Audience Cam – Tony Pletts
Audience Cam / Data – Josh Loftin
Audience Cam AC – Glyn Owen
Edit Assist – Cecile Le Bon
Offline – Mark Whelan
Grade – Gareth Bishop C/O Dirty Looks

Production Company – Black Dog Films
Camera House – VMI

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The Chemical Brothers – Another World (Official Music Video)



Views:5652021|Rating:4.84|View Time:5:46Minutes|Likes:32428|Dislikes:1049
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Music video by The Chemical Brothers performing Another World. (C) 2010 Virgin Records Ltd

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Critical Analysis – My Little Pony 37



Views:1867|Rating:4.32|View Time:6:2Minutes|Likes:19|Dislikes:3
“My Little Pony #37” is now out, and we conclude Siege of the Crystal Empire.

You can buy MLP 37 at the following
Digital:
Comixology

iTunes
LINK CURRENTLY UNAVAILABLE

Amazon Kindle

Physical:
IDW Publishing

Amazon.com

Or at your Local Retailer

Critical Analysis was drawn my good friend Doctor Sora. You can find her YouTube Channel here

My Little Pony My Little Ponies hello my little comic book ponies I'm critical analysis and I just finished reading My Little Pony number 37 the final part of siege of the crystal Empire before I begin I need to talk about something that I briefly mentioned in my friends forever 23 review in the season 5 finale Twilight travels to several alternate timelines the first one being where King Sombra returns unopposed his first order of business turn his crystal slaves into his crystal army this contradicts what's currently happening in the comic he didn't want to start a war he was going to do that after he freed the Amaral as a result I feel as if these comics are no longer canon as the primary Canon of the show supersedes the secondary canon in the comics this was one of my points of contention with the season finale but now that that elephant in the corner is leaving it's time to get to the review proper starting with a recap previously on my little pony former villains led by radiant hope sealed the crystal heart and revived King Sombra then with their combined forces they are able to capture the mane 6 in turn Princess Luna and Celestia tostone however when the villains learn of summers plan to free the destructive Ambrym they free Twilight Sparkle and promptly leave meanwhile hope takes cadence to meet the on room but when cadence uses her magic it revealed their true hideous form forcing the two into a hasty retreat back to the castle their Twilight tried to shoot Saruman ho takes the head angering the revived King into unleashing a horde of up earth onto the main six can our heroes stand up to the shadowy threat who will the Unruh return to plunge the world into destruction obviously we know they're going to win but the question is how let's start by taking a look at the cover this cover looks menacing even if it is a game of Thrones reference and samurais eyes are steaming with shadow as he sits on his throne with the Crown's of the princesses screwed at his feet it comes off as very menacing and it's a great fit to how the comic starts we open with what I can only assume to be weeks later where the crystal Empire has been really the effects of we then see Twilight and Kane's being brought before Emperor Sombra to stand trial unless they reveal the location the rebels the Unruh muse shining armor is leverage Kings tells but the ever pull a grand moff tarkin and petrified shining anyway this does bug me a little bit I can understand the armor I'm doing it but did they need to do exactly as was done in Star Wars a new hope or was it simply done because Star Wars The Force awakens releases this weekend anyway Twilight suggested their execution be done publicly at the Dyess where the crystal heart once stood sombre agrees with the UM room won't Emperor's hope to join them when Sombra goes to retrieve hopes amber tells her that once this is all done he'll start his attack on the rest of Equestria samer believed that he was destined to become the monster that he saw in the crystal heart all of those years ago but when hope tells Zamora that she's not the princess that she saw she also informed him that she willingly gave it up for her friend Sombra as he leave the castle the rebellion begins its attack Pinkie Pie's unit many mccann ins Rarity's unit armed with literally blinding fashion the apple family in charge of grams aboard CMC in a makeshift tank fluttershy commanding her discord enhanced animals and Rainbow Dash attacking from above the album want the princess executed now but hope has a better idea she pulls up the crystals heart and suggests destroying the hope of the Empire itself as she hands the heart to Sombra as the upper one were able to fight back and disable the squad's Samara flexing the crystal heart and makes a choice he throws the crystal heart into the crystal Dyess the heart activates and the emeral are sucked back into the castle past a Kingdom Hearts reference and back into their prison afterwards Sombra thanks ho Celestia and Luna are free from their stone prison and the omron King comments on the beauty of the crystal fair as he bathed in but hope capture Sabra in an attempt to save him cadance Twilight Celestia and Luna all led their alicorn powers to the reformed cape and used their magic to transform Sabra into a real pony who is looking as regal as he did in the mirror world of reflections Celestia asked what they will do now and summer Idaho opted to go find the scattered pieces of princess amore and try to rebuild her and so our comic ends with a short story I think her sovereign himself about how the friends who love you other words you can see the true human even if you don't see it yourself second best arc ever the first is obviously reflections I'm so wondering how that first batch of opera have got out and I was a bit bugged by the Star Wars reference but any problem that I had with the story over all is forgiven because of this conclusion words escape me with how awesome it was to see Sandra do what he did if I had one problem with the embark overall it would be the former villains leaving in the third issue I wish they had Sayed and help the rebellion fight as it would have been fitting considered their enemy would have been me on that they were working for in the first place if you can't tell already I recommend this story the only reason you're not buying this now is because you're waiting for the trade collection Pony fans will love it and even more so somber fans will love it I'll even tell you where you can get them comiXology iTunes and Amazon Kindle for digital copies or IDW comm Amazon or your local retailer for physical copies hey thanks for watching are you wondering where I got this amazing pony art then click that top video to go watch dr. Sora's latest speed paint or you can click that bottom one to go watch my last review and don't be afraid to click that like button leave a comment below so that I can improve the series in the future or even subscribe to my channel so you can keep up to date on all my latest videos I'm critical analysis signing out you

The History of Jet Engines – Documentary



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incredible power deceiving simplicity Top Gun and top secret we trust our lives to them now jet engines on modern marvels the sr-71 blackbird in the opinion of many the greatest airplane ever made it's too huge jet engines have the power of 45 diesel locomotives it can fly from Los Angeles to New York in under an hour at speeds faster than a bullet the Blackbird designed in the early 60s is the crowning glory of one of the greatest eras of technological change in the history of mankind the jet age the term was synonymous with scientific and social progress in the 50s and early 60s the jet age conjured up not just a technological revolution but a radical change in the way human beings thought acted and lived and the jet age was powered by this the blast of hot gases out of the end of a metal tube one of the simplest ideas for an engine in history any child who's ever blown up a balloon then released it to zoom through the air as it deflates has seen how jet power works the most common form of jet engine today is the turbo jet it uses spinning compressor wheels at the front end of the engine to compress the incoming air the air is then mixed with fuel and ignited and the blasts of exhaust gasses out of the back propels the engine forward as well as rotating turbine wheels at the back which turned the front compressor wheels on the same shaft today's jet engine was a logical progression from a device called a turbo supercharger that was first used in the waning years of World War 1 to get more power out of military airplanes powered by piston engines here was the case where technologists were trying to allow the piston engine to breathe if you will more efficiently at high altitude with a turbine and the exhaust that rotated a compressor wheel to force-feed air into the engine they had the main elements of a jet engine although they didn't realize it at the time ironically for all their insight in developing these turbines which had to operate in a very high temperature exhaust environment for all that insight they miss the significance of directly connecting the turbine to the compressor propeller-driven piston powered aircraft had a built-in speed limitation because propeller blades lose their efficiency as they approach the speed of sound in the early 1930s a few farsighted aircraft engineers in Britain Germany France and Italy began toying with the idea of eliminating the piston engine and the propeller altogether it might be possible they thought to power a plane with a device not all that different from a turbosupercharger but bigger and more powerful critics however warned it was folly to try to use a pure jet engine to power an airplane the scoffers said such a jet engine would have to be so big and heavy the plane could never get off the ground some claimed the jet engine would have to be lined with bricks to protect the fuselage and the pilot from the intense heat but a few young scientists persisted one of them was Britain's Frank Whittle who first wrote about the idea of jet aircraft in 1928 when as a cadet at Cranwell military school he turned in a thesis on the possibilities of powering airplanes with a gas turbine engine or turbojet he took a look at an airplane no matter how ugly or inefficient that airplane was he looked at the thought that'd be a lot better with a jet engine on it it might have been an open cockpit biplane but in his mind that plane needed a jet engine after graduation from Cambridge University Whittle began putting together a demonstration turbojet his first model ran so erratically it almost exploded and it would be three and a half years before he had a working model but it was too weak to power an airplane Whittle had been given unusual treatment by the Royal Air Force he was placed in selected positions so that he could continue to develop his radical ideas the irony of it is is that when it came time to really back his ideas the British government backed away from it he didn't get the support that he needed Whittle had no way of knowing that at the same time in Germany another bright young engineer was working on exactly the same idea Hans von Ohain had convinced one of Germany's leading airplane manufacturers Ernst Heinkel to let him build an experimental turbojet in 1936 within a year he had a viable engine and in August of 1939 the Heinkel 8178 rolled down the runway and lifted into the sky the world was about to change the first jet engine was in the air it's a very short flight and and I think that within the whole span of aviation history when you take a look at the truly momentous flights you are struck by how brief they've been the first flight of the Wright brothers the first blind flight the first supersonic flight the first turbojet engine flight they're almost all the same event if you will Germany was not about to announce to the world that it had just created the first turbo jet airplane the German Air Ministry recognized that they had a potential Wonder weapon and they also realized they would be at war very soon the ratio of the speed of an airplane to the speed of sound called the Mach number was determined by the Austrian scientist Ernst Mach in 1887 jet engines will return on modern marvels you we know we turn to jet engines on modern marvels in September of 1939 less than a month after the test flight of the world's first jet fighter Germany invaded Poland the war was on but the work on getting a jet fighter into mass production still proceeded slowly in 1939 and 40 there was no great impetus in Germany to develop the jet engine the Luftwaffe felt invincible and a propeller driven aircraft were doing just fine in early 1940 they destroy the Low Countries in the Scandinavian countries and then they're threatening Great Britain and what happens in the late summer and the fall of 1940 Germany loses the Battle of Britain now that is the moment when you start seeing a stimulus now they suddenly realized we need something else although Ornstein coal had flown the first jet-powered test plane he was now in a race with his archrival Willy Messerschmitt to develop the first mass production jet fighter for the Luftwaffe in April of 1941 Heinkel was the first into the air with his fighter prototype the innovative hg 280 but a year later his competitor Messerschmitt had an even better jet fighter the me-262 the 262 was a superior airplane had higher speed higher range better arm package so it was selected for production it was designed basically to destroy American bombers that could do that very well because it had a tremendous speed advantage over them it had a tremendously powerful cannon arm and to do that 17 me-262s were ordered for tests and evaluation when Nazi air ace Adolf Galland came to Messerschmitts test center to fly one he was amazed at its effortless power and speed which far surpassed the performance of a Luftwaffe is piston engine planes accompanied by only a whistling sound my jet shot through the air this is not a step forward this is a leap it will guarantee us an unbelievable advantage so long as the enemy sticks to piston propulsion meanwhile in England Rolls Royce had taken over development of Frank whittles turbojet and together with a Gloucester Aircraft Company they created the Gloster Meteor twin engined fighter which had its first test flight in March of 1943 but the Germans were the first to send squadrons of jet fighters into battle 225 me-262s were delivered to the Luftwaffe in 1944 allied pilots would soon be shocked to see this completely new bird of prey swooping down on them at speeds that seemed impossibly fast I think from now.i pilots standpoint what they were astonished at was encountering a fighter that could put its nose up and seemingly defy gravity and simply climb vertically away from them that came as a real shock u.s. fighter pilot Bob Hoover shot down over the Mediterranean in 1944 saw his first jet from a German prison camp I thought my goodness we've lost the war because he was going so fast I couldn't believe that there was anything like that in existence and I thought boy I might be in this place forever in one of the largest aerial armadas in history in March of 1945 the Allies sent 1,200 Flying Fortress bombers to attack Berlin escorted by more than 600 piston-engine fighters the Germans scrambled 37 me-262 jet fighters to intercept them and the lightning-fast Jets although outnumbered nearly fifty to one managed to down eight Allied bombers and one fighter but the me-262 came too late to make a difference in the wars outcome from 1944 onward as the war worsened for the Nazis German jet design began to show signs of desperation some of these fighter concepts were utterly bizarre and so you started seeing we had little fighters like the Heinkel 162 the so-called Fulks Yaga built out of plywood with a jet engine on the back of the airplane behind the pilot while the Messerschmitt 163 Komet which was a rocket-propelled fighter that used to hypergolic fuels in other words when the fuels were mixed they would spontaneously combust that was actually far more dangerous to his pilots than it ever was to the Allies you had piloted surface-to-air missiles the Baucom Nadder you had piloted at a surface guided bombs many of these would have required years some of their projects would have required decades to develop the price of these ineffective projects was fewer effective planes like the me-262 and the Arado 234 the world's first jet bomber meanwhile the British led by Frank Whittle had their first jet fighter ready to go in late 1944 called the Gloster Meteor it helped intercept German v1 buzz bombs which were powered by a pulse jet a jet engine that took intermittent gulps of air producing the strange sound that gave the buzz bomb its name the British Gloster Meteor and the German me-262 never met in battle and the war was over before either of them could have any impact on the outcome the US lagging far behind never did get a jet fighter into active combat in world war ii and during the war US military authorities initially had no idea how far behind they were they also had very little incentive to take great bold leaps if you will because of the funding that was provided the military didn't provide funding for experimental research general HAP Arnold of the US Army Air Corps arranged for the importation of Frank whittles jet engine technology from Britain to the United States the General Electric Company in Lynn Massachusetts under conditions of great secrecy rivaling the Manhattan Project began developing an American version of the Whittle jet the GE engine based in an American testbed airplane called the P 59 era comet powered the very first American jet airplane secret testing of the P 59 began in 1942 at Muroc dry lake california now known as edwards air force base which was used as a training base for young pilots learning to fly piston engine fighters to disguise the p 59 a fake wooden propeller was placed on its nose when it was moved across the base pilots on the south end of the lake were not really quite certain what was going on but every now and then some would return to base with stories of an absolutely incredible encounter they would be flying along and all of a sudden an airplane would fly alongside with no propeller on or whatsoever they were probably even a little more disturbed when they peered up into the cockpit and saw what appeared to be a gorilla wearing a derby hat and waving a stogie at them well that gorilla wearing the Derby and smoking the stogie was bells chief test pilot Jack Williams Jack decided that it would be a thrill enough to fly a jet alongside them but he'd go one better went down to Hollywood got a gorilla suit got the stogie got the Derby and he was off and running and apparently the shrinks here on base had managed to convince these guys that they had not seen what in fact they had seen because after all everybody knows an airplane can't fly without a propeller Jack Williams would later lose his life in 1946 in the crash of a plane he was preparing for an air race but the P 59 that Williams helped test would pave the way for an exciting new generation of US aircraft the Boeing 747 has carried enough passengers to equal one-fourth of the world's population about one and a half billion people jet engines will return on modern marvels we now return to jet engines on modern marvels as testing of the very first u.s. jet continued at Muroc dry lake in california it became evident that it was too slow to be the airplane the military was hoping for the P 59 would have been a very comfortable nice propeller driven fighter what it is it's basically a piston engine propeller fighter without the piston engine without the propeller and with two jet engines buried in the wing roots it had very little combat potential but it was a tremendous learning tool completely unaware of the top-secret P 59 program Kelly Johnson of Lockheed went to the US military with a plan for a radically different jet aircraft Willis Hawkins was a young airplane designer working for Johnson at the time finally a senior colonel asked him to come into his office and he said first thing you got to shut up about that airplane of yours secondly we've got a twin-engined airplane it's flying today jet engine and it's no damn good he said if we give you a specification for an engine that's already running and will you go home and make us a proposal two weeks later Johnson submitted his unique proposal and three weeks later he had a contract to build America's first operational jet fighter the p80 it was the beginning of Lockheed's top-secret skunk works division the advanced aircraft unit that would go on to build many legendary airplanes including most recently the stealth fighter he was given a contract to conduct at Lockheed virtually an experiment in not only in the aircraft but in production he demanded and received authority to have a sequestered workplace to have no government interference to be able to do a minimum of paperwork starting with the p80 program one of Kelly Johnson's rules at the skunk works was never to separate the engineering department from the manufacturing Department Willis Hawkins saw the value of that rule when he was in the office of one of the FA T's designers her of Culver the manufacturing Department on the floor below called up to say they needed a part designed to brace a small curved section of the bulkhead well herb said let's go down to the shop and he took a piece of cardboard and fiddled with it and then cut it with scissors until it fit bent up the edges and he said make it like that out of those 60 aluminum the guy's fine and he said bring it back I got to make a drawing of it and that was what was meant by the communication with the shop the OL new PE ad could fly at 560 miles an hour about a hundred and fifty miles an hour faster than the P 59 Bob Hoover who saw his first jet from a German prison camp was now a test pilot in the p80 program contending with early jet engines that after five hours would overheat and malfunction those days we didn't have ejection seats and you knew you had to get it on the ground quickly or you were a lot of trouble because if the front light came on that meant it's gonna blow up pretty quick and and you've had it that's it either shut the engine off and glide it in or you made sure you got it on the ground as quick as you could in the world of fighter aircraft models designated P like the p80 are prototypes if and when they are eventually produced as operational jet fighters the P becomes an F as in F 80 the f80 shooting star became America's first production jet fighter in 1944 had led to the more advanced and powerful f-84 thunderjet in 1946 it was the first u.s. jet to have an ejection seat an idea that was copied from the Germans Bob Hoover was the first to use one in an emergency or at least try to use one it happened when the jet engine on his test plane suddenly malfunctioned it's very abrupt when one of the jet engines freezes that whole airplane lurches like that and now it's just pitching over and I'm completely out of control and so I thought well here we go with this seat and so I reach down and pull a channel and nothing happened but then I opened the canopy and were sucked right out and the reason for the ejection seat is to get you're over the tail to avoid killing the pilot by hitting the tail I went right into the tail and broke both legs right through the knees and landed way up in the Antelope Valley there near death from shock and exposure Hoover was eventually picked up by a farmer who saw his parachute in the sky and searched for the downed pilot for hours the move into a jet fighter was a very pleasant experience Marty Knudsen logged more than a thousand hours as an f-18 pilot in Korea after first flying a piston engine fighter suddenly you didn't have to worry about having the right rpm for the power you were pulling and the mixtures there was none of those controls we had a go handle he offer fast but American jet pilots soon faced a formidable opponent in Korea in November of 1950 an airplane appeared which absolutely shocked us the mig-15 was a Russian billed airplane powered by a derivative of the rolls-royce engine which England either through stupidity or somebody's treasonous effort had sold to the Soviet Union at a time when it was very very foolish to have done so it gave the Soviet Union engine industry a massive injection of technology immediately the whole stakes in the air superiority battle changed the f80 was not really suitable to duke it out with the mig-15 it simply had too many performance problems relative to the higher performance MIG the north american f-86 Sabre jet which arrived later in the Korean Conflict came close to matching the Soviet MIG 15 in performance aircraft designers were playing catch-up with a dramatically higher speed capabilities of jet engines the f-86 was the first u.s. jet to have its wings swept back at an angle like the make 15s which created better handling at high speeds the f-86 wasn't quite as fast as the mig-15 but flown by the better trained us pilots the f-86s were just enough to redress the balance in korea in the early days jet development and rocket development were closely related and both were used to power experimental airplanes the main difference between the two is that the jet engine uses oxygen in the air for its combustion while the rocket carries oxygen on board for its combustion that makes the rocket engine heavier what allows it to operate outside the Earth's atmosphere people made very little distinction between them both were referred to as jet propulsion the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for example when it was set up was a laboratory to investigate largely rockets there was this feeding process back and forth between the two in October of 1947 at Edwards Air Force Base Chuck Yeager in the rocket-powered x1 did something many had predicted would never be done he flew an airplane faster than the speed of sound his chase pilot on the historic flight was his good friend Bob Hoover oh it was it was considered absolutely impossible there was a us a wall of resistance that no one could penetrate with Jaeger at the controls flying at nearly 700 miles an hour at 23,000 feet the rocket-propelled bell x-1 became the world's first supersonic airplane but jet engines soon proved they were just as capable as rockets at breaking the sound barrier in 1953 the North American y f100 became the first jet fighter to break the sound barrier in level flight it was powered by the highly successful and versatile j57 jet engine made by pratt & whitney which have become the second u.s. manufacturer of jet engines along with General Electric the Cold War of the 1950s brought a mood of fear and suspicion and the jet engine found a new application in a super-secret spy plane called the u2 it all started when the CIA came to Kelly Johnson at the skunk works with an idea all the CIA said to Kelly was we want something that goes a long way and gets very high and we want pictures of you-know-who Marty Knudsen was one of the first six Air Force pilots recruited by the CIA to fly the mystery aircraft we were asked if we'd be interested in flying on a very dangerous mission that would be of great value to the United States of America any red-blooded young man says yes to that you know some of the pilots speculated their secret mission might be to fly the first spacecraft Marty Knudsen hoped it might be a new Mach to supersonic fighter the six young fighter pilots were shocked when they were taken to a remote CIA airfield and shown the Ugly Duckling they were going to be flying it didn't really look like my cup of tea being a young hot fighter pilot seeing this big long dangly winged thing sitting there it may not have been pretty but it was a jet whose specially modified engine would propel it to incredible Heights we immediately start flying an airplane the next day and being told to start laying down operational plans for missions over Russia flying the u2 was unlike anything Marty Knudsen had ever experienced as a pilot you're almost like you're living in another world you can just start to see the curvature of the earth well I guess I just say it's big ego trip I said up there 70,000 feet and look down at that man's puny effort and the world below you the u2 was also powered by Pratt & Whitney's popular j57 engine but to allow operation at 70,000 feet and higher the engine had to be virtually hand-built with much closer tolerances to minimize loss of air pressure at high altitudes it was believed the u2 could fly with impunity over the Soviet Union because no Soviet fighters or missiles could go high enough to shoot it down and at first that was true the apparent invincibility of the u2 lasted until May 1st 1960 the day u2 pilot Francis Gary Powers took off on a fateful mission over the Soviet Union I was at Buddha in Norway where he was supposed to land and I was supposed to take the airplane off on his next flight out of there I started pre breathing oxygen to fly what you need to do two hours before takeoff and he never arrived powers had been shot down by a Russian missile and captured he was sentenced to ten years in a labor camp but was released two years later in a spy exchange the u.s. announced an end to the Soviet overflights but the u2 continued to fly exactly where is still classified perhaps the most amazing thing about the u2 is that it is still flying on reconnaissance missions for the Air Force and research missions for NASA we start to see a shift in aircraft development aircraft which had been designed for months of service or several years of service now we started to see the potentiality of aircraft serving four decades of service the u2 isn't the only legendary Cold War jet still flying the b-52 bomber has been in service since 1955 and like the u2 was invaluable in the Persian Gulf in the 1990s the b-52 was yet another landmark u.s. aircraft powered by Pratt & Whitney's j57 engine the engine that won the coveted Collier trophy for aviation design the p-52 had eight day 57 engines hanging in double pods below its huge drooping wings they enabled the world's largest jet bomber to cruise at more than 600 miles per hour and drop its bombs from eight miles up beyond the reach of anti-aircraft fire walter Boyne flew b-52s as an Air Force pilot in Vietnam when you have complete air superiority you could send over a dump truck and drop bombs fronting and essentially that's what the b-52 does but no one of it would ever anticipated that the airplane we've been flying in 1999 or as it probably will be in 2019 in the Gulf War the b-52 had two rolls and the longest bomber flights ever undertaken the huge planes would fly non-stop for 35 hours from US air bases to release their cruise missiles and to drop conventional bombs on ground troops as they had done in Vietnam the b-52 attacks were devastating with a single plane able to carry 80 bombs weighing a total of 75,000 pounds the b-52 will fly well into the 21st century and possibly even in reengineer wera place the eight jet engines on the airplane perhaps with four as the capabilities of the jet engine change we realize now that airplanes in many ways alike vessels we can re-engineer package them we can if you will reinvent them of more than 1,400 Messerschmitt me-262 s built during world war ii only six are known to exist today jet engines will return on modern marvels we now return to jet engines on water marbles Venice California in the early 1950s it was known as a breeding ground for The Beat Generation a gathering place for folk singers jazz musicians poets contrary thinkers Roy Marquardt a Venice resident wasn't a beatnik but he was a contrary thinker while everyone else in aviation was getting excited about the new turbojet engines Marquardt had a passionate interest in a radically different much simpler jet engine the ramjet we were always told that Roy's first ramjet was made on a curb down in Venice California taking a hammer and some sheet metal and making a cylinder in which he could burn this the air and the kerosene or whatever sometimes called the flying stove pipe the ramjet is a metal tube with no moving parts it works only at extremely high air speeds high enough for the speed alone to compress air in the front part of the engine where it's combined with fuel and ignited the air is brought in to the inlet of the engine in this area here we have the fuel control system which controls the operation of the ramjet itself instead of a compressor in the front like the turbojet the ramjet high speed alone creates the air compression required the ramjet was first used in an operational jet aircraft in 1962 when the CIA began flying a revolutionary new spy plane made by the Lockheed skunkworks the huge graceful sr-71 blackbird because of its stunning appearance and astounding capabilities many still regarded today as the ultimate jet these huge engines used a combination of turbojet and ramjet propulsion to power the sr-71 to three times the speed of sound mythical almost magical to those who knew it and especially those who flew it the now-retired blackbird flew faster and higher than any US jet has to this day at least that's the official story although some speculate there may be even faster spy planes today that we aren't being told about the Blackbird began when the CIA brought a major design challenge to Kelly Johnson's skunk works they wanted a replacement for the u2 which flew extremely high but was slow and therefore too easy to shoot down the skunk works came up with a plane that could fly much faster at three times the speed of sound and even higher had altitudes approaching 100,000 feet one of the strongest deterrents that perhaps we had for aggressors all through the Cold War was that notion of the would-be despot or actual despot sitting down enjoying his cup of coffee or whatever and then hearing that boom and realizing that he had just been over flan in the early 1950s it was a commonly held view that while jet propulsion might make sense for military plans the jet was impractical for use on passenger aircraft for one thing the jet was seen as a fuel guzzler and therefore not economically feasible for commercial travel but that overlooked the fact that the fuel had guzzled was cheap kerosene not the highly refined expensive aviation fuel that piston aircraft were using and there was another economy the airlines were unaware of because the jet engine had virtually no vibration compared to a piston engine there was much less wear and tear on the engine and the aircraft and the time between overhauls or t-bo could be increased dramatically a lot of people think that the success of the jet age was because of the speed the main factor was the economy they would take the engines out and find the Risley they were just like new they put them back in again and then they come back again and they were still like new the time between overhauls has soared from a few hundred hours on the piston airliners of the early 1950s to more than 20 thousand hours on jet airliners today in 1952 Britain became the first country to put a commercial passenger jet into service the de Havilland comet was celebrated as a huge breakthrough in international travel but success turned to tragedy after to disastrous crashes all comets were grounded the problem turned out to be cracks in the fuselage due to metal fatigue which caused the pressurized cabin to eventually explode the first passenger jet in the United States the Boeing 707 went into service in 1958 its design was influenced by Boeing's b-52 bomber and it used the same engines suspended from the wing in pods as on the b-52 the 707 was a huge improvement over any passenger plane that it flan you can say that the jet age really began when Pan American put the 707 into service because that was the sustained service the world never looked back out of it from the 1950s onwards commercial aviation stopped being the province of an elite it stopped being the stuff of rolling as people did red carpets out to an airplane as passengers bought it it now became a mass means of communication and travel in 1958 more people flew across the North Atlantic then sailed across it that year within ten years the world passenger air travel had quadrupled it was a famous picture on the cover of Life magazine and I think it showed 42 airplanes lined up waiting to take off at Kennedy and it was becoming evident that the airlines and especially the busy hub airports were becoming congested and the answer was a bigger airplane in 1970 Boeing working in cooperation with Pan American Airways produced what is still the biggest passenger jet ever the gigantic 747 it was more than twice the size of a Boeing 707 the 747s four jet engines are so huge you can stand inside the intakes today's 747 is very different from the one that came out in 1970 the engines make half as much noise use 17% less fuel and are more powerful the original 1970 engines had about 20,000 horsepower at takeoff and today's engines have about 5,000 more that can carry more than 60,000 gallons of fuel and as a range of more than 8,000 nautical miles that means its gas mileage is about 750 feet per gallon the first 747 s in the early 70s sold for 21 million dollars today a 747 will cost you 170 million and you can order your choice of engines from either General Electric Pratt & Whitney or rolls-royce it's been the flagship of the world's Airlines now for almost 30 years so it's time for another one the next big development in air passenger travel will be just that big Airbus is developing what some are calling the super jumbo a double deck plane half is big again as a Boeing 747 and capable of carrying six or seven hundred people halfway around the world new generation passenger jet engines being produced by GE for the Boeing 777 are the most powerful ever reaching about 40,000 horsepower at takeoff nearly 30 years after Chuck Yeager broke the sound barrier the Concorde carried the first supersonic passengers in 1976 the Conchords four engines developed about 16,000 horsepower each at takeoff and propelled it to twice the speed of sound the planes development was paid for by the French and British governments which helped eliminate a competing American design eventually the Concorde planes were given free of charge to the respective national airlines in Britain and France it was never a profit-making aircraft partly because it's loud sonic boom prohibited travel over populated areas after the disastrous crash of a French concorde in 2000 all Conchords were eventually taken out of service by late 2003 I will never say you'll never see another supersonic aircraft but as long as the profits are as narrow as they are it's going to be a long time before one of the large companies such as Boeing or Airbus spend the research money that's going to be required to build a supersonic aircraft the sonic booms are a little consequence in military operations and that's where supersonic aircraft will continue to push the envelope the first jet versus jet combat occurred in November of 1950 between an American f80 and a Soviet MIG 15 over Korea jet engines will return on modern marvels two jet engines on water models in recent years the Jets more glamorous cousin the rocket engine has been getting all the attention but now the jet engine is hot again Jets combined with rockets are on the cutting edge of NASA's newest technology to take us into space NASA believes the revolutionary new scramjet could put payloads into orbit much cheaper than the rocket-powered space shuttle but a jet engine needs air to work so rockets which don't need air would take over beyond the Earth's atmosphere the scramjet is a supersonic version of the simplest type of jet there is the ramjet ramjet reaches a certain altitude it becomes less efficient in the scram Jets the supersonic combustion ramjets become more efficient at the higher altitudes and the high Mach numbers talking about Mach numbers between Mach 8 and Mach 20s this is probably the only way in the future they were going to come up with low-cost access to space another new cutting-edge development in jet engines is called thrust vectoring it allows the Jets exhaust to be aimed instantly in any direction creating great maneuverability thrust-vectoring technology was pioneered in the x31 program at the nasa dryden Research Center in California the highly maneuverable x31 staged an amazing demonstration at the Paris Air Show in 1995 the air force's new fighter jet the f-22 Raptor has thrust vectoring to a limited degree and beyond the f-22 the next-generation Joint Strike Fighter that will be used by the Air Force the Marines and the Navy is expected to have even greater thrust vectoring capability eventually some say the jet fighter will be an unmanned air vehicle or UAV like those being developed at the Lockheed skunkworks by Erik Knudsen his father former u2 pilot Marty Knudsen once flew jets over the Atlantic using a handheld sextant to navigate by the stars Eric's unmanned planes do it all with a computer chip well if I understand this right here this is the man and more something like that the pilot plus a view small unmanned air vehicles like this Sikorsky model will someday fly military reconnaissance missions through urban canyons and even inside buildings and some may be powered by tiny micro turbine jet engines the drawings and designs I've seen have engines about the diameter of a quarter or less but we're talking about engines that are extremely small very lightweight and probably a few years off in the future before they come to existence the skunk works and other US aircraft companies are also designing much larger unmanned vehicles that could someday fulfill the role of today's jet fighters one of the greatest aircraft mysteries of all time is the Aurora a top-secret US spy plane rumored to be flying since the early 1990s at speeds as high as Mach 7 it's speculated the plane if it exists may use a highly advanced form of jet propulsion unlike any we've seen so far when the legendary sr-71 blackbird was retired in 1990 many speculated the Air Force must have a new and even better spy plane in the early 1990s there were several sightings of a strange loud aircraft that left an unusual contrail described as donuts on a rope when the mysterious budget item aurora was included on an Air Force report apparently by accident the name stuck but does the Aurora really exist I have to tell you that I don't know but here's my personal opinion I think that the Aurora existed that it was flown was not satisfactory and withdrawn now that may be completely wrong but that's my opinion that view might be supported by the fact that the United States temporarily reactivated three sr-71 black birds in 1995 throughout the history of the jet engine the most mind-boggling developments have taken place in secret only to be revealed much later to an amazed public today billions of dollars are spent each year for research development and production in secret military programs if the money is being put to good use we can prepare to be amazed at any moment

The Chemical Brothers – C-h-e-m-i-c-a-l



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D-DAY: June 6, 1944: ACTION at the Normandy Beaches



This covers the landings on June 6, 1944. More than 160,000 troops landed along a 50 mile stretch of heavily fortified structures of French settlements along the coastline, to fight on the beaches in France where Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which, “we will accept nothing less than full victory.’ More than 5,000 ships and 13,000 aircraft supported this effort, and by day’s end, the Allies gained a foothold in Continental Europe. The cost in lives was high. More than 9,000 were lost, but their sacrifice allowed more than 100,000 to begin the slow, hard slog across Europe, to defeat Germany.

best to Naropa walled-in by the formidable defense in depth of the Atlantic Wall mind trapped bristling with gun emplacements and fortifications and impregnable barriers that enough is the combined Chiefs of Staff decided that frontal assault alone would not crack fortress Europe the Atlantic Wall must be vaulted and the cracking process begun from the rear the initial effort by land sea and air would be made in this area spearheaded by troop carrier and airborne forces but the fourth DD day there must be a number of lesser D days the first large-scale airborne operation was performed in conjunction will be installed on Sicily 10 July 1943 taking off from fields in Africa for dropping zones in Sicily troop carrier units transported by glider and aircraft units of the first British in the US 82nd Airborne Division's almost a year before this operation a troop carrier group transporters of parachute infantry battalion from England to start the invasion of North Africa but the invasion of Sicily was the first real test for troop carrier units which had trained in maneuvers in Texas the Carolinas and England the Sicilian operation indicated there was much to be learned but the planning of an airborne operation troop carrier aircraft was shut down by friendly forces parachute drops were widely scattered it was a tactical success however rich an experience for the units which would later participate in the assault on the continent the lesson was driven home but more navigation aids were badly needed but gliders must be landed at slow speed some type of air brake was necessary to decrease the rate of descent of gliders going into small field the protection for the nose of the glider and rough landing should be provided not only to protect the pilot but to facilitate unloading the technique had to be worked out for gliders landing on water lessons of sicily was out of the experience of the highly successful operations in the Markham Valley of New Guinea in which troop carrier and airborne forces showed the practicability of a well planned daylight operation back in the United States many lessons learned from the operations in Sicily Markham Valley and Delano were made a part of training in maneuvers the Griswold nose was developed to protect the glider and rough landing Tara – director was a definite remit landing the glider in restricted area the intercom between toplane and glider was introduced blessed landings were out glider pilots were taught a slow constant rate of descent low landing to precise spot on the ground many types of combat aircraft was suitable for towing the CG for a glider b25 of you b13 fondant as well even the PBY became a to plan note the take off the PBY before the glider here's a b-17 in dual toe Colonel Tobias even before airborne aviation engineers trained an anticipation of their probable useful building landing strips and rebuilding bombed air drums and frat troop carrier airplanes are converted in a matter of minutes into ambulance ships and from lessons learned overseas through the doctrine expressed in War Department circular 1:13 employment of airborne and troop carrier forces doctrine was put into practice and secular 113 became the blueprint for all future airborne operations airborne and troop carrier units are theater of operation forces their employment must be an integral part of the basic plan made by the agency directing all land sea and air forces in the operation the coordinating directive must be issued in time to allow realistic preparation and training by troop carrier and airborne units for the specific operation airborne troops must be employed in mass and the bulk of the force landed in a smaller area as possible the use of highly trained pathfinder teams dropped in advance to mark dropping zones and glider landing zones is essential procedures must be prescribed which will ensure that troop carrier aircraft on course at proper altitudes and on correct time schedules are not fired upon by friendly forces power pilots and the staffs of operational training groups which were committed to the United Kingdom were trained in flying prestiges of the United Kingdom before they left the state no flying was emphasized designed to prevent early detection by the enemy air crews has applied through a corridor of blackness in pointed by stitch life every aspect of operations in the United Kingdom flying control air sea rescue fly British navigation weather all phases of theatre training were covered before the unit's departed overseas maneuvers ended with gliders landing in small field similar to the potential landing zones in France live loads are in the glider airborne troops continue in that specialized tactical glider pilots are trained to stay in action with them until evacuated meanwhile in England supreme headquarters was formed the planning phase change to the Manning phase supreme headquarters Allied expeditionary force published a standing Operating Procedure which was laid on by Allied expeditionary Air Force and 21 army group the top headquarters of air and ground forces for the assault under a AAF for the 9th and 2nd tactical air forces which controlled American and British troop carrier units 21 Army Group commanded American and British and Canadian ground forces and the Airborne Division's orders for the operation had been issued to troop carrier and airborne commanders and their initial studies had been made nears or had been established between ninth troop carrier command from the AEA F 21 Army Group the Navy from ninth Air Force the 101st Airborne Division 1st Army 82nd Airborne Division and 1st Airborne Division this was the chain of command for the airborne operation the airborne planning committees headed by the air commander-in-chief of the Allied expeditionary air force was composed of representatives from all the services involved in the airborne operation Navy ground and air as well as the troop carrier command and the Airborne Division's concerned with the greatest airborne effort from history in the making a steady stream of gliders flown into England for the coming assault from the kraits in which they were shipped sandy down emerged Carrie Eric glider mechanics and air service command units have the task of rapid assembly of CG forays in addition to their normal assignment of 100 CG forays some groups had to maintain 140 horses with the usual complement of glider mechanics British ground crews helped assemble their own Horsa glider before turning them over the troop carrier this British horse are now belongs to the ninth troop carrier command operational training with the airborne division started in March three months before the assault this time troop carrier did not have to hold Freight it could concentrate on its combat and train 4/10 of work was done on column takeoffs and landings at night formation flying each group now had 73 aircraft instead of the normal 52 the troop carrier force of three wings and 14 groups contained one experienced wing and five combat wise groups from the Mediterranean the last seven of the nine troop carrier groups committed from the States arrived in England between January and March this system is used to recover gliders from small field three planes and each squadron are equipped for aerial pickup thorough coordination between ground and air is necessary for accuracy and delivery of resupply containers these men of pathfinders have combined team of troop carrier crews and parachute technicians who will drop on object of areas and set up homing devices for the main aerial convoy teams consist of 9 to 14 technical men and five security personnel the task finder school starting without president and table of organization and with little equipment turned out 50 trained troop carrier crews and 260 British and American airborne officers and Men by d-day Pathfinder airplanes were equipped with every navigational aid used by troop carrier and the flight crews and airborne teams received 30 to 60 hours training in their use both in the air on the ground British G similar to the American SS Loran has no transmitter in the aircraft but intercept signals Senate precise intervals from a master station and to slave stations the difference in time of arrival of these signals is measured and referred to a G lattice chart showing numbered lines of position the numbered lines corresponding to the measurement is the line of position the aircraft is on the instance the measurement is taken as an extra precaution the leader and the deputy leader of each main serial flew aircraft also equipped with G SC R 717 C is used by the Pathfinders and two aircraft in each main serial the picture shown on the 717 scope the nearest thing in radar to a regular map indicates such objects as shorelines Lake cities and convoys with the rain of each object the receiving aircraft appears in the center of the scope when 717 C is tuned to a buffs beacon the map is not visible the coded image shown here in the upper left quadrant is the Buffs beacon signal and indicates the range and azimuth of the beacon from the aircraft the beacons are set up in the disease by the Pathfinder all troop carrier aircraft are equipped with Rebecca the close n radar 8 used at ranges averaging 15 miles Eureka is triggered by the Rebecca transmitter in the aircraft the impost when received trips the Eureka transmitter which sends a signal back to the aircraft on a different frequency the twin Rebecca antennas by the intensity of signal received on one side of the other indicate on the scope which side of the aircraft Eureka is on and the range of the aircraft from the ground station when the signal is received with equal intensity on both antennas the aircraft is on course each pathfinder team is equipped with eight specially designed full of pain lights from which DZ light T's amazed by d-day crews who would live trained and will breathe together to navigate under instrument conditions to within 600 to 800 yards of a pinpointed position in unfamiliar territory from March through May 35 lower echelon and three full-scale Command exercises will help culminating in a full dress rehearsal for the operation to get the cotton on time and navigational aid we're exactly as would be used in the assault landing selected for their similarity to those in Normandy which intelligence showed were 900 to 1500 feet long and averaged 500 feet wide mosaics showed that the objective areas would hold 1,300 cleitus the Normandy founded by threes 15 to 75 feet high along with numerous dense hedges glider pilots were allowed to choose their own fields and release was made at Heights from 800 to 1000 feet both ideas were impractical the high relief made the gliders more vulnerable to ground fire and sacrificed accuracy and when each pilot shows his landing field there were too many conflicting patterns following this manoeuvre it was decided that leaders were to choose the landing field for the three other gliders in his element and the release would be made at 400 to 600 feet if feels small enough for practical operational training are used there are certain to be crackers of compromise must be made between realistic training and the number of gliders which may be expended on the manoeuvre one reason the percentage of force of crack-ups was be so much higher in the actual operation was that a sufficient number for expensive practice in full load landings in the small field because of their rugged fuselage construction most of the CG for a gliders which sustain damage upon landing deliver their loads of personnel and equipment in fighting condition the order of battle and the plan has given a final check at Advantech quarters ninth troop carrier command troop carrier crews the majority of which had never seen combat for approaching a state of battle readiness final briefing was held near London on the 1st of June 1944 groups will take off from their home airdromes and assemble at wing assembly points they will proceed to the command assembly point a telco then to the command departure point at Flatbush the first 28 serials will proceed from Flatbush by a gallop and Hoboken to IPs on the west coast of the sheriff or peninsula the dotted lines indicate a ten-mile white corridor in which no aircraft of any type will be fired on by surface vessels coroner's altitudes constant air speeds and time over fixes must be adhered to because air ground and naval forces have been notified of numbers and timing of our aircraft over the roof the route has been chosen to avoid aircraft assembling in UK main routes of naval convoys and flight particularly from the heavily fortified Channel Islands these these and hell's EES are in the area indicated after passing disease serials will proceed to Paducah to Spokane and Gallup and will fly a reciprocal of the outbound course distances from the various wing assembly points to the disease are from Atlanta 282 miles from Austin 197 and from Edith 192 navigation aids will be distributed as follows Yuriko will be placed in advance at Atlanta Cleveland Elko Flatbush and on both marques at Gallup and Hoboken now find two teams will place you recon all bzees and elvis only one of each nine aircraft will home on Eureka since more than this number will saturate the ground set and reduce the range buff's beacons will be placed at Flatbush Hoboken and to diesease by the Pathfinders our cult laudable lighthouses which flash a coded letter will be placed at Atlanta Boston Edith Burbank Cleveland Dallas Elko and Flatbush Paulo fan lights will be used during the night operation on the boat markers at Gallup and Hoboken and to form light at ease on all L Z's and disease the two boat markers at Gallup and Hoboken will be 100 foot boats manned by the Royal Navy and will maintain their exact position in the channel by G channels and smoke quoted by color will be used on to disease and to L Z's for the daylight serials six pal finer cereals three airplanes and each will takeoff beginning on D minus one at approximately 2200 a Pathfinder cereal illustrated by circled aircraft will proceed the main convoy into the six drop zones by 30 minutes troops from the first Pathfinder aircraft will land on the first DC at 0 0 20 or at H minus 4 and a half the first 28 cereals 24 254 aircraft in each will deliver their loads into the DS DS during darkness on d-day morning the interval between parachute cereals will be 6 minutes altitudes of all cereals both glider and parachute will be Elko 1500 Flatbush 1000 mobile water outbound 500 the main parachute formation will fly 9 ship V of B's and 18 ships water ins with a thousand feet between each nine ship formation both troop carrier and airborne decided on this formation as the best for rapid delivery of troops in maths radio silence will be maintained except in extreme emergency and Rebecca will be turned off after making the turn at Hoboken until within 20 miles of the DZ to avoid alerting the enemy all cereals will cross the IP at 1500 feet descending to 700 at the DZ or LZ after the drop or a lease is made all aircraft will be sent to 100 feet climbing to 3000 before crossing galloped on the return gallop to Elko will be flown at 3,000 feet since our bouncy rios will be using the same cara de at 500 feet the first 26 serials or 821 aircraft which will transport all the parachute troops of both the 82nd and 101st divisions will complete their drops by zero two four four about the time the first serial of parachute aircraft returns to its own base two serials each consisting of 52 aircraft towing CG for a gliders will take off from these airfields the interval between glider serials will be 10 minutes these gliders will be released over the L Z's about zero four zero zero still and darkness which will conclude troop carrier operations until 1900 of d-day the static of Cup will be used for all glider marshaling and takeoff this system with all toe planes and gliders hooked up and fought prior to takeoff time enables each combination to take off at intervals of less than 30 seconds the control procedure used will be the standard sled and Jeep combination indicated the sled and marker attached to the Jeep by a rope the same length as the tow rope indicates to the tow plane pilot when he taxis alongside it that the slack is taken up the signalman on the sled gives the tow pilot the signal to take off then the Jeep moves back alongside the next tow plane and the procedure is repeated the bladder pattern will be the standard double-column i Shalon to the right with 300 feet separating the double columns three minutes from the L Z's the columns will separate so that landing patterns of separate columns will not conflict the glider will be brought to a landing over the lighted tees which will be placed in the fields and lighted by the Pathfinders 10 minutes before the arrival of the cereal four gliders make up the element because of restricted visibility and the size of the fields selected for the L Z's meanwhile aircraft of 38 group the British troop carriers will take off and form along this route after cereal tan cassis Flatbush diversionary measures for enemy radar installations will be furnished by British Stirling's which will accompany our serials to Hoboken after troop carrier serials turn at Hoboken the sterlings will continue the same course and drop window to simulate troop carrier serials they will then turn in to the coast and drop dummy parachutists the RAF will furnish three screens of four to eight interceptors each place to the south and east of the disease to attack searchlight and flak installations tank by the protection of two to three fighter groups for each aerial convoy will be furnished by the ninth Air Force on d-day at 1905 serials 208 aircraft towing 36 CG for a and 172 force of gliders will take off and begin releasing gliders into the same LZ is about 2100 all gliders will be landed by 2310 the route in this case will be the same as far as Gallup where a left-hand turn will be made cereals will proceed from Gallup to Spokane to Paducah to the L Z's make a right turn and fly a reciprocal course on the return route all future cereals will follow this route since the beaches will be secured by this time and will afford more protection from ground fire for daytime flight altitude from Gallup to the LZ will be 500 feet on the return tell Z's to Gallup will be flown below 500 climbing to cross Gallup at 3,000 on d-day plus one for cereals 200 aircraft towing 48 horses and 152 CD forays will begin taking off about 0 500 and will put the last glider into the same LZ s by about zero nine ten five hundred and twelve gliders will then have arrived in Normandy at zero four hundred on D plus one six serials 311 aircraft with power packs will begin taking off with supplies for the two divisions which will have completed their landing when the last glider lands these supplies will be dropped on the objective area in Normandy within a space of thirty minutes beginning at zero six eleven this will conclude the immediate troop carrier commitments on objectives and Normandy with further resupply dependent on the amount our forces can move across the beaches due to the movement of two additional German divisions into the peninsula the 82nd will not land at sand server the 82nd and 101st divisions will both land around San Mao eglise five miles from the east coast the 82nd division will secure the causeways and lines of communication to the north then across the inundated area to prevent any reinforcements from being brought to the beachhead the 101st division will proceed south and capture current on the forces which will come across the beach will proceed inland to reinforce this vertical envelopment Airborne Infantry filing the buses for their last land borne ride until d-day these hangers are their barracks until they climb aboard the airplanes and gliders new equipment is issued there's nothing to do now but kill time nothing that is but to keep at the peak and await orders [Applause] and grab a few moments to read letters from home and write a few lines but this is business and you want to be sure you're in business when the time comes so you take inventory of your stock and trade and keep everything clean and shining and ready overnight the ship's blossomed out in their new war paint on D – – invasion markings were applied another lesson from Sicily invade and money revealed the objective by now the High Command insisted that individuals should know that destination hours before takeoff time Terra packs were assembled and delivered to the c-47s lfts received their quotas of troops who will cross the beaches and move forward if troop carrier and airborne have done that job one glider Regiment of the 101st was to go in by boat as well some attached him supporting units to both divisions the lift or the required aircraft and gliders was not available to put them in by air as early as needed d-day – one-time narrows down gliders for the first nights operation are assembled for the takeoff ready to follow the parachute serials to France officers and men of lower echelons are briefed speeds will be not finders 150 indicated for the entire course parachute aircraft 142 the IP 125 IP 2 DZ slowing to 110 for the drop then 150 for the return trip glider pilots are told to assembly division headquarters after landing for evacuation to England and airborne general has a final talk with his men [Applause] troop carrier and airborne have their final inspection [Laughter] more than a dozen field paratroopers much their ships a parking diagram showing the location of each aircraft has been given the airborne troops each pilot has been furnished a list of his passengers era packs have checked this outfit has enough of past blood and its collective veins to justify that haircut the message from the Supreme Commander you are about to embark on a Great Crusade the eyes of the world are upon you and the hopes and prayers of all liberty-loving people go with you pilot and crew chief make a final check of the parapet here's another final check this time by the jumpmaster just before the men go aboard this triple will drop his British leg pack loaded with demolition supplies just before he lands desk Pathfinder teams board the ships that will show the way into enemy territory 925 to played in aircraft will home tonight on navigation aid set up by these pathfinders this is one minute out of one hour one day in the world's history that has rarely been equaled these are the first ships to take off in the airborne invasion of fortress Europe 2154 as the Pathfinders head for the coast of France of us c-47s move in a position for that takeoff at the head of the runway 30 minutes after the path – take off the first ethereal zips t-47s follow on the NBA his troop carrier aircraft across the channel the elide invasion fleet is already way tanker sealing had been forecast just $3000 oops clearing it DZ but actually is variable 500 to 1000 visibility is poor stand up hook up banded or no the unit landed squarely on the German 91st Infantry Division and other enemy troops these enemy units were on maneuvers and were already occupying their assigned defensive positions surprise was gained only by the leading parachute unit and subsequent serials found themselves under practically continuous ground an anti-aircraft fire while crossing the peninsula and upon landing 821 airplane loads 13,000 para troops were delivered into D Z's in less than two hours troop carrier had not planned a train for a night glider landing but more Panzers moving into the peninsula made 100 glider loads of anti-tank guns and troops essential for the initial phases it was estimated that only 50% of personnel and equipment would be available for use after the landing this calculated risk was accepted the serials were made up of the reliable cg forays which were easy to put into strange fields in darkness 0-200 time to look gliders to go Hey the briefing was accurate beehives were just as we figured the main trouble was the landing zones were not secured by the time we arrived in fact I'd say that 90% of a client has received hostile fire before landing the lighting aids were a little messed up our group was supposed to have two I never did see but one and it was out of place I understand though that some of the Pathfinder teams were neutral mind coastal defenses have softened up for the beach landing daybreak naval bombardment continued Marauders went in ahead of the troops to blast enemy coastal installations priority number one air supremacy had been obtained a long time before d-day the eighth and ninth air forces that accomplished that standing offshore the invasion craft wait as Allied planes blast the coast elide service ships come in the Marauders go on to the next phase the bombing and crippling of roads bridges waterways railheads the isolation of a battlefield in the battlefield is isolated no German reserves come through to the coast in any strength the beachhead holds and grows the Air Force files up a record number of sorties fighters blast every target it moves on any target of opportunity is legitimate prey records thought these are flown by the fighters on d-day [Applause] back in England the next flight astareal czar being muzzled for the takeoff the c-47s are doing double-duty back from the paratroop drops they're ready to take off with gliders jool codes and practiced in the States but it was not used in this operation due to the extra time necessary for air assembly under the additional marshalling space which it would require on the air drums hard pressed paratroopers land action in darkness earlier today depending on reinforcements and heavier equipment which will be delivered by these glider serials three groups of fighter cover are in takeoff position at airdromes to the south the coordinated British effort was made simultaneously by the British 6th Airborne Division transported by RAF 38 group on objectives around town particularly interesting was the delivery of 8 and 1/2 ton tanks of a recce regiment in 30 huge hamilkar gliders 29 of the 30 tanks were in action within 10 minutes after they were landed jen has made at the command assembly point air-superiority makes possible this daylight operation a CAC ended a mission for this friendly airplane as these gliders and their tow planes head into France c-47s which already have dropped their gliders pass on their way back to England to wait traffic it's congested these are areas flooded by the Germans parachutes and gliders from the previous cereal the gliders cut loose from that tail planes we have fighter cover all the way to the landing zone not even a lone German fighter was able to sneak through one of the gliders make the landing in the flooded area here are the staked fields intelligence warned us about the traps consisted of poles 12 to 15 feet long one of the tow planes crashed and burns but actually this b-47 suffered few losses some of the glider landings were rugged there were some of the patter of landing Oh plenty of dummy German and around but just as many of the real thing the man who landed here won't forget this meadow resupply ships took off simultaneously with the last flight of cereal five air fields which was designated as takeoff fields for resupply by air all resupply was directed by the Allied expeditionary air force headquarters through an agency called Couture combined air transport operations room tacking delivery loading and lashing of all supplies for aerial delivery was the job of the service command requests for air resupply were approved by the Army Group or Air Force in the field supplies have dropped meanwhile the airborne infantry had fanned out and taken initial objectives most of them after hard fighting and heavy losses now that moving through the key town of Sol merrily on the beach landing strip number one is build immediately a movable balloon barrage to protect the fields of enemies rapists d+ 4 on the still incompleted strip troop carrier begins evacuation of the wounded to airdromes convenient to base hospital he's wounded were the first to land and the first to fight on d-day blood plasma is supplied before the ships takeoff within two hours these men will be under expert care far from the front by now saw married leases well to the rear on the edge of town another landing strip is hacked out even before the landing net delayed a resupply glider comes in with more equipment well attend bad and it was impossible to move supplies across the beaches but the army which had landed had to be supplied back in England troop care is assigned the job of getting it to them [Applause] nurses and medical supplies make the trip along with shells for alive guns material brought in those first days by troop carrier I made the difference between a continued assault to Karen Tom utilizing the elements of surprise and enemy disorganization or a stole offensive helplessly waiting for supplies bogged down by weather landing snippets unmarried least handled the traffic for resupply jeeps and trucks aligned up at the field waiting to rush the supplies to the front as soon as the ammunition is unloaded the waters will be brought aboard lighters used on the first day's operation our nose used and resupply a towed back to England at inaccessible spots to claims use an aerial pickup to get the gliders back home others not flyable will be disassembled and hauled back the 82nd and 101st Airborne Division's were in action 33 and 24 days respectively the 82nd having captured saw Mary Gleason secure the bridgehead across the matter a river destroyed other river crossings protected the flank of the Seventh Army car and drove west to the dual River the 101st seize the areas assigned it destroyed bridges drove on to Karen John to establish a defense area there [Applause] troop carrier the commanding general the 82nd Airborne Division sent this commendation on two most difficult conditions including landing under fire in enemy occupied terrain glider pilots to the splendid job on the ground they rented most willing and effective service providing local protection for the division command post during the most critical period when the division was under heavy attack from three sides please express to all elements of your command who brought the division in by glider or parachute or who performed resupply missions for us our admiration for their coolness under fire their determination to overcome all obstacles and for their magnificent spirit of cooperation this is part of the price paid for 6 & 7 June 1944 1662 troop carrier airplanes were dispatched in the first 24 hours of the assault 43 were lost and 311 damaged by small arms fire a lot happened here that cameras could never get but a corporal would have pathfinders remembers we were covering the landing of the first bunch of gliders were pinned down by German fire across the field as the men came running out they stepped right into it and a toddler dropped all around us the german canon blue one glider right apart a veteran glider pilot a light glider operation means more landing casualties of extreme difficulty and unloading it is certainly not desirable if a dawn or dusk landing is at all practicable a power pilot i flew in a parachute cereal the first night and the navigation aids really worked but I couldn't see the light T which was supposed to be on my drop zone bupps was used by a little because her back on G worked so well 7:17 was used to check landfall and general position but that's about all the War Department observer who entered combat with one of the Airborne Division's troops were dropped generally in the vicinity of the disease but were badly scattered it appears that prearranged supply systems are not flexible enough for airborne combat supplies should be dropped as called for by local commanders rather than dropped in mass large-scale parachute resupply drops are wasteful and should be restricted to emergencies more attention should be paid to switching over to ground supply as soon as possible but troop carrier liaison officer our Pathfinder teams in two cases I know of suffered heavy casualties Eureka was installed in every case at times with the Pathfinder splat on their stomachs pinned down by enemy crossfire the light teeth which we expected so much help from were only ten percent operational due to enemy fire fifty percent of a resupply drop landed in enemy hands communications didn't exist to advise latest serials of changes in the enemy situation troop carrier operations and communications personnel should move with the first parachute or glider units eighty-nine percent of the horses and fifty percent of the wackos crashed in landing but 75 percent of personnel and equipment were ready for combat back from Normandy these men would have faced further tests how much they'd learned will be history history made by an airborne army

We Stand Alone Together – Band of Brothers Documentary



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We Stand Alone Together. HBO 2001, from series Band of Brothers.

[Applause] Thanks okay welcome hi thanks for sitting down with us again we appreciate it did you recount again for me the incident no what you were wounded well I was standing on the top of this hill at the aid station and a random shell came in it couldn't have gone off more than five or ten feet away from me because all I remember is a tremendous blast in a flash and the next thing I knew I was laying on the ground in the snow and I tried to get up and when I tried to get up I only thing I could see were the broken ends of my legs and I thought my legs were gone I was because that's all that my the broken part both femurs were shattered and they were laying down here as I was in my back trying to raise my legs up and I thought I'm dead you know I'm about to die and I said I said my act of contrition because I'm a Catholic and then the next thing I thought of was my mother and I thought well what's she what's she going to say because I was an only child my name is C Carwood Lipton I was born in Huntington West Virginia grew up in Huntington Frederick T heilige Concord Massachusetts was my hometown I was born in town named in Chile in Washington it's on an Indian Reservation of northeastern Washington my name's JB Stokes I was born close to Bonham Texas in a rural area called blender born and raised in Columbus Ohio my father was a work for this railroad the mother was a housewife my nickname was babe and with mother she little Irish brother right a fiery great woman great born and raised in South Philadelphia where the times were tough mom had 10 children so you had to work to survive that's what it was it's just survival in the streets of filling up this world it was a real struggle because we came up in the depression sometimes we live on a farm but have pigs and chickens and raised a garden I saw people that really really were hungry and had hard times my father was able to find some kind of employment oh no we never went hungry we lived on a farm at the time which was poor everybody was poor that was a depression when I got to about 10 I got a paper route you know that five books a month I made something like that you know but it was silly something there's a work ethic that the Pennsylvania Dutch in this particular area are very proud of I was the oldest one so I sort of branched out on my own at an early age I was married when I was 19 years old and 1941 on December 7th of 41 we were in a store and a guy he says the USA is in a war with Japan and everything just went silent I said let's go in the army he said well I don't want to go no army I'm still gonna have to go sooner or later something was wrong with you if he weren't in the service in those days it was just what you had to do I wasn't gonna be in the infantry I knew that we're gonna be in some top kind of a unit or I wasn't gonna be in the army Life magazine had run an article on paratroopers sometime early 1942 and it told about the training that they got and the difficult physical requirements and I just got interested and and seeing if I couldn't look on the paratrooper nobody forced you to do this you volunteered and it was the notion that you wanted to do something he wants to be with the best but once you got in there you was proud to be it was proud of our boots we're proud of our shoulder patch and we was proud to be paratroopers and was proud to be working with the guys we were working with you know these people that you're in service with you know those people better than you will ever know anybody in your life I mean you know I'm right down to the final thing you know and that that comes when you start your training while that that progresses each man we like a heavyweight champion of world boxing out of 100 percent only 10% they thought I was gonna die there what no holding back had to hang in there he had to be tough we marched under 18 miles three days the training I got and the men I trained with gave me the confidence to to go into battle we were just a bunch of ordinary kids when we went in most of us and a lot of this training was to build you up physically and mentally someone lost as much as 40 pounds but I didn't have done to lose I weighed about a hundred and thirty I lost 40 pounds I wouldn't been big enough to state you know they weeded out so many we they CLE there one day and they'd be gone the next they couldn't keep up with you understand that were good men but they couldn't take that hard training but you had the cream of the cream the cream had to climb this mountain called ker he every every morning run it up and back if you couldn't do it why you'd end up in another unit of course the name curry as I understand it means we stand alone together that's a an Indian name it became a symbol of the camp because it was really rough and tough going up and down a lot of times on especially on a Monday when some of the guys would get out somewhere and get him a little drink or so uh you see him laying beside the road you know going up and coming back you know or they're sick and it didn't matter how hard they train you and how tired you got you would still go out on your own and run the mountain at night which was ridiculous because we had to run it during the day all you did was bitch and moan and at night they'd get a couple of guys and go up and do it on your own we learned how to be soldiers at Toccoa as a group all of us coming in from no experience in the army at all coming in directly from civilian life I'm gonna say this I believe that the paratroopers of the hundred and first Airborne Division was as well-trained as you could get a soldier to be it's that time we packed our own shoots for the first gen services held getting on the plane you're asking yourself what the hell am I doing here I came time to stand up and hook up we did coming down a great it affects everybody different I like a bird fly in the air foot on the first water drop in 16 Jesus second I can remember just like it was yesterday that morning after breakfast they marched us all out there to the airfield there was a bunch of guys out that already made that jump and they those all hard and you're gonna be sorry you know you didn't want to be afraid you know because all these other guys are right there with you and some you know your bravado and all that but you didn't want to be afraid so you kept that out of your mind you know in those days jumping out of an airplane it's not like today my first flight up I jumped I was years before I ever landed an aircraft and most of the day and the trapillo troopers was the same story well foolishly I didn't think it'd be too tough but the first time the first jump you make is not not all that bad you don't know what you're doing just seem like when you step out the door what you shoot just opened right there as I went out the door I was blank I cannot remember leaving the plane until after the chute opened up my god but after that it wasn't as bad but it was good quite a thrill it was just like going on a roller coaster you get off and you wanna go right back on again yeah it was a thrill it was a high as they say these days everybody just seemed to enjoy them so they went up the landing was the hardest part once I got out and if you told me I was happening a lot you know coming down is great I was small – and I didn't hurt myself when I hit the ground some of the big ones hit the ground like a ton wasn't they the thing you're worried about most was your chute did you pack it right then you'd go through that you pack it one day and jump the next day you had all night to think about it yeah all kinds of ideas of what you might have done wrong or that worked out fine if we made five jumps and the third week there and then you were qualified paratrooper got your wings pinned on and became one of the elite members of the parachute regiment we were thoroughly prepared the men were trained hardened physically and mentally and they were ready to jump the Swede started off Rinaldi when you walk up that gangplank you know you're gone as you pull out a harbor and you pass the Statue of Liberty will I ever be coming back I don't know you know you're in the paratroops you're gonna be jumping behind the enemy lines what do you expect you have no idea that'll make anybody standing searches soul for a few minutes we will ready we were ready we ever were stationed in England for about a year before d-day we had a lot of maneuvers and parachute jumping they put us in a camp preparing us for d-day in other words our just about a week before d-day they put us and no liberties no nothing you couldn't get out he came they had guards around the marshaling area so nobody could leave that's when you felt that this is it we did not know which day we did not know we were gonna jump until we were locked in then they had the briefing to tell you exactly where but your mission was and they took a this map and they made a scale model of the features of the land that put in all the little buildings all the bridges all the little Knowles all the sand dunes everything was in oh let me call that dub layout we knew it by heart we knew exactly where we go no knew exactly what to do I mean if you could could have been there at the time to see where the planes were lined up and all the gliders hooked up to the planes tanks and trucks and fields and fields and fields of them I had no idea that there was that much hardware so there's no question about it we know we're gonna be bait and I'd day that you know we got the orders to get in the planes this is it we had confidence in our leaders and all the plans and preparations that had taken place before the invasion saw we were we were competent and calm we were all loaded down to the gills we carried everything that we thought we could carry in the line of personal items plus they're necessary things we were assigned to carry and and we were loaded everybody got in there and a lot of them were very scared I was scared too but probably in a different way that other people were as long as I was in that plane and they were going to get me there safely out of that plane that's all that I worried about at the time I had no feeling whatsoever like I said my feelings was for my brother who was killed at that time that they didn't even know him and that's one day when I jumped on d-day and I swore I swear I want to kill every damned German I came across and that's why I think they nicknamed me Wild Bill because I did a lot of killing d-day the sky was pretty clear coming across the channel so since I was jump master I could lie in the door at the door of the plane with my head out in the slipstream looking down and I saw the thousands of craft ships everything from LC eyes to battleships down there and the channel and I think that's when I first realized how large the invasion was tremendously large the invasion was we rode for about an hour and a half I guess before we got they went down off the south end to England and then across the Jersey islands and then across the Cherbourg Peninsula and that's when the fire work started black was terrible being a Crip is absolutely horrendous it was like July the 4th celebration 10 times over then it would hit under the wings and body and you could hear gumbo like gravel it undefendable car you could see tracers all over the place that's why everybody wanted to get out of the plane as fast as they could it was high low no matter where we were out they went it out of the plains they were getting shot up but finally the the pilots I'm just happened to read their mind this okay we got so much gas and we're going to have to get back to England so what are we gonna do with all these guys back here give him the green light sometime get out we're standing there ready John there was a certain relief I think when the green light came on and everybody said let's go then I jumped up on the run and hit the static line with the hook and out the door you know and got such an opening blast from their opening shock from a prop lesson it broke his chin strap that we had on this helmet liner and that's when I lost this famous leg bag that everybody talks about just from the shock of the opening just flew right off my foot the British come up with us they called my leg bags they gotta be this big and you keep stuffing everything you can get hands on in them it's by the way 1015 pounds by the time you get done it's 40 or 50 or 60 pounds everyone that jump with a leg bag or supplies they lost it most of the part troops are landing didn't have nothing I was it tore right off because we jumped at speeds are a hundred and fifty miles an hour maybe even higher I don't know and lower than we should have been but that wasn't bad either because you got the ground quicker we went out the door opened a look to see if my parachute was opening you could see tracer bullet burning holes through the parachute they told us that all you'll have to do shove up to the door throw that leg out probably still hit it you're gone well there they were right only I was gone out and my leg was in and I was hanging upside down looking at everything down with my leg in the plane and everything all this happened in just a split second and Paul rolled me out Paul Rodgers roll roll me Alan I just helped him out I just picked the heavy throw him out I guess had to get out we we just wanted to get out so bad and I come down right behind City Hall watch them shoot at me all the way I had which wasn't very long and I could see the tracers and they were kind of spraying around in there the whoever the machine gunner was down there that was concentrating on me apparently was not a very good shot but they were firing in every direction even front of you back of you you don't know which way to go the next thing is that you are getting close to landing and you're saying there's some trees there's a road try and slip to avoid the trees trying to slip to avoid landing on the road and I'll slip a little bit and my chute fell across the powerlines and I hit that fence and fell into a farmer's garden and that fence had I'll never will forget it had glass on the top of it and cut me up and everything right I didn't bother me I just I was down and I got down with my gun I hit the ground in a kind of a feel and we were way way got looking a map and we wasn't anywhere close to where we supposed to be we didn't know where we were we splob off her maps at didn't give us so we had to make our way back we knew that the beach was to the east of where we were so we headed that way to get down to the beach to find out where the outfit was my friend from Erie was in another plane when I hit the ground I hit about two feet away from him and him and I starts walking around looking for more of our troops and we were running into Germans everywhere but we had to hide you know because if we didn't we were dead meat and I let in a tree I had my trench knife I reached up and grabbed a hole that's big it's a big trunk the tree I swung into it I sweat I cut those risers well I think one swipe and I come down that tree like a monkey and then there I was with a trench knife and a canteen and about six candy bars and ready to fight the German army you know so there's four guys that were with me on d-day who did have nothing but a jump knife when they landed so we had a hope scratch as it worked out for all of us later on we run across somebody who had been killed and you take his weapon and that's how you you get a weapon for d-day brother haphazard we were scattered all over the peninsula practically so it was quite a confused situation but we were better prepared for it than the Germans where the Germans didn't know where we were for hours on the beach those people coming in on that on those boats those Germans had those big guns aimed right at them you know I'm just waiting on them oh they hit tough they had it tough I'm Arianna these guns were pointed and flying right down on the beach and that people enter the landing craft were trying to come on to the beach and they will find right down off this battery of 105's was placed precisely where it should be to protect that causeway any troops coming up the causeway as you sit back years later on a look at it you think oh this was laid out exactly right tactically we thought we knew where every foxhole was in Normandy we knew where everything was we knew it cold but on this one the Germans had moved in there and camouflaged us so well we didn't know it was there he company was the assault company the battalion and we were been trained from special assaults and whatnot special assignments but they weren't aware of what we had and realize we only had 12 people so we we worked our way down through a through the farm area to a hedgerow and lieutenant winters had a set up a firing position and went up to Scott it for myself crawled up along this hedgerow get a little closer look it over and I felt I could see a trench and I thought I knew where our machine gun was Winters was a an exceptional leader and he was able to size up all through the war signs up combat situations and decide quickly and correctly the best way to take care of them whatever the problem was I divided the group into two you know it's lieutenant Compton was with me I gave him half the men and I took after the man gave instructions I want Compton malarkey and winter crawl up there and hand grenade that machine gun crawl through the grass and as you throw your grenades I'll charge up with the rest of the guys so I had the two machine guns set up to give him covering fire while he crawled up there I get out to this hedgerow and I peeked I look out my piece through the bushes and I see a couple of gentlemen's over here about 30 50 yards away dokin has gun and firing it so I pull out a hand grenade and I pull the pin on the light as high and as far as I can fraud so in their general direction of dancing and enough hang time was about the time I got to them with one off in the air and I got one of them then I jumped up with a couple of other guys and we charged so that we all jumped into the first position together they had trenches cutting there where they worked the Germans did and they jumped down in EM trenches and they worked them Germans for lack of notice all three Germans broke off from this position to run across the field which was the wrong thing to do from their viewpoint we cut him down I was in a transient and I looked and I saw an arm I didn't even see that man was in a camouflage tent and I didn't even seen it and then I saw an arm stuck over that tent and one little potato masher grenades you know with a stick come over and in it now so what he's gonna miss me and that thing fell right down in that trench with me and I'll trying to scuttle to my way out of the way of it and went off and I felt like it blowed my butt over my head and Bernier did he's behind the enemy lines on d-day does he help or help no he's ours I'm sorry lieutenant I'm sorry I goofed I felt like I gotta let him down but you know that's neither here nor there thank God it's beautiful when you think of her guy who is that dedicated to his company to his buddies that he apologizes for getting a hit but that's the kind of guy who wasn't that's the kind each one of them was they were all the same I look upon them each man with great – respect respect I can't describe each one I'm proved himself that he could do the job we had been through Normandy we had been through battle and maybe if I had been harder if I had done a little bit better job there would have been a couple more men going home I never thought I'd get through d-day let alone the next phase or the next phase I thought I was gonna get killed instantly the chances of survival is very very slim extremely slim as the parachute they got that done and where Edinburgh Scotland 1944 me and Johnny Martin drunk as a skunk well garner and I decided we'd go to Scotland get a tattoo didn't we didn't figure out a chance come at ya but we said we thought well hell the war's just start and Christ for 50% not gone now though it's long haul the one hundred and first came back from Normandy after about thirty three days and we were the replacements for the people who were killed in action are wounded in the Normandy mission there were young kids that came in and for some reason I don't know why they were the first ones killed and I think maybe they were trying to impress the older guys maybe people like me or shifty we were in all of them they were wearing infantry badges you know that uniform they had a star on their jump wings they they were like heroes to us you know that's how we look at them I don't know why but I got right there to her I didn't want to be friendly with replace was coming in because god I didn't like see him get killed I just it just tore me up and that I don't know what but they were the first ones killed my ten-man squad that I was in eighth war replacements the squad leader and the assistant squad leader sergeant muck and corporal pink ella well they've been to Normandy we had not the or eight of us hadn't been anywhere about Auburn you say so and then we the training got really tough between there and in the Holland jump that was training training training and we had a couple of missions scratched we were supposed to jump on a French city of tournay and then it got to the sand table part where we all gathered around to see which bridges we were going to who's gonna do what and General Patton's troops over ran the drop zone so that one was called off and we were wondering if we were ever going to get to go and then of course it got to be September it was a Sunday afternoon noontime 70 degrees the drop was perfect there was a mass drop everybody was dropping on the same field daytime drops a lot easier you can see where you're going you can sort of prepare for the landing I saw a plowed field nos slipped right over and I believe almost landed standing up you know soft a great job the most dangerous part about it was the fact that people are losing continues and helmets and equipment and all this equipments raining down and if you got hit like this are gonna be killed or wounded before I get off the drop zone everybody got together you will assemble it very fast we moved out towards the Wilhemina canal our mission was first to pick a bridge over the well amino canal it took us hours to get there and taking hours to get there the few German troops that were to secure this bridge had plenty of time to set their charges to blow the thing up and just as we got to it I was maybe a hundred and fifty yards away that blew up in our faces these rocks and timbers were flying then they're falling all around you and yes can't help but think yourself my god what a way to die and come back to be killed with a flying timber that we were that close it delayed us until the next morning we wanted to get across that night but it took us until the next morning to get across but once we got in the dutch third day it was just marvelous there their reaction they they loved Americans and still do coming in there and pushing the Germans out they caused angels from the sky which we were I mean you you're under German occupation for four years right it's horrible when you see pouty up has come out of sky on Sunday morning who are they they're angels they love you they're welcome was unbelievable they couldn't restrained her how happy they were to see you and it was hard to even get down the streets because the people who are out there swarming all over his trying to congratulate us for being there and all that and they hugged you kissed you we didn't mind you know nicely was yeah we didn't mind at all and they were really proud to see us and to the point where it was dangerous for us trying to clean out the town because snipers did some damage in the situation like that we had a lot of fighting that in that area because we're sitting right on the Rhine River and Germany's right across the river they're fighting like heck to keep us out of Germany it's called the island we call it the island and we set up positions there that's a substantial battle so they could observe any movement we made during the daytime and at their will they could to shell us mortar mortar fire on us when they had an opportunity of opportunity I heard something coming down I knew what it was a mortar shell and I threw my arm up like that and went down it but within three feet of me or four but it lets when it blows it goes up like that honey what's through my arm and hit me in a head and eyes that's bleeding pretty pretty good I was picked to go up on a dike so I of course when you get to the top you don't expose yourself I took my rifle and my helmet on it and put it over even with the road on a dike no action spike rotted back down put the helmet on and I sort of peeked over when I peeked over I see a hand there with potato masher and he threw it at me I ducked down it hit my helmet and bounced off so when I think bounced off my helmet I hollered out to the guys below live grenade if last neski hadn't holla'd live grenade and i had enough sense to know that that's that grenade that hit my rifle in his laying right in front of me in my face practically i know how to either had my head blown off or i would have definitely been blind there's no question about that not anyway because i just got turned just partway and it exploded and then it caught me in the face neck left arm under the arm in the shoulder blade I hollered for them to know take off I said get the hell going back and I had eight grenades so I started taking them off pulling the pins and throwing them over and while the grenades are rolling down or landing wherever they were they were hitting some of the Krauts because I could hear screaming hollering cry and no and I think I threw the eight grenades in about four seconds and then I took off running so the doctor that counted the holes and made down at Nijmegen yeah I'm Megan the first doctor that really counted the hole I said they was 32 that was our first experience with artillery in large numbers and I can remember sitting there at night a couple of nights listening to the artillery land Wham and the 88 was the fiercest cannon con that the Germans had then it was the way they used it was an all-purpose gun that could shoot any aircraft tanks and a personnel airburst and that was the bad ones when the shell went up over your head I saw a huge mushroom cloud from the shell and Joe Toye stepped out and I run up I remember it like it was just I ran up and I grabbed me and he said oh don't touch me I said yo what's my said I'm hit all over he said ah I'm bad I said okay I said I'm gonna go see Jim he said as bad as he was hurting Joe Toye he said Heffron I already checked him he's gone Jim Campbell might be alive today if the adness said to me Efrain you stay here would you go I'm going up and I never never never I sleep on it I eat on it I never know never forgot that anybody know went through it no I tell you the same thing they can't not it's just so bad all your life you got to remember what one guy did because he thought it was his job to do and he took a shot for you the exhaustion on these men the physical exhaustion effects their endurance to be able to cope you don't realize it at the time you come off the line from living in the mud and being absolutely miserable for 70 days straight you didn't realize at that point it you're only going to be off the line for a few days and you're gonna be facing Bastogne this is the last desperate action of the Germans to turn the tide of this whole war what is it is best phone oh it is this is so Jax voyages right it is the woods sure looks different a lie right no snow these trees might have been replanted because I think if the trees look like they did in 44 and 45 we could get a better idea I'd say yeah that's a ton of food oh this is definitely the area this one is definitely well there's the town of Foy right over there a pretty empty field with those cattle grazing half a mile away yeah we had an outpost set up looking right into the channel for you and they had to watch everything going on because we'd come in and go to sleep we had all foxholes right over here and the other area and the other area wherever we ought to move out and dig in again of course the clouds had plenty of artillery most intense I went river is shallow most intentional world you couldn't believe it you had to be here he just overall just praying that's it isn't it comes in you ain't gonna know it you ain't gonna know we lost muck and Penkala over on this side they were killed instantly showing that right there they know it made mincemeat out of them George he was come over here I can't see nothin love them there's nothing that they were all gone just disintegrated unmerciful showing really everything I think was shredded shredded so it's an odd feeling to me it brings a lot of memories memories of man the times wooden bed I remember it was the most miserable place I've ever been in my life even today a real cold night we go to bed and my wife will tell you the first thing I'll say is I'm glad I'm not invested on the Germans wanted to get Bastogne because of the road network that's why it was such an objective so that's where we had to hold which we did 318 trucks come in around noon time and by that evening everybody was loaded and moving out we were short of equipment we didn't have enough ammunition we didn't have enough warm clothes but we had confidence that our higher military authorities would get to us whatever we needed that when we got up there we didn't know what we were getting into there was very little information only the Germans had broken through we've downloaded on the trucks and another truck came by with weapons and a pitchout bitch weapons refer to the truck you catch a weapon that's what you got until you got the best of them as it worked out there's some men actually got on the trucks and left for Bastogne didn't have a rifle when we got there we saw men and singly and in twos and threes working their way back some of them even without weapons without equipment they were some of them were terrifying they were beaten a neighbor when I'm with telling us you know they're gonna kill everybody they're running over everybody they couldn't believe when they saw us up there that we intended to set up defensive lines and to stop the Germans they said they couldn't be stopped we went out and we started taking up their weapons and their ammunition asking the guys let's retreat you've got the extra ammunition or a hand grenade you know what oh yeah you could hear this fire going we're marching towards it with hardly any ammunition we marched through the night and went up to the forward side of Bastogne and dug in and then it snowed snow cold up to your rump I didn't have no winter clothing or nothing that's or a third of they're all gone casually roses either frostbite her transferred whatever you want to call it bad move a lot of snow not everything you didn't like good cold place at this particular time we it's on top of a kind of a hill on top of the hill had pine trees and we set up our positions around a fringe of the woods in Belgium the trees are planted they don't grow like they do in Maine there are rows of trees you look down a row and you can see a half a mile and there was on top of this hill there was a ridge with the tree line we were dug in on that Ridge chairman's knew right where we were and they really gave us a shellacking two infantrymen and in wartime the mother earth is your best friend and you always dig your hole and get out of sight you know we dug plenty of those you'd be surprised how quick you can get through that hard ground when somebody's shooting at you Dempsey also phone and you can make face work we just have to dig that hole I always say we came experts on foreign European soil we dug in and two people could dig up in a hold of one in the ground was frozen it takes quite a while you just chip it out and by the time you get it done they whistle for you too we're moving out and you go someplace else and dig another one yeah must understand the Germans were we were surrounded the Germans were about maybe a hundred hundred yards away from us no matter where you looked around a circle you could see artillery flashes so you knew from we knew from that we were surrounded but we went through a couple of fillings at Bastogne that were earth-shaking if you'd lived through them you remember them for the rest of your life and I'm not sure you're the same for the rest of your life after your literal you never forget them it was one moment there that I remember vividly I'll never forget it when a guy got hit in the arm with a piece of shrapnel took his arm off above the elbow they were gonna take him out he said give my wristwatch up to my arm before he took him out I'd always stayed with me I mean I call them voiced everything get my wristwatch off of my arm on the 3rd of January we withdrew back to our former positions there up the hill from Foy and when we got there we could see that the Germans had zeroed in artillery their trees will knock down branches were knocked out of trees there were holes in the ground it was right at dusk and the Germans had this you know this woods of ours rural didn't completely and and as we hit the woods why this tremendous artillery attack came they knew where we were and they started shooting point-blank eighty eight's into our area they were letting us have it everything everything in the kitchen sink mortars barrel whoppers that's a rocket thing that's a screaming sound I mean I was scared but I think I was petrified then I'll do it the whole I thought the whole world was shooting at us at once I jumped into a foxhole that somebody had started and then hadn't finished so I was crouched down in that foxhole but I wouldn't hold all of myself for about my nose up was was above the ground I could see all these shells hitting Oh sergeant Guarnere lobster Lake and Joe Toye lost a leg in the same place right there I went one Hill I remember there's this certain instance you know Joe got caught not near his hole and Bill and I were ahead of him and and Bill had not been hit and he came up out of the out of his hole quickly and we were still under heavy fire Joe said Jesus Christ what what do I have to do to die he got hit real bad the back of my leg and he's out there and I'm a medic and he claims 10-point a medic I went out to see what I could do for Bongo I got it too I went over to Guarnere he was sitting on the ground his leg was badly mangled he was holding his leg and it was jerking like that and he said lip they got old Guarnere this time he had been hit before but they really got him there we got him out of there like babe Heffron a nine some others and and they brought a jeep down and we put him on stretchers and and I'm going to talk about it they're not talking about it it's terrible we had lost some very good men there toy and Guarnere had lost her legs there a number of other people were killed it was a difficult situation when a man was wounded we felt glad for them we felt happy for them he had a ticket to get out of there and maybe a ticket to go home and we had a man who was killed we found that he was at peace and he looked so peaceful and / glad that he found peace we had this assistant squad leader named a mallet he was from New York City and I overheard him talking one time this was in Bastogne he says I've been through Normandy and I went through Harlem and to this day he says I haven't got one scratch he says I'm afraid when I do get it I'm really going to get it and he was right and there's a little town of Foy he got killed so uh I don't think he had any premonition of it he just he just wondered about it you know but I never did wonder never give it much thought yeah you just lived in the day to day keep your fingers crossed and that was it it is a great personal journey to be here today to take part in the ceremony that is unique in American history never before has a full division been cited by the War Department in the name of the president for gallantry in action this day marks the beginning of a new tradition in American army with that tradition therefore will always be associated the name of a hundred and first Airborne Division and a Bastogne good luck and God be with each of you those Germans had started to surrender they still had their arms but as you're going down the the Autobahn there was almost a solid line of German troops coming north and our job is to get to the end and get to the heart of it birches garden that's the end of the line it's the retreat that Hitler had for himself and he built his Eagle's Nest his penthouse on top of the ALP Terra I'm sure relaxing confer with his staff because they all followed him to birches garden this was their final retreat and of course this is where they had their there lived as well this was the goal of a French who were on our right flank this is a goal of the British and this is a place to capture this is the one everybody wanted Hitler's Berchtesgaden retreat burned by SS troops and the war's last days the chalet from which he hoped to rule the world now lies in ruin American Air Forces pictures show the huge gutted rooms and the great window through which the Fuehrer gazed out on the Alps we took British guys made 1/5 and no fightin no shootin the only thing I seen approaches God was a couple dead black uniform SS troopers laying on a road as we were born up it was beautiful country he knew how to pick out a good spot for a house we took over his house and liberated it you might say there was obviously a loot of all kinds that the men were looking for such as good there was money that they were looting I was a pack rat anyway I picked up a lot of German items including some postcards and envelopes that were dressed a Hitler don't find that that place was full of this big art you know Rembrandt and all those people you know and hanging on the wall you know course Oh soldiers like yes we don't recognize a painting let me see it the 101st Airborne Division uncovers Hermann Goering –zz personal art collection hidden in a subterranean chamber 1,200 artworks worth untold billions are included the treasures will go back to rightful owners in pillaged nations we found a a warehouse full of gin and vodka stuff like that what much whiskey don't people don't like whiskey and we took it all in Sun up a ball at seven truckloads of champagne and cognac out of the wine cellars out of eagles nest so we stayed pretty well oiled for all I started drinking it one day and I drag it till about midnight that night I went to the back went to sleep I didn't wake up the next day I made a two day or sang out of it and it tasted didn't taste like it would hurt you please like ginger ale that was the only time that I can ever remember that when I was in service that the whole company fell out in her underwear we didn't even have to dress everybody was pretty well looped and so we just fell out in line formation in our underwear they're enjoying themselves they're at peace with the world they have a big happy satisfied grin on her face it was a paradise for a soldier to move into I had no problem shooting because the fact that I had come down through Germany and I had seen the Holocaust and I had seen my dick Germans had done to the Jewish race and I'd seen what he had done to the displaced persons and what they had done in their occupation of France and and what they had done to their occupation in Holland Belgium so that by taking over their homes for a few nights to bed down my men and if they picked up a few trinkets I had no problem nobody has ever taking that time to tell you how to handle a surrender Shh we'll talk about that when we get there well here we are we got it now how do you handle this the German army was a well-disciplined arm you know those prisoners they come down out of the Alps they came down in formation they march down they didn't they didn't drag down you know nothing like that they came down as as as defeated soldiers I think we thought that the Germans were probably the evilest people in the world but as the war went along we found out also that it wasn't the Germans for say it was the SS and special Troops they were the ones that could kill their own people and their regular German soldier was not that way one of those prisoners handed me this little book I could have looked at it no it's a little Catholic prayer book for the mass and all of a sudden I face was the thing hey I haven't got Nazis here got some Catholics and I've got a Catholic good enough to stick one of these in his pocket love those soldiers I've thought about this often that man I might have been good friends we might and we might had a lot in common we might like to fish you know he might like to hunt you never know you know of course they were doing what they were supposed to do and I was trying to do what I supposed to do but under different circumstances we might have been good friends I have a great deal of respect for them as soldiers there are very good soldiers but there's still enemy so they must be controlled as presence when it reached the level of surrender for company and smaller units I was a son this major and when he walked in he presented me this pistol and offered his personal surrender which naturally I accepted gratefully so that would be the end of the war for his men and this is basically the end of the war for my men and the significance is that it wasn't until later when he had given me this pistol and I had a chance to look at it carefully that I realized this pistol had never been fired there was no blood that's the way all war should end with an agreement with no blood on and I assure this pistol has never never been fired since I've had and it will not be fair we didn't come home and flower ourselves I didn't come home you know the more here or I just come home went back to look like what he did before one just go to work and live her life I think it was difficult for most fellows coming back they didn't know what they were going to do when they got out I didn't had no idea what to work for a coal company did some bartending and round a pool hall took up course in ornamental horticulture it didn't pay very much but a lot of nice people I went to work where I was working before the war was caterpillar Tractor Company I became a industrial arts teacher and a social studies teacher spring of 46 I took a boat to Ketchikan Alaska I went to work for the government a letter carrier for 37 years I dug home I wanted construction I went into hard work tedious work I'd done everything you never had done it I ended up working on a waterfront and I went with the CIA in Washington got my degree in 1948 after the war I became a teacher and taught for almost 30 years got a job working for Nixon nitration works that's making $75 a week we've never become wealthy in life but we have a lot of other wealth that means more than that really everyone done well I done well – thank God I want to welcome each and every one here to our banquet tonight to celebrate the ending of a fine reunion thank you all for coming and I will extend the best wishes to all the men from company 506 I love you God bless you all thank you the purpose the reunions serve is just to give us a chance to get together and talk to each other we relive some of the army experiences but we have great respect and you might say affection for each other the type of affection that you get when you've lived through many dangerous situations together and have learned that you can rely on each other if you see the people today at bonds to it the bond you can't explain soon you see me you know you're thinking of battles and thinking of it to yourself two men stand out amongst each other there's an intimacy develops and like nothing that I've ever experienced anymore not in college not not in any with any other group of people or a strange bunch of dudes as far as I'm concerned to be this close after all these years that's that's the thing it gets me is I like brothers I'm back my youth now well I get to these guys I'm back when I went to service it's fantastic I'd like to make 20 more reunions we had a lot of real good times in there and those are the times that you really remember you know that's a lot of those days is what we're Keaney tell about you know what these reunions do a lot of times and then you had a lot of bad times my family didn't know anything about it and I would just didn't tell them I just you know figured it something that didn't need talking about it was done over with we didn't know shifty the way the min shifty yeah so but we he started talking about it just in the last five or six years last five I'd say it was like he that was another life you know as he was another person and we weren't aware that the stuff he went through things he'd say I mean you know it didn't even dawn on me that he killed people I really I really admire my dad my daddy he's like he's a good guy he's a real strong guy we travel a lot and we've been to to France into that cemetery it's just incredible there's crosses upon crosses upon crosses and just lined up perfectly as far as the eye can see and then there's a cliff you know and then the ocean these weren't just for anonymous statistics these were people that I knew and these were and I told my daughter I said this guy here died at age 19 or 20 a whole life never lived no family nothing no children no opportunity to have some satisfaction of building a life nothing when I went I said dad my gosh dad you were so lucky and he looks at me he said yeah I'm very lucky and he started crying these guys have been with each other and absolute base experiences of human existence they were there with each other knowing you're gonna die or thinking he gonna die or seeing people dying all around you and there they went day after day and I admire that and held my father even on his tombstone as sergeant Joe Toye 5:06 PIR her first Airborne Division that's what he wanted on his tombstone meant that much to him how it happened at those various individuals happened to end up in e company I don't know but as you know every army unit thinks it's the best but we knew we were the best think about to God morning anything else think about most of them every day some amazing it's didn't your memory I guess you'll never leave either am i a little proud of having once served in that outfit you bet your life I wore that Eagle on my right shoulder for 18 years probably the proudest thing of my whole life having been an easy company 506 the heroes had crosses over their heads the ones that are buried in cemeteries those are the true heroes not us we're just part of the work that's all and we thank God we got back a lot how would you like to be a mother or father son never come back the son and the mother and father of the errors of the Second World War I the Gaza come home let me say this I don't believe this very very very few heroes they came back from there to over do you remember the litter to that micron he wrote me do you remember how I ended it I cherish the memories of a question my grandson asked me the other day when he said grandpa were you I heard no more grandpa said no but I served in a company of here you Joe Toye oh there was a big Mick and we used to have a few beers at night and I'd sing and go on every try to come over and sing he'd say to go on here gone here you're a time you don't know this song Connie I could sing it better than II did the bridge in Oakland Bridget Bridget Oakland where have you been sure it's a fine time for you to come in you went to see the big parade the big parade me I show the big parade and never took so long and passing by look at your huge st. Addison Bridgette oh please she are your story and your shoes all my teeth in if you know anyone that also can do I am Telling You Bridget just what to do stay away from the water Bridget I'll and let this one play like now that's what we sang you already needed a SISO a beer two beers you were drunk cause you were in great physical condition you were too peaked you know and to be as your highest Georgia pine you know

How to make a Wildlife Garden



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In this video we travel to Chelmsford in Essex, where earlier this year we designed and created a wildlife garden.

Before we started work the garden consisted of a large rotting deck, lawn and a few non native shrubs with very little ecological value.

On completion of this project the garden has been instantly transformed into a wildlife rich oasis right in the centre of a modern housing estate.

The habitats encompass a wildlife pond, wildflower meadow, mixed species planting of native trees and shrubs, flowering lawn, insect hotel and herbaceous borders packed with nectar rich plants.

Just days after we finished the project broad-bodied chaser dragonflies have made the pond their home, and hedgehogs are foraging through the grassy areas, entering the garden through the special access holes and taking grasses and leaves under the new oak deck into their specially designed nesting/hibernation site.

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Music

“Open Those Bright Eyes” Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License

“Life of Riley” Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License

“Daily Beetle” Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License

“Windswept” Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License

Naudet brothers 9/11 Documentary – 1st plane hits North Tower



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Jules and Gedeon Naudet wiki page:

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Grey Gardens Original Documentary Trailer



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Visit and read the personal blog of Jerry Torre, who appeared in Grey Gardens as The Marble Faun.

Grey Gardens is a documentary made in 1975 by the Maysles brothers, who pioneered “direct cinema”. It captures some very unique moments in time of Mrs. Beale and her daughter “Little Edie” Beale who were directly related to the Bouvier/Kennedy family. The story of their life in a run-down mansion in East Hampton is truly engrossing. Highly recommended!