The Achievers Documentary Trailer


First there was a movie from the Coen brothers called The Big Lebowski then, there was an Explosion of the bizarre
What could have spawned a media frenzy over the course of 5 years, driving over 300,000 hits on the Lebowski Fest website alone and selling out over 17 events from Louisville to London giving birth to a sub culture correctly labeled as Achievers?
What could gather such an eclectic crowd together relegating the best time with one could have with a stranger in a bowling extravaganza?
With interviews from Jeff Bridges and Jim James of “My Morning Jacket”, Director Eddie Chung decided to take a shot on answering this question by creating this amazing documentary with the help of producers Agi Orsi and Cecy Rangel from Riding Giants and Dogtown and Z-Boys.

this thing is the biggest thing I've ever been involved in and it's big and it's huge it's just becoming real you know we have these fests where all these fans get together just like us and we all just like kind of create this strange world of lebowski with nihilus running around and people running around in bathrobes and giant Creedence tape and severed toes the last three years of my life had just been unbelievable housekeepers cured my cancer I am the real Lebowski Chicago trivia championships are coming true I just think it's a weird dream I'm having

Kermit the Frog and Elmo Teach Big Bird How to Fly!



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Kermit the Frog and Elmo Teach Big Bird how to Fly!
In today’s video Kermit the Frog and Elmo reunite with their old friend Big Bird! But they have ask Timrek for some special help with magic to bring him back. After Timrek brings Big bird back, Kermit and Elmo have to re-teach big bird on how to fly!
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oh he's over the course haha I got you your you suck you suck you suck what are you doing here what are you bothering me oh well I was bored too but I found video games to entertain me why don't you go find some friends to talk to so go find some what about Cookie Monster what about well go find some other friends I don't know book Mike or Sean or something I don't know go find some friends leave me alone I'm late for tonight shut up around Big Bird's been dead for like a year and a half soft Emma with last song and Colorado why is he here in Arizona you only said to come with us you brought a dead body with us to Arizona you've had him this whole time you're so sketchy Omo why do you do these things well now we have to hide a dead body what if the police come around they'll start asking questions a frame you that doesn't solve our problems it's on the floors they look in the floors actually come to think of it is there any way to bring them back I kind of do missile we do need another friend why don't we go ask timmreck and see if he could do some magic power stuff do you revive him back to life all right back to 24 night like the video just Wow hello where you at why are you back there grab the look get your ass over here we have come here to ask you for a favor Oh God Timur why do you always have that sassy tune with me because you only come to me when you need me don't test me what do you mean coming well we are friends big bird that apparently animal brought up from the dead from Colorado brought him here remember big bird right yeah that big yellow dude yeah that big yellow dude that's him he's still alive apparently well I guess not really alive you see the X's in his eyes he's definitely dead that's the cartoon sign that he's dead yeah definitely then we want a new friend and we were wondering if you could bring it back to life what's the magic so you're gonna take your anti social skills and rub them all over me and make you make me make a new friend for you please you've always been saying how you want a mini test subject right we want to try out some new magic spells well look at this nice fresh body for you to test your new magic tricks on what'd you say I couldn't use my my new spells do it let's see if it works timber what happened to the rest of his body it's just that hand yeah it's just a head you messed it up fix it right now that's elbow that's not even that's not even paper you're not you're not moving your mouth can you feel that Tim Burke this is clearly not working all right colonel back we need Big Bird I got it I know a guy you know a guy across town for what by ah spells powerful enough oh so the all mighty magician timmreck doesn't have powerful enough magic to bring back Big Bird wow it will be powerful enough with this sorceress stone that I know that I can get from this guy sorceress stone cross town well let me guess we have to go a knight – yep of course we do seven o'clock so be there but you're gonna come with me wear something cute I'm not gonna do that all right Tim ricke we've been driving for over an hour yeah we drove all the way to the other side of town just to get your stupid stone uh-huh so who's gonna have this stone huh um well there was a big tall guy over here a big tall guy huh yep and he had a ski mask and a ski mask yep isn't that pretty suspicious that is kind of suspicious yeah does a guy with a ski mask on is this the guy right here yeah that's him that's him yeah that's him well why don't you go out and talk to him huh what do you mean you're scared this is your soul you're looking for your stone oh god he's coming over he's coming over he's cracking his knuckles he's cracking – stay cool stay cool okay okay what do you want stop knockin on my face for you the stone yeah well technically he's the one looking for the stone but yes we're the ones looking for the stone do you have the stone yeah are you gonna get stoned what do you mean hold on this guy doesn't even have the stone yeah the good stuff let me see that stone let me see it all shoulder how hard is it to get this stone look at that stone if I said pretty let me see the inside look at–look perfectly inside timber cuz it's a stone very shiny is it this is the stone yeah okay you lookin for this is a styled purple you mean that's it's right there you're funded virtually wait are you Joey you'd know wait a minute Joey wait hey you get back here your guy was Joey Joey was sitting on the other side of town yeah let's just go home this will judge ient waste of time alright camera we got your stupid-ass rock you ready to complete the spell I got a secret a secret what's your secret I didn't really need that wait what what that's just for my rock collection give me the tummy wasted the whole last night just to drive the other side of town for your stupid rock collection just complete the spell come on oh god that's so much better Timur what the hell did you do I made it like a cracked out version of Big Bird can you talk I don't think you can talk bobby's without talking he's back to normal I gotta go now he's not back to normal I know what you asked what where you going I gotta go play with my rock come on you're gonna go play with your rock collection yeah god you're such a nerd I've been great wait actually you have been great you've been dead for a year and a half and also my heads over there obviously I've been craving something yeah I've been one to five yeah it's been a year and a half since I've flown so that's like what like 18 months yeah yeah no actually I don't maybe we shouldn't walk you out you know teach you to fly again uh I mean I guess I'm are you ready to teach bird bird hit apply all right so if I've learned anything from nature mother birds teach baby birds to the fly by pushing them out of the nest right yeah so the best way for Big Bird to learn how to fly is to jump off his balconies on these hard rocks with human-like shadows yeah there's definitely us not not the people behind the cameras he's hot nice lava hot rocks that's been in the Sun all day in the Sun or 20 degree weather so pushing your fault yeah very soft all right so just just go ahead and jump we'll catch you I'm gonna get a running start though get a running start okay all right Becca Becca Becca Becca Becca all right we're ready when you are I think he cushioned the fall with his head oh that hurt it yeah of course it hurt you threw yourself off the balcony you didn't even try to fly well like see I don't remember because it was over a year and a half ago are you waiting yeah why were you running you didn't need a wrench start well I mean like it makes more sense doesn't it rather than just free palm into my dad well I mean birds usually birds don't get a running start so I guess throwing you off the balcony didn't work maybe we should attach you to a drone let's go to the field ones hash you to the drone and see how that works alright Big Bird so we're here at the field we got our drone down there I almost got the controller and what we're gonna do is take that duct tape right there we're gonna attach your hands to the drone okay and since you have a really weak grip since you know you've been dead for a year and a half yeah we're gonna duct tape your hands to the drone okay alright Big Bird you ready to go yeah man I'm ready yeah it looks like you're doing some gymnastic things yeah yeah just go here you go all right [Laughter] until their crap Big Bird hang on here forget people were trying okay so uh about this whole drone situation yeah man sorry I think I'm owe you $700 $700 yeah your fat ass broke the drone you're gonna have to explain to Shawn that you crashed his drone all right Big Bird pretty confident yeah your flying abilities oh yeah you're ready for the final test you know what the final test is uh yeah let's do it – all right big weird how you feeling we came back to check up on you how you doing I'm just climbing up at this tree why are you making this you're gonna make a nest up in this tree it's my natural instinct it's your natural instinct after falling out of a moving car to go up in the tree and make a nest yep make some friends with these secateurs they're making really loud noises ruining their audio shut up yeah tell me shut up for being really loud shut up you'd be really loud your houses yep all right just go ahead and fly back to our house whenever we'll be back at home playing smash broz okay sounds good we'll see you later big bird phone with your pizza have fun in your nest buddy all right that's it for the video thank you guys for watching hopefully you did enjoy I know I've seen so so so many comments saying they want me to bring Big Bird back and I did like I said guys I do read almost every single comment and I will try to do more stuff with Big Bird and I'll even try to do more stuff with Cookie Monster here soon – this is the last week for you guys to cop my merchandise and we'll be gone forever the 31st of July is the last day you can grab this merch I represent com backslash are you super cereal same side PewDiePie uses high quality merch gonna be gone forever also if you guys didn't notice I did record this in 4k my camera has been able to do 4k this whole time I just now got a new computer so I'm starting to edit all my videos in 4k let me know what you think of that go subscribe to best in class go subscribe to die trick sir let's try to leave 15,000 likes for more stuff with Big Bird and I will see you guys in the next video

Naked Science – Birth of the Universe



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Where does a cup of coffee come from? In this film, it’s not Starbucks, it’s stars busting. We go right back to the beginning of time to show where the ingredients in your cup of coffee were born.

The main ingredient is hydrogen; it makes up most of the water in your cup. And that formed in the big bang. How it got from there, into your cappuccino is one of the most dramatic stories in science. It has taken thousands of scientists to track its trail. We follow it through stars and galaxies, exploding supernovae, and giant clouds of gas to show just how it reached your cup.

But that isn’t the end of the story. For where it goes in the future, depends on the fate of the universe. Will it carry on expanding for ever, or tear itself apart?

our universe the galaxies the solar system our home planet Earth land sea air life where did they all come from look up into space from our planet and what you see is a vast cosmos teeming with billions of stars and galaxies turn back the clock over 13 billion years and our universe was a very different place back then it was so small but it could fit inside the palm of your hand from this infant universe everything would be created stars galaxies and the building blocks of life itself the calcium in our bones the iron in our blood the atoms for the air we breathe the water we drink the raw materials for our cities and machines naked science takes a journey through space and time to discover how the universe was born and how it created everything in our world and how eventually it will die everything we see around us is made of matter atoms and molecules take this car it's a 1956 ford fairlane convertible it's constructed from many different materials like steel rubber and glass go deeper and these materials are made up from combinations of elements like iron silicon chromium and carbon each and every atom that makes up this car were created by our growing universe physicist Lawrence Krauss studies how the atoms we see on our planet have come to be here we really are parts Stardust and part Big Bang dusk most of the atoms in our body are from the cores of stars but some of them have been around since the earliest moments of the Big Bang so we really are truly cosmic individuals each and every atom was created over billions of years as our universe evolved so when we look at this car of course all the atoms in this car came from stellar explosions from supernova processes and from stellar evolution but that were created at different times during the evolution of the universe to understand how the universe made all the raw material we see here on earth we need to take an incredible journey and travel back through space and time to the moment our universe was born in the beginning there was nothing no space no time and then there was light suddenly a tiny speck of light appears it was infinitely hot inside this tiny fireball was all of space this was literally the beginning of time the cosmic clock was ticking time could flow and space expand at the earliest moments the Big Bang if you take it back to T equals zero everything in our universe everything we can see all the matter and all the energy in all of the galaxies was once contained in a region smaller than the size of a single atom today the idea that our universe was once tiny originated from the brilliant work of American astronomer Edwin Hubble back in the 1920s most astronomers believe that everything visible in the night sky were stars and they were part of our galaxy the Milky Way but Hubble wasn't convinced he studied a swirling cloud of light called the Andromeda nebula and showed that it was a star city another galaxy far outside of our own galaxy he showed that these other galaxies were speeding away from ours and the further away they were the faster they seem to be moving the universe was expanding and if the universe was expanding then at some point in the past it must have been smaller much smaller and that it must have had a beginning the idea of the Big Bang was born theoretical physicist David Spergel is a big bang expert the big bang theory is not really a fear of how the universe began it's really a theory of how the universe evolved no one knows exactly what happened during the Big Bang but scientists do know that a fraction of a second after the universe was born this tiny super hot fire ball was already starting to expand we don't know how the universe began so we start our story when the universe was a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a minute old pretty young the universe was the size of a marble less than a trillion trillionth of a second after the Big Bang the marble sized universe was very unstable and underwent an enormous growth spurt during this period of incredibly rapid expansion space was self was expanding faster than the speed of light in the same way that this hot glass ball inflates so did the baby universe expanding in all directions at once and as it expanded it cooled a trillion trillionth of a second after the Big Bang the universe was small enough to fit inside the palm of your hand a tiny fraction of a second later it was the size of Mars another fraction of a second and the baby universe had grown to 80 times the size of the earth a trillionth of a second after the Big Bang and our newborn universe was still expanding but it didn't contain matter it was pure energy Einstein's famous equation e equals MC squared showed that mass and energy are interchangeable it gave us the knowledge to build weapons of mass destruction it also revealed how the universe created the first matter when a nuclear bomb explodes a tiny amount of matter is annihilated and converted into energy in the baby universe the exact opposite happened it converted pure energy into particles of matter but there was a problem the universe created both matter and its archrival antimatter and when these two met they obliterated each other the infant units was a war zone a battle to the death between matter and antimatter if they mutually annihilated each other the universe would remain full of energy no galaxies stars planets or life fortunately for us there was an imbalance for every 100 million anti particles formed there were 100 million and one particles of matter but there was that one extra particle of matter leftover in each volume and that was enough to be account for everything we see in the universe today this tiny imbalance led to all matter we see in the universe galaxies stars planets even convertibles and ourselves astrophysicist Carlos Frank from Durham University in England explains we are a little bit of debris left over from the annihilation of matter and antimatter were the leftovers of that process if the universe had not developed this slight asymmetry between matter and antimatter the universe would have been completely boring there will be no structure there would be no galaxies there would be no planets quite what this newborn universe was like has challenged cosmologists since the Big Bang was first put forward now in one of the biggest laboratories on earth they are able to recreate conditions that almost certainly existed an instant after the Big Bang [Applause] it's called the relativistic heavy ion collider Rick for short and it's located at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island it's like a time machine taking us back to ten millionths of a second after the Big Bang here scientists like Todd SATA gotta accelerates subatomic particles close to the speed of light and then smash them into each other the particles race around this two-and-a-half mile circular tunnel in opposite directions 78,000 times a second and then collide inside this giant detector bigger than a three-story house when they smash into each other they generate incredible heat just like the real infant universe we believe the early universe was extremely hot billions of times hotter than the center of the Sun what you're doing when he's smashing these nuclei together is melting matter creating matter hot enough to give us a glimpse of what the very early universe was like when the particles collide they break open and throw out a shower of even smaller particles it's a bit like discovering what cars are made of by watching them smash into each other you can raise two retires together and smash them into each other head on when you do that multiple times you start to see different patterns coming out a tire comes out here a radiator comes out there and before long you can start to conclude that a race car is made up of these certain pieces what the scientists at Brookhaven have discovered is that within these superheated collisions a completely new form of matter appears and this matter contradicts the previous theories on the nature of the early universe because it's not a gas it's a liquid it was super hot 100 million times hotter than the surface of the Sun there was so much energy inside the young universe that the particles vibrated so fast that it had no stickiness there was no friction and it flowed perfectly this liquid is perfect it has no viscosity in some sense it would be the perfect motor oil except it's a trillion degrees hot inside the collider this amazing liquid universe exists for only a tiny fraction of a second the Brookhaven scientists have succeeded in recreating conditions that existed over 13 billion years ago despite the universe being a perfect liquid it was in turmoil it was full of subatomic particles smashing into each other releasing more and more energy there was so much energy but unless the particles slowed down they would never bond and create atoms the building blocks of matter and the universe would never create the galaxies and stars or even us the universe is now one millionth of a second old and has expanded from smaller than the size of an atom to eight times the size of the solar system after the incredible turmoil of the first millionth of a second the universe was now relatively calm over the next three minutes the expanding cosmos cooled sufficiently for protons and neutrons to bind together and form the first atomic nuclei hydrogen and helium these were not yet proper atoms they were missing a vital ingredient the electron in the hot baby universe there were plenty of electrons around but there was still so much heat and energy the electrons were moving too fast to form bonds and it would stay that way for over three hundred thousand years 380,000 years after the Big Bang the universe had expanded to the size of the Milky Way it had cooled from billions of degrees Fahrenheit to a few thousand as it cooled the electrons slowed down the universe was now ready to make its first true elements one of the scientists who discovered this critical moment in the story of the universe was Arno Penzias 1963 thirty-year-old Penzias and his 27-year old colleague Robert Wilson began work on a new antenna in New Jersey initially they were only studying cosmic radio waves but they would stumble on one of the greatest discoveries of all time as they started to test their equipment they detected an unexpected background noise it was additional signal and it appeared to be coming from the sky we eliminated very carefully the ground even the solar system because we did this winter to summer seasonal variation of man-made sources of equipment all these things were eliminated in desperation the two scientists began to wonder whether the strange signal might have another more earthly origin they found there were pigeons roosting in the antenna and it was covered with droppings they wanted if the pigeons were the source of the strange signal there was only one solution the droppings and the pigeons would have to go we finally got around to removing the pigeon droppings we also have to remove the pigeons that was a difficult problem because they turned out to want to come back and we mailed them off to another site but even with the troublesome pigeons gone the mysterious signal would not disappear and so we left with the inyx Kate almost inescapable conclusion that this radiation was coming from the sky I could not account for it the strange signal detected by Penzias and Wilson would turn out to be one of the most important scientific discoveries of all time but the explanation for their mystery background noise starts not with sound but with the birth of light we usually take light for granted but in the early universe 13 billion years ago we would see nothing at all light was trapped the universe was foggy imagine a flashlight beam in a fog of smoke the light bounces back and forth between the smoke particles and is trapped in the hot baby universe a dense fog of electrons blocked the light from escaping but as the universe continued to expand and cruel the electrons slowed down protons then grabbed these calmer electrons to form complete atoms of first hydrogen and then helium the universe was suddenly much less crowded with electrons the fog lifted and light was no longer trapped it hurtled out across the universe creating a blinding burst of light had we been there we would have strongly seen this opaque universe become transparent suddenly the fog would lift and we would see a flash of light coming from everywhere around us it wasn't been a spectacular moment over time this burst of light dimmed and cooled and became microwave radiation it was this faint 13 billion year old microwave signal but Penzias and Wilson picked up on their antenna what they heard was the quiet echo of the moment the universe formed the first atoms it's really the light from the origin of the universe we've got an old FM receiver if you tuned between channels turn the knob and it doesn't capture and pop to a station that's what part there's none you hear up that's what we called noise if you have a good radio set one half of one percent of that is actually the sound with a big bang and we can also see the moment when the first elements were created if our television is not tuned to a station a tiny fraction of the noise is radiation from 13 billion years ago but this radiation is not the only reminder of the birth of the universe even the water we drink is a memento and it's kind of amazing to think that every time we take a drink of a glass of water we're drinking in atoms that have been around since the Big Bang the hydrogen atoms over the next millions of years the young universe continued to expand cool and get dark again so far the universe had only made hydrogen and helium atoms but the world we live in is made from more than a hundred different kinds of elements without them the universe would remain a very boring place made up of only gas a place where complex matter like planets cars and people could never develop the universe needed to get hydrogen and helium atoms to fuse and to do that it needed to make stars the universe was now 200 million years old and billions of light-years across its temperature had dropped so far that it was colder than liquid nitrogen minus 367 degrees Fahrenheit it was also dark it would have remained a very gloomy place full of gas but without galaxies stars or planets if it hadn't been for one thing the baby universe wasn't born perfect Carlos Frank has created an amazing 3d simulation of how the early universe evolved it shows that when the universe emerged from the Big Bang it was uneven little cracks appeared which were very very very tiny very very small and it was his rash in the face of the baby universe that later developed into the patterns that we see in the galaxy's today without these cracks the universe would have been a very dull place the first clues as to how these cracks developed into galaxies and stars came when other scientists started to examine the Big Bang radiation first discovered by Penzias and Wilson so it pens east wilson saw was this radiation was as far as they can tell uniform what cosmologists then did for the next 25 years was work very hard to try to find tiny variations and find them they did using W map a space probe designed to detect and analyze in detail variations in the background microwave radiation launched in 2001 the 150 million dollar Pro fitted with some of the most sensitive instruments ever carried into space our eyes detect only visible starlight but w map can tune into the invisible microwave radiation once in orbit around the Sun it picked up the faint radiation that has been rippling around the universe since the dawn of time so when we look at the cosmic background radiation we're looking at this radiation that's been streaming towards us since half a million years after the Big Bang initially the microwave universe looked very dull and seemed to be the same everywhere but when W math turned up contrast the results were spectacular the baby universe wasn't smooth and boring at all it was full of fluctuations these tiny fluctuations tell us what the variations in density how much stuff there isn't that how it varies from place to place these denser regions are going to collapse to form clusters of galaxies and super clusters and galaxies themselves these low-density regions these will of grow would become the empty regions between galaxies so this picture really is our connection between the universe when it was a baby half a million years old to the universe today 13.7 billion years old these tiny imperfections in the fledgling universe would become galaxies and stars and is one of the most amazing propositions in physics the idea that galaxies like a milky way that contain a hundred million stars once began life as a tiny little crack in the fabric of the universe the material in these cracks was filled with swirling clouds of hydrogen atoms the voids between the clouds grew bigger and bigger the gas clouds got denser and hotter gravity pulled the gas clouds together on filaments like beads on threads of a web cosmic web where the giant filaments formed large globs stars and galaxies would grow as a universe evolved gases were able to condense into clouds which collapse to form stars the star settle into a rotating disk that was lated to become a spiral galaxy like the Milky Way over millions of years the hydrogen atoms clumped together and heated up the atoms began fusing and releasing energy and the gas cloud started to burn brightly eventually a star was born all over the universe millions of stars ignited for the first time the appearance of the first stars would have been a cheesy spectacular event how do we be in there we would have really seen fireworks individual enormous flashes of light generated as the stars are born and burned themselves out the universe has expanded many trillions of times its original size it was full of newborn stars made of hydrogen and helium these young stars were nothing like our own son they were very unstable but it was their instability that would make the universe a more interesting place because deep inside each new star something amazing was happening they were creating new elements the idea that stars build adams came from the british astrophysicist sir fred hoyle one of the greatest astronomers of the 20th century Hoyle didn't believe that the universe began in a single explosion in fact he coined the name big bang as a term of derision Hoyle wanted to know where the elements heavier than hydrogen and helium came from he figured out that stars acted like nuclear reactors working a bit like a hydrogen bomb in slow motion but many billion times more powerful and their nuclear waste was new elements but it would take years before scientists were able to confirm his theory by analyzing the light from stars each element emits a light at a particular frequency when heated up imagine a sodium street lamp it emits light of a yellow color specific to sodium it's the same with stars take our son if you break the light down into a spectrum you can see lines like a bar code corresponding to the elements each element has specific colors helping scientists identify elements like hydrogen which emits mainly red light we are go for maiden in 1990 nasa launched the Hubble Space Telescope to unravel some of the mysteries of our early universe the face shuttle Discovery with the Hubble Space Telescope hubbell promised scientists unprecedented views of the young universe it would be able to look back through space and time and examine early stars to discover if they were making new elements but the dream soon turned into the worst nightmare after it was launched they discovered that Hubble's mirror was distorted and saw everything out of focus it needed corrective lenses and the only way to fix it was to send up another space shuttle one of the repair man was astronaut Jeff Hoffman we were working with a two billion dollar telescope and the last thing we wanted was to break something and leave it worse off than when we got up there first the crew of the rescue mission had to capture the crippled telescope then execute a repair mission unprecedented in the history of space flight first they had to open the access doors on the side of the telescope the one thing about working on Hubble that is very different from working on a car is you look over your shoulder and there you are in space the earth is going by below you the stars above you the astronauts had to carry out fine detailed work in the most difficult conditions when you're working in a spacesuit your hands are encumbered by thick stiff gloves it's sort of like working in ski mittens then it was quite a challenge all went well until Hoffman attempted to close the huge access doors I just had to close up the doors and when I went to close them but they wouldn't close properly the doors were somewhat warped and it took a while for it to sink in this was very serious if you can't get the doors closed you lose the telescope using improvised tools Jeff and a colleague were finally able to close the doors it took the team five days to repair the stricken telescope cosmologists around the world held their collective breath they waited to see if the most expensive telescope ever built we'll deliver when its designers originally promised I well remember New Year's Eve 1993 December 31st when my phone rang and it was an old friend who worked at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore he said Jeff you have any champagne left over from your party I said yeah we still have a half bottle in the refrigerator said will crack it open again and drink a glass because we got the first picture back and Hubble works this is what Hubble saw the images were beyond anyone's wildest dreams hubbell captured the final moments of a star's life when it explodes and blows off gas and dust it also captured inter stellar nurseries of newborn stars exploding into life billions of years ago and dark pillars of cosmic dust millions and millions of miles long ready to spawn a new generation of stars and planets I guess it's hard to surpass the famous pillars of creation in the Eagle Nebula where you actually see the birth of stars immunity it's almost biblical let there be light and I still kind of get goose bumps when I look at it but Hubble's true moment of glory was still to come over a ten-day period in 1995 the mission controllers pointed the telescope at a distant empty patch of space what emerged was the Deep Field image a tapestry of distant galaxies Hubble was looking back in time to some of the first galaxies and stars created it revealed thousands of galaxies that hadn't been seen before so the the universe became to our consciousness far richer after the Hubble Deep Field it showed for the first time faint images of galaxies form just a billion years after the Big Bang scientists then examined the spectrum of light from these distant stars and showed that these early galaxies had already created elements heavier than hydrogen and helium sir Fred Hoyle may have been wrong about the birth of the universe but he was absolutely right about the stars the early stars acted like giant thermo nuclear reactors creating new elements you can think of the creation of all the elements this room is in some sense like a car assembly line because in a car assembly line each part is sequentially added to the vehicle until it's complete fusion reactions inside these young stars released enormous amounts of energy and heat which forced atoms to fuse to form new heavier elements one after the other three helium nuclei combined to form carbon to carbon nuclei fuse to form magnesium magnesium to form neon and so on over a period of hundreds of thousands of years until silicon fused to form iron iron is a very special animal the protons and neutrons inside its nucleus are very tightly bound together so that even the extreme temperatures inside the stars couldn't get it to fuse into heavier elements it resolute listes iron it was the end of the road the production line of element building shut down but our universe was still not complete there were all the ingredients to make a glass of water and some of the elements to build much of our convertible there were also quite a few of the ingredients to make a human being the oxygen we breathe the calcium in our bones and the iron in our blood but there still weren't any of the vital ingredients like chromium for our car fender and some metals like zinc that our bodies can't survive without the universe was about to enter a super creative phase where it produces all the elements heavier than iron to make the missing pieces in our birth of the universe jigsaw would take some of the most powerful explosions the universe has ever seen our universe has already celebrated its 500 million birthday there are still another 13 billion more to go before humans appear on the face of the earth giant new stars have made many of the elements in the world we see around us but some vital elements are still missing heavy metals like chromium and zinc and expensive ones like gold and platinum to finish the job the universe conjures up the most amazing phenomena since the Big Bang massive exploding stars called supernovas when the giant stars that made the lighter elements ran out of fuel they collapsed in on themselves creating incredible amounts of energy and enormous explosions these explosions were so powerful they could fuse elements even heavier than iron and restart the element production line Tony met zacapa from Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee believes that without exploding stars life itself would not exist life as we know it certainly would not exist were it not for core collapse supernova events they are very clearly one of the key links in our chain of origin from the Big Bang to the present day one of the most recent and biggest supernovas closest to our galaxy was seen in the southern hemisphere in 1987 when a supernova like 1987a explodes it emits light containing the signatures of the elements within it by examining this spectrum of light scientists can calculate what elements are being forged inside the exploding star Michael Smith from the experimental astrophysics group at oakridge then recreates these events inside his own star laboratory in this 100-foot Tower he accelerates and smashes individual particles into each other just like inside a supernova a sub atomic nuclei are the ones that are absolutely crucial in the formation of the heaviest elements so the idea is to measure exactly how fast these nuclei will fuse together in the laboratory and then translate that information into how fast the fuse inside exploding stones when the particles collide inside the accelerator they generate enormous energy in these extreme conditions the particles fuse and then you can bring other particles in and they will feels and we believe that exploding stars are just right to form elements much heavier than iron going all the way up to the top of the degree audit table using the data from these experiments Tony met zacapa has created a model of how these massive exploding stars turn into heavy element factories massive stars have evolved to an onion like configuration at the end of a line they have an iron core and outside of the iron core are layers of successively lighter elements inside the iron core the temperature rises to eight billion degrees nearly 300 times hotter than the center of the Sun it is so hot the iron atoms that have sunk to the Stars core are torn apart the core destabilizes the cores then collapse on themselves in a fraction of a second the collapse proceeds to very very high densities the core collapses at speeds of more than 43,000 miles per second a volume the size of the earth crunches down nearly six times the size of Manhattan in an instant the core becomes super dense if one were to take one cubic centimeter of that matter that would be the size of a sugar cube that sugar cube would be so dense that it would weigh as much as the entire human race the core rebounds like a compressed rubber ball and launches a massive shockwave the shockwave hurdles out smashing through the different skins of the star as it punches through the outer layers of the star the energy generated restarts the element production line atoms are smashed together to make brand new heavier elements all heavier than iron then the star explodes and the shock wave pushes the shrapnel like debris outward further and further into space in a very real sense our lives depend on the stars in the universe without their lives and deaths we would not be here today these astonishing images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope show the aftermath of these giant explosions nebulae giant clouds of debris thrown off by exploding stars swirling inside our big new atoms gold silver zinc and lead without supernovas our world would be a very dull place and possibly lifeless so I'm sure that that Paris Hilton doesn't wake up every day thinking about this fact but really if it weren't for exploding stars those 200 million stars that exploded so we could be here today she wouldn't have anything to wear so if it weren't for those supernova explosions there wouldn't be any bling nine billion years after the Big Bang and all the ingredients are in place for life as we noted the universe has grown up into a vast complex place made up of billions of galaxies and uncountable stars in a quiet corner of the Milky Way a mass of dust and gas begins to accumulate it's full of the rich debris left over from one of the massive supernovas and when it reaches a critical mass it begins to burn brightly a star is born our own star the Sun what's left over forms a disk of swirling debris in orbit around the new star the gas and dust that make up this wrinkle I pulled together by gravity the clumps of dust and gas become bigger and bigger planets form one of these planets is our earth over the next five hundred million years our planet slowly generates a protective canopy of gas the atmosphere the first life appears just single cells at first but as the eons pass those tiny single cells evolved into plants and animals and eventually humans we tend to disassociate ourselves from the universe but that of course is completely wrong we are a vital part of the cosmos and so when we talk about the origin and evolution of the universe we're actually talking about the origin and evolution of ourselves everything we can see on our planet was either made in the Big Bang or inside a star scientists like Krauss believe they now know the genesis of every atom that has created the world we live in these atoms have been around since the dawn of time and when am I was young my mother used to tell me don't touch that you don't know where it's been and she would have been amazed but this is not the final chapter in the story after almost 14 billion years the universe has really only just gotten started now we take a journey into the future to see how it all ends the universe we live in is nearly 14 billion years old it has created the raw materials for everything we see around us the Stars the planets trees cities automobiles even us our world is complete but the universe is still evolving scientists have come up with many theories on how it will end we know our universe began at a big bang what we don't know yet is what the future of our universe is could be our universe may end with a bang or a whimper or something even more exotic one theory suggests that our universe will run out of steam and stop expanding every star galaxy and planet every atom will start to collapse ending in a single super dense pinpoint known as the Big Crunch to find out if the universe really is going to crash back in on itself scientists first need to discover if it's still expanding or if it's slowing down astrophysicists Saul Perlmutter studies the death of the universe by finding beacons in space exploding stars called type 1a supernovas if you have enough of these exploding stars these as the supernova that you've measured their brightness though the ones that look fainter and fainter and fainter must be further and further and further away and so you have some super know that little brighter there're more nearby some that are a little bit fainter so they're little bit further and some that are very faint so they're very far away type 1a supernovas are similar to the supernovas that created the heavy elements they differ in one important fashion they always explode with the same exact brightness this is because they are created in the same way two stars circle each other held together by their gravitational attraction one is shriveled and super dense glowing with white heat a white dwarf the other star has bloated to an enormous size it's a red giant that is burning the last of its fuel as the two stars orbit each other the white dwarf sucks gas from its companion and begins to grow year after year when it is precisely one point four four times the mass of our Sun the white dwarf crumples collapses then explodes releasing a blinding burst of energy every type 1a supernova explodes at the same tipping point and so are equally bright and visible across the vast distances of the universe Perlmutter needs to find hundreds of type 1a supernovas and then measure how fast they are moving away from us he links up the most powerful telescope on earth with the most powerful in space using advanced cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope and a giant telescope officially known as The Very Large Telescope or VLT for short he hunts for supernovas once Hubble has detected a particular light source colleague Chris Lydman at the VLT analyzes the object to see what it's made of and make sure it's a type 1a supernova this object is is a distant galaxy and next to it is what we believe is a distant supernova the next crucial step is to understand what type of supernova this is the VLT breaks down the light from the object into its spectrum you want to be able to break up its light into a spectrum and look for the very characteristic fingerprint that you would see on if it really were eight a type 1a supernova the light emitted from this particular supernova reveals that it's a type 1a Lydman can now calculate how far away this supernova is the supernova exploded about 7 billion years ago by comparing the positions and dates of all these supernovas stretched over space and time Perlmutter can calculate whether the universe is slowing down his results are a shock the expansion of the universe isn't slowing down at all when we began the project of course the goal was to find out how much the universe was slowing down now but we actually started looking at the data it looked like the universe wasn't slowing enough to come to a halt and in fact it wasn't slowing very much at all and in fact when we finish the analysis it looked like it wasn't a slowing period it was actually speeding up its expansion Perlmutter's astounding discovery means that the universe will not grind to a halt then crunch back down into a pinhead of super dense matter quite the opposite it will continue to expand faster and faster our universe is literally flying apart the expansion the universe will accelerate it ever faster and faster rates until literally everything will get ripped apart not just galaxies but eventually matter the earth all the objects stars the earth planets people atoms in a finite time would get ripped apart long after our son has burned out a hundred billion years in the future galaxies will pull apart the universe will be made up of isolated stars which are running out of energy some will become white or brown dwarfs others will collapse into neutron stars or black holes then thousands of trillions of years after the Big Bang even the black holes will evaporate an all matter will decay to its basic ingredients atoms will fall apart and even protons the building blocks of atoms will decay most likely future is perhaps the most dismal one where the universe becomes cold and dark and empty as the universe continues to expand and the galaxies speed apart from each other space will become empty and dead our own cluster of galaxies will be moving away from us faster than the speed of light and will disappear from the night skies eventually everything will just sort of wind down them and that's the end of things finally the universe will die and all that will be left is a cold dark and lifeless space you I you

You CAN Actually Grow Taller ! (New Scientific Method)



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I was wrong. You CAN actually grow taller. This is how. Welcome to an update to the “How to grow taller” Controversy. Enjoy ! Watch the first video I made on this …

Logic ft. Big K.R.I.T. – Top Ten (Prod. By 6ix)



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Additional vocals – Dria From The Frontrunnaz. Sample – Frank Dukes (kingswaymusiclibrary.com) …

The Big Bang Theory Scientific Method Clip Season 6 Episode 5



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have you noticed that Howard can take any topic and use it to remind you that he went to space interesting hypothesis let's apply the scientific method perform an experiment okay hey Howard any thoughts on where we should get dinner anywhere about the space station on a good day dinner was a bag full of meatloaf but hey you don't go there for the food you go there for the view fascinating let me see if I can duplicate the result Howard I've always thought the lemon was an underrated fruit care to weigh in not really oh well you know people say the Soyuz capsule is a lemon that baby got me to space and back

Big Gigantic – All Of Me (Feat. Logic & Rozes)



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Hope you all all enjoy our new single with Logic and Rozes! ❤ ❤ I made the beat for ‘All Of Me’ a couple years ago and played it for Logic when i first met him …

Graham Farmelo on Paul Dirac and Mathematical Beauty



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Adjunct Professor of Physics at Northeastern University in Boston, Graham Farmelo, on Paul Dirac and the Religion of Mathematical Beauty. Apart from Einstein …

The Higgs Boson, Part I



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The Higgs Boson. What more need be said? Two more Higgs videos coming soon. Also, explore a map of the big bang! Theory …

Larry Bird ULTIMATE Mixtape!



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Here is a mixtape recapping some of Larry Bird’s career in the NBA. About the NBA: The NBA is the premier professional basketball league in the United States …

14 CRAZIEST Animal Fights Caught On Camera



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Top 10 Crazy Epic Wild Animal Fights Caught on Film
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Featuring:
Lion vs Crocodile
Snake vs Bunny Rabbit
Giraffe vs Lion
Snake vs Mongoose
Shark vs Octopus
Lion vs Buffalo
Badger vs Fox
Leopard vs Lion
Snake vs Crocodile
Iguana vs Iguanna
Bison vs Lion
Crocodile vs Wild Boar
Eagle vs Fox
Squirrel vs Cobra vs Mongoose
Lion vs Tiger

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From cobra vs mongoose to lion vs tiger we countdown the top 14 biggest animal fights caught on camera. Shocking fight, between a giraffe and a lion in the plains of Africa, most would assume that the giraffe would be defeated easily by the king of the jungle. However, this is no jungle and the giraffe manages to use its long legs and high jumps to stomp the lion repeatedly, causing the giraffe to win the fight. In this amazing video, two rather small but deadly animals go head to head. The cobra and mongoose take shots at each other respectively. Until the mongoose gets a firm bite on the head of the poisonous snake, and making itself the unexpected winner. In this fight in the Australian outback, a giant snake and a crocodile take each other on. At first the crocodile grabs the snake between its teeth. The python snake then coils itself around the crocodile, and strangling it. The fight lasted for hours, but the snake emerges victorious. In this shocking fight, a jaguar slowly emerges behind an exacting crocodile in the wetlands of Brazil. The jaguar sinks it teeth into the back of the crocodile in order to constrict the crocodile. The jaguar then carries off its prey, after the destruction it has just caused to the crocodile. In this video, a cobra snake has just discovered a nest of mongooses. As it plots to sliver in, a mongoose uses a tunnel to sneak up behind the snake a strike. The mongoose bites the snake in the head and they begin attacking each other. The snake then wraps up the mongoose in an attempt to strangle it. However, the mongoose frees itself, and begins to take painful bites at the cobra, eventually killing it. In this video, a shark is peacefully swimming through ocean territory. However, it’s swim is interrupted when an octopus disguised as coral rises up and wraps its tentacles around the shark. The giant pacific octopus was able to easily defeat the shark in this unlikely match up, despite the octopus being far lower down in the food chain. During this animal fight between an hyena and a pack of lions, the hyena uses their amazing dexterity to run quickly away from the lion pack. However, the hyena was soon caught up to by the pack, as they surround it and begin to bite it. In this unlikely match-up, a cobra and an eagle to head to head. The eagle tries to use its size to stand and peck at the cobra. But the cobra fights back attempting to bite back. However, on one bite when the cobra’s mouth is open, the eagle strikes and bites the cobra in the mouth. In this wild battle, recorded deep in the jungle a tiger and a huge lion go head to head. The pair spend hours wrestling and biting one another to see who the real king of the jungle is. When suddenly the tiger rolls over in defeat, after hours of fighting with the massive lion. In this shocking piece of footage from South Africa, a lion who is attacking a buffalo is suddenly changed at by 2 other buffalos. The lion is the launched 4 meters into the air by the giant male buffalo. The animals scuffled for a little while longer, but all walked away with no major injuries. Despite this, we think it’s pretty safe to say that the buffalo won this round.

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14 animal fights caught on camera lion verse crocodile in the Kenyan wild one of the world's most ancient predators goes head-to-head versus a lion they're fighting over an elephant carcass and at first the battle seems fair until the Lions comrades join in at which point the crocodile no longer has a chance but he continues to fight taking bites at the lion pack unfortunately for him though in the end he's no match in this three verse one battle the Lions win and claim the elephant carcass for themselves snake verse bunny don't feel bad for the bunny just yet as this fight doesn't go the way you'd probably assume the bunny grabs on to the snake kicking it viciously eventually forcing it to flee in terror the bunny goes aggressive biting at the back of the snake as it tries to run away and eventually the bunny is victorious giraffe vs. lion in this insane fight somewhere in the plains of Africa the lion jumps up to bite at the giraffe's neck but the giraffe body slams the lion in the chest pummeling it to the ground and then kicking it repeatedly not letting the lion recover in the end the giraffe proves victorious Cobra verse Mongoose this hungry snake is on the hunt for food but he stumbles into the wrong home the Mongoose sneaks up on the snake and bites it in the head but that's far from the end of the battle as the snake wraps up the Mongoose trying to crush it but in the end the mungus wins saving it's for kids shark verse octopus this unfortunate lone shark is swimming through the peaceful ocean when an octopus disguised as coral grabs it from underneath and starts to wrestle the life from its body the shark tries to fight back but there's not much you can do as the octopus already has a Grif lion vs. Buffalo in this crazy South African battle a pack of lions is trying to take down a lone Buffalo but then the buffalo has a few friends show up one of them flings a lion straight into the sky saving the other buffalos life in the end all the animals walk away unhurt and in my book that's a win for the Buffalo badger verse Fox one of the most heartbreaking fights on this list this badger in Yellowstone National Park encroached on a momma Fox's land trying to eat her kids the Fox battled ferociously trying to get the badger out of her hole but in the end the badger won and both of the momma Fox's kids died leopard vs. lion this fight begins with a leopard sleeping peacefully unaware that a Lions about to attack him this would be a rude awakening the lion viciously charges the leopard the leopard jumps up unaware of what's going on and then quickly realizes he's in grave danger luckily for the leopard its reflexes are fast enough and it jumps up and is able to escape eventually hiding in a tree snake first crocodile in the Australian outback a big snake runs into a croc and they get into a fight the crocodile bites down on the snake trying to kill it but in the end the snake wraps around the crocodile and in a fight that lasts hours the snake comes out victorious iguana verse iguana some of the most vicious fights are between a species own kind as they're the most fair this fight between an iguana and iguana proves just that as they fight tooth and claw people continue to drive past ignoring the guan 'as locked in fierce combat until one iguana eventually flees lion verse bison the lion is on the hunt trying to steal the Bisons young calf but in the wild prey fight back and the Bisons unwilling to let the lion take her kid cutting him off she continually fights the lion until eventually the lion runs away crocodile verse Wilmore a crocodile slowly approaches a family of wild boar as they drink at a watering hole hoping to snatch one of the unsuspecting piglets but as he goes in for the attack the adult boar retaliate trying to protect their piglets against the crocodile and eventually the crocodile is forced to retreat Eagle verse Fox normally Eagles hunt smaller prey but today the Fox is on the run as this giant eagle swoops down to try and take it out the Fox tries it's best to fight back but eventually the Eagle gets the upper hand sinking its sharp claws into the fox's soft fur and wrestling the poor Fox to the ground squirrel verse Cobra bursts mungus this fight begins with a brave squirrel who thinks himself a Cobra killer the squirrel mustering up some unseen confidence decides to attack the Cobra but then the squirrel gets attacked by a blade of grass freaks out and runs away luckily for the squirrel however a mongoose appears the residents soon make killer who also decides to take a go at the Cobra the Cobras not having any of it though and wants nothing more than to take out his new opponent the Mongoose slowly circles the Cobra looking for a break in the Cobras defenses but the Cobra knows what he's doing and as soon as the Mongoose goes in for an attack the Cobra retaliates this isn't the mongooses first fight either though and when the Cobra goes in for a bite the Mongoose pulls off a matrix-like defensive maneuver to dodge the snakes attack the Mongoose then goes for one final ill-timed attack and when he does the cobra bites him right in the mouth forcing the mungus to flee the lucky snake is victorious having just findit off two separate opponents let me know in the comments which fight surprised you the most and if you guys enjoyed this video I would much appreciate if you left the thumbs up feel free to click any of the videos on the screen right now and subscribe for a new top ten every Friday and Tuesday my name is Jake this is Jake Sutton and this has been the 14 craziest wild animal fights caught on camera

The Biggest Lies Told in History



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From legends about George Washington to historical monuments, here are the Biggest Lies told in History.

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10. Columbus Discovered America

9. Paul Revere

8. 13 Colonies

7. Washington Cherry Tree

6. The Crossing of the Delaware

5. Van Gogh Cut off Ear
While in school, learning about famous artists, we all know that Van Gogh was simply a mad man who sliced off his ear and mailed it to his lover, right? Who would really inflict that much physical pain on themselves over an ex? After looking through quite a few letters and it seems more than likely that him and a friend of his got into a scuffle involving too much French wine and a sword. Which normally don’t mix too well. Van Gogh was certainly no snitch and didn’t want to report the incident that could potentially put his best friend in prison.

4. Sphinx Nose
How did the Sphinx lose it’s nose? Did it get a bad Rhinoplasty? Or was While Napoleon was invading Egypt, he used the nose as a target practice for his cannons. This is another absurd historical legend that many still might believe. The nose was gone centuries before Napoleon was even born. Napoleon was fascinated with Egyptology and sought to preserve egypt’s antiquities. The limestone used to construct the sphinx eroded fairly quickly after a few thousand years had gone by. But Egypt is a Muslim country where worshipping idols is not permitted and it’s still a wonder how this monument is still here. Historical accounts from the 1400’s say that a religious islamist leader, Muhammad Sa’im al Dahr, destroyed the nose when he saw people worshipping the sphinx as an idol.

3. Vikings Horned Helmets
Archaeologists have a better chance of finding a unicorn than finding a horned viking helmet. Even the football team the Vikings, have horns on their helmet. This is just a modern day myth and an artist’s portrayal of how the vikings actually looks while in battle. Thiss portrayal began in the 1800’s when scandinavians artists such as Malmstrom and Mary McGregor included this style of helmet, like we see in this illustration of Leif Ericsson discovering Vineland. Horned helmets did exist but these were over a couple thousand of years ago during the bronze age and used for ritualistic religious ceremonies

2. Stonehenge
One of the biggest ancient mysteries in the world is certainly stonehenge and they’ve been standing in that formation for 5000 years. Oh no don’t tell me this is a lie too. Could this all be some kind of cruel hoax? Historical records of the monument date back to about 1200 AD but it’s highly doubtful that they’ve been in the same position we see them today. A curator from Cambridge University quoted,”Nearly all the stones we see today have been moved in some way and are standing in concrete.” This image we see here shows stonehenge in 1877 with stones leaning on eachother. Many monuments around the world must be restored at some point. This photo here shows some type of restoration project going on in 1898 with two men on top of a block that looks like it’s being placed there with a crane. This photo shows the crane picking up the block and you can clearly tell this is a massive restoration project. Take a look at the photos and let us know what you believe.

1. First Thanksgiving
Sorry Guys, American eye has to ruin thanksgiving for you too. And there’s absolutely no truth to this one besides the feast itself and what we celebrate couldn’t be anything further from the truth! As a kid you might have believed your teacher saying that thanksgiving was a friendly celebration between Indians and Pilgrims who came together and feasted on Turkey legs and corn, sharing farming secrets. Thanksgiving was basically a celebration after a vengeful retaliation on native americans and it was celebrated around the same time each year. We won’t get into all the details but if you know how history tended to go between European settlers and Native Americans, you can probably take a good guess. Anyways, don’t let it keep you from enjoying some stuffing and turkey, which the pilgrims never ate

from legends about George Washington to historical monuments here are the biggest lies told in history but first we'd like to thank atomic blast gaming for leaving us this comment on our 11 most iconic structures video we're glad you enjoyed watching and leave us a suggestion on the video you'd like to see in the future and maybe we'll feature you at an upcoming video number 10 Columbus discovered America many children will go to school and not question what their teachers will tell them when it comes to history but the expression history is written by the victors has some validity to it sometimes there's undeniable evidence a moment in history happened and sometimes the truth is kind of warped or misleading for many years people were taught that Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492 but this is extremely misleading vague and a downright lie it's believed that America was originally settled by nomadic tribes crossing the Bering Land Bridge into Alaska tens of thousands of years ago and then we have evidence of Viking explorers such as Leif Ericson crossing the Atlantic there's also evidence of Vikings selling in Lonzo meadow in Newfoundland in the 11th century so Christopher Columbus wasn't even the first European to cross the Atlantic if anything his voyages led to colonization conquest of natives in Spain getting rich number 9 Paul Revere Paul Revere is well known for his midnight ride where he warned the American patriots that the British are coming the British are coming which then allowed for an American victory in the Battle of Lexington and Concord however pretty much this entire story is false and his famous quote would have been incorrect as well first of all the most common name used for British soldiers at this time would have been regulars and there was no need to say that they were British he was sent on a mission to alert the presence of British arrival but so were about 40 other people on horseback and he was in a group with about two other men he actually became overwhelmed by their presence fell off his horse and was even detained temporarily by the Redcoats the reality of what happened that night is less patriotic than the poem written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow so it probably is more enjoyable to teach this as a true account many believed Longfellow just simply picked Revere since it was easy to find words to rhyme with such as near and here number eight thirteen colonies the thirteen colonies of the United States you hear it over and over again from your history teacher but did you ever once asked them to actually count and name them all it's easy to understand how to get this one mixed up because of the current states that made up the colonies before the Revolutionary War began Delaware was actually never a separate colony and that land that currently makes up this state was basically a county of Pennsylvania and was even a part of Maryland Territory at some point however it was a part of Pennsylvania until the Revolutionary War began and was considered to be a lower County it wasn't until 1776 that the government declared Delaware as an independent state from Philadelphia so if your teacher ever refers to the thirteen colonies before 1776 be sure to promptly correct them number seven the Washington cherry tree George Washington is certainly a man of legends we see him all the time on the $1 bill but how much do you really know about this guy the separation of fact and fiction about the first President of the United States can often be blurred might have heard about the legend that states when he was six he was given a hatchet as a gift and he proceeded to chop down his father's cherry tree it was at this moment while shetan confessed to his father that he cut it down and that he could never tell lie however this is a completely fabricated lie in history and the whole story was constructed by an early biographer by the name of Mason Locke Wiens Weems wanted George Washington to be portrayed as a role model for young Americans the myth of Washington has endured for ages probably because we find it to be a good story number six the crossing of Delaware this iconic painting has been a symbol of American bravery during the Revolutionary War and has in history books all across America but is this an accurate depiction of George Washington Crossing the Delaware River into Pennsylvania it was painted by a German artist Gottlieb Lutz and 1851 so obviously he wasn't there at the time the painting depicts George Washington standing tall and a tiny raft making its way through tiny icebergs but when the Delaware River freezes it tends to create more solid large sheets of ice like we see in this image without criticizing too many small details the little measly raft therein is bogus and Washington and his armies cross in transport boats known as Durham's these were constructed using iron ore and sturdy timber Derham boats are about 40 feet long and didn't even have seats so it's unclear why these people are sitting then we take a look over at the flag and that's also wrong this American flag wasn't used until a year later in 1777 there's also no evidence that the guy holding the flag James Monroe was ever in the same boat with Washington what it lacks in historical accuracy it actually makes up for with national pride number five van Gogh cut off year wall in school learn about famous artists we all know that van Gogh was simply a mad man who sliced off his ear and mailed it to his lover right who would inflict so much physical pain on themselves over an X after looking through quite a few letters it seems more than likely that him and a friend got into a scuffle involving too much French wine and a sword van Gogh was certainly no snitch and didn't want to report the incident that could potentially put his best friend in prison number 4 the Sphinx knows how did the Sphinx lose its nose did it get a bad rhinoplasty or was it shot off when the poem was invading Egypt and he used the nose as target practice for his cannons the nose was gone centuries before Napoleon was even born Napoleon was fascinated with Egyptology and sought to preserve Egypt's antiquities the limestone used to construct the Sphinx eroded fairly quickly after a few thousand years ago by but don't forget Egypt is a Muslim country where we're shipping idols is not permitted it's still wonder how this monument is even here historical accounts from the fourteen hundreds say that religious leader Mohammed Sahib Adar destroyed the nose when he saw people worshipping the Sphinx as Nidal number three Viking horn helmets archeologists have a better chance of finding a unicorn than finding a horned viking helmet even the football team the Vikings have horns on their helmet this is just a modern-day myth and an artist betrayal of how Vikings actually looked while in battle this portrayal began in the eighteen hundreds when Scandinavian artists such as Malstrom and Mary MacGregor included this style of helmet like we've seen this illustration of Leif Ericson discovering Vinland horned helmets did exist but these were from over thousands of years ago during the Bronze Age and used for ritualistic religious ceremonies number two still one of the biggest ancient mysteries in the world is certainly stonehedge and they've been standing in that formation for 5000 years right oh no don't tell me this is the lied to could this all be some kind of cruel hoax historical records of the monument do date back to 1200 AD but it's highly doubtful that they've been in the same position we see them today a curator from Cambridge University quoted nearly all the stones we see today have been moved in some way and are standing in concrete this image we see here shows Stonehenge in 1877 with stones leaned on each other many monuments around the world must be restored at some point this photo here shows some type of restoration project going on in 1898 with cue men on top of a blog that looks like it's being placed there with a crane this photo shows the crane picking up the block and you can certainly tell this is a massive restoration project take a look at the photos and just let us know what you believe number one first Thanksgiving sorry guys American High has to ruin Thanksgiving for you too and there's absolutely no truth this one besides the feast itself and what we celebrate couldn't be anything further from the truth as a kid you might have believed your teachers saying that Thanksgiving was a friendly celebration between Indians and pilgrims who came together and feasted on turkey legs and corn sharing farming secrets Thanksgiving was basically a celebration after a vengeful retaliation on Native Americans and it was celebrated around the same time each year we won't get into too many details about this one but if you know how history tended to go between European settlers and Native Americans you can probably take a good guess anyways don't let it keep you from enjoying stuffing in Turkey which also the pilgrims never ate hey guys thanks for watching and be sure to hit that subscribe button for new videos every day

20 Largest Birds of Prey



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From big vicious vultures, to majestic eagles and condors; Here are 20 Largest Birds of Prey ! Subscribe to Epic Wildlife Let’s Connect …

SMOK TFV16 – A Beast Of A Tank! Best One From Them Yet?



Is the TFV16 the best tank SMOK has made yet? Well, let’s watch the video and see my thoughts…

For more information on the the SMOK TFV16:

Official Site:

Thank you for watching!



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the return of the king yeah it sounds pretty dramatic but that's what they're saying this is from smoke and it's the tfv 16 [Applause] [Applause] welcome to the vapor trail channel yep this is what we're looking at today the TF V 16 tank Return of the King from smoke yes some people say smoke but I asked I said you know kid you ask somebody in the company to tell me exactly how you pronounce that their CEO says it's smoke without the e real quickly the liquid that I'm using this time is the cloud chemist this is serial science this one is basically like a berry Crunch cereal and man it is tasty I know I've been vaping a lot of the cloud chemists lately but it's good so why not right yeah this is very good stuff Pat and his team do a great job with their what their cereal liquids in particular so I've been using this on a swell mod and just to show you there's just a tiny little bit of overhang this is a thirty two millimeter tank and that's one of the reasons why I wanted to show you on kind of a standard size mod because some mods aren't quite as wide as this you may have some thinner mods that this is just gonna be overhanging quite a bit I know that bothers some people quite a bit as well so they're pretty sure this tank they say it's The Return of the King and inside of here you get the tank it's nine mil you had nine mil you get a tfv 16 mesh pre-installed and then you get one that is a dual mesh 0.12 ohm coil you get one bulb glass there called at that I call it bubble glass protective silicone sleeve a glass replacement which is a straight glass you get a user manual and spare parts kind of all the features in a glance here King flavor King pleasure King airflow King capacity King cloud so they always include silica gel in there so that the tank stays dry and transporting all the other stuff that's the tank gonna have a manual which you know I mean it's pretty simple but some people like to see a manual so that's good they write this introduction as if this thing is coming I don't know if this is what's going to be in the final manual but it says that it's gonna make its global debut very soon equipped with two mesh coils for the best flavor of Max vapor with an unprecedented 9 mil of eliquid capacity some more specifications down here so yeah 32 millimeter for the base I also get a warranty card this is the sleeve silicone sleeve you know I mean it's it's big so no matter what it's on it actually makes this mod a little bit top-heavy so you've got to be careful about it falling over so you might want to put this on and I guess you just stretch it I haven't even done this yet just stretch it over like that yeah you get the point you can put this thing on your glass alright so we've got a spare coil in here and this is the TF V 16 dual mesh you see this big window here so that the liquid can get all the way to those coils because as you can see they're right in the center of this and there's mesh in those actually liquid can kind of pool in there and that's kind of good because your mesh needs to you know with mesh you need your cotton to always be wet because if it dries out it can it can burn up pretty quick then you've got your wicking a hole over here with direct cotton to the sides of the coils and these coils are freaking massive man look at this thing it's gigantic so that tells me right off the bat that it might be a bit of a juice guzzler right we've got extra o rings and seals for the tank and these are a different color so on it right now are red but you could put on these golden ones if you want of course you also have a straight glass if you'd rather go with that I can't remember what the capacity of this is alright so going over the rest of the tank the drip tip on this it's it's like a sleeve it's an interesting choice I would have probably thought they would have gone with 810 style or whatever but quite possibly because here's the button to open this thing quite possibly there wasn't enough room in there I don't know you could have done it so I think that's an interesting choice if you want to put a different drip tip on here you're gonna have to get one of these little sleeves and maybe they'll sell them separately I don't know yeah so that's how you fill it in that hole right there and then when you're done you slide that over and just latch it in so push button slide over latch it you can see the latch right there nothing much here on the base just designed by smoke and these things man is on there and that is the single mesh this is what I like the most it works quite well plenty of wicking all the way around the wicking is pretty close to the actual mesh so that's going to keep it wet all the time that's that's quite a bit of mesh in there that's that's a giant coil take that out of the base and look at that Wow alrighty we're back in there glass if you want to replace that put your finger into the chimney there in the center and just push around the sides and it'll come off it's on there really tight though so I'm not going to bother with right now and there we go that is the smoke tfv 16 my main issue with this is look how big that thing is man this is even you know it's a standard regular sized mod it's big man it is a giant tank but it's 9 mil capacity 32 millimeters on the base and like I said it only has a slight overhang on this I have to say it's nice to see a company actually focus on putting out a tank instead of a tank and a mod or mod in the tank or whatever I mean even with mine you know the swell mod you can get them on by itself or you get it with the swell tank and that's fine but it's just nice to see a company say no this is the tank and we are definitely going to focus on it haven't seen as much stuff coming out of smoke lately I mean it used to be like every three days we'd see a new product haven't seen that much coming out of themselves kind of all right well let's give this a chance this is a giant mo Hanken tank man this thing is 32 millimeters you might have a little bit of a hard time fitting it on some mods if you don't like overhang but you know it's a big tank once again with the bubble glass on there 9 mil of liquid wow that is a lot of liquid but then again the coil is so giant there's so much cotton and so much mesh in there then it sucks that juice down and that's just a fact one thing that I have noticed with smoke tanks especially if you leave them sitting for just a little bit you know firm I don't know like even a day or something like that without vaping on it they seem to have a lot of seep meaning that the liquid saturates that coil ends up down in the base and on your mod in the past I've even had their tanks where I put it on the mod in the morning getting ready for a video you know maybe two hours later I come in they're leaking so I've been using this one off and on for a couple of days and it's actually done pretty good I let it sit overnight no leaking that kind of stuff so I don't know sometimes though some of those earlier tanks if they did leak right after I filled them or like a couple hours after I filled them if I cleaned it up and left that coil in there it was fine I don't know what's going on with that seems like mesh coils are able to handle that a little bit better without getting leaking yeah this thing is that well you might even call it a cloud King that's only 90 watts now this thing goes up what does this coil say again a hundred and twenty watts it's zero point one seven ohms so let's do that I'm just gonna take it to 120 watts why not now this is not the way I ever vape right 120 watts I'm like okay but let's try it out Wow okay now I remember when sub ohm tank just started you know becoming prominent if there was a tank that said it could vaporize so I was like heck no that's not even that you know that's not even gonna happen and then when you try it was like oh man that's just way too much but this is actually at 120 watts that's pretty mellow it is a warm fate but it seems like you know some tanks at like 60 watts might be that warm I don't know this is a that's that's that's pretty interesting one more at 120 yeah bill Oh a billowy clouds now I know this liquid very good this is the serial science from the cloud chemist and I like all their stuff basically serial science this is like a Captain Crunch type Syria or a a berry crunch type cereal it's pretty darn good now that was 120 I you know I've been vaping it around 85 or 90 I'm gonna just take it down to I'll say 95 95 watts nice and mellow I mean when this thing fades it's like it's smooth it's got a very smooth airflow to it and that's not even all the way open its like 1/3 of the way closed it's very smooth but man when it goes is like you know I mean it's like some tanks feel like you're sipping on it this is definitely not sipping on it it's good you know it's a good tank is it for me it's way too big for me I mean that is a giant tank 9 mil is great especially if you're gonna be you know out for a while or I don't maybe you're a truck driver or your bat work or something like that but that's a lot of liquid so you know even a 60 ml bottle you're gonna go through that pretty quickly flavor-wise though it's actually really good I'm surprised I mean you know I haven't really used smoke tanks and a little while but you know I'm I'm pretty surprised with this one it's it's pleasant but big that is for sure so if you need a big tank you like big tank you like their products but in the past you've been like I know the coils aren't so great mesh coils and these things they're working really good I don't really have anything to complain about except for the size of it it's just it's too big for me that's what she said you know hey listen I'll indulge I think it's a it's a good tank probably the best one from smoke that I've had so I guess that says a lot well there you go so hey I'm getting ready to go to New York City this weekend for nve it's gonna be a great time got a whole reviewers lounge there where you can come and meet all your favorite reviewers it's hosted by Mike vapes he actually lives right down the road from there so that's pretty cool I'm looking forward to seeing all my friends and meeting some new friends and if I meet you well that would be great if you see me walking around the show just don't hesitate come up and say hi I appreciate that sometimes people will come up kind of shyly like hey do you think I could get a picture I'm like no I love that as a matter of fact I love it when you get a picture then you post it on Instagram tag me and then I like to repost them it's it's it makes everything easy and that way I get to share the people that I met as for this video I want to thank you so much for watching and I want to thank you for your support likes comments shares subscriptions always very important to a channel like mine so if you like what you see hit the thumbs up if you haven't subscribed yet there's a red subscribe button down there and there's a notification bell if you click both of those you'll get notified every time I upload I also got links down there for my social media accounts this is a easy way for me to keep directly in touch with you I try to answer all my messages on there and stuff if you have one of those accounts I'd really appreciate it follow the write down there in the description I'll have links down there for advocacy always so important to educate ourselves so we can educate others and well there's lots of information that's down there so just go ahead and click those links well that's going to do it for this episode we'll catch you next time on the vapor trail Channel

Big City Biologists – Texas Parks and Wildlife [Official]



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[cc] Wildlife biologists in the big city? Absolutely! Meet some urban biologists who strive to help wildlife and urban life coexist. For more information on urban …

Open Letter to the President: Physics Education



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Link to Brady’s SixtySymbols video: MinutePhysics is on Google+ – And facebook …

David Attenborough: Saying Boo to a Sloth Shortened



Views:345062|Rating:4.97|View Time:4Minutes|Likes:4504|Dislikes:23
Attenborough: Saying Boo to a Sloth! – BBC Earth

Credit goes to BBC- Earth and David Attenborough

West Texas Wildlife Biologist – Texas Parks and Wildlife [Official]



Views:12937|Rating:4.95|View Time:7:41Minutes|Likes:90|Dislikes:1
A wildlife biologist works the Elephant Mountain Wildlife Management Area in west Texas and helps with the repopulation of native Desert Bighorn Sheep at Black Gap WMA.

The views are fabulous, these mountains and
the desert out here. There's just nothing else
like it in the state. To just be able to get out and
not have to worry with traffic or phone calls or any other of your
life's problems, to get out in the desert here
on one of these mountain peaks, it's just, wow,
pretty neat. My name is Scott Lerich.
I'm a Wildlife Biologist here at Elephant Mountain
Wildlife Management Area. I'm very lucky to be able
to not only work here but also live here. And it's literally the chance of
a lifetime for a wildlife biologist. [truck driving] We're out in the Big Bend country,
the Trans-Pecos, 26 miles south of Alpine, about 400 miles west
of Austin. I do just about anything
that needs to be done but also I'm responsible for conducting the baseline
inventories on the property, which entails monitoring all
the animal and plant life and I prefer to work out here in
this Chihuahuan desert country. I never have a traffic
jam to worry about. I actually sit on my front porch
with my spotting scope and watch bighorns
on the mountain. In the evenings
it's just wonderful. This is great. This state's full of
some amazing places but this is my favorite spot, the
mountains of the Trans-Pecos. And in Texas that's the only
spot you'll find Bighorn Sheep in their natural environment. Always amazing how magnificent
these animals are. They make leaps and jumps that no other animals can do. They'll stand up there
on the rocks. It's just…
an amazing site. I wish everybody
could see them. One of the different things
we do in this part of the state is trap and transport desert
bighorn into new habitats. The original herd of bighorns
were brought here in 1987. We had 20 that were
released here. And in the last few years
those number have reached over 100 animals. We're gonna get ready to
transplant off Elephant Mountain to Black Gap Wildlife Management
Area about 45 sheep. To be able to see one of these
animals in their native habitat is a tremendous feeling. And to know they're out
there on the landscape again where they roamed
100 years ago. The desert bighorn are our most visible, publicized
specis of wildlife here. They are looked after
in detail. Because of the help
of organizations like the Texas Bighorn Society, private landowners, many, many biologists
that came before me, the State of Nevada, We have more desert bighorn
in Texas today than we did 100 years ago. It's been an incredible success story. The helicopter lands
at the headquarters with their load of sheep and when the dust clears
a little bit, volunteers equipped with goggles
for eye protection rush up and unload the sheep from
the helicopter. Few people get a chance
to run up to a helicopter that's running and that's
exciting enough. And you grab this
animal that's restrained, you literally have the life
of that animal in your hands. It's just a tremendous experience. The animals are typically
breathing fairly easily and calmly but you can still feel that animal's
life in your arms. The breathing of that animal,
it's physically making contact with your arms and it's just a tremendous
feeling, unlike anything you can imagine. The animals are brought
to the processing stations, examined by biologists
and a veterinarian, and as they are being
processed temperatures are being
taken the entire time. If it goes too high,
it's a sign of stress. We're going to place radio
transmitting collars on all the animals. They'll be joining other sheep. They seem to be very calm
when they're in the trailer like that. We're real lucky in
this fact that Black Gap is only a short distance
away from Elephant Mountain. As the crow flies it's a
very short distance. However the main route to
drive there is about 120 miles. But the entire drive will
take less than 2.5 hours so the sheep are not in
the trailer very long. When we get to Black Gap
we're gonna go to the predetermined location
where they'll be released and we're going to turn
the trailers around and open the gates. There they go! That's
outstanding to see see these sheep in a new range get them reestablished
down here again. This is fabulous. It's–
this is the one of the greatest things
about wildlife management and it's a good feeling
for wildlife biologist to be involved in something
like this. This is outstanding. Hopefully even if you never
get a chance to see them you will have an appreciation
for the fact that they are actually
here again. We're doing the best
we can to manage the habitat and wildlife species
here at Elephant Mountain and because of that we
see animals like the desert bighorn thriving here. I'm very lucky to be able
to live and work on this property. It's a wonderful place
and it's literally a chance of a lifetime
for a wildlife biologist.

The Big Bang Theory – Sheldon teaches Penny Physics



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Sheldon attempts to help Penny understand Leonard’s work by teaching her… Physics. Excerpts from Season 3 Episode 10. I recommend watching the whole …

Ornithology- Harmonía Big Band Project.



Views:1385|Rating:3.75|View Time:3:16Minutes|Likes:3|Dislikes:1
Ornithology (Charlie Parker)

Solistas: Alberto Guío (saxo alto) y Ángel Martín (trompeta).

Integrantes:
Saxos: Ernesto carrera, Alberto Guío, Ángel Rodríguez. Rafa Díaz y Víctor Alonso.
Trombones: Fran García-Prieto, Jorge López, Juan Carlos Bolaños y Alberto Resino.
Trompetas: Ángel Martín, Israel santos, Juanma Matía y Jesús Díaz.
Base: Víctor Muñoz y Edu García (piano), Abel Franco (guitarra), Jesús Rodero (contrabajo), Diego Hernando (batería)y Carlos Lahoz (percusión latina).
Dirección: Ángel Rodríguez Cano.

The danger of science denial | Michael Specter



Views:386241|Rating:4.62|View Time:19:2Minutes|Likes:6461|Dislikes:537
Vaccine-autism claims, “Frankenfood” bans, the herbal cure craze: All point to the public’s growing fear (and, often, outright denial) of science and reason, says Michael Specter. He warns the trend spells disaster for human progress.

TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. Featured speakers have included Al Gore on climate change, Philippe Starck on design, Jill Bolte Taylor on observing her own stroke, Nicholas Negroponte on One Laptop per Child, Jane Goodall on chimpanzees, Bill Gates on malaria and mosquitoes, Pattie Maes on the “Sixth Sense” wearable tech, and “Lost” producer JJ Abrams on the allure of mystery. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on TED.com, at Watch a highlight reel of the Top 10 TEDTalks at

HOW IT WORKS: The International Space Station



Views:32994964|Rating:4.76|View Time:28:58Minutes|Likes:340886|Dislikes:17545
This explains each interior area, crew living quarters, and scientific equipment.

The history of our world in 18 minutes | David Christian



Views:4592449|Rating:4.65|View Time:17:41Minutes|Likes:47974|Dislikes:3640
Backed by stunning illustrations, David Christian narrates a complete history of the universe, from the Big Bang to the Internet, in a riveting 18 minutes. This is “Big History”: an enlightening, wide-angle look at complexity, life and humanity, set against our slim share of the cosmic timeline.

TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on TED.com, at

المترجم: Issam B
المدقّق: Anwar Dafa-Alla أولاً، مقطع فيديو. نعم، إنها بيضةٌ مخلوطة. لكن عندما تنظرون إليها، أتصوّر أن شعوراَ بدأ ينتابكم فية شيءٌ من الإرتباك. لأنكم ربّما قد لاحظتم أنّ ما يحدث في واقع الأمر هو أنّ البيض يفصل بعضه عن بعض. و ستشاهدون الآن صفارَهُ و بياضَه ينفصلان. و هاهما الآن يُسكبان مجدّداً داخل البيضة. و كلّنا يعلم في صميمه بأن الكون لا يسير على هذاا المنوال. البيض المخلوط مزيجٌ عشوائيّ بشكل عصيدة، و إن كانت عصيدةً لذيذة، فهي مع ذلك غير متجانسة. البيض شيءٌ جميلٌ و معقّد يمكن له أن يكون مصدراً لأشياء أكثر تعقيداً، كالدّجاج مثلاً. و نحن نعلم في صميم قلوينا بأن الكون لا يسير من العشوائية إلى التعقيد. في الواقع، هذة المسألة الأولية تنعكس في واحدٍ من أكثر قوانين الفيزياء أساسيةً، القانون الثاني للديناميكا الحرارية (للثرموديناميكا) ، أو قانون الأنثروبيا. الذي ينصّ أساساً بأنّ التوجّه العامّ للكون هو السير من النّظام و البنية لانعدام النّظام، وانعدام البنية ــ و في واقع الأمر، إلى العصيدة (انعدام التجانس). و لهذا فإن ذاك الفيديو يكتسي شيئاً من الغرابة. و مع ذلك، أنظروا من حولنا. ما نرى من حولنا هو تعقيدٌ مذهل. يقدّر إريك باينهوكر بأنّ في مدينة نيويورك لوحدها يتم تبادل حوالي عشرة مليارات وحدة تسيير مخزون ( و.ت.م) ــ بمعنى سلعة مختلفة. هذا يعادل مئات أضعاف عدد الكائنات الموجودة على ظهر الأرض. و يتم تبادلها بواسطة كائنات يضاهي تعدادها سبع ميليارات فرد تربطهم التجارة و الأسفار و الأنترنت بمنظومة عالمية مذهلة التعقيد. إذاً ها هو لغزٌ كبير: في كونٍ يحكمه القانون الثاني للثرمودينامكا، كيف يمكن توليد ذاك الصنف من التعقيد الذي وصفتُه ــ الصنف المتمثل فيكم وفيّ و في قاعة المؤتمرات؟ حسناً، يبدو و كأن الجواب هو، أن الكون يمكنه أن يخلق تعقيداً، لكن بصعوبةٍ بالغة. في الجيوب/التجاويف يظهر ما يطلق عليه زميلي فريد سبير، إسم "الظروف المعتدلة" ــ لا شديدة الحرارة، و لا شديدة البرودة؛ لكن ملائمةًً بقدرٍ يسمح بإيجاد التعقيد. و تظهر أموراً شيئما أكثر تعقيداً. وحيث كان لديك أموراً شيئما أكثر تعقيداً، يمكن الحصول على أموراً شيئما أكثر تعقيداً. و على هذا النحو يُبنى التعقيد مرحلةً على مرحلة. كلّ مرحلةٍ ساحرةٌ (بذاتها). لأنها تعطي انطباعاً بشئٍ جديدٍ تماماً يظهر تقريباً من لا مكانٍ (فراغ) في الكون. في التاريخ العظيم نشير إلى هذه اللحظات باسم العتبات الزمنية. وعلى كلّ عتبةٍ زمنيةٍ، تتعقد المجريات أكثر فأكثر. الأمور المعقدة تصير أكثر هشاشةً، أكثر عرضةً للمؤثرات، وتتجه الظروف الملائمة نحو الشدّة، و تزداد صعوبة خلق التعقيد. حسناً، نحن ككائنات في منتهى التعقيد بحاجةٍ شديدة لمعرفة هذه القصة التي تروي كيف للكون أن يخلق التعقيد، على الرغم من القانون الثاني (للثرموديناميكا)، ولما التعقيدُ يعني العرضةً و الهشاشة. و هذه هي القصة التي نرويها في "تاريخ عظيم". لكن لأجل هذا، يجب القيام بأمرٍ قد يبدو لأوّل وهلةٍ مستحيلا تماماً. يجب إلقاء نظرةٍ شاملة على تاريخ الكون كلّه. إذاً ، فلنقوم بذلك. (ضحك) و لنبدأ (بلف شريط الأحداث/ بالرجوع بعجلة التاريخ) نحو الخلف بمقدار 13,7 مليار سنةٍ إلى بداية الزّمن. من حولنا لا يوجد أيّ شيئٍ. و لا حتىّ الزمن. تصوّروا أشدّ الأشياء عتمةً و فراغاً ثمّ شكّلوا منه مكعباّتٍ بصورةٍ متتابعةٍ لا يُحصرعددها و هاهنا نتواجد الآن. ثمّ فجأةً، صاعقة / إنفجار! يظهر كوناً، كوناً تاماً. و ها نحن قد اجتزنا العتبة الأولى. الكون شديد الصِّغر؛ أصغر من الذّرة. حرارته غير معقولة. و يشتمل على كلّ ما يحتويه الكون حالياً، فيمكن تصوّره ينفجر، و يتوسّع بسرعةٍ خيالية. في البداية، ضبابيةٌ لا غير، ولكن سرعان ما تبدأ أشياءٌ متمايزة بالبروز من تلك الضّبابية. في غضون الثانية الأولى، تتبعثر الطاقة متوزّعةً على قوىً متمايزة من بينها الكهرومغناطيسية و الجاذبية. و الطاقة تفعل شيئاً آخر في غاية السحر، إنها تتجمّد لتشكلّ المادة ــ الكواركات الّتي تخلُق البروتونات و اللِّبتونات الّتي تحتوي على الإلكترونات. و كلّ هذا يحصل خلال الثانية الأولى. و الآن نتّجه أماماً يمقدار 380,000 سنةً. و هذا يعادل ضعفي مدّة وجود الإنسان على ظهر هذا الكوكب. و الآن تظهرذراتٌ بسيطة من الهيدروجين و الهيليوم. الآن أودّ أن أتوقّف لِلَحظة، 380,000 سنةً بعد بدءِ الكون، لأنّنا في الواقع نعلم الكثير حول الكون في هذه المرحلة. و فوق هذا و ذاك، نعلم بأنّه كان شديد البساطة. كان يتشكّل من سُحبٍ ضخمة من ذرّات الهيدروجين و الهيليوم، و لا بنية لها. إنّها عبارة عن عصيدةٍ كونية. لكن هذا ليس صحيحاً تماماً. دراساتٌ حديثة بواسطة أ قمارٍ صناعية كالمسبار ويلكيلسن (ذي المُويجات المتباينة) أثبتت أنّه يوجد في الواقع مجرّد فوارق طفيفة في هذه الخلفية. ما ترون هنا، المساحات الزرقاء تقلّ درجة حرارتها حوالي جزء من الألف من الدرجة مقارنةً مع المناطق الحمراء. إنّها فروقٌ طفيفة، لكنّها كانت كافيةً لكي يمضي الكون قُدُماً نحو المرحلة الموالية لبناء التعقيد. هكذا تجري الأمور. تكون قوى الجاذبية أعظم حيث توجد مادّةٌ أكثر. إذاً، حيث كان لدينا مناطقٌ تزيد كثافتها بمقدارٍ طفيف، تبدأ (قوى) الجاذبية برَصِّ سُحب ذرّات الهيدروجين و الهيليوم. فيمكن لنا أن نتصوّر الكون في بداية عهده و هو ينشطر إلى مليارات السّحب. يتمّ رصّ السّحب واحدةً واحدة، فتعظم قوى الجاذبية مع ازدياد الكثافة، و تبدأ الحرارة بالإرتفاع في مركز كلّ سحابة، و حينها، في مركز كلّ سحابة، تتجاوز درجة الحرارة عتبة 10 ملايين درجة، تبدأ البروتونات في الإندماج، فيحصل إفرازٌ هائلٌ للطّاقة، ثمّ، إنفجار! حصلنا على أوّل النجوم. بعد حوالي 200 مليون سنة بعد الإنفجار العظيم، ها هي النجوم تبدأ بالظهور عبر الكون، مليارات منها. و الكون الآن أشدّ إمتاعاً بكثير و أشدّ تعقيداّ. ستخلُق النّجوم الظروف المعتدلة المهيِّئة لتجاوز عتبتين جديدتين. عندما تموت النّجوم ذوات الأحجام الضخمة، تولّد حرارةً عاليةً لدرجة أن البروتونات بدأت في الإندماج في شكل تركيبات غير اعتيادية، لتشكّل كلّ العناصر الكيميائية في الجدول الدوري. إن كنتم مثلي ترتدون حَلقاً من ذهب، فإنّه تشكّل نتيجة انفجارٍ بالغ الضخامة (سوبر نوفا). فالتركيب الكيميائي للكون هو الآن أكثر تعقيداً. و في كونٍ أكثر تعقيداً كيميائياً، يمكن صنع أشياءً أكثر. و ما يبدأ حدوثه هو أنّه حول الشموس الصغيرة، و النجوم الصغيرة، تمتزج كلّ هذه العناصر و تلتّف على شكل دوامة، و تُسرِّع حركتَها الطاقةُ الصّادرة عن النّجم، فتشكّل جُسيماتٍ و ُرقيقات، و تُشكّل دقائقاً صغيرة من الغبار، تُشكّل صخوراً و أجراماً، و في نهاية المطاف تُشكّل كواكباً و أقماراً. و هكذا تشكّل نظامنا الشمسي أربع مليارات سنة و نصف آنفاً. الكواكب الصّخرية كالأرض التي نحيا عليها تفوق بكثيرٍ في تعقيدها النجوم لأنّها تشتمل على تنوّعٍ أكبر بكثير من حيث المواد. إذاً تخطّينا عتبةً رابعةً للتّعقيد. و الآن تتّجه المجريات نحو التّعقيد. تُضيف المرحلة الموالية كياناتٍ تعظم هشاشتها بشدّة و كذا عرضتها للمؤثّرات، و لكنّها بالمقابل أكثر إبداعاً و أكثرقدرةً على توليد تعقيدٍ إضافيٍّ. أنا أتكلّم، بطبيعة الحال، عن الأنظمة الحية. تُخلق الأنظمة الحية بواسطة الكيمياء. نحن رُزمٌ ضخمة من المواد الكيميائية. إذاً، الكيمياء تُهيمِن عليها القوى الكهرومغناطيسية. هذا يحصل على مستوياتٍ أصغر من الجاذيبة، و هو ما يفسّر كوني و إيّاكم أصغر من النجوم أو الكواكب. طيّب، ما هي الظّروف المثالية للكيمياء؟ ما هي الظّروف المعتدلة؟ حسناً، أوّلاً نحتاج إلى طاقة، لكن ليس بقدرٍ فائض. في مركزنجمٍ ما، يوجد الكثير من الطّاقة، لدرجة أنّ أيّما ذرّتين التحمتا ستنكسر رابطتهما مجدّداً. و لا بقدرٍ ناذرٍ. في المجال بين المجرّات، يوجد قليلٌ جدّاً من الطاقة حيث أنّه لا يمكن للذرّات أن تلتحم. المطلوب هو القدرالملائم؛ لا غير. و الكواكب، كما يبدو،في الموقع الملائم لأنها قريبةٌ من النّجوم، لكن من دون إفراط. نحتاج أيضاً إلى تنوّعٍ كبيرٍ في العناصر الكيميائية، و نحتاج سائلا كالماء.ً لما؟ حسناً، في الغازات، تمرّ الذّرات جنباً إلى جنبٍ بسرعةٍ بالغة حتىّ أنّه لا يمكن لها أن تتشابك. في الأجسام الصّلبة، الذّرات ملتصقةٌ ببعضها البعض فلا تستطيع الحركة. في السّوائل، يمكنها أن تجول و تضُمّ بعضها البعض فترتبط لتشكّل الجزيئات. إذاً، أين توجد ظروفٌ معتدلةٌ كهذه؟ حسناً، الكواكب تتوّفر عليها، و كوكبنا الأرضي في بداية عهده كاد يكون مثاليا.ً كان يبعد بمسافةٍ ملائمةٍ عن نجومه يحيث تَوفّر على محيطاتٍ شاسعة من المياه. و في أعماق تلك المحيطات عبر الصّدوع الموجودة على مستوى القشرة الأرضية، هناك حرارةٌ تنبعث من جوف الأرض، كما أنّ هناك تنوّعٌ كبير في العناصر، إذاً، على مستوى تلك الفتحات في أعماق المحيطات، بدأت تفاعلاتٌ كيميائية مذهلة بالحدوث، و انضمّت الذرّات لبعضها البعض بكلّ أنواع التركيبات غيرالنّمطية. لكن الحياة طبعاً تتعدى مجرّد الكيمياء غيرالنّمطية. كيف يمكن إضفاء شيءٍ من الإستقرار على تلك الجزيئات الضخمة التّي تبدو عليها الحيوية؟ حسناً، هنا تحديداً ينضاف للحياة شيءٌ جديدٌ تماماً. لا نضفي استقراراً على العيّنة؛ بل نضفي الإستقرارعلى القالب، الشيء الذي ينقل المعلومات، مع السّماح للقالب باستنساخ نفسه. و الحمض النّووي، طبعاً، هو تلك الجزيئة الجميلة التي تحتوي على المعلومات. ربّما أنتم على اطّلاعٍ بذلك الشّريط اللّولبي المزدوج للحمض النّووي. كلّ سلسلةٍ تتضمّن معلوماتٍ. فالحمض النّووي يحتوي على معلوماتٍ حول كيفية إيجاد الأنظمة الحية. و الحمض النّووي يستنسخ نفسه أيضاً. فهو يستنسخ نفسه و تتفرّق القوالب عبر المحيطات. و هكذا تنتشر المعلومات. لاحظوا أنّ المعلومات أصبحت جزءاً من تاريخنا. و مع هذا و ذاك فالجمال الحقيقي للحمض النّووي يكمن في عدم كماله. فبما أنّه يستنسخ نفسه، مرّةً كلّ مليار سلسلة، فهناك ميلٌ للخطأ. و ما يعنيه هذا أنّ الحمض النّووي، في واقع الأمر يتعلّم. فهوّ يراكم طرقاّ جديدةً لصنع أنظمةٍ حيّة لأنّ بعضاً من هذه الأخطاء يعمل. فالحمض النّووي يتعلّم و هو يبني تنوّعاً و تعقيداً أكبراً. و هذا ما يتجلّى حدوثه عبر الأربع مليارات سنةٍ الماضية. خلال معظم هذة الفترة من الحياة على الأرض، كانت الأنظمة الحية بسيطةً نسبيّاً ــ خلايا أحادية. لكنّها كانت على تنّوعٍ كبير، و كان باطنها شديد التّعقيد. ثمّ منذ 600 أو 800 مليون سنة مضت، ظهرت أنظمةٌ متعدّدة الخلايا. ظهرت الفطريات، ظهرت السّمَك، ظهرت النّباتات ظهرت البرمائيات، ظهرت الزّواحف، ثمّ بعد ذلك، بطبيعة الحال، ظهرت الدّيناصورات. و من حينٍ لآخر تحدث كوارث. منذ 65 مليون سنة مضت، سقط جرمٌ سماويٌّ على الأرض على مقربةٍ من شبه جزيرة يوكاتان، محدثاً بذلك ظروفاً تكافئ تلك التي يخلّفها انفجارٌ نوويٌّ، فمُسحت الدّيناصورات من على وجه الأرض. تلك أخبارٌ في غاية السّوء بالنّسبة للدّيناصورات. لكنها أخبارٌ عظيمةٌ بالنّسبة لأجدادنا من الثّدييات التّي ازدهرت في الجيوب التي خلّفتها الدّيناصورات. و نحن، الكائنات البشرية جزءٌ من هذا النّبض التّطوري المبدِع الذي بدأ 65 مليون سنةٍ من قبل مع سقوط جرمٍ سماويّ. ظهر البشر منذ حوالي 200,000 سنة. و أعتقد أنّنا نُعتبر عتبةً في هذا التّاريخ العظيم. دعوني أوّضح لماذا لقد رأينا سابقاَ كيف أنّ الحمض النّوويّ يتعلّم بعبارةٍ ما، و هو يراكم المعلومات. لكنّه جدّ بطيئٍ. يراكم الحمض النّوويّ المعلومات عبر أخطاءٍ عشوائيةٍ قد يحصل أنّ بعضها تعمل. لكنّ الحمض النّووي ولَّد في الواقع طريقةً أسرع للتّعلّم؛ أنتج أنظمةً تحتوي على دماغ، و تلك الأنظمة تستطيع أن تتعلّم آنيّاً. تُراكم المعلومات، تتعلّم. المُحزن في الأمر هو، أنّها عندما تموت، تموت المعلومات معها. إذاً، ما يجعل من البشر مختلفين هو اللغة البشرية. نحن نتمتّع بنعمة اللّغة، بمنظومة تواصلٍ، هي بقدرٍ من الفعالية و الدّقة حتّى أنّنا نستطيع أن نُشرك (الغير) بما تعلّمناه بدرجةٍ عاليةٍ من الدّقة لكي تتراكم في الذّاكرة الجماعية. و هذا يعني أنّ بإمكانها أن تُعمّر بعد وفاة الأفراد الّذين تعلّموا تلك المعلومات، و يمكنها أن تتراكم جيلاً عقب جيلٍ. و لهذا كََسُلالةِ كائناتٍ، نحن نتمتّع بإبداعٍ هائلٍ و بفعاليةٍ كبيرةٍ، و لهذا لدينا تاريخ. يبدو أنّنا الكائنات الوحيدة، خلال أربع مليارات سنةٍ، التي تتمتّع بهذه الموهبة. أسمّي هذه القدرة بالتّعلّم الجماعيّ. هو ما يجعلنا مختلفين. يمكن رؤيته وهو يحدث في المراحل الأولى من التّاريخ البشري. تطوّرْنا ككائناتٍ في الأراضي السّافانا الإفريقية، لكن من ثمّ ترون بشراً يهاجرون نحو أوساطٍ جديدةٍ ـــ نحو الصّحارى، نحو الغابات، نحو سهول التَّندرة السّيبيرية خلال العصر الجليدي ــ أوساطٌ قاسيّةٌ، قاسيّة ــ نحو الأمريكتين، نحو أستراليا. كلّ هجرةٍ اشتملت على تعلّمٍ تعلّم طرقٍ جديدةٍ لاستكشاف الوسط، طرقٌٍ جديدةٌ للتعامل مع المحيط. ثمّ منذ 10,000 سنة، مستغلّين تحوّلاً طارئاً في الطّقس الأرضي، مع نهاية العصر الجليدي الأخير، تعلّم البشر الزراعة. كانت الزراعة كمنجمٍ للطاقة. و باستغلال هذه الطاقة، تضاعف أعداد البشرية. صارت المجتمعات البشرية أوسع و أكثر كثافة، و أكثر أواصراً. ثمّ منذ أزيد من 500 سنةٍ مضت، بدأ البشر بالإرتباط على أرجاء المعمورة عبر الإبحار، عبر القطارات، عبر التليغراف، عبر الإنترنت، حتى صرنا اليوم و كأنّنا نشكّل دماغاّ عالميّاً واحداّ تعداد أفراده ما يقرب السبع مليارات. و هذا الدّماغ يتعلّم بسرعة الضوء. و خلال فترة 200 سنةٍ مضت، حصل شيئٌ آخر: عثرنا على منجمٍ آخرٍ للطاقة يتمثّل في الطاقة الأُحفورية. إذاً الطاقة الأحفورية والتّعلّم الجماعيّ معاً يفسّران التعقيد المذهل الذي نشهده من حولنا. إذاً، ها نحن مجدّداً في قاعة المؤتمرات. لقد مضينا في رحلةٍ، رحلةٌ عادت بنا إلى الوراء 13.7 مليار سنةٍ إلى الوراء. أتمنّى أن تشاطروا رأيي بأنها قصّةٌ كبيرة. و هي قصّة فيها البشر يلعبون دوراً مذهلاً و خلاّقاً. لكنّها تنطوي على إشارات تحذيرٍ. التّعلّم الجماعيّ عبارةٌ عن قوةٍ جدّ جبّارة، وليس من الواضح أنّنا، معشر البشر مسؤولون عنها. أتذكرأنّني كصبيٍّ ترعرع في إنجلترا، عايش أزمة الصّواريخ الكوبية. لعدّة أيام، كلّ الكائنات الحيّة على وجه الأرض كانت على وشك الدّمار. و نفس الأسلحة لا تزال هنا، و لا تزال جاهزةً للإستعمال. إذا تفادينا هذا الفخ، فلا يزال أُخرٌ في انتظارنا. نحن نحرق الطاقة الأحفورية بنسقٍ يوحي بأنّنا نُعرِّض الظروف المعتدلة للإختلال و هي التي سمحت للحضارة البشرية بالإزدهارطوال 10,000 سنةٍ مضت. إذاً ما يمكن أن يفعله التّاريخ العظيم هو أن يرينا طبيعة التّعقيد و الهشاشة التي نتّصف بها و المخاطر التي تواجهنا، كما أنّه قد يرينا قوّتنا بالتّعلم الجماعي. و الآن، و أخيراً، هذا ما أطمح إليه. أطمح إلى أنّ حفيدي دانيال و أصدقائه و جيله، عبر العالم، جميعاً يطّلعون على التّاريخ العظيم، و يتعرفون عليه جيّداً حيث يفهمون كلاً من التّحدّيات التي تواجهنا و الفرص التي تنتظرنا. و لهذا فإنّ فريقاً منّا يُعدّ برنامجاً تعليميّاً مجّانيّاً متّصلاً بالكمبيوتر حول التّاريخ العظيم لطلاب الصّف الثّانوي عبر العالم. نعتقد بأنّ التّاريخ العظيم سيكون لهم أدآةً فكريةً حيويةً، حيث أنّ دانيال و جيله يواجهون التّحدّيات الجبارة و أيضاً الفرص الهائلة المقبلة أمامهم على مشارف هذه العتبة الزّمنية في تاريخ كوكبنا الجميل. أشكركم على انتباهكم. (تصفيق)

A Brief History of Pretty Much Everything



Views:4198361|Rating:4.92|View Time:3:12Minutes|Likes:35111|Dislikes:557
deviantART:

Animation copyright James (Jamie) Francis Bell aka. “DispleasedEskimo” 2010.

*UPDATE: It (the final piece) got full marks! YAY :D*

This is the final piece for my AS art course, a flipbook made entirely out of biro pens. It’s something like 2100 pages long, and about 50 jotter books. I’d say I worked on and off it for roughly 3 weeks.

Song is French Cancan by Jaques Offenbach.

Additional sounds credited to Valve, specifically from their game Team Fortress 2.

Other stuff is from the 300 trailer and O Little Town of Bethlehem.

This animation has now been put onto clothes with a design I made. So, if you want to help me get all my necessary meals and whatnot, why not head on over to

Stephen Hawking – A Brief History Of Time 1991.avi [good sound]



Views:280057|Rating:4.79|View Time:1:23:42Minutes|Likes:1881|Dislikes:82
A film about the life and work of the cosmologist, Stephen Hawking, who despite his near total paralysis, is one of the great minds of all time.

you you you which came first the chicken or the egg did the universe have a beginning and if so what happened before then where did the universe come from and where is it going you luck luck well we have been very lucky I mean my family and Steven and everybody you have your disasters but the point is that we have survived everybody has disasters and yet some people disappear and are never seen again flying bombs are very alarming because he came buzzing over and then they would cut out and when you heard the bang you knew on you so you went back to your meal or whatever but one did for quite close to our house and it blew the back windows out the glass of sticking dagger points out of the opposite wall when Steven was born we decided he'd better be born in Oxford I said while I was staying in the hospital I went to Blackwell's in Oxford and I bought an astronomical atlas one of my sisters-in-law said this is a very prophetic thing for you to have done how real is time will it ever come to an end where does the difference between the past and the future come from why do we remember the past but not the future I can remember the day when we traveled through London and the blackout was over and the trains instead of being shut in bad blinds you just traveled in a train we were coming over when as the bridges and all lights well such lights as were left were on in London but it was also a completely starry night and you could see the right or explode I remember we all used to lie on the grass looking straight up through telescopes and seeing the wonders of the stars Stephen always had a strong sense of wonder and exceeded the stars would draw him and further than the Stars I was born exactly 300 years after the death of Galileo I estimate that about 200,000 other babies were also born that day I don't know whether any of them was later interested in astronomy my first memory is of Isabel pushing a rather antiquated carriage built crown along North Road with Stephen and Mary in it sort of I'm looking very large because they had large heads and pink cheeks and they were very noticeable they all look different from ordinary people I can remember visiting the Hawking home Oh several times it was the sort of place where if you were advised to stay to supper you might be allowed to have your conversation with Stephen but the rest of the family will be sitting at the table reading a book a behavior which was not really approved of in my circle but which was tolerated from the Hawking's because they are recognized to be very eccentric highly intelligent very clever people but still a bit odd my impression of the Hawking family was that they were all like that except for Stephen who seemed to be the only normal member of the family Stephen used to reckon he knew I think it was eleven ways of getting into the house I can only find ten of them I'm not sure where the other way was on the north side of the house was basically she had to draw at the front and draw at the back above that there was the window into the l-shaped run and at the front you could get sort of round corner onto the roof and from that level you could get onto the main roof I think one of the ways Stephen could get in was on the main roof they say he was much better climber than I was I still didn't have what the 11th one was before the 20th century that was thought that the universe had existed forever or had been created at some time in the past more or less as we observe it today people found comfort then the thought that even though they may grow old and die the universe was eternal and unchanging I gave up playing games with Stephen oh when he was ill that time doctor and he's about 12 Vic's he started taking games terribly seriously we had monopoly and first of all the Monopoly board Spang they always going across it to add to the complications and then monopoly just wasn't adaptable enough it ended up for the fearful game called dynasty which as far as I can make out was they say I never played it went on forever because there's no way of ending it it was almost a substitute for living as far as I could make out it took hours hours and hours I sort of brought a terrible game I couldn't imagine anyone getting getting taken up with that but Stephen always had a big complicated mind and I felt as much dancing it was the complication of it appealed to him when I was in high school I learned that light from distant galaxies was shifted to the red this meant that they were moving away from us and that the universe was expanding but I didn't believe it a static universe seemed much more natural that could have existed and could continue to exist forever we were discussing the possibility of the spontaneous generation of life and I think that Stephen made a remark which indicated not only that he thought of this but he'd even also come across some calculations as to how long it might take at that time I think I made a comment to one of my friends John McClanahan I think that Stephen will turn out to be unusually capable I didn't think I put in quite his words but I made some such remark to him and he disagreed and so we made a bet on the subject in our childish way we bet a bag of sweets on the issue and incidentally I reckon that my bet has come correct and I think I'm entitled to payment which is not yet been made the expansion of the universe suggested the possibility that the universe had a beginning at some time in the past the point at which the universe may have started out became known as the Big Bang the first year he was absent all on school he came I think third from the bottom so I said well Steven do you really have to be as far down as that and he's in well a lot of other people didn't do much better he was quite unconcerned somehow he was always recognized as being very bright and in fact they gave him the divinity prize one year that was not surprising because his father used to read him Bible stories from a very early age and he knew them all very well and he was quite well-versed in religious things'll I don't think he makes very great deal of practice of it now everybody is believed the Andriy there's a good safe subject you don't need any facts or distracting things like that are you going for arguing you know debating you can quite happily debate about anything including theology of the existence or otherwise of God and then someone gets bored your journey into space comes on or something like that the argument breaks up in an unchanging universe one can imagine that God created the universe at literally any time in the past on the other hand if the universe is expanding there may be physical reasons why there had to be a beginning an expanding universe does not preclude a creator but it does place limits on when he might had carried out his job when the family went to India it was arranged that Stephen should come and live with us for a year he decided it would be nice that he should have Scottish dancing in the evening now mind you this was a was quite an ordinary house but we had rather a lot of room and a large hall and so we bought um some records and a book about what you do and Stephen took charge and he insisted that you put on a jacket and a tie and then he was the master of the proceedings and Stephen took it very seriously but then he liked dancing you see there were four physicists in my year goon Barry Richard Braun Stephen myself I first remember Stephen on an occasion when Gordon and I went up after dinner to his room to try to find him and Stephen was up there with a crate of beer slowly drinking his way through it he was only 17 he couldn't legally go into a pub they've gone up to Oxford ridiculously early we used to have what we call a gathering net we use for organised a beer party and then various things like got to gather all these colours many freshmen if we could get you see we got them to join the Boat Club and that's how we collected him but the question always the Stephen was on should we make him a in the first state or the second agency where cox's can be adventurous and some causes can be very steady people easily even rather an adventurous type never new quick what are we going to do you are they for the crew I think used to bring his work game with him into the boat sometimes you know he's the sort of thinking Viera was going on different levels but we were asked to read a chapter chapter 10 in a book called electricity and magnetism by blini and blini an unlikely combination a husband-and-wife team and at the end of that chapter there are 13 questions all of them final honors questions I discover very rapidly that I couldn't do any of them Richard I worked together for the week and we managed to do one and a half questions which we felt very proud of gordon refused all assistants and managed to do one all by himself Stephen as always hadn't even started but the next morning he went up to his rooms at nine o'clock and we came back about 12 maybe five past twelve and Dan came Stephen and we were in the college gateway the lodge ah hole King I said how many of you managed to do then well he said I've only had time to the first ten I think at that point we realized that it is not just that we weren't in the same street we weren't on same planet I once calculated that I did about 1,000 hours work in the three years I was at Oxford an average of an hour a day I'm not proud of this lack of work I'm just describing my attitude at the time an attitude that nothing was worth making an effort for he used to produce his work every week for tutorial and as he never kept any notes or papers of that sort of thing on leaving my room he would normally throw it in my wastepaper basket and when he was with other undergraduates or two to Turin they saw this happen they were absolutely horrified because they thought he did this work in probably half an hour if they could have done it in a year they wouldn't have thrown it in the wastepaper basket I would have put it in a frame up on their wolves because of my lack of work I had learned to get through the final exam by doing problems in theoretical physics and avoiding any questions that required factual knowledge I didn't do very well I was on the borderline between the first and second class degree and I had to be interviewed a determine which I should get they asked me about my future plans I replied if they gave me a first I would go to Cambridge if I only brought a second I would stay in Oxford they gave me a first I drove Steven and his young brother out to Woburn Park and he climbed a tree he was testing himself out I think I didn't realize and he did manage to climb a tree had to go along a branch of it and to get himself down I think he began to notice that his hands were less useful and they had been but he didn't tell us Univ has these square staircases which around but they're squared it was just coming down from one of the rooms Steve actually fell on the stairs coming down stairs and kind of bounced all the way down to the bottom I don't know if he lost consciousness but he lost his memory we took him to either my room or someone's room the first question of course was Who am I and we told him you're Steve Hawking and immediately or right away he would ask again Who am I Steve Hawking and then after a couple of minutes here he remembered that he was Steve Hawking then we'd say well do you remember going down to the bar and having a drink on Sunday night or do you remember rowing singh on the river that on monday and his memory came back gradually until he could remember the previous day's events and then the previous hour and then by the end of the two hours he could remember everything the question was well maybe you know you've lost some of your mind because of this and so Steve decided well I'll take the Mensa test we said of course you'll get into Mensa but he came back delighted that he was able to get into Mensa I was absolutely delighted I felt that there were hilarious of theoretical physics I might study at Cambridge one was cosmology the study of the very large the other was elementary particles the study of the very small however I thought that elementary particles were less attractive because there was no proper theory all they could do was arrange the particles in families like in botany then cosmology on the other hand there was a well-defined theory Einstein's general theory of relativity it was very cold here and the ice on very lame iam pond was it was frozen there and we all went skating and Stephen managed escaped fairly well but then he and I were were close together he wasn't skating in a very advanced way but no was Isaac instead and he fell and he couldn't get up so I took him to a cafe to warm up and he told me bin all about it and it was diagnosed I've insisted on going to see the his doctor because seemed to me however long are going to live was probably something someone can do about it and he said anyhow to make things easier for people and I won't mention the doctor's name but I got to see him at the London clinic and he was well surprised that I should bother to come to see him I mean afterwards in his Stephens mother um so he said he was quite nice I mean he agreed to see me in all the grand way and he said yes it's all very sad brilliant young man cut off in the private office Youth is it work but of course that I said well what can we do what can we do to sort of it can we give him can we get physical therapy can we get anything like that that will help in any way as it will actually no there's nothing to it mama listen shortly after my 21st birthday I went into hospital for tests they took a muscle sample from my arm stuck electrodes into me when injected some radio-opaque fluid into my spine and watched it going up and down with x-rays as they told it Abed I was diagnosed as having ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or motor neuron disease as it is also known the doctors could offer no cure and gave me two and a half years to live and went into the graduates common room and looking really if someone had lunch with and there was nobody around that I particularly wished to have lunch with and their Loeb whole Steven walks through the door did what he was doing a lot but either I've said they've got enough and so Steven generously went off to buy the drinks and brought them over and put them down on the table and as he put his pint of beer down he spilt it and I sort said Gina Lee now heaven to drink he at this time of day and he then told me that he'd been in Adam Brooks for three weeks and they'd done a whole series of tests and they decided what was wrong with him and he told me very straight and flat that he was gradually going to lose the use of fel his body that eventually um only his heart and his lungs would still be operating and his brain and that they had told him that eventually he would essentially have the body of a cabbage about his mind would still be in perfect working order and he would be unable to communicate with the rest of the world my dreams at that time were rather disturbed before my condition had been diagnosed I had been very bored with life there had not seemed to be anything worth doing but shortly after I came out of hospital I dreamt that I was going to be executed I suddenly realized that there were a lot of worthwhile things I could do if I were retrieved I knew perfectly well he had no faith and to me that made it the more difficult because you must ask yourself why me why this why now and but he just totally flatly accepted that this was what was going to happen to him and as far as I can gather at that point he started to do some work at first there did not see much point in working at my research because I didn't expect to live long enough to finish my PhD however as time went by the disease seemed to slow down I began to understand general relativity and make progress with my work but what really made a difference was I got engaged to a girl called Jane wild this gave me something to live for but it also meant that I had to get a job if we were to get married Steven already ill Jane knew it and it was another instance of Steven's luck you know meeting the right person at the right time because Jane Steven was very very badly depressed and he wasn't really very much inclined to go on with his work I mean he'd been to lesion you got two and a half years what can you do in that time but meeting Jane really put him on his mettle and he started to work I wanted to understand how the universe began Einstein's theory of general relativity showed that the universe was expanding but there was no answer to the crucial question must there have been a big bang a beginning the time then in my third year at Cambridge Roger Penrose made his discovery about a death of stars I remember talking to this friend I go Robinson and we were having some very animated conversation and then we had to cross a road and and as we cross the road of course the conversation stopped and then we got to the other side well evidently I had some idea when crossing the road but then the conversation started up and I got completely blotted out in my mind and it was only later after after my friends gone home and I began to have this strange feeling of elation in feeling wonderful and I couldn't figure out why I know if I should feel like that so I went back over the day thinking all possible things which might have contributed to such a feeling and then gradually I unearthed this thought which I'd had while crossing the street Penrose announced this result that when stars collapse indefinitely they will become singular as long as some very broad conditions are satisfied that everybody would have regarded as reasonable and I remember Stephen Hawking who was then approaching his third year as a research student saying what very interesting results I wonder whether they could be adapted to understanding the origin of the universe and what he had in mind you see was that if just mentally you reverse the sense of time you can think of the expanding universe as a collapsing system it's a bit like a giant very giant star collapsing right here Penrose proved that a dying star collapsing under its own gravity eventually shrinks to a singularity a point of infinite density and zero size I realized that if I reversed the direction of time so that the collapse became an expansion I could prove that the universe had a beginning but my proof based on Einstein's theory of general relativity also showed that we can not understand how the universe began because it showed that all scientific theories including general relativity itself break down at the beginning of the universe we had this meeting at the Institute of Space physics in New York I said before we reach a final conclusion we ought to throw into the pot still another object gravitationally completely collapsed object well after you've used the phrase a gravitationally completely collapsed object ten times you conclude you've got to get a better name so that's when I switched to the word blackhole the word black hole which John Wheeler coin suddenly caught on everybody adopted it and from then on people around the world in in in Moscow I and in America in England and elsewhere I could know they were speaking about the same thing and not only that but it's suddenly the whole range of concepts got through to the general public and even science fiction writers all of a sudden could talk talk about it tonight my friends we stand on the brink of a feat unparalleled in space exploration if the data on my returning probe ship matches my computerized calculations I will travel where no man has dared to go into the black hole in through and beyond why that's crazy huh impossible as some massive star contracts that strategy becomes so strong that light can no longer escape the return from which nothing can escape is called a black hole and it's lounge areas called even horizon one might say of the event horizon what Dante said of the entrance to hell abandon all hope ye who enter here I was once asked to actually be an adjudicator on a an essay of which the subject was how to fall through a black hole and live now the problem I had was that I wouldn't know how to give out the prize because if I said well that looks like a good essay the only real way with showing that this was right was through actually you to follow it to a do the experiment of fall in but then having fallen in possible I would assume taking on the person who wrote the essay with you the question will be how do you tell the rest of the world do you take the prize in with you that you give to them and what do they do with it when they get to the center believe me I've been waiting a long time for someone like you to record this moment thank you doctor then I'm ready ready to embark on man's greatest journey certainly his riskiest the risk is incidental compared to the possibility to possess the great truth of the unknown there long-cherished laws of nature simply do not apply they vanish and life life life forever if you were watching an astronaut foolhardy enough to jump into a black hole at some time on his Lodge say 12 o'clock he would cross even horizon and enter the black hole but no matter how long you waited you will never see the astronauts watch reach 12 o'clock instead each second on the watch will appear to take longer and longer until the last second before midnight will take forever thus by jumping into a black hole one could ensure that one's image lasted forever but the picture would fade very rapidly and grow so dim that no one could see it as somebody disappears into a black hole as seen from the outside you if it looks as though the time actually slows down and the person becomes who's moving in is least he's thinking he's moving he's perhaps talking in his spaceship at a normal rate seems to slow down and enter by being frozen in a particular position as seen by somebody watching him from the outside and as seen from the outside you never see what happens after that the astronaut will reveal this anything special when his watch reach midnight when he crossed even horizon into the black hole until of course he approached the singularity and was crushed into spaghetti one can fall through this event horizon without feeling anything without noticing it after about a week of falling one begins to feel the pinch and one extends longer and longer and gets slightly thinner and of course one begins to get squeezed until one gets very long very thin and rather nasty by the end of two weeks one's fallen right into the center and one is of course dead before you lose sight of the outer world you would you would see things happening and you would see them at a greater rate so that it would look like a firework display their frustration would be that although you were to be able to see everything that happens in the future it would be going so fast that from a scientific point of view you would have no time to analyze it you wouldn't be able to take it in and eventually things would be going off so fast and it would be so explosive that you yourself would be destroyed by the heavy explosion and that would no that would be the end but it would be a very exciting way to end one's life it would be the way I would choose if I if I had the choice in the long history of the universe many stars must have burned up their nuclear fuel and collapsed in on themselves the number of black holes may be greater than the number of visible stars which totals about a hundred thousand million in our galaxy alone we also have evidence that there is a very large black hole at the center of our own galaxy friends asked me well if a black hole is black how can you see it and I say have you ever been to a ball have you ever watched the young men dressed in their black evening tuxedos and the girls and their white dresses whirling around held in each other's arms and the lights turned low and all you can see is the girls well the girl is the ordinary star and the boy is the black hole you can't see the black hole any more than you can see the boy but the girl going around gives you convincing evidence there must be something there holding her in orbit one evening shortly after the birth of my daughter Lucy I started to think about black holes as I was getting into bed my disability makes this rather a slow process so I had plenty of time suddenly I realized that the area of the event horizon must always increase with time the increase in the area of the event horizon was very reminiscent of a quantity called entropy which measures the degree of disorder of a system that is a matter of common experience that disorder tends to increase with time the things are left at themselves jacob bekenstein came into the office one day jacob i said it always troubles me when i put a hot tea cup next to a cold tea cut i've increased by letting heat flow from one to the other the amount of disorder in the universe but Jacob if a black hole swims by and I dropped both tea cups into this I've concealed the evidence of my crime have I not bekenstein is a man of great integrity and he looked troubled and he came back to me later he said no you have not concealed the evidence of your crime the black hole records what's happened to you Stephen Hawking read the paper in which bekenstein announced this result thought it was preposterous and decided to prove it was wrong my discoveries led jacob bekenstein to suggest that the area of the event horizon actually was the entropy of the black hole but there was one fatal flaw then beckoned Steve's idea the black hole's have an entropy they ought to have a temperature and if they have a temperature they oughta give off radiation but how could they give off radiation if nothing can escape from a black hole as it turned out bekenstein was basically correct though in a manner far more surprising than he or anyone else had expected as he gradually lost the use of his hands he had to start developing too carefully choosing research projects that were that could be tackled and solved through geometrical arguments that he could do pictorially in his head and he developed a very powerful set of tools that nobody else I really had so in some sense when you lose one set of tools you may develop other tools but the other new tools are amenable to different kinds of problems than the old tools and if you're the only master in the world of these new tools that means certain kinds of problems you can solve nobody else can my work up to 1973 was in general relativity and was summarized in a book I wrote with George Ellis called the large-scale structure of space-time it then it was difficult for me to write things down so I tended to think in pictures and diagrams that I could visualize in my head I remember visiting Stephen and Jane their home and Cambridge after supper in the evening I when it was time for Steven to go to bed Jane insisted and Steven acquiesced I guess it was this was standard that Steven make his way up but I forgotten whether it was one flight of stairs to chuse two flights of stairs alone and this was a period when he could no longer walk the way he got up the stairs was he grabbed hold of the the pillars that support the banister and pulled him up with the strength of his own pulled himself up the stairs of the strengths of his own arms dragging himself up from the ground floor on up to the second story in a long arduous effort Jane explained that that this was an important part of his physical therapy to to maintain his coordination and and strength as long as possible at first it was sort of heart-rending to watch the what appeared to be the agony of pulling himself up the stairs until I understood it's just part of life pulling himself up the stairs like that general relativity is what is called a classical theory it predicts a single definite path for each particle but according to quantum mechanics there is an element of chance or uncertainty a particle does not have just a single path through space and time instead there is an uncertainty principle according to which both the exact position and velocity of a particle can never be honed I began investigating the effect one of mechanics might have on particles near a black hole I found that particles could escape from a black hole that black holes are not completely black at first I didn't believe it but when I redid the calculations I couldn't get the effect a go away I met Martin Rees and he was shaking with excitement and he said have you heard have you heard what Stephen has discovered everything is different everything has changed I was still unsure of my discovery so I only told a few colleagues but word soon spread Roger Penrose phoned up on my birthday he was very excited and went on so long that my birthday dinner got quite cold that was a great theory because it was gross which I'm very fond of to me it's a miracle because it's a complicated and messy calculation we can now do these things very much better and it's more transparent what happens but out of this messy calculation he showed that black holes aren't black with this quantum mechanical effect there was a residual radiation Stephen came to a meeting and people were flabbergasted I remember someone getting up and saying you must be wrong Stephen I don't believe a word of it I once said that I was unhappy with the explanation given in terms of negative energy particles being created but I feel this is part of the controversy of science you must have the give and take and I'm delighted to be able to be part of that I mean it unless what makes it fun you know if you all sat down and said all lovely when you do have niggling questions in your mind so that's not doing a service to science but I was not antagonistic to it in any way except for that one time when I questioned I finally convinced myself that black holes radiate when I found a mechanism through which this could happen according to quantum mechanics space is filled with virtual particles and antiparticles that are constantly materializing in pairs separating coming together again and annihilating each other then the presence of the black hole one member of a pair of virtual particles may fall into the hole leaving the other member without a partner with which to annihilate the forsake and particle appears at the radiation emitted by the black hole and so black holes are not eternal they evaporate away at an increasing rate until they vanish in a gigantic explosion quantum mechanics has allowed particles and radiation to escape from the ultimate prison a black hole Einstein never accepted one of mechanics because of its element of chance and uncertainty he said God does not play dice that seems that Einstein was doubly wrong the quantum effects of black holes suggest that not only does God play dice he sometimes throws them where they cannot listen he says himself that he wouldn't have got where he is if he hadn't been ill and I think that's quite possible because it's like Johnson said you know knowledge there to be hanged in the morning concentrates the mind wonderfully and he has concentrated on this in a way that I don't think he would have done because he always took a great interest in a lot of things in life and I don't know he'd have applied himself quite the same way if he'd been able to get around as he used so in a way no I can't thinking I was lucky we having an illness like that even so but it's less bad luck for him than it would be for some people who say Jamie because he can so much live in his head when I lived with the Hokkien family I would usually get up around 7:15 or 7:30 and take a shower and then read my Bible some in the in the morning and pray and then I would go down at 8:15 to get Steven up and then at breakfast I would often tell him what I did what I been reading in the Bible that I was hoping that you know maybe this would eventually have some influence so then we would go into work and usually would we go in and see if there were any scientific papers that people send out and I did discover that despite Hawking's great brilliance he does read quite slowly I mean I could read about twice as fast as he but of course the the point is he would have to read the remembers because would be very difficult for him to go back and access the the thing whereas I could skim the paper rather quickly and say is there something interesting in this if I wanted to work on it I can pick the thing up and look at it black hole radiation has shown us that gravitational collapse does not as final as we once thought the finestra not falls into a black hole he will be returned to the rest of the universe in the form of radiation thus in a sense the astronaut will be recycled however that would be a poor sort of immortality because any personal concept of time would come to an end as he is torn apart inside the black hole all head would survive would leave his mass or energy when you're the Hawking's took me along when we went to a cottage in Wales near the river wye and this cottage was up a hill and there there was a bit of a pay little sidewalk that would they went up to the cottage in which I had not been up and of course I wanted to do it the least number of trips that I could imagine so we put Stephens batteries under his chair I mean he's wheelchair has space for batteries and put extra batteries under there which we Stephen didn't realize he had that I put under there so he didn't realise this wheelchair was as heavily laden as possible so Stephen had quite a bit ahead of me and then he was turning the corner to go into around to his house but that was on a slope and and so I looked out but I noticed Stephens wheelchair was slowly tipping backward and of course I was about the ten meters away tried to run up there but I was not able to get there nearly rapidly enough before he toppled over backward into the bushes I was a bit of a bit of a shocking sight to see you this master of gravity getting overcome by the wee gravitational force of Earth one of the worst things for me would be having people there which I never learned her a green belly and yet he finds things funny and he enjoys life and he goes dashing about all over the place and I think this is tremendous and it but it's a sort of courage that I haven't got and his father hadn't got him and we cannot buttered Mary but wonder how an earthy cottage really there must have been 50 people there and I was standing off in a corner sort of watching quietly for a few minutes relaxing and Stephen was over there not far from me Jane walked over to Stephen and looked at him and he was sitting there with his head in his lap like only Stephen can put his head in his lap and Jane is said to Stephen you look miserable Stephen sit up straight some of your guests don't understand that you're sitting there thinking about physics and having a wonderful time it looks like you're in pain set up straight and go talk to your guests the 1979 I was elected location professor of mathematics this is the same fair once held by Isaac Newton they have a big book with every University Teaching Officer supposed assign after I had been location professor for about a year they realized I had never signed so they brought a book to my office and I signed with some difficulty that was the last time I signed my name you my interest in the origin and fate of the universe was reawakened when I attended a conference on cosmology in the Vatican afterwards we were granted an audience with the Pope he told us that it was alright to study the evolution of the universe after the Big Bang but we should not inquire into the Big Bang itself because that was the moment of creation and therefore the work of God I was glad that he did not know the subject of the talk I had just given the possibility that the universe had no beginning no known inebriation there were theories in the early 70s in fact the first type of creation series where the people concerned started off with a fixed external space and time which see where fraternity was empty and then suddenly for some unknown reason the universe nucleus then click the point and then bang it blows apart but the trouble is that when space and time appear in the classical Theory the actual point itself is a singular point in the mathematics mathematics breaks down and so you cannot in fact use that give you a creation theory if one goes back in time one comes to the Big Bang singularity where the laws of physics break down but there's another direction of time that one can go in which avoids the singularity this is called the imaginary direction of time an imaginary time there need not be any singularities which form a beginning or end the time when you come to imaginary time you have is rather peculiar possibility of having a now as it were without necessarily having a sort of chain of past moments if we start way out at the moments that running backwards in time as it were then for a long time things work perfectly normally then as you begin to get further and further back towards what would be the origin point in the conventional real time picture you find that the nature of time changes that the imaginary component becomes more and more prominent and glynn the end what Alfred being the singular point a classical theory just gets smoothed away and you have this one beautiful picture of these sort of bowls where the creation of the universes pictures where we are now in a smooth for the bowl of past where there's no initial point just a sort of smooth shape so long as the universe had a beginning we could suppose it had a creator but if the universe is completely self-contained having no boundary or edge that would neither be created nor destroyed it would simply be what place then for a creator we could really say that the universe is because it's a self-consistent mathematical structure there's no past because unlike the creations of point scenario if there's nothing for it to be created in you see so to say it's created from nothing is actually a little bit of a misnomer it's it's a misleading use of the word nothing it's not just that there was empty space in which the universe appeared which you might call nothing there was really nothing at all because there wasn't even a creation event we'll see they know the use of a past tense in a verb becomes inappropriate in these theories unfortunately tenses was that type of people believed in real time of course and they'll yet have a linguistic form to describe tenses in imaginary time the word time was not handed down from heaven as a gift from on high the idea of time is a word invented by man and if it has puzzlement connected with it whose fault is it it's our fault where does the difference between the past and the future come from the laws of science do not distinguish between the past and the future yet there is a big difference between the past and future than ordinary life you may see a cup of tea fall off a table and break into pieces on the floor but you will never see the cup gather itself back together and jump back on the table the increase of disorder or entropy is what distinguishes the past from the future giving a direction to time he fell they all in Switzerland when he came back he was on a ventilator because he's on a ventilator you've got a tube down your throat and therefore you can't speak just for that reason for that period which may have been a couple of months I spent probably one in two nights one in three nights at the hospital because when he was in hospital and he couldn't communicate with the nurses and it's not just like being seriously ill but you're in a position where the nurses couldn't understand what Stephen wanted if Stephen was uncomfortable they couldn't tell why before I caught pneumonia my speech had been getting northward so that only a few people who knew me well could understand me but at least I could communicate I wrote scientific papers by dictating to a secretary and I gave seminars through an interpreter and then but reiki ostomy operation removed my ability to speak altogether after a long time what seemed like a long time somebody came up with this brilliant gadget they didn't have it at the Cambridge hospital I got it from somewhere in London this was high technology how you can communicate with a person with no voice so plastic piece of perspex about so big and you've got the letters of the alphabet arranged like that and a hole in the middle you hold it up between you and the other person and they look at a letter and you can see of course which letter they're looking at most of the time sometimes you can't quite be sure and so you would get the patient to spell out what they wanted so each letter they have to look to pick out the a and you say a right it's like a guessing game Stephen wasn't willing to accept that he wasn't going to speak again and he thought that he would be giving in by trying to find a method of communicating other than speech and I remember I went in one evening and and this was the first time that he asked to be gotten out of bed to use the computer sometimes they would sit him up so that he wasn't lying in the bed all the time as you do with the patient but this time when I turned up he asked the nurse could he be gotten out of bed and so he could use the computer and he did I remember the first thing he typed on there after saying hello Steam's always very polite about things like that was will you help me finish my book a computer expert in California heard of my plight and sent me a computer program called equalizer this allowed me to select words from a series of menus on a screen by pressing a switch in my hand these words couldn't be sent to a speech synthesizer attached to my wheelchair much to my surprise I found I was able to communicate much better than before when eventually he went home from hospital again he was told he needed 24-hour nursing and everyone was saying well how is he going to go in and do work is he gonna trail around with a series of nurses after him working in the office and of course he did and I mean they talked originally of him working at home which he wasn't happy with and so after a period of recuperation at home he just decided to go back into the office and he had made the trip from his house to the office which had in there half a mile in his wheelchair but the nurse were walking along with him and this is at the time when he was still driving around with a bag and the nasal drip and going into the departments working going back home I began to wonder what would happen when the universe stopped expanding and began to contract would we see broken cups gathered themselves together off the floor and jump back onto the table would we be able to remember tomorrow's prices and make a fortune off the stock market that seemed to me the universe had a return to a smooth and ordered state when it Rika lapsed if this were so time would go backwards when the universe began to collapse people in the contracting phase would live their lives backward they would die before they were born and get younger as the universe got small again eventually they would return to the womb he gave me my first problem to do he asked me to look at this mathematical problem and usually when he gives the problem he has a good idea of what the answer should be and I went to look at it and it took me a few months to understand what was it about and I came back and I said Steve and I get the sensor and he said to me no that is not what I expected I said seif and that's what I get so I went to the blackboard explained into what he does I said did you think about that particular case I said oh no I didn't i went back i calculated would talk to me about came back a few weeks after and I said Steven I don't get this thing I can still get the same answer ahead originally so he said to me no no no no hi this doesn't work did you think about that I said oh no I had forgotten about this particular case so I went back to the drawing board and started calculating again and again get the same answer so I went like to see Steven and this dragged on for about two or three months finally he said to me maybe one of your approximation isn't valid so me and a colleague decided to do the thing with computers and then this takes a lot of time to write programs and to be sure the program was correct we get the answer it was still the way that I had said before another way that Steve niacin so we went to see Stephen ACC again I had made a mistake I had been using too simple a model of the universe time will not reverse direction when the universe begins to contract people will continue to get older so it is no good waiting until the universe free collapses to return to our youth Einstein once asked the question how much choice the plot had in constructing the universe if my proposal that the universe has no boundary is correct he had no freedom at all to choose how the universe began he would only have had the freedom to choose the laws a universe evade this however may not have been all that much of a choice there may well be only one unified theory that allows for the existence of structures as complicated as human beings we can investigate the laws of the universe and ask about the nature of God I don't know how clear-cut these experiments are but their experiments that have been done on sort of the timing of consciousness and they seem to lead to a very odd picture which doesn't even quite make consistent sense whether whether refinement of these experiments might actually get rid of this kind of anomaly I'm not sure but it does look a little as though there is something very odd about about consciousness and somehow almost as though the future affects the past in some way over a very tiny limited scale but something may be of the order of of a reasonable fraction of a second and there's no reason to believe that one's conscious experience shouldn't be part of you know somebody else's at some other stage I mean I don't know if it's fair to say what happens after one dies but you could it's a it's a plausible picture that you could be somebody else and that somebody else could be somebody that lived in the past not in the future is nefarious only one possible unified theory that has just a set of rules and equations what is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe why does the universe go to all the bother of existing there's a unified theory so compelling that it brings about its own existence or does it need a creator and the soul who created him I think I would say that the universe has a purpose it's not a it's not a somehow just there by chance I mean I think it's yeah so it's it's I use some people I think take the view that the the universe is just there and it sort of runs our lawns and it's bit like it just sort of computes and we haven't somehow by accident to find ourselves in this thing but I don't think that's a very fruitful or helpful way of looking at the universe I think that that there is my something much deeper about it in real time the time in which we live the universe has two possible destinies that may continue to expand forever or it may reap collapse and come to an end at the Big Crunch it would be rather like the Big Bang but in Reverse I now believe that the universe will come to an end at the Big Crunch I do however have certain advantages over many other prophets of doom whatever happens 10 billion years from now I don't expect to be around to be proved wrong of all the pictures that I know the simplest of any cosmology is that in which the universe is closed has a finite lifetime and collapses with a same kind of collapse that a black hole does if it should turn out that indeed the universe is limited in its life how is that different from the life of each one of us Olle Lingam Tuesday March 5th at about 10:45 I was returning to my flat in Pinehurst it was dark and raining I came up the great road and saw headlights approaching but not that they were far enough away that I could cross safely the vehicle must have been traveling very fast for when I got just past the middle of the road my nurse screamed look out I heard tires skidding when my wheelchair was struck a tremendous blow in the back I ended up in the road with my legs over the remains of the wheelchair the accident destroyed my wheelchair and damaged my computer system with which I communicate I required 30 stitches in my head but I was able to go back to work several days later the memories I have are very much kind of um visual pictures of what Stephen was dosing Stephen in certain situations he was always moving always well hardly ever still was the same thing about his his face and gesture which he used a great deal I should say but it's only memory I found some photographs recently which reminded me of the general look of everybody I must say Stephen look very much like he does know if one thinks him like that he does believe very intensely in the most infinite possibility of the human mind you have to find out what you can't know before you know you can't don't you so I don't think that thought should be restricted at all and as why shouldn't you go on thinking about the unthinkable somebody's got to start sometime I mean think how many things were unthinkable a century ago and yet people have thought them and often they also seem quite impractical so suddenly not all things Stevens's probably are to be taken as gospel truth he's a searcher he's looking for things and if he is sometimes he probably talks nonsense well don't we all but the point is people must think people must go on thinking they must try to extend the boundaries of knowledge and they don't sometimes even know where to start we don't know where the boundaries are you don't know what you're taking off pointees if we do discover a complete theory of the universe that shouldn't I'm be understandable in broad principle by everyone not just a few scientists then we call philosophers scientists and just ordinary people be able to take part then the discussion of why it is that we and the universe exist if we find the answer to that that would be the ultimate triumph of human reason for then we would know the mind of God Oh full Oh

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in the wild animals will fight to the death for food the cook actually rolled territory and family this topi mother actually back to the hide but out here survival isn't just about brah it can come down to brains or even plain old bravery among South Africa's big cats the lion dominates stealing prey from cheetahs on leopards and sometimes even killing their young but every once in a while the smaller cats strike back this was our last game drive of the holiday and we're heading out to say goodbye to the bush so to speak we knew of four lionesses on a kill in a riverbed close by when we got there arranged a sudden he said there's a there's a leopard and you know we were all focused on the lines and we looked south and they're lying on the sand was a big male leopard the leopard waits for the lionesses to leave the lioness is twice as big as the leopard it's my leaf immediately rolled onto his back protecting his vulnerable spine and obviously having these claws which is his main defense mechanism right up in the lionesses face the defense works but then the lioness gets back up she only started attacking him once the reinforcements arrived the pride lioness was the oldest lioness then trying to go in for the kill and get him on the throat and as that stage the leopard latched on to her face he rips open her jaw you can see the blood dripping from him are all things quite undone the lionesses lay by the kill with the leopard lying in amongst them the animals are exhausted but not willing to give up all parties were reluctant to move at one stage he flinched and again the lioness is sit on him the lionesses seem almost intimidated you would have imagined when those lionesses went in they were just going to go for the kill and he can be clearly see that these lionesses are kind of doing it with caution all the noise had caused some interest from a hyena and it was this moment that the lippert have been waiting for he jumped up and bolted down the sandbar he bounded into the bushes and escaped never seen a lipid stand up to pride of lines like this and especially not for such a long period of time elephant balls are known for their aggression their most unpredictable when they enter a period called must similar to human adolescence this testosterone surge got particularly ugly in one of Namibia's national parks it was getting dog we were at the board's hole I was standing there with a camera and that's what's wrong it's see if anything is happening there were other tourists with us there and everybody does it Shh not allowed to make a noise a bull emerges from the shadows firstly the elephant came walking around the water hole all the way from the other side and sort of eyeing out a rhino bull coming closer coming close I'm tearing at each other I'm still having this quran behind all of a sudden this elephant is win for this Rhino rolling it in the bushes three meters in front of me a black Reiner is an animal that will always stand his ground but this black Reiner made a mistake of the elephant bull this bull is in full form at the temple gland is streaming it's not running it's actually streaming both insides of the back legs are totally wet and once he realized that then you can actually have a fight with a black rhino the black rhino was in big trouble in the wild older male elephants keep younger ones in check when they're in must they're terrible screams coming from the Rhino but in national parks attacks like this are all too common the black rhino can just be glad that there is no penetration from the test because that normal is vital despite being badly injured the Rhino manages to walk away sometimes in nature animals have to worry about being preyed upon by their own kind I was on holiday in cozy Bay and I was just exploring the lagoon area day that's when I saw this snake swimming in the water I haven't seen a snake swimming before so I whipped out my camera and start filming when it beats onto the sand I saw the colors it was a very bright beautiful green color that a small hit with big eyes and was a quite a pretty snake it just looked around and then it basic disappeared from my view I thought the action was finished because the snake disappeared into a little bush and as I was moving off I just saw another snake coming through the water big brown ugly earthy looking snipe much bigger than the green one the second snake is actually a southern file snake it eats other snakes now I could see it stunk and enough testing the a was like it was looking for something and following a prey and when it moved into the direction where the green snake went I immediately made the connection that it was after that's night I heard like a scuffling in a a racket and then when I move around the bush it actually puts their green snake on his head and was busy eating it the southern file snake usually targets larger prey so the green water snake is badly out matched and ultimately eaten alive onlys little tail was left in its mouth it was quite fascinating to see this natural predation happening right in front of my eyes wildlife filmmaker warren Samuels has spent decades documenting Africa's predators but he finds the hunting skills of the hyena particularly fascinating one of the greatest wildlife events that I've ever been fortunate to film was clean as hunting turkeys in the Masai Mara in broad daylight the topi stone associate the hyenas the threat that they would do say if it was a big part of lions they're gonna go for an individual as fast asleep carves if they can because it's a much easier target when he eventually he does find an animal that's fast asleep he'll approach it and then he'll have dropped that typical stalking pose did some critter book was actually stalking topi like cats feel like a lion with soccer trophy the calf was lying next to the mother a heinous talked in close to the car got hold of the calf the topi starts emitting this palanca sort of sort and the Haney's that are lying in waters near by hear the sound that's the signal they all rush in there when a second hyena third hyena fourth I you know and they all lock onto this animal this topi mother charged in on this hyena and actually battered the hyena eventually just to cheer numbers they pull his animals out and it's just a charity pieces when foods available hyenas can alert clan members even if they're far away but they aren't the only ones moving in on the kill there's a crowd of lies I chose this one single tree out in the open plains where these hiding is for hunting the turkey and they used to got loads of this tree and every time oh hey no just topi these lines were Russian hunting is exhausting work for prides so they rely on scavenged food for a third of their diets the Lions just learned here was an opportunity to scavenge off for hyenas actually still a kill the South African coastline contains some of the most diverse animal and marine life on Earth among it the Cape fur seal they seem unlikely predators but these animals are quick and efficient hunters fish make up about 90% of their diet but one filmmaker caught them fishing in a very unusual way I was on Dustin island making a film on Penguins the Penguins would leave in the morning and come back in the afternoon with food for their hatchlings and there's one afternoon the Penguins are returning to the nest when I heard this researcher screaming frantically I looked up and saw that a seal had come into the bay and that quarter penguin and was thrashing it on the water and it was quite a gruesome sight we grabbed our cameras by the time we got into a position where we could film the action it was over in the next afternoons we watched and one afternoon we actually saw the seal in the bay it wasn't long and we saw penguins fleeing for their lives but it you could see him feeding on the contents of the Penguins which is obviously the seals food as well the seal is attacking the penguin for the contents of its stomach this way the seal gets several fish at once instead of having to catch them individually as soon as the seal had finished eating on the saudis that in the penguin stomach he let the rest of the body flow to end and the cal cards would rip it up and feed on what was left of it i had heard of this behavior before but I never thought that I'd be lucky enough to catch it on camera the world's tallest animals are also among the world's more defenseless ones giraffes can try to outrun predators but often end up victims and we got a radio call from another vehicle it was out there already and say guys we think something is going to happen yeah we should move it as quickly as we can the filmmakers rush across the Mala Mala Game Reserve and find a lion pride moving in on a giraffe bull the giraffe could easily outrun the lionesses so they work together to surround it with the bull cornered one a stronger lionesses attacks the one defense the giraffe has left is his powerful kick the prides male lion joins the hunt but fails to if a man gets hit by a kick like that me dead for sure always astounds with the Lions even after being kicked like that that would kick right back up again and then attack again it was amazing experience by itself not just the witnessing what happened in front of me but just to hear what happens when those fema's jumped up there as the giraffe kicked them you could hear the nails going through the skin like when you taste sandpaper it was unbelievable but the giraffe is fighting a losing battle the unfortunate victim will feed the pride for days to come one animal it's best not to cross paths with is a hippo their massive size and powerful jaws at one thing but their hot tempers are quite another I was in a private game farm which orders the trigger national park it was about off now before last luck we arrived at a Obama with a small watering hole to find that there was a hippo in the water a water but came charging through the bush straight into the small water hole chased by a pack of wild dogs very often the wild dog prey will run into water to escape predation and while those are very very cautious about entering water after prey largely because there could be crocodiles and other dangers that repose a risk to them the hippo all of a sudden decided that he wasn't happy with what was going on got out the water and started attacking the dump real intellectual where this thing was going the small dogs pose little threat to the massive hippo but hippos are fiercely territorial and this one seems angry over the packs proximity to his watering hole amazingly the dogs don't seem too worried when you see a wild dog pack operating as a unit and encircling an animal it's very easy to interpret that behavior as being aggressive but in this case it clearly isn't the dog's ears are up and their bodies are upright and they're being quite playful which are the rate of response from the normal smoking aggressive behavior where their ears would be flat and their bodies would be lower to the ground the whole thing came to sort of an end as a good getting dark because the dogs were unhappy about relaxed fighting I think the wild dogs realized that it might as well not expend any more energy there and that's probably why they left we realized that it was something very very special and unique and something that you're not likely to come across every day the Nile crocodile a man-eating animal able to consume half its body weight and though they're known as predators crocs are also scavengers a practice that can get them into trouble we'd heard the night before of a lion kill so early the next morning we jumped onto the game vehicle and drive to the site of the kill the lion pride at Eton and they were all lazing underneath shade of trees or under logs one of the Cubs had taken a bone away from the kill cycle was playing it with it to one side they'd lost interest and left it that's when the croc sort and came out the water the young cub came back to not see what was going on and as it approached the croc actually roared as soon as the Cub Yelp then all hell broke loose the mail came rushing in and went straight for the tail and back legs of the coffin Harland lifted it up off the ground no small feat considering the crocodile size the sound of the croc roaring and sniffing its tools it was unbelievable when it was actually happening I felt like the Hayes was tailing up on the back of my leg the crocodile manages to slip away leaving the food to its rightful owners of all the Predators the baboo maybe the most opportunistic eater stealing food from large and small animals alike we came upon a male baboon in a Jekyll that looked like they were fighting over a dead niala lamb carcass the baboon fed on the carcass and the Jekyll were charged and the baboon would charge the jackal and chase him away the jackal does everything he can to defend the carcass a sign he may have gotten to at first but the jackal also knows something onlookers don't the baboons attention is split between the kill and a female baboon in heat who's just off-camera the jackal would get the upper hand every time that the boom went to the female again at one point the baboon went to the female and at that moment the jackal took his chance and dragged a carcass a few meters away the male baboon did not return for this jackal love did save the day in South Africa's national parks tourists hope to see as many animals and as much action as possible one family got their wish in Kruger National Park they stopped to observe a hyena who was fixated on a dying wildebeest when suddenly something distracted him at the corner of my eye I saw this water back and behind there was a pack of dogs they were approximately 18 dogs but which they were juveniles Lord who is to mate their age or anything but they were eight of them then the pack sees the wildebeest too but they're not willing to let the water but go they actually separated they are such clever animals about five of them cornered the water bucket against the wall of the dam the rest wind and totally tallest world abuse into shreds in couple of minutes but the dogs kept that water back against the wall the buck heads for the tourists who are watching from their cars and eventually came up onto the sand route and they would yet being and snapping attitudes and this back was trying to find more I think the word about was trying to use the cause as a decoy to get away from the top when the fight drags on some of the tourists drive off leaving the water buck bravely standing its ground leopards may be the most diverse big cats they're strong swimmers great climbers and even talented snake Wranglers we've been going to London I see now for past 14 years we were turning from one game drive when we came across vaanga she's a female leopard that we have observed from the time she was a cub she lay down next to a termite mound I became aware of something moving across the termite land behind the bushes we realized it was a person probably about that much in diameter she got up to investigate pythons are Africa's largest snake able to suffocate prey with their powerful coils she saw the tail done part of the termite mound and she swapped her to pull dirt rat about it the pattern is sir but at her at which point she pulled the whole thing out she has escaped a bite from the pocket as a lost if it she tried to pull at the tail again leopards have been known to eat pythons but this time the big cat passes I don't think anybody could actually believe what they just witnessed small but sturdy honey badgers are brave little animals known for defending themselves against much larger predators and this fearlessness seems to be ingrained from birth we were in the Cougar park it was September 2001 and we went on an afternoon Drive towards a dam and then all of a sudden we saw this Honey burger as she was just getting onto the road we saw another small little baby honey badger he was actually stumbling around the Midwest it was beautiful to see the baby looks to be around three months old my wife was with me in the car and also my two daughters and you know everybody gab for the cameras you know what happens in a car when you see something special everybody just tries to get as much of the moment as they can I think because we were there and the mother honey badger was a bit scared she tried to get across the road as quick as possible and then what happened was strange the little one turned to the right and he saw two zebra standing in the road and he went up right to the zebras zebras have a strong bite and a powerful kick either could be deadly to the baby only then the mother realized what was happening and she spun around and she really moved in quickly and jab the baby by the neck it rolled up like a little ball and she ran across the road and disappeared it was very interesting the way the mother reacted because she was actually thinking that the baby was following her the whole time but the baby was more inquisitive than we all thought cheetahs live life in the fast lane by reaching mind-blowing speeds they capture more prey than even lions and that makes for fierce competition potential predators do come across each other quite often in the wild and they really don't tolerate each other one tourist was on a game drive in Namibia when he spotted a pair of cheetahs apparently brothers but the tourists aren't the only ones watching Lions mark and fiercely guard their territory to protect their prides and the cheetahs are crossing the line the cheetah should have been paying more attention it's a slightly slender built creature and really doesn't have the power to take on a lion the lion sees that cheetah as competition for food this can happen with lions hyenas lions cheetah lines and leopard lions interacting or killing other predators happens more often than we think it's inevitable territories are getting smaller and smaller animals are crossing each other's paths more frequently any predator that comes into Alliance territory is deemed competition in the end only one sibling manages to escape the Lions wrath found throughout southern Africa the spotted dick up is known for building its nests on the ground the birds hide the nest in prairie grass where their coloring camouflages them but once spotted the only way the birds can stop predators is by outsmarting them I was in the Satara area in the Kruger National Park I saw this water monitor walking on the X of the pool and I saw the dico pair I seen before that that nest there was two accident you can say that monitor server to Akita said dig anything up to go for crocodile eggs they eat small birds they eat snakes and something really fantastic came out of this little scene here are the two little birds against the big water monitor and they were defending the nest they made a barrier out of their wings they opened the wings and prevent adverse to the water monitor seeing the nest it was a passive defense they herded him in another direction what can a bird do against the predator I must say I've never seen this kind of protection in other bird species they are protected it with all the head no hits no nothing but he's just shaking them off is hurting you officer look you're not interested being here you should go that way you know go along here this is much nicer way go a bit for bit and the monitor went for it he just left Marshall Eagles are cunning predators who usually pray on mammals and game birds but when it's preferred meals aren't available Africa's largest eagle isn't picky while filming at the Sanger plains in Zambia and one day we were filming open build storks and then suddenly this martial Eagle that came flying straight into the humble sports giving them only time just to take off and this huge confusion the other open build still set on the ground behind him and we actually discovered over the next couple of days this would happen almost every afternoon this martial Eagle seems to go for these thoughts because they're a huge number in this one open area that this Marsh leaguers adapted and specialized in catching these birds it was a first for the filmmaker and a reminder of just how opportunistic the Predators are hyenas are Africa's most common large carnivore the scavengers will steal and eat almost anything making them a mortal enemy of the lion in one case hyenas managed to distract a lion pride then move in on their zebra carcass they're efficient eaters able to digest even skin and bones but the animals are often underestimated as predators we were working only one morning for this horrendous noise of hyenas very close by it turns out to be a gang of hyenas attacking a lone lioness there was no playing around to give her a fright they were there to kill her this was a very emotional and traumatic thing particularly to see this thing to actually get overwhelmed by this mob of Ines what's worse the lioness seems to be weak from either pregnancy or a previous injury these are not just the scavengers that occasionally kill these are serious serious killers and they predators and killers in their own right the hyena and lion power struggle played out another time when a lioness spotted a leopards kill she approaches the tree where the leopard is trying to hide around the base of the tree there was a very thick thicket and she walked up to that and had a long sniff out of nowhere hyena appeared the lioness left up the tree grabbed the kill in seconds the henna was on top of the lioness that was an unbelievable sight to see this hyena launching into the lioness and the two of them fought over the kill absolutely amazing it stopped and there was almost silence and the two of them lay down side by side and started to CO feed which was something absolutely amazing we had never seen anything like this before the two of them fed for about twenty-five minutes together eventually the hyena lost patience with the lioness the two of them fought again over the caucus amazing the Mahina won the battle and walked away with the Lions chief onlooker soon see the lioness has other concerns she's heavily pregnant and a fight with a hyena just wasn't worth the risk cheetahs usually rely on their speed to catch prey but in dense bush a high-speed chase is impossible that's when cheetahs resort to other tactics the Cheetahs quotes this wildebeest right in front of my car and suddenly sprang into action and there was a big commotion the cheetahs are using Lion like hunting techniques trying to wrestle the wildebeest down by force so they can go for his throat the cheetahs are built for flight not fight it took them about ten minutes to bring the bull the beasts down to the floor there's quite a Bethel they normally go for much smaller prey the Cheetahs must have been particularly hungry to try and catch an animal of this size and put themselves at risk of injury wildebeest are incredibly strong this one tries to trample the Cheetahs with his hoofs and stab them with his sharp horns when wildebeest backup finally arrives the cheetahs interfere one of them ran off to chase the rest of the hood that had come back – – obviously rescue the slow the best ultimately though the cheetahs win predators in the wild fight over two main things food and territory for one resident in central Kenya a turf war exploded a little too close to home she got to witness it thanks to a phone call from her husband so he called me on the radio Papa one three four one three do you want to come see a wild dog so yes so I jumped out of bed still in pajamas and bunny slippers grabbed binoculars video camera jumped in the car tore off down the hill and saw this pack of wild dog quickly quickly run across the road and we were very happy with that and we turned the car around at the bottom of the hill and started to come back up again now we're looking at the damn war and something comes up so look in the binoculars and it's this beautiful hyena and another one comes over and two fluffy juveniles and just beautiful serene Wow wild dog and hyena one day that's really great and then they start sniffing the air but all hell broke loose on on the damn wall there was just this chattering noise as these wild dog we're now actually going for the hyena the two hyenas in the center seem to have intruded on the dog's turf a single hyena would likely win a fight with a wild dog but the hyenas are badly outnumbered they literally formed a perfect circle around them and they're launching his attack the two hyenas eventually land up back-to-back fending off these attacks from the wild dog somehow one of the hyena got separated from the other and it really now is getting attacked and he's swinging around and trying to fend them off and they were taking it in turns to just come in and fight and bite he was eventually holding his rump underneath and dragging it over these rocks to try and protect himself from their vice then two other hyenas show up with a more even playing field both sides seemed to reconsider the fight there was this one buck and a few more hesitant advances the heininger limped off down the valley and the wild dog have gone over the wall and two or three of them stopped at the top of the wall and looked back at us and for in split-second through this video screen I'm thinking oh no are we gonna come for us now but obviously they weren't and there was this one more sort of trumpeting bog from the one and then they turn and go as well what jackals lack in size they make up for in smarts and they're skilled hunters preying on everything from antelope to insects we were waiting at a water and some of the back came to drink water I just suddenly saw this jackal grabbing the buck by the neck some of the other jackals also came and attacked the buck and they the struggle began the prey called a springbok is three times heavier than the jackal so the Predators work as a group to reach the animals throat and suffocate it but the kill attracts unwelcome company now I saw the lines coming directly to this struggle the poor jackals ran off and then the lion started fighting over the back Lions only have a one in five success rate when hunting so rely heavily on scavenged food the jackals hang around hoping for some scraps but the Lions aren't interested in sharing I don't like cruelty and I don't even like hunting but to see this little bug trying to save his life it was really hard for me to take that video but it's part of Nigel's part of the wildlife killing to survival elephants love water and will walk for days to find it but during dry season the precious resource can lead to violent fights we're performing a reality wildlife show from the hide safari lodge in wangi National Park Sam Bob we at the time we were forming two contestants from the Netherlands and the UK who had never been to Africa before we wanted to get to this waterhole to see if they could find some dynamos it was extremely hot and very very dry access to water is not only about drinking elephants use water to thermoregulate as well and so whether or not they visiting water holes depends not only on what they need to drink but on the temperature on the exposure to heat and mixing in this other herd of elephant edge stuff and the dynamic just changed you could just feel the tension if it's herds that are closely related to one another often the meeting is a fairly ecstatic affair if however they meeting around a limited resource such as a waterhole often the herd arriving will displace their herd and push them off next thing all how to spur at least elephant tusks are denser than bone and with such massive weight behind them can deliver a lethal blow the camera crew is forced to lead to film elsewhere but want to know what happened early the next morning we went back to the site and they we found one of the elephants had died there was a huge gaping hole behind the front left leg and it had obviously sustained us from the tusks of the other elephant elephants are very susceptible to wounds turning septic and so even one bull giving another bull an injury that in itself can be a life-threatening event so elephants in general are very cautious about fighting and so it fights to the death are not a common occurrence at all I've been filming wildlife for about 15 years and I've never seen anything like this you know normally there'll be a bit of noise a bit of a standoff and one backs away but these guys were really angry and just kept on rambling leopards know their strengths and brawn isn't one of them and agile climbers often drag their kills into trees to keep other predators away but one leopard didn't go that route and paid the price you got a calling from one of the ranges that the one of the local dominant snippet had taken out a warthog likely about 20 minutes later I need to find that the liquid had taken our warthog which was probably its size if not bigger than the lipid and managed gone for the route of trying to north through the chest cavity lipids generally would go for the throat to kill an animal but in this instance the throat of this water was really just too big and too thick and strong for it to get through so it was using any means possible to kill the animal which ended up being the chase that wasn't an easily seen can be a lot of blood coming out through the chest and water was squealing and you would almost feel that's payoneer eat on the leopard waiting for another guy warthogs are strong with razor-sharp tusks leopards will kill the piglets but rarely the pig at that point I had my tracker give a soft whistle it looks a lot I saw two lionesses approaching they seemed quite cautiously when they became in range the liquid obviously saw them and you could almost see him wagging up his options what to eat he put in so much time and effort and energy into taking down the warthog we've known the release it that quickly but two lionesses approaching he was always gonna lose that battle water made me stumble to his feet and started stumbling off in the direction of the lines the lines went in and the water gave a sort of a final skill the end I suppose was a bit of a mercy killing that would have taken a long time for their lipid to finally in the water so it was a very impressive feat for the leopard to take down water go that size without the standing and injure himself the upside is the leopard will be able to hunt again another day whether the fights are ferocious or little foolish they're amazing to watch and events the eyewitnesses will likely never forget