Views:9348771|Rating:4.40|View Time:8:56Minutes|Likes:108353|Dislikes:14813 America grew from a colony to a superpower in 200 years.
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2:07 Correction: Cuba seceded from the US in 1902.
With over 800 military bases around the globe, the US is easily the most powerful nation on earth. But it wasn’t always this way. The US once played an insignificant role in global affairs. In this 8-minute video, you can see the transformation.
Military budget data:
US foreign bases based on David Vine’s book, “Base Nation”
Troop numbers: “Total Military Personnel and Dependent End Strength By Service, Regional Area, and Country”. Defense Manpower Data Center. November 7, 2016.
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Views:12871|Rating:3.44|View Time:50:33Minutes|Likes:55|Dislikes:25 In July of 1863, two great armies clashed in the deadliest battle of the Civil War. Join Don Black and the rest of the Cornerstone family, as we follow the stories of six different heroes that God used to forever change the country and the lives of those around them. Our tour guide is Rev. Dennis Kutzner, a pastor and author who has toured the battlefield over 75 times. Written, produced, and edited by Emmy-nominated producer Joe Ligo, “Gettysburg: For God, Honor, and Country” is filled with beautiful scenery, fascinating history, and touching stories that you don’t want to miss!
Views:1653586|Rating:4.79|View Time:4:54Minutes|Likes:17640|Dislikes:786 View full lesson:
Andrew Jackson was both beloved and loathed during his presidency. In this imaginary courtroom, you get to be the jury, considering and weighing Jackson’s part in the spoils system, economic depression, and the Indian Removal Act, as well as his patriotism and the pressures of the presidency. James Fester explores how time shapes our relationship to controversial historical figures.
Lesson by James Fester, animation by Brett Underhill.
المترجم: Shehab El-Hariry المدقّق: Anwar Dafa-Alla هل هو بطل قومي ؟ أم عدو الدولة الأول ؟ الرموز التاريخية كثيراً ما تكون مثيرة للجدل . و لكن قليل منهم فقط كان محبوباً أو مكروهاً . أثناء حياتهم. بنفس قدر الرئيس السابع للولايات المتحدة الأمريكية هذا هو "التاريخ ضد أندرو جاكسون " "أرجو التزام النظام ، مم….. ماذا كنا .. نعم سيد جاكسون !" أنت متهم بإهانة منصب الرئاسة . بالتسبب في إنهيار اقتصادي . و القسوة المفرطة ضد الهنود الأمريكيين . كيف تريد ان تدافع عن نفسك ؟" "أيها الرئيس ،أنا لست محامٍ من المدن الكبرى و لكني أعلم بعض الأشياء. ما أعرفه أن الرئيس "جاكسون" كان رجل عصامي . جنرال عظيم . رجل مسانداً للناس دائماً." "سيادة القاضي هذا الرجل كان مقامراً " سكيراً و عنيفاً لقد عُرف عنه إنه كان يقاتل لأي سبب مهما كان تافهاً. انني أسألك هل كان يستحق رجل مثل هذا، المنصب الأكثر تميزاً في الأمة ؟ هل نستطيع ان ننسي كارثة تنصيبه ؟ هل تصدق أنه دعى مجموعة من السكارى الى البيت الأبيض ؟ لقد أخذ الأمر طويلاً ، حتي أمكن تنظيف الاثار "هؤلاء السكارى يا سيدي هم الشعب الأمريكي . و هم يستحقون أن يحتفلوا بنصرهم ." "ألتزموا النظام ! هل كان يوجد فطائر بهذه الاحتفالية ؟" "حسناً يا سيد جاكسون ، هل هو صحيح انه عند إستلام مهام الرئاسة بدأت بتنفيذ "نظام الغنائم "، بإستبدال مئات من الموظفين الجيديين بمجموعة من غير الأكفاء من الموالين للحزب ؟" "لم يفعل الرئيس أي شيء كهذا يا سيادة القاضي لقد كان يحاول إضفاء التغيير علي محل العمل لتجنب أي تربح أو أي شيء من هذا القبيل لقد كان بقية الحزب هم من أصروا علي إعطاء هذه المناصب لمعارفهم." " لكن سيد جاكسون قد وافق أليس كذلك ؟" "الان…. انك لا تر..ى. " " لننتقل لموضوع اخر ألم تساعد يا سيد جاكسون علي التسبب في الذعر المالي عام 1837 والكساد الاقتصادي الذي أعقبه عن طريق حربك المهووسة علي بنك الولايات المتحدة ؟ ألم يكن الإعتراض علي تغيير سياساته كما فعلت علم 1832 كان تصرف غير مسئول و كان ليس له أي فائدة اقتصادية ؟ أو منطق ؟" " أيها القاضي ، هذا الرجل لديه خيال خصب جداً. لقد كان هذا البنك وسيلة للأغنياء ليصبحوا أكثر ثراءً وسبب كل هذا الذعر المالي هو رفع البنوك الانجليزية لنسب الفوائد و الحد من الإقراض إلقاء اللوم على الرئيس في ذلك هو مناف للعقل في رأيي." "و لكن اذا لم يقم السيد جاكسون بتدمير البنك القومي، لكان باستطاعة البنك اقراض الفلاحين و رجال الأعمل الذين جفت أرصدتهم الأخرى ، أليس كذلك ؟" "مم.. كل هذا مجرد توقع لشيء لم يكن سيحدث بالضرورة. هل ننتقل الي موضوع اخر ؟" "بالتأكيد، يا سيادة القاضي و الان نصل لأكثر اتهامات اليسد جاكسون فظاعة ً : طرد قبائل بأكملها من أرضهم الأصلية عن طريق قانون "ازالة الهنود ". "انني أبغض هذا الاتهام، يا سيدي لقد اشترت الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية الأرض من الهنود بعدل و شفافية." " هل تسمي الإكراه والتهديد لأمة من خلال جيش أكثر منها قوة عدلاً و شفافية ؟ او التوقيع علي اتفاقية لإزالة " قبيلة الشيروكي" مع مجموعة صغيرة منهم ، لم تشمل القادة الحقيقيين للقبيلة ؟ لم يكن لديهم الوقت الكافي لكي يستعدوا بشكل جيد قبل أن يأتي الجيش و يقوم باجبارهم علي سلك "طريق الدموع "." " الان ، انتظر لحظة لقد كان "فان بورن " من فعل ذلك بعد ان ترك الرئيس جاكسون مكتب الرئاسة." " لكن السيد جاكسون هو من وضع حجر الأساس لهذا و حرص ان يتم تصديق علي هذه الإتفاقية . كل ما فعله "فان بورن " بعد ذلك هو تطبيقها." " يا سيادة القاضي حكوماتنا كانت تشتري الأراضي الهندية منذ البداية، لقد كان موكلي يتفاوض لإتمام هذه الصفقات قبل حتي ان يصبح رئيساً. لقد كان يعتقد الرئيس جاكسون أن الأفضل للهنود كان ان يتم تعويضهم مادياً في مقابل أرضهم و الإنتقال الي الغرب، حيث المكان الواسع الذي يمكن ان يستخدموه للحياة بالأسلوب الذي كانوا يعتادوه، أفضل من البقاء هنا و التنازع المستمر مع المواطنين البيض. بعض من هؤلاء ، لتذكير المحكمة، كانوا يريدون القضاء عليهم في الحال. لقد كان وقت مختلف." "و مع ذلك ، حتى في هذا الوقت المختلف، بعض النواب في الكونجرس و حتى في المحكمة العليا رأوا كيف كان قانون الازالة خاطئاً وإعترضوا عليه جهراً، ألم يفعلوا ذلك ؟" " لقد كان موكلي تحت ضغط كبير جداً. هل تعتقد انه من السهولة إدارة بلد مثل هذا البلد العظيم و المحافظة علي الإتحاد قائماً، عندما كانت بعض الولايات تعمل لابطال قوانين فدرالية ؟ لقد استطاع الرئيس جاكسون بصعوبة إقناع "جنوب كارولينا " بالرجوع عن تلك التعريفات الجمركية و عندئذ بدأ اكتشاف الذهب في "جورجيا " و بدأ الإستيلاء علي أراضي الشيروكي. لقد كان أما ان ينتقل الهنود من الأرض أو يدخُل الرئيس في صراع جديد مع حكومة الولاية." " اذاً ، انت تعترف أن السيد جاكسون ضحى ببعض المباديء الأخلاقية للوصول إلى بعض المكاسب السياسية؟" " اذكر لي قائد اً واحداً لم يفعل ذلك." مع تغير المجتمعات و تطور الأخلاق، بطل الأمس قد يصبح شرير الغد و العكس بالعكس التاريخ يمر ، و لكن فهمنا له يتغير باستمرار
Views:923|Rating:5.00|View Time:10:41Minutes|Likes:61|Dislikes:0 Thought i’d bring back a classic from my original YT channel for so-called Black History Month..
Know Who You Are Family!!!
#blackhistory #childrenofthesun #worldhistory
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according to NATO Nahum chapter three and verse nine he says that the people from Ethiopia in Egypt had a power that was boundless limitless without limit and that was written in 714 BC right around the same time and Isaiah 18 was written so what we're dealing with here is that we're dealing with a a group of people black people from beyond the rivers of Ethiopia that we're basically presidents of the planet if you will that people who three fifths of human beings these animals use a Judas tools to build the dreams of the Europeans people with clear every feature it was just in the facts the reality that black people had designed this civilization [Applause] so so on one hand a tree on the other hand we have the tremendous civilization that black people had created there was a definite crisis of the conscience because it will write brothers really intensely fighting this thing called slavery and they were pushing for the deliberation of the black man condemning the trade itself and freeing slaves in America and they were torn and so you can see where the impetus and the needs of formulate rationalizations for this developed what to do what are the anthropologists archaeologists going to do in dealing with this information and that is what I believe what he sponsored maybe consciously in some cases unconsciously in other cases what we could call the cover-up the cover-up of the accomplishments of black people Chancellor Williams wrote a book called the destruction of black civilization in this book the outline seven points as to why he feels the – there wasn't cover-up big norm this refused to publish any facts of African district that don't go long without racial currency when you create a religious and scientific dominance slavery appear that bad actor what we need to do is for the world new African histories that contain our European perspectives mister remaining people in places replace African names with Arabic European names this will disguise their true black identity it's changed the criteria for defining race for example one drop with fever but America makes your neighbor matter how light the skin yes I'm reporting the ancient African history reverse the standard no matter how dark the skin luli the hair or big Phillips you don't have to be a Negro when black contribution to civilization is too obvious let's find a way to attributed to outside widens when all the ancient historians contradict your theory will just discredit Esther Williams was a scholar and we feel that his observations have a lot of merit to them but there are there are his personal observations talk about the rewriting of history we have to set that in the context that were talking about during the eighteen hundred's his when is started we're not really talking about contemporary scholars primarily on dealing with this subject you could not go from civilization to being a white civilization without you
Views:12135|Rating:4.73|View Time:28:16Minutes|Likes:69|Dislikes:4 Professor Blight, the Class of 1954 Professor of History at Yale University, is the director of the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition at the MacMillan Center. He has written numerous books on race and American history, and lectures widely on Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. Du Bois, and problems in public history and American historical memory. Today we talk with Professor Blight about his newest book, A Slave No More: Two Men Who Escaped to Freedom, Including Their Own Narratives of Emancipation.
welcome to the Macmillan report I'm Marilyn Wilshire host and today our guest is Professor David blight the class of 1954 professor of history at Yale University professor blight is the director of the Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of slavery and abolition at the Macmillan Center he has written numerous books on race and American history and lectures widely on Frederick Douglass and W EB do-boy and problems in public history and American historical memory today we will be talking with Professor blight about his newest book a slave no more two men who escaped to freedom including their own narratives of emancipation welcome professor blade Thank You moon delighted to do this thank you a slave no more is remarkable in that it marks the discovery of two new emancipation stories tell us how you came by them well it was one of those scholars dreams I never planned to write this book these two rare autobiographies by former slaves almost literally fell into my lap the first authored by John Washington was brought to me by a literary agent who was working on behalf of the manuscripts owner the second manuscript authored by Wallace Turnage came to my attention within the same six months independently from the Greenwich Connecticut Historical Society I was invited there to give a lecture and while there the director said that her staff believed they had an authentic slave narrative and would I have a look at at that one and the truth is I hadn't paid enough attention even to the first jet because it was at a moment in my life when I was moving to Yale this was five years ago but when I sat down with the two of them I realized what I were to post-civil war autobiographies by former slaves and their stories are largely about how they escaped from slavery in the midst of the Civil War and they're quite rare documents we don't have very many of these yeah my understanding is it's basically just a handful of emancipation stories well there are really two parts of the genre of slave narratives there's the pre Civil War genre from roughly about 1745 until the end of the American Civil War we have approximately sixty-five autobiographical treatments by former slaves published in English but from the end of the Civil War until about the 1920s when the last of American slaves were dying off who wrote about themselves we have only about 55 and some of these are quite short that Rakhal um's and newspapers one of them is very famous Booker T Washington's book called up from slavery in 1901 but what makes these two documents so extraordinary is that these had never been published they had never been through any kind of editing or filtering process and they arrived in my lap as raw pieces of writing in one of the two cases possibly never seen by anyone except the author's closest family members and even in the other case it hadn't been seen by anyone beyond family members except possibly a few people so they arrived without anyone having touched them and my challenge then was to decide what to do with them what I simply published them and write an introduction or would I try to uncover the lives of these heretofore unknown seemingly ordinary American slaves and nevertheless one in 1873 and the other undated but probably in the 1880s sat down and decided to write up their story especially the story of their emancipation so I did indeed ultimately publish them in this book but I also with the help of a tremendous genealogist at the New York Public Library Christine McKay was able to locate enough and in some cases a lot of documentation particularly about their post-war lives so that I was able in the end to try to write in effect a kind of dual biography of two otherwise heretofore unknown American slaves and to write a book that is essentially about the process the story of how emancipation of four million slaves actually happened in the midst of the chaos and disorder of the civil war let's talk about the actual journals themselves what did they look like you know were they pieces of paper wasn't a bound and was it difficult to decipher at all the writing it was not difficult to decipher the writing and it was actually not difficult to authenticate them that actually was the easy part in the case of John Washington his manuscript survived and his family it survived actually with a granddaughter who lived to be quite elderly in the 1970s her name was Evelyn Washington easterly and she was living in Massachusetts but before she could do anything with it she died but she had left it to a very close friend a woman named Alice Jackson Stewart and mrs. Stewart worked with the manuscript and collected a lot of documentation including fabulous family photographs but she too became elderly and in the 1980s she died and she left the manuscript to her son who an african-american retired judge in Boston his name is Julian Huston and he's now the owner of the manuscript in Washington's case he wrote it on essentially loose paper in the other case Wallace Turnage he actually wrote it in a leather-bound stationery book that he bought at a stationery shop in lower Manhattan because it still has the insignia of a shop on it his survives and an even more extraordinary way it was preserved by his daughter he had three surviving children and his daughter whose name was Lydia Turnage Connolly lived to be 99 years old she died in Greenwich Connecticut in 1984 having moved there because she married and an Irish immigrant labor named Tom Connolly she worked as a maid in a hotel and he is a porter they were poor but when she died she had one friend left in the world she died in a nursing home in 1984 she had one friend left an elderly woman named go out Gladys watt well mrs. watt it turns out kept one box of material from her friend for 18 years until one day in 2003 she watched a public television documentary called Unchained memories which is a film about the WPA oral history narratives done in the Great Depression she watched that film and as the people at the Greenwich Historical Society tell it it was almost literally the next day she called them up he said I may have something that would interest you they sent someone out and indeed she did what she simply had was one box and in that box was and is a black clamshell box clamshell in the sense that it has a top that you take on and off into which this narrative fits perfectly excuse me and he wrote it as I said blue line paper in this stationary book it's as though his daughter was serving it either as such a precious thing or possibly because she was hiding it because we do know now that Lydia was passing for white she explained her tan complexion according to her surviving friend by saying she was Portuguese now I don't know exactly why she preserved it that way but it was beautifully preserved and the only other thing in the Box were five photographs for them of Wallace Turnage all of which he had taken as a good working-class guy would in studios in New York City from somewhere in the 1880s until probably the latest one about 1910 and then one photograph of Lydia herself the daughter this is all we had to go on in Wallis turn ages case when we started to research his life five photos and the narrative but through senses manuscript City directors bank records church records a lot of newspaper research and a lot of other material we were able able to uncover not only a fair amount about his life as a slave but also of his post-war life and in Wallis turn in his case he lived until 1916 as a common laborer in New York City married three times two wives died he had seven children three of whom lived to adulthood and in John Washington's case he lived till 1918 he and his wife Annie lived most of their adult lives in Washington DC they had five sons and as I said it was through the daughter of his youngest son that this manuscript survived let's talk about John Washington and Wallis Turnage the two gentlemen whose narratives you came john Washington was born in Fredericksburg Virginia in 1838 his father was a white man though he never named him if he knew who his father was he didn't tell us in fact the greatest frustration and my research on this that I have never been able to determine his paternity nor even how he got the name Washington won speculation I have is that he made it up that if you're in central Virginia you be a Washington why not do lots of them he grows up in a town largely a city Fredericksburg Virginia his mother by the way was a slave woman named Sarah who was literate and taught him his first alphabet and his first letters in that sense he was a very lucky guy he's very talented he's skilled he's highly valued by his owner by the 1850s when he was a teenager they began to hire him out which was a relatively common practice especially in urban slavery he was hired up to do odd jobs he was often hired off for a year at a time at one point he was hired out to a tobacco factory where he said he actually really enjoyed the routine of the work in part because he got to learn all the black work songs he also fell in love he felt crazy in love because among the documents that have survived with John Washington are extraordinarily rare love letters and fragments of a diary and most of that diary is actually about his courtship of a young free black woman named Annie Gordon whom he will later marry now he bided his time and John's escape came at the very first arrival of the Union Army on the Rappahannock River in Fredericksburg in April of 1862 he describes an extraordinary scene he's working at a hotel in Fredericksburg called the Shakespeare and he was again a highly valued worker he was it was sort of a steward the owner would give him the payroll to pay off the the slaves who took the money home to their masters but at that moment all the white people are evacuating Fredericksburg and he describes taking the dozen or so black workers up on the roof of the hotel where they could see across the river and he said they could see the gleam of the yang bayonets and then he brought all of his fellow black workers down into the kitchen and he poured a round of drinks and then he held a toast with his fellow slave workers and the toast he said was to the Yankees and then he simply walked down to the river he witnessed the formal surrender of Fredericksburg and then he tells us he walked approximately a mile upriver in the direction he said of the sound of a union band and then he crossed the river he said at Ficklin mill and the old stone ruins of that mill is still there so I know exactly where he crossed and he was liberated after getting out of his rowboat by a captain in the 21st New York volunteers and he said at the moment they told him he could be free if he wished to he said he thanked God out loud and laughed and then John Washington had spent the rest of that summer of 1862 as a camp and a servant and and for quite a bit of it as a mess cook for the Union Army all over Northern Virginia and he dates his arrival in Washington DC as part of the first big wave of freedmen into the capital as September 1st 1862 frustratingly his narrative though ends that fall the last line in his narrative is a sentence about his wages he says I'm working two jobs one is bottling liquor and the other is working on the wharves and I make a dollar 25 a week those were his last words in the narrative and of course you want to grab him at that point and say no don't stop who are you where did you go what happened to you I first found a shred of evidence of him a good shred in late 1863 in a directory he's living on 19th Street in Washington DC at an address that is today Constitution Hall about two and a half blocks southwest of the White House and at that point he had his wife Annie their newborn child his mother Sarah and his 68 year old grandmother Molly living with him exactly how he got them out of Virginia I don't know because he didn't tell us now in well it's Turnage this case his escaped if anything is even more dramatic he was born on a little tobacco farm in North Carolina and there's snow hill and he too had a white father and a slave mother his mother's name was Courtney he knew exactly who his father was his father's name was Sylvester Brown Turnage and and wallets named his father on every document the rest of his life as though he was saying I know who my father was but he was sold at the age of 14 by his indebted owner to a Richmond Virginia slave trader and thankfully Wallace names a lot of names and places and dates in his narrative because it really helped me out in finding him he was owned for about six months by the largest slave trader in Richmond his name was Hector Davis he lived in a three-story slave jail for from the winter to late spring of 1860 there was preparing slaves and what was called the dressing room to take them out to the auction floor and one day he was simply told the boy you're in the auction and he was sold to an Alabama cotton planter named James Chalmers in 72 hours later he found himself on a huge cotton operation near Pickens Ville Alabama which is right on the Mississippi border and Central West Alabama most of Turnage is narrative after that is the story of his five attempts during the civil war to escape the first four of which were over into Mississippi and northward where he was trying to make it to the Union Army which controlled northern Mississippi by 1862 and then finally his frustrated master who kept coming after him and retrieving him got fed up and he took him down to Mobile Alabama in the summer of 1863 and sold him at the mobile slave jail auction house for $2,000 he was 17 years old and he lived the next roughly 15 months as the slave of a merchant and mobile again he named that merchant Collier minge which was good help to me in figuring out his life in mobile and one day he was he was driving his master's carriage would have been late July of 64 and he crashed the carriage harness broke the carriage broke the horse got away he went home and his master and his mistress were so angry at him that they really punished him they took him down to the slave jail and ordered 30 lashes for him with these the worst contraption they used to beat slaves they stripped him naked and strung him up on a bar on the wall and at the end of these 30 lashes he was standing there bleeding and his master said walk home but instead of walking home Wallis simply walked out of mobile he walked right through the roughly 10,000 Confederate troops who were encamped all around mobile and then the rest of his narrative is the extraordinary story of his three-week about 27 mile trek down the western shore of Mobile Bay through a colossal swamp it's called the follower of our estuary today he traversed three rivers a huge swamp and finally he reached the mouth of out at the mouth of Mobile Bay and he describes himself barely alive he'd been half starved for days on him but he said one day he prayed especially hard and the tide brought in an old rowboat he tipped over the rowboat grabbed a plank of wood he said and he began to row out into Mobile Bay and then comes his most dramatic moment of his narrow you can almost feel him on the page trying to capture that moment he describes how a wave is about to capsize his boat and then he said.he her doors and the oars he heard were a Union gunboat and then that gunboat were about eight sailors they told him to jump in and he did and as Wallace sat down in their boat according to his testimony he said the Yankee sailors looked at me and they were struck silent and I don't doubt they were they then rode him to a Sand Island fort that clothed it fed him put him in a town overnight the first acts of kindness he'd ever experienced from white people in his seventeen years and then the next day they they wrote him over to Dauphin Island which is the huge big sandbar island at the mouth of Mobile Bay and there in Fort Gaines in late August of 1864 and that old fort is still there he was interrogated by the Union commanding general of the entire region a man named Gordon Granger probably because he was an escaped slave from mobile and they wanted intelligence and in that interrogation Granger gave him simply two choices he could join a black regiment that they were organizing or he could become a servant to a white officer and Wallace chose to be the servant you never told us why but I have a good speculation on that he probably felt that he had simply suffered enough and he was choosing a kind of security he then served out the rest of the war as the mess cook for a captain in a Maryland regiment whose name was Junius Turner he is with that regiment when it captured mobile in April of 65 he was with that regiment guarding Confederate prisoners in New Orleans after the war and he was with that regiment as they traveled across the United States and were mustered out in Baltimore in August of 1865 Turnage then lived about three years in Baltimore and then I began to find evidence of him and the first marvelous evidence I found was the 1870 census and I found him living with his mother and his four half siblings in the 300 block of Thompson Street in what we today called Greenwich Village which was then known as little Africa it was a community of about 2,000 former slaves who had moved to New York City and it was in New York City or across the river for part of it in Jersey City where Wallace lived out the rest of his life as a drayman bartender at one point he called himself a glassblower and he worked as a night watchman he worked in all kinds of common labor jobs but as I said he also went to a studio and had his photograph taken four times he also joined the Abyssinian Baptist Church the most famous black church in New York and he joined a black fraternal order called the Hamilton Lodge of Oddfellows and he is buried in the collective burial plot of that fraternity in Cypress Hill Cemetery in Brooklyn so this is the saga of these two men and briefs one escaping as you can see in a town early in the war even before the Emancipation Proclamation the others escaping to the Union Navy later in the war under very different circumstances and what it allowed me to do through these two windows on emancipation is to tell the story both in microcosm and macrocosm of how emancipation actually came about for hundreds of thousands of American slaves before the war ended one in one in this case to the Union Navy and one to the Union Army so how long did it take you to pull together all of this information how long was the writing of the book how long did it take you I suppose it took me about three years from start to finish accumulating the information it was frustrating at times trying to find them the big holes in their lives that couldn't complete as in the case of John Washington's father but we just kept looking and kept looking and then I decided ultimately that I wanted this to be a sort of dual biography I was particularly interested in telling their post-war lives the best I could I wanted to be able to say something through their stories of what actually happened to some of of American slaves who became free in the war lived in cities in some cases migrated north became part of the first generation of an urban black working-class developed families joined churches weren't fraternal orders and John Washington's case was president of the black sunday-school Union in Washington for ten years and I found enough information a remarkable amount of information that I was able to do that I also found out a lot about their children and what happened to them the kinds of lives they lived and quite remarkably by continuing to dig and dig and dig in obituaries we also finally found a living descendant we knew there was no likelihood of living descendants in a case of Wallace Turnage because all three of his children died childless but we knew it was a good chance with John Washington and by details I will spare you approximately a year ago we found the living granddaughter John Washington she was then 89 she's not 90 years old her name is Ruth Washington now we found her through on the bitumen and she lives today in a retirement trailer park village in tampa florida and about a year ago right now I had the out-of-body experience of calling a nearly 90 year old woman one night to tell her I was about to publish the autobiography of her grandfather the remarkable thing was that she knew absolutely nothing about her grandfather which was not unusual for african-american families at the turn of the 20th century and into the early 20th century her father was John Washington jr. but her grandfather the author of the document died the year she was born and she's told me now many times that her father never talked about the past she had no knowledge whatsoever that her grandparents had ever been slaves and she had never even met them her grandmother lived about nine years after she was born and never met her but we've had this remarkable experience now of being able to show her her a big part of her family's history and I've even had her at now two public events with me where she speaks along with men even signs of the books with me and I suppose a lesson in that is that one should never say never and also that the past especially this past in America our past was slavery the Civil War emancipation and it's aftermath is not that far back there we have living grandchildren some of those living grandchildren are this week next week facing a chance to vote for an african-american for president and in some ways I can't wait to call up Ruth and ask her what it felt like Wow remarkable stories thank you so much for being here with us today and sharing your research with us well thank you Marilyn I enjoyed it for more information about Professor blight and of course his new book a slave no more please visit our website at yale.edu backslash Macmillan report be sure to join us again next week for another episode of the Macmillan report made possible through funding from the Whitney and Betty Macmillan Center for International and area studies at Yale
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Many people in the United States and Latin America have grown up celebrating the anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s voyage. But was he an intrepid explorer who brought two worlds together or a ruthless exploiter who brought colonialism and slavery? And did he even discover America at all? Alex Gendler puts Columbus on the stand in History vs. Christopher Columbus.
Lesson by Alex Gendler, animation by Brett Underhill.
المترجم: Mira Kraïmia المدقّق: khalid marbou العديد من الولايات المتحدة وأمريكا اللاتينية اعتادوا على الاحتفال بذكرى رحلة كريستوفر كولومبس فهل كان مستكشفا شجاعا قام بالربط بين عالمين أم أنّه مستغلّ قاس القلب ساهم في ظهور العبودية والاستيطان؟ وهل اكتشف أمريكا أصلا؟ حان الوقت لوضع كولومبوس في مواجهة التاّريخ. "هدوء، هدوء في المحكمة. هل يفترض بي أصلا العمل اليوم؟" (سعال) "نعم سيدي القاضي. منذ سنة 1792 يتم الاحتفال بيوم كولومبوس بمختلف أنحاء الولايات المتحدة الثاني عشر من تشرين الأول. لكن رغم كون ذلك التاريخ أصبح عيدا رسميا منذ سنة 1934 بعض الولايات غير ملزمة بالاحتفال به. 23 ولاية فقط تغلق الخدمات العمومية، ويتزايد عدد الولايات التي تتخلّى عنه. (سعال) "يا للأسف. في السبعينات، جعلنا تاريخه في ثاني يوم اثنين من أكتوبر حتّى يحظى الناس بنهاية أسبوع ذات ثلاثة أيام لكن أظنّ أنّكم تكرهون الاحتفالات." "لكن ما هو سبب هذا الاحتفال في الأصل؟" "كيف نسيت، سيدي القاضي؟ كلّنا تعلّمناه في المدرسة. كريستوفر كولومبس أقنع ملك إسبانيا لإرساله بمهمة إيجاد طريق تجارية أسهل نحو الهند، دون المرور في البر نحو الشرق، بل بالإبحار حول العالم باتجاه الغرب. ظنّ الجميع أنّ الأمر غير معقول لرسوخ اعتقادهم بأنّ الأرض مسطّحة، لكنه كان أعلم منهم. لكن سنة 1492، عند إبحاره في المحيط الأزرق، اكتشف ما هو أحسن من الهند: قارة كاملة جديدة." "هراء. أولا، المثقفون كانوا يعلمون بكروية الأرض منذ عهد أرسطو. ثانيا، كولومبس لم يكتشف أي شيء. كان هناك سكان يعيشون هناك منذ ألف سنة. وهو ليس حتّى أول أوروبي يزورها. الفايكينج استقرّوا بالقارة الجديدة منذ قرابة 500 سنة قبله." "حقاّ، إذن لماذا لسنا كلّنا نرتدي اليوم خوذات البقر تلك؟" "في الواقع، حتّى هم لم يرتدوها أصلا." سعال "من يهتمّ بما فعله بعض الفايكينج منذ زمن طويل؟ مستوطناتهم لم تدم، عكس مستوطنات كولومبس. والأخبار التي عاد بها لأوروبا انتشرت بكثرة بعيدا، مشجّعا كل المكتشفين والمستوطنين الذين قدموا من بعده. من دونه، لما كان أيّ منّا هنا اليوم." "وبسببه مات ملايين السكان الأصليين. هل تعلم ما فعله كولومبس في المستوطنات التي أنشأها؟ لقد سجن أوّل سكان أصليين قابلهم وكتب في مذكّراته عن سهولة غلبته لهم واستعبادهم." "كانت هناك العديد من الحروب والصراعات في ذلك الوقت. ألم يخبر السكان الأصليون كولومبس أنّ هناك قبائل أخرى تغزوهم وتعتقل الأسرى؟" "نعم، لكن الحروب القبلية كانت متقطعة ومحدودة. وهي بالتأكيد لم تمحو 90% من السكان." "لماذا الاحتفال بهذه المناسبة هو مهم لهذه الدرجة بالنسبة لك على أي حال؟" "سيدي القاضي، رحلة كولومبس كانت ملهمة للأوروبيين الذين كانوا يعانون، كانت رمزا للحرية والبدايات الجديدة. واكتشافه أعطى أجدادنا وأجدادهم فرصة القدوم هنا وبناء مستقبل أفضل لأبنائهم. أسلنا بحاجة لبطل يذكّر الجميع أنّ بلدنا بني فوق كفاح المهاجرين؟" "ماذا عن كفاح السكان الأصليين الذين كاد يتم إبادتهم ووضعهم في محميات والذين أحفادهم لايزالون الآن يعانون من الفقر والتمييز؟ كيف يمكن لشخص تسبّب في هذه المعاناة أن يصبح بطلا؟" "ذلك هو التّاريخ. لا تستطيع الحكم على شخص من القرن الخامس عشر بمعايير حديثة. الناس وقتها ظنّوا حتّى أنّ نشر المسيحية والحضارة حول العالم كان واجبهم الأخلاقيّ." "في الواقع، هو يعتبر سيئا حتّى بالمعايير القديمة. عندما حكم هيسبانيولا، قام بتعذيب وتشويه السكان الأصليين الذين لم يجلبوا له كمية كافية من الذهب وباع الفتيات الصغيرات منذ بلوغهنّ التاسعة كعبيد جنسيّين وكان عنيفا حتّى مع المستوطنين الأخرين الذين كان يحكمهم لدرجة أنّه تمّت تنحيته عن المنصب وزجّ في السجن. عند زيارة المبشّر بارتولومي دي لا كاساس للجزيرة، كتب: "منذ 1494 إلى 1508، مات قرابة 3 ملايين شخص من الحرب والعبودية والعمل في المناجم. من من الأجيال المستقبلية سيصدّق هذا؟" "أنا لا أصدّق هذه الأرقام." "قل لي، أليس هناك طرق أخرى للاحتفال بهذه المناسبة؟" في بعض دول أمريكا اللاتينية يحتفلون بنفس المناسبة تحت مسميات أخرى مثل "يوم العرق" في هذه الأماكن، الأمر يتعلق أكثر بالاحتفال بالسكان الأصليين ومختلف الثقافات التي صمدت أثناء الفترة الاستيطانية. بعض الأماكن في الولايات المتحدة أعادت تسمية هذه المناسبة مثل: يوم الأمريكيين الأصليين وغيّرت الاحتفال به وفقا لذلك." "لماذا إذن لا نقوم بتغيير الاسم فحسب إن كان يشكّل مشكلة؟" "لأنّه عادة. الأشخاص العاديون يحتاجون لأبطال وأساطير عن الإنشاء. لما لا تحافظ على هذا الاحتفال كما اعتدنا لقرن من الزمن من دون الخوض في كل هذا البحث الجاد؟ فهم ليسوا يحتفلون بالإبادة على أي حال." "العادات تتغيّر، وطريقة إبقائنا لها تعكس الكثير عن قيمنا." "يبدو أنّ منح القضاة المتعبين يوم راحة ليس من قيمنا أيضا بكل حال." العادات والأعياد مهمة لكل الثقافات، لكن بطل حقبة ما قد يصبح الشرير في أخرى مع توسّع معرفتنا بالتاريخ وتطوّر مبادئنا. والتساؤل فيما يجب أن يكون معنى هذه العادات في الحاضر هو جزء كبير من وضع التاريخ أمام المحاكمة.
Views:461|Rating:5.00|View Time:5:15Minutes|Likes:9|Dislikes:0 An overview of the mission and scope of the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society featuring David McCullough, Nathaniel Philbrick, Megan Marshall, and Cokie Roberts.
one of those special hidden gems in Boston is the Massachusetts Historical Society which has links that go all the way into the beginnings of this country the Massachusetts Historical Society is an independent research library it's a nonprofit corporation founded in 1791 to collect preserve and make available sources for the history of America so it collects manuscripts personal papers of individuals and families and then a whole range of historical materials artifacts paintings books and pamphlets maps and newspapers but all here to support research on these manuscript collections that we hold there's tons and tons of material at the Massachusetts Historical Society and it doesn't end in the 18th or even early 19th century it's ongoing when I am in the archives in place like the Massachusetts Historical Society it's really there it's the documents it's the things that were there at the beginning that really engage you in the past and inevitably in your research you stray beyond the topic at hand and see things that intrigue you I have never spent a day at the Massachusetts started doing research talking of the staff that I haven't come away with an idea I didn't have before I went in that morning among about 3,600 separate collections that we hold of manuscripts there are true treasures the most important document in the collection of the Historical Society is the first printing of the Declaration of Independence well we're most known for having the Adams family papers we also have Thomas Jefferson's personal papers and in fact we have letters from every single president up until George Bush we have the Adams family papers the papers of President John and John Quincy Adams but perhaps even more important their relatives and fan so that we have a sort of complete picture of their lives and that of their descendants over many generations this is a physically enormous collection but extraordinarily important for understanding American history from the time of the founding of the United States it was the Adams book by John Adams book that made me appreciate as never before the breadth and the value of the extreme value of the collections and of the people who work there the staff at the Massachusetts Historical Society could not be more help and that is such a relief when you're starting out in research because you're not sure where you're headed you're not sure what's there and to have helpful people who are enthusiastic and engaged themselves makes all the difference in the world the accessibility to these documents is absolutely essential you can read a history book and learn obviously something but if you then touch the actual documents read them for yourselves that's where you really begin to learn and appreciate you're not only holding a letter the John Adams wrote you're holding a letter Thomas Jefferson in Charlottesville Virginia read being able to touch history in to feel history documents that have shaped and directed this country to have those documents here in Boston for everyone's use was amazing well I'm actually a Californian and I was drawn to New England for college and to stay here because you know there's a real sense that this is the beginnings of our country I think as Bostonians were very lucky and people don't realize what's in their backyard the Historical Society though over the last few years it's reached out to a wide audience of people who have an interest in history but are not necessarily studying it in an academic setting so we offer seminars where papers are circulated and discussed lectures on a range of historical subjects and then in related fields in American Witter we also offer programs for students and especially teachers of American history at the secondary level we decided that to have maximum impacts that we would train teachers so we trained thousands of teachers and therefore tens of thousands of students the Massachusetts Historical Society which is free doesn't charge you anything to go in and work there is every bit as rich his source of education as any repository of intellectual or academic treasures study of the past gives you an important perspective this helps you understand not only your present but the future choices you're going to have to make and it's not really just a single person it's a person as part of a citizenry and as part of a country
Views:80865|Rating:4.17|View Time:4:3Minutes|Likes:1158|Dislikes:231 In the U.S., kids spend a lot of time in history class learning about the American Revolution and the founding fathers. But history books tend to simplify the complex reality of the war and the country’s founding. This episode of School Myths by The Atlantic investigates the overblown, rose-colored glasses that are often donned to teach American students about their country’s history.
mas agora quase bateu no chão em war [Música] [Música] machine gun – sou o homem e [Música]
To support my efforts to create more clips please donate to me at www.patreon.com/allinaday. I am very proud of the TV series I made for PBS called Making Sense of the Sixties. I had the chance to spend a year examining my youth and how I became an active member of the 60s generation. If you are from that generation or a child of the 60s, I think you would find the entire series of value. To see my other work visit www.theHoffmancollection.com.
A quote from Hesiod, 8th Century BC “I see no hope for the future of our people if they are dependent on frivolous youth of today, for certainly all youth are reckless beyond words. When I was young, we were taught to be discreet and respectful of elders, but the present youth are exceedingly disrespectful and impatient of restraint”
#hippie #1960s @countercutlure
in 1968 almost every American knew what these were hippies a few of the estimated 16 million cultural rebels who abandon 1950s notions about how life in America should be lived and by 1968 almost everyone in America knew what these people were to student protesters activists part of a small but vocal group of political rebels who were fighting not only to end a war but to transform even dismantle the American system and this is Jerry Rubin to try to make sense of the 60s you have to listen to what he was telling America in 1968 you know you know America is so obsessed with bad breath and with underarm deodorant these are the biggest problems in the world if you watch television at prime times advertising it's not it's not concerned about poverty not concerned about race oppression I concern about the police but the biggest problem is is your hair rooms and what's it like under your arms and do you have bad breath and this is the American obsession and so on and so I think that I think that a generation of kids which says we don't care about your concepts of cleanliness is a revolutionary generation to understand the effect Jerry Rubin and others like him had on America you have to see them for what they were they were people who had most Americans convinced that hippies and political activists merged hand-in-hand but for the most part they never did February 1964 we came in we gave me one single black in the woman I was in college in early 64 and I read in the San Francisco Chronicle that a rock-and-roll band from England was going to be on The Ed Sullivan Show so I thought I would go to the Commons room in my dorm and watch it and I figured there'd be five or six people there is there usually were and we'd have the usual argument about what to watch and I hoped I would get to see this and instead there were hundreds of people in this room and everybody there for the same reason God knows why I think there must have been some sense it's time for something new to happen and maybe this is going to be [Applause] the music was something that you could talk about with your friends and that you couldn't talk about with people who were older than you they gave people a sense of generational solidarity in a sense that they were different in a sense different from the rest of the country different from any other generation in American history that they were in some ways special and blessed and it gave them a sense of being embattled of being considered Outsiders reprobates bad people these kids may not look like it but they are the leading edge of a youth rebellion a movement that would ignite one of the most powerful and pervasive cultural shifts in United States history Oh that way won't kill ya Oh [Applause] to understand how and why so many people stop conforming to the rules remember that appearances are misleading and especially in the 1960s appearances were very important a perfect example is hair haircut some kind of thing let's roll as well strip add a little pepper alone that a Beatle haircut you black how'd you organize well I've cut my hair fuck around I'm just a messy what do your parents say about it they're like you would physically get approached and you know you know called gay or fags or quiz or whatever it was you know you know a lot of people did not understand long hair at all they really it was really a threat to them it was really it really flew in the face of conventional ISM and long hair was a flag for someone you could see somebody across the street and if they had long hair you knew how they thought you knew that they were into good music you knew that they were into a reasonable life you knew that their thought processes you knew that they probably hated the government you knew that they probably knew where the best drug drugs were you knew that there was someone that you could just nod to and have this understanding between and what it had really short hair you knew what short hair men strange snick well there are great number of people they stop taking haircuts altogether lame your oncologist number one number two even those which to take haircuts they come so it's such long intervals it is funny anymore a style a flat of membership a conscious act of defiance what made long hair such a confusing and profound symbol was that it could mean any and all of these things and to the dismay of the older generation millions of young people suddenly began to care a great deal about looking like they didn't care how they looked sometimes I was ashamed to introduce him to some people I just thought of that cuz they were just you know sometimes the way they dressed in the way they appeared it just didn't quite suit me to introduce them to some of my friends if parents were uncomfortable with the way their sons and daughters were beginning to look imagine how confused they'd become when they saw how this younger generation was starting to behave the counterculture will just drenched with eroticism the very act of having long hair is an act of sensuality then you add to that fact that there was also an enormous amount of sex much more I think there's no doubt that people were having an awful lot more sex than people of their of the same age at had a decade before certainly certainly in the 50s I mean I came I became interested in girls and in the middle 50s and believe me it was all talked into until the 1960s my baby does the hanky pain physical desire is very normal when it happens and it sometimes everything just comes down to a very basic level and there's nothing wrong with it I think that sex is just much groovier when there's love you know there's a lot more happening but there's nothing wrong with just sex for sex such talk was not only provocative but at the time downright immoral this generation seemed determined to tear down conventions that had in 1950s America defined proper behavior and it's somewhat ironic to think that scientists would unwittingly pour gasoline on the fires by coming up with the surest contraceptive ever devised fear of pregnancy perhaps the most powerful sexual restraint was undone the song says came up the game on came up use of another drug marijuana would further separate members of this generation not only from their parents but also from their inhibitions that's was important because it was it did describe us like them and asked um of course we all grew up eighteen nineteen twenty years of being rigid little you know puppets or something and suddenly the grass relaxed us it allowed us to be the people we really are really were [Applause] in high school my girlfriend Ann and I went around with Jim and Bob they both smoke pop that's jive top for marijuana I'd been smoking pot for quite a while before I met Chuck I guess he was what the newspapers call a peddler he had the heroin habit before I knew it I was hooked bad around this time millions of young people tried marijuana or knew someone who did in response films like this were shown in schools to curtail the growing marijuana problem but students who saw these films knew that most marijuana smokers weren't going crazy or becoming heroin addicts so many kids concluded they were being lied to and they'd have to find the truth for themselves even if it meant breaking the law I think making well when you're you're turned on in any sense is 100% better I just fan tight on the girl for the first time this vacation and she said afterwards it like any time I touch her it was just soft and tender you know it wasn't the harsh or and act it was just like floating him you know just like to jelly is almost gliding into each other it's just different i sat for an hour with the girl we both just explored each other's faces with our fingers you know and we still just beautiful I mean it's just incredible because well that's that your attitude toward everything I mean you just you want to re-examine things that you've just taken for granted I remember arriving at college and the worst part was my parents left and there I was sitting in this room it was pouring and next door there were two guys playing a record by a group called the mothers invention and the and what was with Suzy cream-cheese or I guess was the thugs and was called Suzy cream-cheese and what it was was it's a an oral account of sexual intercourse screaming next door and Here I am this naive kid had no idea what all his noises there's an upper classman next door the whip was banging on the floor as hard as he can and then there's this guy who is obviously might never met anybody who use drugs who was obviously on drugs writing on a table outside my room now when I say writing on a table I don't mean writing on a piece of paper or at a table I mean this guy's writing on a table and I sat there in the rain listening to this thinking my life has just ended and I thought I better write somebody a letter and I wrote here I'm a college and this is wonderful I'm just loving being here thinking I hope I can make it through the week [Applause] right and the stimuli out there were so many there were so many things to try and to do that every time I tried one it began to ask myself gee Who am I what am I about and I remember going through some severe depressions trying to figure out the answer to that question sometimes I thought I had it and indeed I did sometimes for hours or days I remember one day sitting on the beach talking to friends when I realized I understand it all I comprehend the whole world and it's working that lasted for several days before I realized you don't understand any of it uncertainty was not something parents wanted to hear from their children parents after all had worked hard to direct their kids along the smoothest path to success but with ever-increasing numbers of young people exploring alternative directions the fundamental cultural tension of the era emerged they came to be called the generation gap they for me the cutting edge was I thought that life the world had changed that everything which had perhaps given meaning to life in the past all the traditions whether it was religion manners dress marriage family everything all of that had collapsed my father seems to have already settled down settled into his way settled knows what's right knows what's wrong and every time I want to say something to him I don't want to be settled out even no matter what I say this is not a final decision that I want to just sort of try things out and trying things out on parents never seem to work you can't try things out so the best thing I can do with my father's tell jokes I mean that's it you know that's something cuz that's sort of you know that's alright that's safe it doesn't get you into problems I had a strong feeling that these children were rebels without a cause they had everything they could have had everything and I found it very hard initially to see what they were rebelling against when the Vietnam War came along and the big straw the the peace demonstrations you know at least focused on something but initially when they started dropping out from society I was baffled because I thought it was a pretty good Society they were happening out from then I couldn't see what they had that was going to replace it her that was better it could possibly be better no matter how if you're happy when you're a success I mean Robin you're happy being a problem you should stay this kind of talk about happiness seems like the typically naive enthusiasm of adolescence but as with the issue of hair here's another instance where appearances can be misleading empowers you to make money go to school got a nose job I don't have a nice job okay I'll do anything about I'm happy in the 1960s this belief that happiness could be a goal in itself would take on historical significance let me put it this way to you do you think this country at this time needs something that it hasn't gone yes what is it named people have to know each other what about people older than say 30 all the people are giving they can indulge in this too yes they do but they should what do you think older people think of all this most of them think it's ridiculous why do you think they think it's ridiculous because I don't think it can be done are you above the love generation yeah do you love me is it possible to love everybody how come how come people haven't left everybody for 2,000 years because it's been fixed up be happy love one another age-old concepts but at a time of unprecedented affluence a time when much of society was still clinging to 1950s conformities most importantly a time when the massive baby boom generation was coming of age these concepts would emerge as the guiding doctrines of a values revolution what would come to be known as the counterculture you take drugs you take drugs would you ever take drugs would why I mean I'm experimental I'm experimental what a lot of the members of the counterculture came to see was that changing people's cultural values may have to do with changing their state of consciousness and hence you get this fascination with anything that will change people's mode of perception they open the doors of perception right it could be drugs the fascination with drugs was not fun and games in the 60s for many people it was a way to see reality differently and hopefully therefore to change your values thought they can ask the three times that's all and correcting people I know about acid to pass it to Oaks biggest hoax the century as the dozens is that you know it's tasteless odourless colors just starting to mind here's one of the truly fateful twists in this tale of cultural rebellion a collision that put the most potent psycho chemical ever invented LSD into the hands of millions of young people passionately searching for something new LSD was only vaguely understood by the most qualified researchers what was LSD doing to these people I believe with the inner body the inner soul that we don't need money and we don't need the cars other things in fact I've had the feelings that I want to give away all my things to people who need them to want to live in the society with others and started to inside myself this was a question that the authorities were very interested in everybody that took LSD felt that they were undergoing enormous personal changes they weren't the same person after having LSD and there was a scientific study it was done by a rand scientist and in 1966 he published his findings and what he said was even though all of these people said that they felt enormous changes had taken place the personality test showed that they were largely the same person in every area but one area this was called the ways to live scale the ways to live scale indicated that one dose of LSD stimulated enormous changes whereas this the person taking the test might have said it's important for me to get a corporate job it's important for me to have a good car after one dose of LSD they were saying I think maybe a contemplative lifestyle might be what I want to have I think I'd like to travel before settling down I think maybe I want to look for some spiritual value in my life things totally changed around the LSD trip is best understood as a religious pilgrimage Els big kick Timothy Leary was the psychedelic movements prophet of perception a high profile LSD advocate who was scaring the hell out of mainstream America liberty pursuit affinities the right to get I know Bravo keep your legs crossed there should never aim of the games to feel you and the function gonna stop books I order list colorless tasteless Leary was alarming because he was proposing to radically alter fundamental institutions he was terrifying because it seemed like some of America's best and brightest young people we're listening to him I took a hit of Oz Lee White Lightning acid and I became an instant hippie I fell in love with nature and I looked at the rocks I could sit there looking at weeds that were normally an item of horror to my parents and trip on the intricate structures of ragweed and thistle plant and I began to become a discerning acid head I only took it every three days mind you so that I could clean up properly and and and all but the real issue was when I went to San Francisco in 1967 in the summer it was the love that bought me into the the counselor for a Summer of Love proclaims a summer of love in the city of San Francisco we believe that Haight Ashbury is the focus of a universal spiritual awakening the Summer of Love is an expression of this awakening we call upon the world to help us celebrate the infinite holiness of life this song reached the top of the charts that summer of 67 and nearly a hundred thousand young people responded to it by going to San Francisco what's more the nation's news media sent their correspondents to report what was happening in haight-ashbury beaming the Summer of Love into America's living rooms CBS News without any flowers in its hair is in San Francisco because this city has gained the reputation of being the hippie capital of the world I'm Harry Reasoner the summer of love was one of the most pivotal and provocative events of the 60s to mainstream Americans young and old this summer was an eyeful an oddity an outrageous display of weirdos going way way out but a lot of young people found it downright fascinating and to those across the country who were already searching for alternative lifestyles and values the reports from the Haight confirmed that they were not alone everybody was your brother everybody was part of your tribe part of your group you could stop and talk to anybody because they all look the same you know we're the same clothes they all felt the same they all sang the same songs the dance to the same tune went to the same parties the favorite pastimes of the hippies besides taking drugs by party seminars and groups of discussions there was festivals and concerts and the religious groups popped up and the Hari Krishna's are there we'd all go and hang out over and one group and chant at home with them and then we go to another group and dance with them and it was it was like a big party many of the residents of Haight Ashbury were seriously trying to construct an alternative society one with an alternative press people think of newspapers as institutions we don't try to cater the audience so much as shape and develop those people that are ready to repel in this society with alternative business and enterprise with alternative religions majority of young people arranged in history philosophy perhaps because they're unsatisfied with their own philosophy or religion and perhaps most important of all the people of the Haight were committed to new kinds of social welfare you take your beads here shirt on here there was alternative everything because this was a community that was throwing out the old rules and living by an entirely new set of values the concept of love is a public phenomena the mention of love in a public way being outside of the church this is the first I heard of it love peace man you know the love and peace that was the refrain the concept was that life was there to be experienced fully experienced everything have no fear make no plans make no career plans test and enjoy the limits of life
This is the first comprehensive history of six great Indian nations, dramatically filmed on location at their native tribal lands across America, using reenactments, archival footage, maps and original music. The story of the Iroquois, Seminole, Shawnee, Navajo, Cheyenne, and Lakota Sioux nations unfolds in their struggle to protect their lands, cultures, and freedoms. “Stirring reenactments.” – Booklist Magazine.
when Christopher Columbus first encountered the peoples of the new world he was deeply moved for their part the Taino Indians of the Caribbean thought that Columbus and his sailors were gods who had come from heaven but within a single generation the peaceful kingdom of the Taino Indians which Columbus first saw would be gone forever wasted by disease slavery torture and war this new world that Columbus found was in fact a very ancient place and the people he called in daeul's had lived upon the continent for thousands of years their ancestors were it's true discoverers Ice Age hunters who'd followed the Rising Sun east across the land bridge from Asia to discover a continent ruled by glaciers and great horned bison when the ice melted nomadic tribes pushed southward into the green heart to the continent following the Stars the seasons and the herds they peopled the mountain ranges the verdant river valleys and the painted desert canyons they fashioned languages and customs as varied as the feathers of the birds yet between them ran spiritual roots very deep in the earth and then after centuries beyond number the white man came in search of wealth and power two million Indians would endure for centuries of struggle before the Sun finally set upon their freedom in yin these European settlers came and wave upon wave to occupy a Native American land in the bellies of their ships the Europeans carried horses guns and disease and in their hearts they carried a belief in their destiny to rule the Americas from the Atlantic to the Pacific as the whites pressed ever westward they finally waged an absolute war on the Indians that would close the frontier and usher in the white man's era of railroads Telegraph's and mining yet the history of America is in many ways the history of the American Indian for they gave the Europeans the skills and knowledge needed to survive in the new world these are the stories of the mightiest Indian nations the Iroquois of upstate New York we're a unique Confederation of six Indian nations their great law of peace attracted the attention of American colonists who were forging their own new country the Seminoles of Florida who gathered together free Indians and black slaves fleeing the northern lands together they built a patchwork nation of peoples mirroring the melting pot of America the Navajo whose powerful spiritual link to their land inspired a cure Aegis defense of their territory in the great southwest the fiercely independent Cheyenne the beautiful people of the plains whose families were massacred by US Army soldiers at Sand Creek and their brothers the Teton Lakota the defiant warriors of the West who united with the Cheyenne to hold back the tide of western expansion for 50 years these stories tell only a part of the American Indians history yet they paint a picture of the vastness of their domain the depth of their beliefs and hopes and a brave defiance of these men and women as they walked into the evening of their time freedom in upstate New York lies a land where our hundred rivers and lakes weaves through dense green forests and misty language swamps towering above this lush landscape are the smokey heights of the great Adirondack Mountains this is the land where the people of the longhouse the mighty Iroquois nations took root the Iroquois were a powerful Confederacy of five separate Indian nations and in their times were among the most feared and dominant Indians in North America their unique Confederation was a model of democracy some have even said that parts of our own Constitution were borrowed from the Iroquois great law of peace but the five nations of the Iroquois didn't always live in peace before they came together these nations the Mohawk the Oneida the Onondaga Cayuga and the Seneca were often at war with each other until by the 14th century they're killing threatened to destroy them all at this dreadful time a great peace maker came from the north proclaiming the word that I bring is that all people shall love one another and live together in peace together with the great mohawk chief hiawatha the peacemaker travelled to each of the five nations to proclaim his message but within the unand agha nation there lived an evil chieftain named terra de ho who terrorized his people with deadly magic his face was cruel and his hair was matted like a mass of writhing snakes he scorned these peacemakers but finally the peacemaker and Hiawatha held a council with Terra Tahoe and worked their own magic on him they asked him to become the head chief of the new Confederacy da-da-da-dah agreed and the great peace was begun the establishment of the Confederacy brought a newfound sense of security to the Iroquois the times of peace were good and the Creator provided the people with their three sisters corn beans and squash to sustain them the women of each clan were the farmers and every spring they planted the three sisters in the fertile fields while the men hunted and fished in the forests and lakes that surrounded their land women held great power for the Iroquois traced their ancestry through their mother's lineage and the head mothers not the men appointed the Chiefs of each clan growing seasons ended with great festivals of Thanksgiving the gathering of maple sap the harvest of berries and beans and the cutting of the corn were all celebrated with beasts and religious dances iroquois history was recorded on wampum belts woven with beads of shells every council decision and every treaty with the whites was sealed with an exchange of wampum the dust van wampum was one of the most revered brought out whenever the Iroquois Constitution was recited the founding of the Confederacy brought peace between the five nations and led to peace throughout the nations of the Northeast but in the late 1600s beaver skins were a prized commodity in Europe rivaling the Europeans lust for gold realizing this the Iroquois sought to monopolize the trade in pelts they played one European power against the other and dictated terms to other tribes eager to trade they challenged their old enemies the Mohicans for the right to trade exclusively with the Dutch then they turned their attentions north where the French were trading with the Hurons along the st. Lawrence the Iroquois devastated the Hurons and absorbed many Hurons into their Confederacy next they turned west to the erie nation in a bloody three-year war the Erie were defeated and also absorbed into the Confederacy now expanding to the south the Iroquois encountered the Tuscarora tribe in the Carolinas the Tuscaroras were being driven from their lands by white settlers so the Iroquois invited them into their great Confederacy the Tuscaroras migrated north and became the sixth nation of the Iroquois by the mid 1700s the Iroquois great law of peace was attracting the attention of some of the most farsighted American colonists Benjamin Franklin who worked as a British envoy to the Indians was deeply impressed with the Iroquois form of government his contributions to the US Constitution may have come from the Iroquois principles in 1763 the English beat the French and took control of all French holdings south of Canada but trouble was brewing with the British colonies and soon the Iroquois would be swept into the American Revolution formally the Iroquois had pledged to remain neutral in the Revolutionary War but the Mohawk warrior Joseph Brant convinced many of the Iroquois men to fight for the British for the first time since the great peace Iroquois fought the Iroquois the Mohawks Senecas Cayugas and Onondagas fought with the British while the unites and Tuscaroras sided with the colonies when the English finally fell in 1783 the new United States of America treated the entire Iroquois Confederacy as a conquered nation forcing the Iroquois to surrender most of their territory now much of the precious land that sustained their life for a thousand years was gone and the scourge 'as of reservation life appeared drinking and idleness led to violent fights between once proud warriors in their poverty they were forced to sell even more of their land the whites had finally robbed them of their pride and dignity by the end of the 18th century the spirits of the Iroquois people had fallen to new depths at this dark hour an unlikely prophet came to them handsome late a Seneca chief and a notorious drunk fell one day into a stupor so deep his pulse stopped moments later handsome Lake awoke from near death and revealed a great vision three messengers came with the command from the Creator these messengers condemned whiskey abortion and witchcraft and called for a return to the old ways of living before the whites came the Iroquois people were profoundly affected and his teachings became known far and wide as the longhouse religion but the displacement of the Iroquois from their land continued tragically between 1830 and 1846 the US government carried out the removal of Indians west of the Mississippi in spite of a series of land swindles and broken treaties the Iroquois managed to hold on to small parcels of their land in New York and Canada by the mid-1800s the Iroquois were adapting to the white man's culture a few children attended school off the reservations and some Iroquois were finding their way into the American mainstream Eli s Parker a well-educated Seneca enlisted in the Army during the Civil War and rose to the rank of Brigadier General as ulysses s grant secretary Parker wrote out the surrender documents signed at Appomattox Courthouse after the war when grant became president he appointed Eli Parker as the first Native American Commissioner of Indian Affairs today the rich legacy of the Iroquois lives on the great Confederacy of Six Nations not only stamped its mark on American history but also influenced the US Constitution the Iroquois also gave the country of Canada its name from their word meaningless community the people of the longhouse once the mightiest Confederation of Indians in North America continued to burn their Council fire and to hold on to their sacred unity in that council flame burns the memory of a thousand struggles and the sacrifice of countless Chiefs and clan mothers who fought to keep their people free in a great peninsula at the edge of the continent lies a land of lush green forests and deep meandering swamps bordered on the east by the mighty Atlantic and on the west by the Gulf of Mexico this is Florida land of the great Seminole nation it was here that the Seminoles fought the longest resistance to u.s. expansion by any Indian nation it took three wars half the US Army and over 30 million dollars to subdue the proud and defiant Seminole team to this day the Seminoles remained the only Indian nation that never signed a document of surrender with the US government Florida's first people the Timucua Colusa and other tribes were virtually wiped out by war and disease brought by the Spanish and British in the 16th and 17th centuries then in the early 1700s a wave of refugees came to Florida from the north fleeing from the expanding British colonies they were Creek Indians driven off their lands by settlers and African slaves and other Indians escaping slavery in the lush grasslands of Spanish Florida these Indians and blacks began to merge into one people known as the Seminoles their name came from the creeks word Seminole II meaning runaway or wild and for many years these Runaways lived together in the untamed land of northern Florida blacks formed their own towns side-by-side with Indians some free some enslaved to Indian masters life centered around Seminole towns or tawa they worship the master of breath embodied in the Sun and took names for their clans from the world around them names like alligator turtle snake and maize every summer at harvest time the Seminole people gathered in town squares to celebrate the new year with the green corn festival after eight days of dancing sweat baths and purification the priests swept the old ashes from the fire pits then they started a new fire in the town square and all past grievances were forgiven medicine men carried hot coals from the town fire to each home and on every hearth the people roasted green corn in the warmer climate of Florida Seminole farmers began to grow large groves of oranges and many learned the ways of horse ranching and slaveholding from their European neighbors the Seminole chief King Paine even owned a plantation with 20 slaves 1,500 head of cattle and 400 horses but then in 1776 American colonists revolted against British rule England created chaos by proclaiming freedom for all African slaves more and more African Runaways fled south to join the Seminoles American slaveholders grew angry and nervous about whole towns of black Indians living at their southern doorstep after the Revolutionary War Americans began crossing the Florida border to settle on Indian lands slave traders rated Seminole villages kidnapping anyone who looked black infuriated the Seminole struck back in 1817 the American government sent Army General Andrew Jackson down south on a mission to recapture runaway slaves Jackson's troops illegally crossed Spain's Florida border and burned Seminole village confiscated livestock and destroyed food stores the Seminole people fought back their numbers tripled by new Creek refugees from the north that November of 1817 the Seminoles ambushed a boat carrying women children and 40 soldiers on the Apalachicola River and all but 13 whites were shot dead this marked the beginning of the first Seminole War once again Andrew Jackson marched into Florida Jackson and his troops destroyed more Seminole towns and the Seminoles fled further south Jackson's victory in the first Seminole War led Spain to sign a document with the United States for the sale of Florida the Seminoles were coerced by the US government to sign a treaty and were pressed onto a large reservation in Central Florida these new lands were swampy and unfit for farming game was scarce and government rations and short supply the officer in charge of the reservation reported they are in the most miserable situation and unless the government assists them many of them will starve to death in this hour of desperation one warrior rose to lead the Seminoles in their second war of resistance his name was Osceola and he soon became one of the great leaders in American Indian history in 1834 the government tried to get the Seminole Chiefs to sign a treaty for their removal to Oklahoma government agents spread the treaty on the table and waited tensely suddenly Osceola jumped up and plunged his knife into the treaty saying the only way I will sign is with this a government agent named Wiley Thompson arrested Osceola and the chief shouted as he was dragged away I will remember the hour the agent has had his day I will have mine Osceola was soon released from prison and with his great skill as a speaker convinced his people that they must resist in December of 1835 Osceola ambushed and murdered the Indian agent Wiley Thompson that same day Seminole chief Micanopy led an attack on government troops under the command of Major Francis Dade near present-day Ocala 180 Seminole warriors ambushed today's infantry unit the entire Army Command was soon annihilated with only three known survivors the Dade Massacre was a shocking defeat for the US Army and brought down the full fury of the government the Second Seminole War had now begun to the whites Osceola said you have guns and so have we your men will fight and so will ours until the last drop of the Seminoles blood has moistened the dust of our hunting grounds at the end of a bloody and futile year of fighting the US had nearly one half of its army in Florida general Jessup called Osceola to meet under a flag of truce but then double-crossed him and threw the great leader into prison in st. Augustine three months later brokenhearted and severely ill Osceola died in prison in Fort Moultrie South Carolina MO seola's death was a horrible setback to the Seminole resistance and the army continued its relentless war against the people pushing the Seminoles deeper and deeper into Florida's southern swamps and Everglades perhaps 500 Seminoles remained at Florida nearly invisible in the deep swamps their lands often covered with water they lived by hunting and gathering and by raising vegetables and small plots above the waterline they built elevated homes and they learned to avoid the deadly water moccasins that occupied their swamps but civilization occasionally discovered isolated bands in 1855 in an effort to agitate the remaining Seminole people a US surveying party raided the Garden of Billy bowlegs the last of the Seminole Chiefs the government agents confiscated what they could carry and burn the rest bowlegs led his people on in resistance against the army for three years but finally outnumbered and out of resources bowlegs and his followers surrendered and were sent west of the Mississippi yet several hundred Seminoles managed to stay behind in the vast uncharted Everglades the government finally gave up pursuit of these last free Seminole Indians and to this day they never formally surrendered like the melting pot that became America the Seminoles are a patchwork of different peoples and cultures they are Indians African slaves and other refugees United in a struggle to create a separate nation a proud and defiant people the Seminoles remain today the only unconquered Indian nation in the United States in the mystical land at the great Southwest jagged pinnacles touched the clouds and giant sandstone buttes rise dramatically from the desert floor it is here where the Navajo Nation carved its civilization many centuries ago the Navajos ancient ancestors came to this land from Northwest Canada over 700 years ago and settled in the Red Rock canyons of what is now northern Arizona and New Mexico they invaded the homelands of the cliff dwelling Anasazi whoo they drove south towards Mexico the Navajo created a unique culture based on raising crops herding livestock weaving and crafting jewelry while white settlers avoided this dry rugged landscape the Navajo held it in special reverence the land became a source of sustenance and spiritual nourishment they learned to grow patches of corn in desert soil and planted peach orchards in canyon bottom lands when father sky provided rain mother earth provided fruit grain and pasture the most common symbol of the Navajo spiritual link to the land was the Hogan a domed dwelling made of logs and earth pecans were used for both housing and ceremonial purposes their entrances always faced east toward the Rising Sun almost every act of Navajo life from the building of Hogans to the planting of crops was ceremonial in nature accompanied by songs and prayers sand paintings were part of many Navajo healing ceremonies and had the power to restore order to the world these paintings were made by medicine men who sprinkled coloured sand on the floor of a ceremonial Hogan the designs told stories from the navajo creation myth when the first holy people were miraculously produced from corn rain pollen and precious stones by the gods in the winds in the 1600s the Spanish introduced sheep and horses to the Navajo they became among the Southwest's most renowned herdsmen and writers but women played a vital role in tribal life to nearly every Navajo woman was skilled at hand weaving using sheep's wool on pueblos looms their decorative rugs and blankets with pattern designs or symbolic pictures became known the world over at the end of the mexican-american war in 1848 english-speaking whites moved into Navajo Dan the Navajo had been fighting spanish-speaking intruders for 215 years the Navajo stole sheep and horses from the Mexicans who in turn captured Indians for slaves the Navajo figured their enemies would be expelled from the new u.s. territory of New Mexico instead Washington gave the Mexicans the US citizenship it had denied the Navajo and allowed the slave trading to continue the Indians could only watch in rowing anger as soldiers built their first military post in 1851 in its name the white spoke their feelings for the Navajo calling it Fort Defiance the great Navajo chief manually tow-in his ally Barban cito were determined to sweep the fort and its people from their land in 1860 they attacked Fort Defiance with 1,000 warriors though their arrows were no match for musket fire they convinced Washington that the Navajo would defend their homeland at all costs General James Carleton a ruthless Army veteran who'd subdued the Mescalero Apaches soon took command of Fort Defiance Carleton found Navajo land a princely round but of the Navajo people he said they were wolves that run through the mountains and must be cleared away if the territory was to be opened to settlement so Carleton chose a new place for the Navajos a flat and desolate wasteland far away on the Pecos River called Bosque Redondo here guarded by soldiers from Fort Sumner Carleton plan for the Navajo to become self-sufficient farmers but Barban cito refused saying I will not go to the Bosque I will never leave my country not even if it means that I will be killed Carleton chose his old friend Kit Carson to head the military campaign against the Navajos Carson was reluctant at first not wanting to fight the Indians he had traded and lived with in the past but the summer of 1863 found Colonel Kit Carson leading a thousand New Mexico volunteers to wage war against the Navajo who numbered more than 12,000 Carson knew the only way to conquer the Navajo was to scorch the very earth they lived upon and starved them into submission Kit Carson's men destroyed most of the herds and crops between Fort Defiance and canyon de chelly in sick month time in January 1864 Carson led 300 soldiers into the shear walled reaches of canyon de chelly the last Navajo stronghold the soldiers burned Hogan's slaughtered livestock destroyed cornfields took women and children captive and killed them in their muskets Barban Seto was captured but Manuel Ito escaped with 4000 members of his band the 8,000 Navajo who'd surrendered set out on the long walk a terrible 300 mile journey to captivity at Bosque Redondo hungry homesick and nearly naked against the cold 200 navajo died along the way to the wasteland that general Carleton considered a fine reservation but Indians who escaped the reservation told of a barren drought-stricken land where they lived like prairie dogs in burrows Kit Carson continued to hunt those who were still free it's September 1866 chief Manuel eco and 23 hungry ragged warriors surrendered at a military post in northwestern New Mexico his band had resisted capture for more than three years but now they were too exhausted to fight on the days of the free Navajo Nation were open by 1868 horrific reports of life at Bosque Redondo had created a public outcry the land was desolate the water unfit to drink and government rations almost non-existent 2,000 Navajo people died at the Bosque due to starvation and disease the sooner it is abandoned and the Indians removed the better said the reservation superintendent and so on June 1st Manuel Ito Barban Seto and five others met with army commander William Tecumseh Sherman to sign a treaty when the Navajo leaders first saw Sherman they were fearful of him because his face was the same as Carlton's fierce and hairy with a cruel mouth but his eyes were different he had the eyes of a man who had suffered and seen much pain Sherman told the Navajo my children I will send you back to your homes and so the government allowed the Navajo to return to a reservation in their old homeland when we saw the top of the mountain from Albuquerque set manually token we felt like talking to the ground we loved it so the Navajo would never forget those four years of death and suffering at the Bosque Redondo the fearing time it was called over the years the Navajo people fought countless battles to defend their territory and endured endless years of forced captivity but they never lost their spiritual link to land it is in this land and in the giant mountains that surround it and the sky above that the very soul of the Navajo can be found it was the Cheyenne and Teton Lakota who fought the hardest for their land and lives and these two nations would be the last to ride in freedom across the Great Plains here the vast Prairie stretched from Texas to Canada and from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains as the mightiest of Plains tribes in the 19th century the Cheyenne and Teton Lakota shared a similar way of life they were horse warriors who built teepee villages and they had many of the same ceremonies and rites and to each of them the American bison was life a gift from the Great Spirit by 1850 millions of Buffalo moved like a dark living sea across the land this was truly the buffalos Kingdom and the Indians who followed the herds cast only a small shadow under the sky for the Teton Lakota and Cheyenne the Bison was endowed with supernatural powers and they took from the herds all they needed for their existence they killed only enough animals to supply their needs for the winter they stripped the meat carefully to dry in the Sun storing bone marrow in fact in skins treating the seen use for bow strings and thread and curing the hides for tepee covers clothing and moccasins the Cheyenne thought of themselves as the beautiful people for centuries they lived as farmers and Potter's in the great pine forests above the source of the Mississippi but the Lakota and Ojibwa drove them onto the high plains in the 1700s in time they abandoned planting and followed the roaming Buffalo the Cheyenne were fiercely independent were among the most feared warriors in the West their famous dog soldiers warrior society was a powerful military organization half the Warriors of each band were members and they roamed at will over a large territory hunting and raiding the Cheyenne were known for their advanced religious beliefs they held a life renewing Sundance ceremony every midsummer after the tribes left winter camps and gathered for the buffalo hunt it was their most important religious ritual a Thanksgiving to the mysterious power and the rebirth of life on earth the return of the season of growth but by the end of the Civil War there was a force on the plains racing like a storm cloud from the east it would soon change the century-old life of the Cheyenne people covered wagons streamed across the Prairie cattle grazed the grasslands and White's began to slaughter Buffalo for their hides and sometimes just for pleasure soon hundreds of buffalo bones lay scattered on the southern plains they're uneven flesh rotting in the hot Prairie Sun after the territory of Colorado was created in 1861 White's wanted to open the entire land for settlement and to force the Cheyenne's into submission Colorado Governor John Evans declared war to press the Indians onto reservations the district military commander Colonel John Chivington ordered his men to burn villages and kill Cheyenne's wherever and whenever found this preacher turned soldier said it is right and honorable to use any means under God's heaven to kill Indians that would kill women and children but the Cheyenne peace chief Black Kettle said it is not my intention or wish to fight the whites I want to be friendly and peaceable and keep my band soul I want to live in peace Black Kettle had once shook the hand of President Lincoln in Washington and he prided himself that he had never led a raid against the settlers in fall of 1864 Black Kettle and fellow Chiefs met with Evans and Chivington they convinced the Cheyenne to move to Fort Lyon where the Cheyenne could stay the winter under military protection his ol black cattle led 600 of his people to a camp in the broad valley of Sand Creek in Colorado but there in the gray dawn of November 29th 1864 Chivington led his 3rd cavalry on a senseless raid of murder and mutilation known as the Sand Creek Massacre most of black kettle's Warriors were out hunting when 700 soldiers attacked the sleeping village Black Kettle raised an American flag and a white banner over his TV but the troops shot everyone they found screaming Indians fled in all directions a handful of warriors fought back and the skirmishing continued for four hours along the creek then at noon silence fell 200 Cheyenne and Arapaho were dead 2/3 of them women and children 9 Chiefs had perished and though Black Kettle escaped unharmed his wife was shot nine times and left for dead Chivington boys as he called them paraded through Denver showing the scalps severed arms and legs of the Indians but rumors of the atrocity spread terrible enough to outrage the American public Kit Carson himself a battler of Indians called it the action of a coward or a dog over the next three years an alliance of Indians ravaged the South Platte Valley they ripped down telegraph wires and pillaged stagecoach stations ranches and military outposts and towns scores of settlers were killed their women and children dragged away as captives now public opinion turned back against the Indians and the United States launched a full-scale Indian war Black Kettle still hoped to spare his people and he led 80 families to a refuge south of the Arkansas River by 1868 the Kansas military commander Philip Sheridan was convinced that the Cheyenne's had to be punished Sheridan ordered the brash and flamboyant Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer to proceed toward the Washita River the supposed winter seat at the hostile tribes to destroy their villages and ponies to kill or hang all warriors and bring back all women and children four years after Sand Creek history seemed to be thrown into a cruel an endless loop Custer's elite 7th cavalry attacked a sleeping Cheyenne village south of the Arkansas River where Black Kettle and his people were camped in a matter of minutes 103 Cheyenne's lay dead including the great Black Kettle and his wife Cheyenne prophet sweet medicine once foretold of years of darkness for his people the end of the Buffalo and the coming of the white man but he could not foresee how their days of roaming the Prairie and freedom would end the Cheyenne were herded onto a reservation in western Indian Territory where the warpath and the buffalo hunt was replaced by food rations and Christianity but the land will always know the people who once walked its vast prairies and who hunted its sea of thundering bison the Cheyenne were among the first to practice the concept of peaceful resistance their advanced religious beliefs and spiritual devotion served them well in their struggle to remain free among Native Americans even today the Cheyenne will always be known as the beautiful people of the plains the most famous of North American Indians was the mighty Teton the protonation they dominated the heart of the Great Plain from what is now Minnesota to Montana from the upper Missouri River to the Platte River they fiercely resisted the white man's rule for 50 years holding back the tide of western expansion until they could fight no more the Lakota had originally come from the southeast woodland migrating along the Atlantic coast and then passing over the Great Lakes they farmed and hunted in the upper mississippi river area of minnesota until finally settling in the great plains in the early 1700s the Lakota built a free ranging lifestyle around two animals the buffalo and the horse they depended on the buffalo for food clothing and lodging it was an animal endowed with supernatural powers a gift from the wise one above the hey sapa called by the settlers the black hills became the sacred heart of the Lakota Nation warriors traveled to his sapa sought visions commune with the Great Spirit and received their spiritual power or medicine but Lakota medicine would be powerless in the face of the white man by the early 1860s the Lakota had lost most of their land through treaties all that remained in their possession was the sacred hey sapa and some hunting grounds in montana yet in 1866 the whites came to them again this time for permission to make a great road through the Powder River country to the newly discovered gold fields of Montana the great Lakota chief Red Cloud hated the idea of an immigrant road through the lakotas last hunting ranges when the white man comes in my country he leaves a trail of blood behind him I have two mountains in that country the Black Hills and the Bighorn mountain I want the Great Father to make no roads through them the request for permission was only a sham soldiers were already on their way to secure the role with a line of forts Red Cloud put steel to his threat and for the next two years the Lakota held the troops under virtual siege no wagon train civilian or military was safe on the Bozeman trail and Lakota raids claimed 154 lives in the spring of 1868 General William Tecumseh Sherman came to Fort Laramie to make a peace treaty with Red Cloud but the Oglala leader sent a message saying when we see the soldiers moving away and the fort's abandoned then I will come down and talk reluctantly the War Department complied the Bozeman trail forts were abandoned Red Cloud rode triumphantly into Fort Laramie and signed the treaty declaring Powder River country and the Black Hills unseated Indian Territory in return Red Cloud promised to go on the reservation where he would never lift his hand against again for eight years the Lakota would try to forget the whites but in the summer of 1874 Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer led 1200 men on a gold hunting expedition into the Black Hills Custer sent reports to the Eastern newspapers of gold from the grassroots town the Indians watched a torrent of riotous prospectors pour into the sacred heart of their nation in complete disregard for the treaty the whites had made when Washington tried to buy the Black Hills the Oglala war chief Crazy Horse replied one does not sell the earth upon which the people walk the Hunkpapa chief Sitting Bull warned the Black Hills belong to me if the whites try to take them I will fight unable to buy the Black Hills President Grant sent orders to the Lakota to report to an agency or be declared hostile by the US and subject to military action meanwhile the Plains tribes were gathering at rosebud Creek for the sacred Sundance amidst the chanting and swirling warriors Sitting Bull made fifty skin offerings in each of his arms until his blood flowed around him and he fell into a trance when he awoke he told of a vision I saw soldiers and some Indians on horseback coming down like grasshoppers with their heads down and their hats falling off they were falling right into our camp soldiers were indeed coming general Sheridan had ordered troops to southern Montana the invincible George Armstrong Custer drove his exhausted 7th cavalry through the rolling hills of Montana in a relentless search for the Indians finally on the morning of June 25th 1876 Custer found his prey camped in a valley of the stream the Lakota called greasy grass but which the whites would remember as the Little Bighorn long-hair Custer charged his soldiers straight into the Indian encampment but a thousand warriors led by Crazy Horse met Custer's troops and on a ridge now called Custer Hill longhairs forces were swallowed up by Indians and were lost in the dust and smoke of history Sitting Bull's vision had been fulfilled the Indian soon broke into small bands and scattered to the winds Crazy Horse's Oglala kept up their attacks and Sitting Bull led his Hunkpapa to Canada that fall the Lakota were forced to sign away their right to the Powder River and Haise Appa the government said that they had violated the treaty by going to war with the u.s. promised a reservation in the Powder River country it may of 1877 Crazy Horse marched his band of starving Mughal allas to Fort Robinson they came singing peace songs and Crazy Horse threw down three rifles giving up the warpath forever but as Crazy Horse was brought into Fort Robinson a soldier bayonetted him in the back to the north a commission came to lure Sitting Bull back from Canada offering to pardon his war crimes in return for surrender the Hunkpapa leader refused asking what have we done that you should want us to stop it is all the people on your side who started us to making trouble if we must die we die defending our rights Canada refused them a reservation and his people were home sick and weary of cold and hunger in July of 1881 Sitting Bull and his followers crossed the border over the next ten years the last of the Lakota were brought onto the reservations and in all the vastness of the Great Plains not a herd of buffalo could be found Sitting Bull joined Buffalo Bill Cody's Wild West Show selling autographed photos of himself to gawking children all across the continent the show's finale was a reenactment of the Battle of the Little Bighorn and the terrible Indian wars were now only an entertainment for the victor on the reservation warriors lived on rotting straps and dreams of their past inevitably a prophet came telling of a new Messiah coming to bury the whites beneath the earth and bring the Indian dead to life the hunting grounds would be restored and the land would once again be heavy with Buffalo this prophet was a Nevada Paiute medicine man named wovoka and his Ghost Dance religion swept across western reservations like a Prairie wind the dance lifting broken warriors into its trance while voges followers donned ghost shirts that would stop the white man's bullets fearing a new Indian uprising major-general Nelson miles ordered troops onto the Indian agencies those Sitting Bull was openly skeptical of the new religion the whites thought he was to blame for disturbances and ordered his arrest on the morning of December 15th 43 Indian police led the Hunkpapa chief from his cabin shots were fired and Sitting Bull fell to the ground dead another band of soldiers had gone in search of the miniconjou chief Bigfoot whose people had gone to the Badlands where they could perform the Ghost Dance without fear the Bluecoats caught up with him and the Indians and the soldiers camped for the night beside Wounded Knee Creek 500 soldiers stood guard over 350 men women and children at sunrise the army began disarming the Indians somehow a rifle went off and a soldier fell dead and both sides opened fire at one the army cut down half the men with its first volley and rapid-fire cannon range shrapnel from the hill Indians ran and was shot down like Buffalo when the smoke blew away 153 men women and children of the Lakota Nation lay dead there blood flowing together with 25 corpses from the seventh Cavalry the ghost shirts had been powerless and the snows fell for two days softly muffling the moans of the dying on New Year's Day of 1891 the frozen dead of Wounded Knee were gathered in wagons and buried in a mass grave Lakota Shaymin Black Elk said many years later I can still see the butchered women and children lying heaped and scattered and I can see that something else died there in the bloody mud and was buried in the blizzard a people's dream died there it was a beautiful dream but the legacy of the Teton Lakota still commands deep respect and admiration today their fight for survival against the US Army at Little Bighorn created a legend yet ultimately led to their final defeat the spirit of the Lakota applauded people who poured forth their blood to preserve a way of life will endure long after the stories of battle are these nations each contributed a piece in the patchwork quilt that has become America from the Iroquois great law of peace which influenced the writing of our constitution to the Cheyenne concept of peaceful resistance these great Indian nations built a heritage that still inspires new generations of Native Americans they will always be a vital part of the American adventure [Applause]
Views:70092|Rating:4.73|View Time:4:10Minutes|Likes:467|Dislikes:27 Jefferson sends Monroe off to find a little getaway property for the United States. In the process, they double the size of our country!
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Thomas Jefferson – A Film by Ken Burns
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Views:555384|Rating:4.82|View Time:5:35Minutes|Likes:18318|Dislikes:685 In which John discusses the occupation of the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in Southwestern Oregon by armed civilians, and what the history of this land can tell us about private and public property in the United States, and how land came to be owned in America.
CORRECTION: Oregon’s capital is Salem. I am a grapefruit.
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Views:1027903|Rating:4.29|View Time:8:2Minutes|Likes:5014|Dislikes:829 Were submarines and airplanes really used in the Civil War? From haunted forts, to mysterious glowing wounds, these are 10 Historical Mysteries of the Civil War !
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This old documentary film (produced in 1953) traces the discovery of America and early voyages by European explorers. It shows the Native American civilizations encountered by the Spanish, the Spanish colonization, The English freebooters on the Spanish Main, and the life of early settlers in New England and the South.
Historical Background / Context:
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European settlements from the start of colonization of America until their incorporation into the United States. In the late 16th century, England, France, Spain and the Netherlands launched major colonization programs in eastern North America. Small early attempts often disappeared; the death rate was very high among the first arrivals. Nevertheless. Nevertheless, successful colonies were established.
European settlers came from a variety of social and religious groups. No aristocrats settled permanently, but a number of adventurers, soldiers, farmers, and tradesmen arrived. Diversity was an American characteristic as the Dutch of New Netherland, the Swedes and Finns of New Sweden, the English Quakers of Pennsylvania, the English Puritans of New England, the English settlers of Jamestown, and the “worthy poor” of Georgia, came to the new continent and built colonies with distinctive social, religious, political and economic styles.
Non-British colonies were taken over and the inhabitants were all assimilated. There were no major civil wars among the 13 colonies, and the two chief armed rebellions (in Virginia in 1676 and in New York in 1689-91) were short-lived failures. Wars were recurrent between the French and the British – the so-called French and Indian Wars (1754–1763) especially – and involved French support for Wabanaki attacks on the frontiers. By 1760 France was defeated and the British seized its colonies.
On the eastern seaboard of what would become the United States, the four distinct British regions were: New England, the Middle Colonies, the Chesapeake Bay Colonies (Upper South) and the Lower South. By the time European settlers arrived around 1600 – 1650, a significant percentage of the Native Americans living in the eastern United States had been ravaged by new diseases, introduced to them possibly possibly introduced to them decades before by explorers and sailors.
Colonizers came from European kingdoms with highly developed military, naval, governmental and entrepreneurial capabilities. The Spanish and Portuguese centuries-old experience of conquest and colonization during the Reconquista, coupled with new oceanic ship navigation skills, provided the tools, ability, and desire to colonize the New World. England, France and the Netherlands started colonies in both the West Indies and North America. They had the ability to build ocean-worthy ships, but did not have as strong a history of colonization in foreign lands as did Portugal and Spain. However, English entrepreneurs gave their colonies a base of merchant-based investment that needed much less government support.
England made its first successful efforts at the start of the 17th century for several reasons. During this era, English proto-nationalism and national assertiveness blossomed under the threat of Spanish invasion, assisted by a degree of Protestant militarism and the energy of Queen Elizabeth. At this time, however, there was no official attempt by the English government to create a colonial empire. Rather, the motivation behind the founding of colonies was piecemeal and variable. Practical considerations, such as commercial enterprise, overpopulation and the desire for freedom of religion, played their parts. The main waves of settlement came in the 17th century. After 1700 most immigrants to Colonial America arrived as indentured servants – young unmarried men and women seeking a new life in a much richer environment. Between the late 1610s and the American Revolution, the British shipped an estimated 50,000 convicts to its American colonies. The first convicts to arrive pre-dated the arrival of the Mayflower.
New England is the oldest clearly defined region of the United States. While New England was originally inhabited by Indigenous peoples, English Pilgrims and especially Puritans, fleeing religious persecution in England, arrived in the 1620-1660 era. They dominated the region; their religion was later called Congregationalism. They and their descendants are called Yankees. Farming, fishing and lumbering prospered, as did seafaring and merchandising.
American History: The New World | Colonial History of the United States of America | Documentary
you the Europeans who lived 500 years ago knew only a very small part of the world there was a route into the east travelled by merchants who brought back oriental luxuries but this journey was long and difficult some sea captains began to seek a more conveniency route around Africa while others certain that the earth was round thought they could reach their goal by sailing west Christopher Columbus the first sea captain to look for India and China across the Atlantic Ocean was an Italian serving the king and queen of Spain in the year 1492 he found islands which he claimed for Spain thinking they were the East Indies he called their people Indians now all the kings of Europe want land in this new world in 1497 John Cabot another Italian crosses the ocean and claimed the territory he discovers for the King of England in 1500 Cabral a Portuguese serving his own king is blown off his course and reaches a southern shore the coast of what is now Brazil sailing from the islands discovered by Columbus Balboa reaches land which he claims for Spain he crosses it and looks down upon a great new ocean the Pacific Magellan a Portuguese outlines the limits of the continent as he pushes south then west and north again the Italian Verrazano traces the southern coastline of North America he serves the King of France as does Cartier who plants the French flag farther north at the mouth of a great river it is the 16th century and all Europe is discovering America named for Amerigo Vespucci the Italian who was one of the first to write of the new world the northern continent is a great wilderness of plains and mountains of forests lakes and rivers stretching from the Arctic to the tropics between the shores of two great oceans in the 20th century 155 million people will make their homes in the United States but now fewer than a million Indians live in this area hunting the Bison or the deer and cultivating their fields of maize and other vegetables the people of this land make their home in the forests leave the wigwams of their villages to hunt or to fight rival tribes for control of the best hunting grounds their clothing is made from the skins of the animals they kill for food they peeled a bark of trees to make canoes that take them swiftly over lakes and rivers their tools are primitive but they have many skills now lost two men the skills they need for survival in the wilderness they're light canoes are well-suited to the Indians needs or they can move in very shallow water and their shell like holes can be maneuvered skillfully between the sharp rocks of the rapids while these men know nothing of the world beyond their shores they know every turn in their rivers and every pathway through their forests Spaniards are the first to bring European customs to America they colonized the island discovered by Columbus then spread over Central and South America churches replace Indian temples at first the Indians think the strangers must be gods and offer precious gifts but the Spaniards are only men men who find wealth beyond their dreams they see the jewels worn by Indian chiefs the Vaz is hammered out of precious metals by craftsmen and royal workshops they see gold and silver dug from the earth by Indian miners before long Spaniards are gathering new world riches for themselves fortunes in gold and silver in sugar harvested on great plantations are sent to Spain while shiploads of colonists come from Spain they build towns and settlements and bring old-world architecture to the new continent they teach Spanish laws and customs to the Indians and spread the Christian faith but European nations grow envious of the wealth that flows from America to Spain galleons loaded with rich cargoes are anchored in colonial harbors they face sudden raids by rival fleets it is an age of daring and of conquest and victorious English captains are received in triumph at London's Royal Palace great honors are bestowed upon them for their courage in good fortune their stories of adventure in a land of endless wonders Kindle dreams in many heads as she listens Queen Elizabeth begins to understand that the new world can add to the power and prosperity of the kingdom over which she rules for now in England the times are hard for many people it was once a country where all who tilled the soil could find a simple livelihood but the Lords of great estates have turned farmlands into grazing lands farmers are homeless and dispossessed in their own land despairing of finding a living in the country they plod their way along the road that lead to London already overcrowded few newcomers can find work in London's bustling streets and soon the starving take to begging but beggars and petty thieves are harshly punished in an age of cruel law if men disobey the rules of the state church they may be put to death or thrown into prison a man of influence at the English Court Sir Walter Raleigh sees hope for his suffering countrymen in these lands across the sea can Englishmen live in the New World he sends explorers to North America to make detailed reports they find that northern Indians have no precious metals however they raise plentiful crops around their peaceful villages tall waving stalks with ears of golden grain called maize and tobacco plants whose broad green leaves the Indians roll and smoke for pleasure most plentiful sweet fruitful and wholesome of all the world are the words used to describe the new land of promise in 1607 a party of Englishmen comes to establish the first settlement Indians approach them with suspicion but the strangers offer tools and trinkets in exchange for fresh-killed game this simple trade is the beginning of a cautious friendship john smith and english captain takes command when men start off to hunt for gold he sets them to building shelters and defenses soon the food they've brought will be exhausted they must clear land to harvest their own crops they must learn from their Indian friends how to raise maize and tobacco when new settlers both men and women arrive to work the fields and away is found to cure tobacco it becomes the colony's most valuable crop for export soon Virginia ports are visited by the European trading ships which have been sailing to Africa taking on cargoes of captured Negroes and selling them in the Spanish colonies now the traders bring the Negroes to the new English colony and the small farms grow into great tobacco plantations worked by slaves in 1620 a secondly settlement was started far to the north in Massachusetts where a hundred people landed on a bare and windy Shore seeking freedom from the English church their purpose was to live according to God's will as they understood it for this they were ready to confront the grim and grisly face of poverty they copied the Indian Way of raising crude shelters but the New England winters soon forced them to build wooden huts they cover them with thatch like the homes they left in England but for their governor they built a better house and they met under his roof to worship God in their own way at first there is little but hard work and faithful duty in their lives their Indian friends have taught them to grow maize and pound the grain to meal they have shown them where to cast their nets to find fish in abundance in the waters off the shore to survive in the wilderness the pilgrim family has adopted Indian ways but in the evening in the new world as in the English home they have abandoned the mother spins while the father reads the Bible and the children sleep nearby there Betty is hung up by day to make more space in the crowded home a second group of nearly a thousand Englishmen soon settles near the pilgrims they are Puritans who also oppose the ceremonies of the English church their leaders are men of property who have come with servants laborers and craftsmen to supply the comforts they could not bring with them in this colony religion dictates government the ministers of the church proclaim the laws and rule the conduct of the citizens since they preach that hard work is a virtue the communities grow rapidly and soon begin to prosper but to make sure of obedience the judges impose many of the punishments that drove the Puritans from England toiling to win a livelihood from the thin and rocky soil tightly bound by the rules of their religion the colonists have few diversions their society is centered in their meeting house here ministers teach the religion that shapes town laws passed by the congregation but the Puritans still surrounded by the wilderness have many things to fear they cannot relax their vigilance or their labors during the next hundred years these little New England settlements turn into bustling towns new settlers laborers and craftsmen pour in from Europe to the new land where there is work for all willing hands many New Englanders work in the shipping industry which grows as the town's turn into ports the rich forests provide wood for the fishing boats and for the ships of commerce that will sail across the ocean back to England and South East to the West Indies and Africa many skills are needed for the making and handling of new vessels from the beginning the colonists depended on a lifeline between the new world Meo now their ships carry their produce lumber grain and salted fish to other parts of the British Empire and back to the land from which they came so ill provided barely a hundred years before the ocean which separates them from the rest of the world becomes their high road to prosperity by 1730 a New England merchant can find time from his work to sit for his portrait his I proudly surveys the many comforts that he can afford his wife has become the mistress of a house where luxury is joined to the simplicity of Puritan tradition his son was born here and will grow up thinking of this new world as his home his native land but it's not only in New England that colonists have prospered thousands of European families from many nations have found relative peace and security on this distant continent for in a hundred years thirteen separate colonies have brought civilization to the wilderness settlements line the coast from New Hampshire in the north to Georgia and its broad tobacco fields in the south in Virginia tobacco and the work of Negro slaves have created vast plantations and for their wealthy owners the basis for a new kind of aristocracy from his study the planter manages the broad and varied industry of his estate by 1750 the ships that carry his tobacco crops to England also carry his orders for European goods the furniture of his mansion has been shaped by the skilled hands of old-world craftsmen but the food and almost all the clothing on the plantation and the tools needed to produce them come out of local workshops the planters family leads a life of ease but not of idleness or the making of a colony requires industry vigilance and the constant search for ways to meet new problems the planters son find the latest theories of European thinkers in the library of his home or in Virginia as in the other colonies new principles of government are being studied at the same time the elegance of English aristocracy is carefully cultivated the colonies growing Atlantic trade and the arrival of new European settlers by the thousands is developing great harbour towns such as Charleston Boston Philadelphia and New York New York first settled by the Dutch in 1624 and taken over by the English in 1664 now receives the people of many lands who bring their different customs their skills their arts along with their dreams of opportunity and freedom building houses that recall ancestral homes in Holland the New Yorkers create a Snug Harbor town on the banks of the Hudson and East rivers they live in comfort true to their old customs of neatness and cleanliness surrounded by the things they love this home in New York looks Judge and is furnished like homes along the side erzsi but through the years as Americans are born here live and die here it has become an American rule just as Dutch furniture produced in America becomes American furniture American culture has been born of this and many other cultures southwest of New York land had been granted by the English King to William Penn a leader of the Society of Friends the Quakers as they were called practicing their creed of universal brotherhood made a pact of friendship with the Indians here through the years settlers dealt justly with the Indians and the Indians kept faith with them the Quakers invited people of other faiths and other nations to join many Germans came to Pennsylvania pious and hard-working farmers who reap the harvest of comfort and security their contentment is expressed in the gay decorations of their homes in the new land old German crafts can flourish in time they will be called American like the German settlers themselves with their solid virtues and their devotion to religion the Bible printed in German and in many other languages is the book most widely read in all the colonies just as the church is always the most important meeting place a man's right to worship as he chooses will be the heritage of coming generations religious freedom and the promise of peace and prosperity had brought the first colonists from England to New England and Virginia the Dutch had found new prosperity in their New Amsterdam Germans of many persecuted faiths were flourishing on the rich soil of Pennsylvania Protestants had come from Catholic France and brought their culture to Carolina while hearty Scots moved beyond the coastal settlements pushing up the rivers to make homes in the wilderness by 1750 more and more colonists moving inland in distant Hamlet's and on isolated farms they must rely on their own efforts for all their needs there are skilled tasks and simple manual tasks to fill long days of work for all you frontier families have no servants and there are many mouths to feed so resourcefulness becomes part of their character gears and pulleys can roast a chicken devices like this are the first of many which Americans will invent to meet the shortage of working hands the table of pioneers like their customs and their language shows the mixture of their traditions for even the Indians maize has become part of their daily meals along with dishes that have English Scottish or German names in the wilderness the family is self-sufficient and self taught their school is the farm kitchen by candlelight after days spent in the fields or in the forest parents hand down their knowledge and children answer with their own new thoughts born of their new life on the frontier as they pushed westward the colonists had pushed the Indians before them now the settlers who are living on the far edge of civilization face the constant menace of attack at the warning of a raid homes are abandoned and people flee from Indian vengeance most settlers have traded fairly with the Indians exchanging firearms for land and furs but some have cheated them and killed enraged the Indians rise and turn their guns on both the innocent and the guilty the settlers have come to know the wilderness as hostile and the Indians as a mortal enemy who can suddenly destroy in a few hours the work of many months and now still another enemy appears for the Indians are often armed and led by Frenchmen the French strong rivals of England in Europe also contend with the English for control of the new continent while the English were first settling in Virginia the French were building an outpost at Quebec in time the French province reached the Gulf of Mexico explorers spread a network of small forts to mark their claims to land by the middle of the 18th century the French and English are face to face but danger does not stop the forward surge of pioneers in search of homes it is 250 years after the new world was discovered by Columbus from its coastal towns and cities from Europe across the ocean England's colonists are pushing into the heart of the American continent cutting their way through forests clearing ground building log houses raising stockades and ports spreading their roots in the new land of promise the Pioneers keep coming moving forward in a westward migration that begins in far-off Europe men and women of many faiths and many countries are joined in a common adventure for freedom and security out of their rich in varied qualities the continent that lies before them will forge a character the character our new people the character of a new country they are making in the wilderness you you you
Views:296468|Rating:4.81|View Time:9:14Minutes|Likes:3946|Dislikes:152 Part 1 of our animated timeline of America’s first 44 Presidents, from George Washington and the Founding Fathers to the trauma of Civil War and Reconstruction.
Produced in partnership with Bridgeman Images
The presidents’ rankings are taken from a 2010 survey by the Siena Research Institute. Like any historical rankings, they are subjective, and based on the opinions of historians and experts – you are free to disagree or challenge their conclusions! Find out more here:
Each president’s home state is their state of main residence (not state of birth) based on this Wikipedia article:
Presidents in this episode:
1. George Washington
2. John Adams
3. Thomas Jefferson
4. James Madison
5. James Monroe
6. John Quincy Adams
7. Andrew Jackson
8. Martin Van Buren
9. William Henry Harrison
10. John Tyler
11. James K Polk
12. Zachary Taylor
13. Millard Fillmore
14. Franklin Pierce.
15. James Buchanan
16. Abraham Lincoln
17. Andrew Johnson
18. Ulysses S Grant
19. Rutherford B Hayes
20. James A Garfield
21. Chester Arthur
22. Grover Cleveland
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