National Geographic Documentary – Full documentary 2017 – Animals Mating Amazing Wildlife

National Geographic Documentary - Full documentary 2017 - Animals Mating Amazing Wildlife

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National Geographic Documentary – Full documentary 2017 – Animals Mating Amazing Wildlife

the driving force of life its sex every animal on earth has descended from a four billion year dynasty of successful breeders urge to breathe comes from genes that compel creatures to fight and even die for sex the evolution of sex has been the driving force behind the history of life it's a battleground where only the sexiest will triumph many of nature's bloodiest battles are fought for the sake of sex the reason for this passion is obvious but if I do so many creatures suffer so much for sex the benefit is not the act itself but continuing the family line sex is life's gateway to the future a way for genes to pass from one generation to the next and these genes drive both males and females to behave in extraordinary ways this quest for immortality can be life's ultimate challenge [Laughter] but in pursuing this quest one sex usually pays a higher price than the other often females are burdened with bringing up a babies while for the male's the only chore seems to be the act of sex itself sex aside it often seems that females could raise families on their own it's often the females that do the work and take the greatest risks who you hunting is always dangerous even when caught pre can still injure the hunters but sometimes it's the male rather than the female that makes the ultimate sacrifice this male Redback spider has found a female's lair but will she see him as a potential suitor or her next meal his footsteps vibrate the wave in a particular way that he hopes will identify him she gets the right message and stays still tentatively he maneuvers into place one false move and he'll be dead the spiders palps are packed with spelled he drums them against her abdomen as they play Lou to an extraordinary sexual act he plunges the pulp into the female and begins to transfer sperm but then he makes a bizarre move he flips his body over into the females jaws he forfeits his own life all for the sake of sex but there's method to his madness while she eats he continues to inject spam and more sperm means more babies to carry on his genetic line genetically it makes perfect sense he has to die sometime and by trading in his life early he ensures a bigger stake in the next generation amazingly suicidal strategies such as this are not uncommon in this river sockeye salmon are reaching the end of their lives over the past few weeks they have swum 1600 kilometers upstream from the ocean instinctively driven in search of sex it's the journey of a lifetime finally they reach the very gravel bed were they themselves first hatched but alone that exhausted by the struggle they have one last mission they must know compete for mates Emile's jostle one another for the chance to fertilize a females eggs the stakes are high those that win will breed and their genetic line will continue while those that lose are destined to evolutionary oblivion every salmon will die but some will live on through their offspring within each egg lie the blueprints of life genes inherited from both parents instructed by those genes a shapeless egg turns into a baby salmon a salmon with the genetic pedigree to breed successfully the secrets of breeding success are also passed from generation to generation within these genes but there are easier ways to pass on genes ways that don't require the sacrifices of sex these sea anemones can reproduce without a partner they don't need sex the anemones simply split themselves down the middle to create two identical animals clones to the it's a very effective way to breathe there's no need to expend time searching for meat and the process itself is quick in just a few hours one anemone can divide into babies able to reproduce in exactly the same way the young anemone is a perfect clone of its pimp sharing identical genes and cloning as a means of rapid reproduction is a method also used by more complex animals in the wake of a tropical cyclone a raft of vegetation drifts in the ocean on board is a small passenger a female gecko the raft runs aground Noren more thailand it's a safe haven but there are no other geckos here so no chance of her finding a mate but this gecko is no average castaway isolation isn't a problem for her it's an opportunity because she's fully equipped to reproduce alone once in the shady interior of the island she wastes no time and starting her own colony she lays eggs but she doesn't need a male to fertilize them the embryos that develop inside each are identical to the mother perfect clones several weeks later their baby geckos hatch that all female and can also lay eggs without needing to meet soon the island will be crawling with geckos all descended from a single mother in this species that are no meals breeding without sex might work well on an isolated island but it can be a perilous strategy elsewhere in the world where predators and disease are rampant in the Australian outback cloned geckos have a much tougher time they must be constantly on the lookout for danger the guana is one of the predators to avoid but other threats are much harder to hide from tiny parasitic mites are on the geckos I suck her blood unseen diseases can also kill them and if one gecko falls ill the whole population of identical clones is at risk like their Island relatives these geckos multiply rapidly each gives birth to numerous female clones but here cloning is a double-edged sword if a parasite finds a weakness in one gecko it can infect all the others the population can crash even faster than it grew but living alongside the clones our other female geckos that do peer with meals and multiply through sex the process takes twice as long since the male's don't have babies but sexual reproduction has a distinct advantage it mixes genes and creates unique offspring each with its own unique defense against infection parasites have a tough time spreading through this population by shuffling their genes during sex these geckos are better equipped to survive this key advantage helps explain why sex is so widespread but the advantages of sex may extend far beyond merely shuffling genes sex revitalizes the genes themselves the two sets of genes that come together during sex each have their own imperfections because genes get damaged from time to time sex actually repairs these faulty genes by replacing them with good copies from the other partner with sex constantly rejuvenating genes each generation becomes stronger than the last genes have been intermingling throughout the two billion year history of sex and it's the new combinations that result that propel evolution forward the amazing diversity of creatures on our planet today is a direct result of sexual evolution sexual animals must swap genes when they breed and in the mating game the challenge is to find the best this is how Alberto si do it after spending months apart alone at sea the birds are now compelled by their sexual urge to spend hour after hour in this ceremonial dance but this is not frivolous flirtation this is how they pick sexual partners Oh the female already carries a single large egg a rare and valuable contribution towards the next generation but a male produces millions of sperm tiny inexpensive packages of genes this difference in size is key to the evolution of sex for two billion years ago when it first evolved sex was a simple matter cells simply bumped into each other and then swapped genes but for an average cell living in a big ocean this wasn't always easy smaller more agile cells were better at finding partners enlarger fatto sells well stocked with energy were more easily found combining their talents these odd couples paired off faster than the rest soon the seas were filled with fills specialized for sex large eggs and tiny sperm were here to stay today the difference in size between eggs and sperm can reach amazing extremes from the outside the female Kiwi looks almost identical to her male partner but inside is a truly enormous egg she'll only produce a few in her lifetime the male on the other hand produces millions of sperm every time he mates enough to fertilize every female Kiwi on the planet quantity versus quality meal versus female each sex as its part to play in this game but some curious creatures play on both sides some of the animals here on Australia's Great Barrier Reef are hermaphrodites both male and female these flat worms produce both eggs and sperm but they don't fertilize themselves they need new genes to mix with their own so they search for partners just like any other creature but when they meet they first need to determine which will play the male and which the female they do this by penis fencing each flatworms stands at the other when it's harpoon-like penis trying to pierce the other worms skin the rules of this battle are simple the first worm to successfully stab the other wins and gets to flee the meal these flatworms even have two penises twice as effective in battle and capable of injecting all the more spam their sperm are small and they're plenty to spare while they keep their large valuable eggs in reserve but in this contest there's triumph and defeat the eggs from this union will be fertilized by the sperm with the winning genes and asset to the next generation for male animals spreading their genes is cheap and relatively easy the hard part for some is finding females in the first place like when they live in the vast tangled swamps of Venezuela here all eyes are on the lookout for a dangerous predatory female she's an anaconda the largest hunter in the swamp she can eat a caiman or a capybara with ease she's five and a half meters long and weighs almost a hundred kilograms and the larger she is the more young she can have her fertile body acts as a beacon to male anacondas she doesn't need to make any effort to find them niall anacondas are tiny in comparison at a quarter of her weight but he's sleek and agile and up to the all-important challenge of locating the female eventually he finds her but she's not alone eight other male anacondas are already wrapped around a female sometimes they remain entwined like this for more than a month each male has a pair of mating Spurs he uses to stimulate the female and persuade her to mate the male's wrestled to be the winner in this serpentine battle for sex the big female seems passive but her job is simply to attract the males while they fight amongst themselves she conserves her energy for later tuna her eggs female marine iguanas are sharp eyed and on the lookout from mates they choose partners based on the territory they possess so the larger males compete for the best spots until clear winners have emerged eating rather than mating is the females priority foraging is best when the tide is out and the females all race for the shoreline but for males food is off the agenda if they want sex they must stay and fight these often bloody battles sort out the men from the boys important information for females looking for strong mates but for now the females gods themselves on fresh seaweed food is vital to nourish the eggs growing inside them no matter how hard it is to reach the battles between males continue through the heat of the day eventually the winner will take center stage ready for the females return as the females travel up the beach they are watched by smaller meals not strong enough to win fights their tactic is to jump on passing females but this female wants a male that has proved his strength and battle she continues on towards the rocks a winning meal welcomes the females onto his patch he sniffs them to see if they're ready to meet but even this is no gang T of sex the male's still have to wait until the females accept them female iguanas pick their partners from a crowd of meals but how do other females pick the best when they only meet one meal at a time surprising answer has been found in the woods of Ohio in spring wolf spiders start to look for mates the female stays hidden wary of predators but she leaves a trail of silk for males to find when one locates it he detects the presence of a potential mate she senses his tapping signal then sees his waving legs but why does she choose this meal above all others something about him attracts her he has long bristles on his front legs Tufts that seemed to serve no practical purpose and he shows them off by giving her a weave could it really be his hairy legs that catch the female spiders eye to find out the spiders viewing habits have been analyzed on videotape a mini TV screen plays life-sized images of courting males to a female but this male has no hair Tufts on his legs and the female is unimpressed but when she sees a male with normal leg tufts she's interested and if he has huge leg tops she gets very excited if females by in theory leg sexy so will the daughters and they'll also have sons with hairy legs for these spiders healy legs are here this day battles between males have led to extreme displays of flamboyance especially among bards you and throughout the board world females carefully choose the best meals they can find but for some females the search continues even after they found a meat blue-footed boobies live in densely packed colonies they mate for life but that doesn't mean they're sexually faithful each female has a regular partner she can depend on to feed her chicks but when he's away she's not averse to a new romance when a female is home alone other males are more than happy to keep her company and file her mates away she's free to play the field infidelity makes sense she already has a committed partner but he may not have the best genes it's possible that another meal might have more to offer their brief courtship leads to an inevitable end like all meals this one's trying to spread his genes far and wide and the real bonus of this affair is that you won't have to bring up chicks meanwhile for regular partner goes on fishing in blissful ignorance but on his return he reclaims his partner it's to his advantage to do so repeated mating will keep his sperm in the race to fertilize her eggs competition amongst males often breeds dirty tricks and to further his own cause a male can use all manner of cunning ploys in the mountain meadows of Poland another male does more than cheat a few rivals he can exclude all his rivals it's the Apollo butterfly the males appear before the females ready to mate quickly when the time comes down below a female is about to emerge from this pupa she'll be mated just once by the mail fast enough to beat the competition as soon as she emerges something probably has sent alerts males to her presence and the race to find her is on before she's even taken her maiden flight she's discovered by this male but how can he make sure that he's the only lead she will ever have after successfully mating he fits her with the insect equivalent of a chastity belt to ensure that his will be the only genes she receives and then he leaves victorious no other male can mate with this female because he has sealed off all access with an impenetrable spiked plug that has now set hard the female had little choice in this meeting game but sometimes females have a surprising amount of influence this harem of female elephant seals has been won by a single male known as the beachmaster and it would seem that the females have no choice in the matter but the females discriminating tastes will soon be revealed when a visitor approaches the harem sneaking in from the sea a young bull is looking for an opportunity yes he's intent on seduction but the females raise objection to his advances [Applause] the commotion wakes the beachmaster who chases off the upstart bachelor [Applause] clearly size does matter but it was the females protests that led to his eviction [Applause] these females won't settle for second best the Hadean master is dominant but only because he gets a helping hand from his having of winning concubines female lions are also the willing subjects of powerful males females do the hunting but males defend the pride against attack from other lions if the males 'no pride die the females and Cubs are left extremely vulnerable there are always rolled males on the prowl ready to take control and an invading male will kill any Cubs he finds you you the death of the Cubs may seem brittle but it is not senseless killing the new male does it to make sure he won't be wasting his time protecting Cubs that aren't his own the female will soon bear his own young and he'll stick around to protect them from other marauding males in doing so he also protects the females new family despite their conflicts males and females must cooperate they need each other to bring their genes together in a vital combination a renewal of life and then tomorrow all around us live the descendants of a four billion year battle for survival at the heart of that battle is sex despite its cost and its complexity sex is here to stay new life is born every minute equipped with the right combination of genes from both parents ready to survive in an ever-changing world the triumph of the mating game is the future of life Oh ah Oh

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