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Hello and welcome to Feature History, featuring the rise of the Mongols, and a bit of a tumble, but not the fall.
I do the research, writing, narration, art, and animation. Yes, it is very lonely
Music by Epidemic Sound:
Daniele Luppi, Peter Nashel, and Altan Urag
this video is brought to you by curiosity stream yet 31 days of streaming completely free using the link in curiosity stream calm / feature story or you can wait till the end to hear more hello and welcome to feature history featuring the Mongol Empire the Empire is well known amongst everyone it's a largest continuous Empire to ever exist it was ruled by Kangas car and they had horses and bows they lived in tents and they actually that's about where it stops if you think about it we don't actually know that much about Mongols and so to get the better understanding of it we can read up about them and actually figure out where the Mongols came from what they did and where they win and then you can make a video about them but don't because that's what I'm doing so in today's episode we'll be covering the rise of the Mongols under Genghis how they grew as rapidly as they did it wouldn't actually meant in the grand scheme of things after that you'll have to wait until the next episode to figure out where it went the central steppes of Asia are an incredibly remote and desolate place sustaining a quite small population of hearty people that's how it is today it was even harder in the 12th century the land belonged to the nomadic Mongol and Turkic clans who were often in conflict with each other whether it was over scarce resources personal rivalries Wilson fabricated dispute encouraged by the clans powerful neighbors it was given their harsh environment and perpetuating Wars the clans of the steppe remained stuck while other parts of the world were transitioning through their high Middle Ages their Islamic golden ages and their chinesey ages however it would be approaching the 13th century the steppes climate changed it was warmer food was plentiful and on top of this China's political climate changed as being split between multiple dynasties they descended into their own power squabbles in this period of opportunity the boy Temujin was born a year 1162 he was the son of yesugay the ruler of a kamek mongol one of five tribal Confederations in the region when Temujin was only nine years old his father was poisoned by the rival Tatars so his father's Confederation to the power vacuum and Temujin was thrusts into the harsh nomadic reality that was Mongol life in his attempts to regain power he'd marry into a friendly tribe with his first wife bought a at age 16 she was quickly abducted by another rival tribe the markets and so Temujin turned to a tribal leader and blood brother of yesugay to rule calm Temujin alongside his own blood brother jamika were granted command of 20,000 warriors with them they stormed the market camp rescuing bought a and claiming an easy victory however with newfound power Temujin found rivals Temujin perhaps because if he struggled upbringing ranked his men not on their heritage but their merit and loyalty to him and intelligence continued campaigns against his enemies he would take conquered civilians under his protection building a force of loyal subjects this all clashed with Jammu cos traditional Mongol views and as the new methods proved effective he felt threatened by Temujin jamika would turn on Temujin and decisively defeat his army in 1180 770 of the captives were boiled alive Temujin would disappear for 10 years only seeming to return to prominence when he was recruited by the jin dynasty the jin sought to punish the Tartars and Temujin was recruited to command part of the attack and for his services was restored into a position of power with a new army rally together he would employ a new decimal system amongst his ranks giving him the proper military organization needed to gain the upper hand Tolu khan would join jamika to defend against imagens new force and jamika would be proclaimed the Gherkin universal ruler however Jammu cos universal rule was proclaimed a bit early because across ten engines campaign torille and jamika would be defeated and jamika was turned into Temujin by his own men Temujin would have those men put to death and offered jamika to join him once again jamika would respond there can only be one son and his request was to a noble death after jammu cos coalition fell Temujin would see to it the rest of the tribes were subdued or united by 1206 the once disparate and warring factions of the steppe have been united as one political and military force and Temujin was renamed and the genghis khan the actual universal ruler with the perpetually rivaled tribes united Genghis thought to spread his early Empire he had first conquer its former oppressors starting with the Western Shah the smallest of the three main Chinese dynasties the Mongols had for a long time rated the Charles frontier but under Genghis there would be mobilized as a rapid cavalry base army and swarmed the Empire forcing the Shia as a facile in only five years the neighboring Jin dynasty had blissfully ignored this conquest the Mongols were their tributaries after all subservient to the mighty Jin the Jin had long extracted tribute from and exercised punitive expeditions against the tribes and when they came to demand tribute again in 1211 they expected more at the same Ganga Salva would respond only by spitting on the ground and riding off in his horse just about the least verbal declaration of war you could manage for a war against the much largest dynasty the Mongols would mobilize a 90% of all their forces close to a hundred thousand men and holding a firm numbers advantage the hoards would meet the Great Wall and go around it and then meet the Jin forces however it would be in their earliest battle the Jin's biggest weakness was exploited their questionable loyalty the messengers that met with gangers to request is surrender actually decided that tell Ganga's where the jhen armies were positioned leading to a decisive massacre as the Mongol hordes pillaged their way through North China gang is made sure to spare those who could be useful to him siege warfare was an unknown to the Mongols but by capturing and recruiting Chinese engineers they could quickly learn the tactics of CG and better yet the well kept secrets of powder they put all they'd learn to the test when they besieged the capital of Beijing improving successful they forced the Jin to concede defeat the Jin would become the new tributary of their former tributaries in 1214 Genghis would then lead the majority of the armies back home as his loyal general je vais would do a bit of on the side conquering on the remnants of the old liao dynasty in the West the Mongol Empire had quickly grown and dominated its once powerful neighbors it established itself as the largest conglomerate of nomadic tribes and is one of the strongest Asian powers it was at this point gang is sought to build relations with nearby States sending his own voice and caravans far west to the Persian her as me an empire in 1218 while the envoy's offer trade and diplomacy word had swiftly spread of the Mongols conquest and brutality the Shah our add-in mohammed ii had no interest in relations with barbarians all 450 of genghis people were put to death and when news reached the khan he flew into a rage the wars the Mongols had fought had seen their fair share of bloodshed and cruelty but the campaign to going to Korres mia would be in a whole different scale a multi-pronged invasion over and the empire any resistance saw whole cities put to death not just the men but the women and children to the sharp would flee but was stopped literally dead in its tracks when he passed from illness and 12:20 his sons allow a beaming Bernie would now be left with the disaster he too would flee attempting to escape through Afghanistan while under pursuit he was able to rally 30,000 afghan warriors on top of his own forces and outnumbering his Mongol pursuers two to one was able to defeat the rookie general and escape offering the first major blow to the facade of Mongol and vulnerability the story quickly spread to cities in kaznia and all the way back to East Asia the Mongols had been defeated people began to rebel against Mongol conquest and so genghis knew he had to get yellow team his army made forced march in pursuit and met jellal's forces as he attempted to cross the Indus River refugees and troops were massacred as the Shia narrowly slipped away into India with the shotgun the Korres Mian Empire was defeated but genghis was left with rebellion across his empire the car made way with the main mongol force to quell the uprisings but his talented generals j-bay and su Bataille were ordered to raid west and they would reach as far west as the caucasus while on campaign against the rebellion jin genghis would fall from his horse tired and weak he died soon after at the age of 65 in 1227 the empire left in his wake stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea and Generals from all over would United the mongol homeland to form a council to curl tie the empire was to be divvied out amongst kangas's four sons his eldest jockey was born shortly after bought a it napping so his legitimacy was questionable however the gang has treated him as a son regardless jockey was to inherit the West and most part of the Empire be given that he died before his father it was left to his son genghis his grandson butter Chag attire the second son was the biggest critic of jockeys legitimacy and was considered quite a hothead he was left with Central Asia as his domain the youngest Tolu inherited the traditional mongol heart lands while it would be the charismatic popular and named successor Agha died a third son who was declared the Great Khan the khan of khans the Mongol Emperor so while the Empire was split into several Carnot's all would answer to auger daikon at least that was the idea ah dude I would begin his reign by claiming vengeance on the traders Jim who on top of breaking their tributary status had moved further south to Chi Fang many defected or surrendered to the Mongol forces and the new capital had fallen by 1232 the Mongols claimed a total conquest of the Jim it would be from here on out look at I grew even more ambitious oh god I would continue his campaign through China bringing war to the Song Dynasty in southern China at the same time an invasion of Korea was ordered the construction of a permanent Mongol capital in Karakoram began and organized nephew battle would begin a full-scale invasion far west into the Kiev in ruse modern day Russia the Song Dynasty would be pushed back across the Yangtze but the Mongols struggled to hold much ground past the river leading to a firm stalemate between the two powers the invasion in Korea would see initial gains also come to a halt needing campaign after campaign to finally defeat the Goryeo in 1259 well past organized time-bar to would prove very successful in the West though the East labs were quickly defeated by the Mongol hordes and forced into submission but who pushed further out claiming victories over the kingdoms of the Caucasus Poland Austria Bulgaria and more the fragmented European kingdoms stood no chance against the Mongol advance knights and footman were not equipped to resist rapid Mongol horsemen and the cities were not prepared for the shock of gunpowder weaponry and the horror of Mongol brutality but who took a decisive victory against the kingdom of Hungary in 1241 and it became clear the rest of Europe lay at the mercy of Mongol dominance but then Agha died died with no clear air it was crucial all Khan's returned to the homeland to form a new curl tie sober – and his armies Road East Europe was spared the Mongol Empire found itself in the Regency of agonized wife Teranga for five years as genghis children and grandchildren came to an impasse the cracks in the empire began to show conquest was seeming to reach its natural limit in the fall of the Mongol Empire beckoned as it appeared you couldn't govern on horseback that's not to say the Empire was strictly chaotic alongside the wars and conquests there was a building of trade routes religious freedoms and meritocratic society under Genghis and his descendants the world began to become further connected than it had been in a long time the famous Silk Road began to be reopened by the Mongols and a link between East and West was born you can see more about the trade route and the cultures it connected in curiosity streams series the Silk Road the series itself contains over six hours of content and the curiosity stream hosts over 2,400 titles that's a virtually endless amount of documentaries covering history science nature technology society and more all of these titles can be streamed on demand right from the comfort of your computer phone or even Smart TV you can watch all that right now for free when you visit curiosity shreem comm slash feature history and get a 31 day trial so go have a look and surely something will piqued your curiosity welcome to the end of the video and for the few you that haven't clicked off yet rest assured the fall of the Mongol Empire isn't too far away but before that I actually will be launching a new new series four little short videos on the channel so that feature history may finally have consistent uploads what about fittings and inquiry while fitting we'll be getting a new episode before the years over and inquiry is pretty much getting dropped there's a bit more going on on top of all that but that's my little secret so for now bye bye