Human Reproduction Class 12 Biology | Female Reproductive System | iWiz Sarika



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This Biology video for Class 12 about Female Reproductive System from the chapter Human Reproduction is Part 2 and a continuation from the previous video of the same chapter.

The topics covered in this video are:
Female Reproductive System
– A pair of ovaries
– A pair of oviducts
– Uterus
– Cervix
– Vagina
– External genitalia
– Mammary glands

The topics are taught by Dr. Sarika, brought to you by IWIZ Education.

For the previous videos of the same Chapter please click the link below:
Part 1-

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Volcano BREAKTHROUGH! Scientists Test New Method to Predict Volcanic Eruptions!



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Volcano BREAKTHROUGH! Scientists Test New Method to Predict Volcanic Eruptions!
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this is a volcano breakthrough scientists now have a new method to predict when volcanic eruptions will occur they've been telling us for quite some time from USGS and other agencies that it's impossible to predict earthquakes even though they work with statistics and can predict just about when to expect a major earthquake now they have a new method of finding out how magma can be viewed can be assessed to see when another earthquake another volcanic eruption will be probable this is by tom fish from Express UK the volcanic eruptions could one day be predicted this is after cutting-edge research in one of Europe's most volatile volcanoes comes to light as we know one of the worst is the campi Flegrei it's a supervolcano in Italy and a lot of the Italy volcanoes are quite active right now Stromboli and Etna for example now a new method designed by a multinational research firm could potentially allow geologists to predict how a volcanic eruption will occur with great precision they say they combine physics and statistics and the new technique reportedly chases the magma to understand what path it will take from the depths of the Earth's core magma as we know frequently does not spew from the mound main mouth of volcano it can find other routes for example features or dykes and even fractures earth fractures now this example is what happens in iceland's bardarbunga eruption is what happened in August 2014 and also in Hawaii's Kilauea in August 2000 18 this is why volcanologists are faced with serious challenges to predict what will happen with the aim of minimizing the risks of volcanic eruptions to the populations in the areas while this research led by Italian scientist dr. Eleonora revolta she developed a new technique which can be invaluable for planning and exploitation of the soil in areas at risk dr. Eve Alta says when trying to predict how an eruption will occur in the main difficulty lies in the fact that magma is transported underground and because of this obviously it's not visible with the naked eye we can't see what's happening underneath researchers have only been able to employ precise monitoring tools in the last 20 years and this reveals dynamics by helping them with computer models dr. Eve Alta explains that the new volcano prediction combined two levels of analysis she says those methods are used up to now our base either only on statistics and now is analyzing the sites in which the previous eruptions occurred more frequently or only on physics that is calculating the paths that offer the least resistance to the magma in the first case the available data are not sufficient to drop a fairly accurate map well in the second case the forces involved are difficult to assess accurately as she goes to explain we have combined the two methods based on the physical method but calibrating it so that it is compatible with the eruptive now researchers demonstrated the validity of this new technique they tested it in the flagger Ian fields in the captive legree meaning the fields of fire in Europe your most dangerous supervolcano one of the areas with the highest volcanic risks on earth and it's a supervolcano as we know the area extends for more than six miles as 10 kilometers it has about 80 fractures in the ground that have erupted with regularity in the past 15,000 years so the researchers concluded quote the most difficult part was to make the method valid for every volcano the secret lies in quantifying well all the forces of the subsoil which will always be different and recalibrate the model every single time the flagrant feels her captive legree meaning to burn is a large supervolcano in the west of Naples Italy declared a Regional Park in 2003 the caldera consists of 24 craters and volcanic edifices most of them lie underwater though hydrothermal activity can be observed in the area of Luke Renault nano and the town of Port Wally there are also effusive gaseous manifestations at the solfatara crater sulfur sulfuric acid sulfuric cassis the mythological home of the Roman god of fire Vulcan this area is monitored by the Vesuvius observatory the area features Braddy seismic phenomena which are most evident in the mess elem of pozzuoli bands of four holes left by marine mollusks on marble columns show that the level of the site is in relation to the sea level has varied the flagrant period thought to have erupted in the volcano eruption of about thirty nine thousand hundred and eighty years ago erupted 200 cubic kilometers of 48 cubic miles of magma to produce the champion in Buda England eruption with a volcanic explosivity index of seven the second flagrant period was between thirty-five thousand ten and a half thousand years ago the third flagrant period between eight thousand years ago up to five hundred years ago material forms the majority of volcanoes in the fields and more recently the recent history the caldera now is essentially at ground level accessible on foot containing many fumaroles from which steam can be seen issuing over 150 fools in 1538 and eight-day eruption of the area deposited enough material to create a new hill Monta no ever and it has risen about seven feet from ground level since 1970 a 2009 Journal article stated that inflation of the caldera center near Pozzuoli might presage an eruptive event within decades of course we would expect that if you have something kind of an a rising of the ground of course it would mean an eruption in 2012 the International continental scientific drilling program plan to drill two and a half miles below the earth's surface near pompeii in order to monitor this massive molten rock chamber below and provide early warning of an eruption local scientists are worried that such trillion could itself initiate an eruption or an earthquake in 2010 the Naples City Council halted the drilling project program scientists of the drilling was no different from industrial drilling in the area the newly elected mayor allowed the project to go forward Reuters article emphasized that the area could produce a supervolcano that might kill millions now in August 2017 there was a magnitude 4 earthquake on the western edge of camp a flagrant area and we know that of course it's a very volatile very delicate place and we also know that we have a list of various listing of let's see the volcanoes in Italy there's quite a few and this is Wikipedia I'm reading from there's at least 40 40 the ones that have most recently erupted our rule cine 104 BC will canelo 1550 volcan volcano at 89 now Vesuvius erupted in 1944 Panta Pantelleria in 1891 in and also Ferdinand era in it's a submarine volcano 1831 campi Flegrei in the sea of Cecilia in 1911 again can't be Flegrei 1538 and there's many others here that were a lot older than that 10,000 years ago 5,000 BC and the like I'll leave links below for you for this if you'd like to join me on my patreon account you will hear content not covered by mainstream media these riveting stories will be based on my research and I will state my opinions and give my personal insight on diverse and controversial subjects and world events and that's not covered by mainstream media and not certainly on not supported by 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7 Mysterious Creatures Created By Scientists #2



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From The Chicken without feathers to the Spider that was produced by cloning with a plant , Here are 7 Mysterious Creatures Created By Scientists

Music : Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com)
Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 License

Bitcoin Live : BTC Broke Critical Resistance! Episode 620 – Crypto Technical Analysis



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Bitcoin (BTC), Ethereum (ETH), and RIpple (XRP) Analysis. Cryptocurrency Technical Analysis and Cryptocurrency News.

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Do NOT trade based on what you see in this analysis.TA with Mitch Ray that produced this analysis are not to be held responsible for any losses that may occur. You and you alone are responsible for deciding if you are comfortable accepting the risk involved in trading. You should only trade based on your knowledge, experience, and risk as a trader. This information is for educational purpose only. Trading in any market contains a high degree of risk. It is possible and EXTREMELY likely that you will lose some if not all of your initial investment. Mitch Ray, that produced this analysis is not a licensed financial planner or adviser. If you are unsure of anything in the financial market, always seek advice from a licensed financial planner or adviser. Any and ALL content published by TA with Mitch Ray and/or affiliates should be NOT be considered financial advice. Invest at your own risk and as always, do your own research!

you tell who I feel like you take me you take me I feel like you take me you take me I feel like you take [Applause] the traders welcome to episode 620 of the show you could be doing anything but you're here and I really appreciate that sorry like kind of running around errands and stuff and my dad's over here we're trying to fix my something with my ring and stuff like that and it's got my new Wi-Fi so like everything's broken right now so anyway whatever but hey man the corn did it right the corns doing it it's doing things 10,000 420 is that a joke nine looking good man looking real good the trade set up from Sunday the 28th holding in there man getting closer and closer closer and freaking close remember the bullish divergence on both oscillators the remember the stats was the first four-hour RSI bullish divergence we had actually seen since February a dish of this year a long time really long time so there you go man don't take heed of that stat that have been throwing out whatever dudes anyway the wick if you can't see it because it's right here the wick went down to like 90 100 s at our stop below X as suggested by Casey Stubbs and the ultimate harmonic first probably taking level is at a second profit-taking level is at C for this bullish cipher so getting closer and closer to it Brad not bad man not bad at all so we're just continuing to climb we broke the critical resistance which was around ten thousand two hundred very good stuff on the daily if you ask me man all right hey what happened as discussed man we never hit the a day at six not yet did if you break ten thousand seven eight hundreds I mean cuz that's a square up up here we know that there's a square up up here but like we can break above that dudes you might not be getting your your 786 the whole market was coveting Ryan oh my god man we got to have it it might have stopped in his tracks on the potential double bottom but anyway looking left talked about this yesterday how good it was we were breaking this area we were around 10,000 yesterday and guess what continuing to climb no real overhead resistance chat historical overhead resistance until eleven thousand two hundred thirty just saying man so good good I guess we can go to good sandwich we've been looking at all right please understand that where we are looking left besides the stuff we manufactured recently there's nothing here there's absolutely nothing here I mean you might have a small resistance at ten eight ten thousand eight hundred but really the overhead resistance 11 – well that's not showing up man no the four-hour that's I got my scuffed Adam and Eve double bottom where's my good one dude did none of that save it all whatever dude I'll just do it right now we'll do a live F is f s– in the chat okay give me a set man so went live early you know price action a little bit of it a little bit of the cause but also because because I it will be a travel day for me tomorrow so I will not be able to be as attentive to content creation because of the again the travel which is cool man you know whatever but sorry man OCD on this stuff kind of sometimes so I do it privately but it just didn't save or something so potential Adam and Eve double bottom and it's not confirmed as a pattern as a real pattern until it breaks 11,000 137 and we know up there at those levels very critical overhead resistance look and left so dude getting up to those levels I'd be great profit taking levels if we can get up there and be really good profit taking levels because if we hit it we may fail miserably and sell off but as it stands now it's beautiful beautiful development and all we did was talk about it but if he didn't believe man whatever and it's not even like it was just an Adam and Eve double bottom developing it was like that bullish cypher that was there and like we didn't get stomped out because the and the thing is we had to have a pretty large rewards on that pattern because were stop-loss was because we were worried maybe I was worried about maybe something stupid like that happening and it not falling below it and it did and we just didn't it was good man it was all good so who's laughing now chat who's laughing now all the people call me crazy I guess I am crazy a little bit but whatever man we all are we are all a little crazy man you didn't know so that's it dude unfortunately with Bitcoin bringing the upside being up 3% today the other big boys they're all down there all in the red today like very little movements with this price action from Bitcoin get rekt okay speaking of interesting though right it does look pretty good how we're just holding the support man but where is the price action you were making you're not really making higher highs then your previous eyes at all – it's just like and you're still very much in the downtrend on a theory up you have not broken out anything jeez man trend is still down Kenya of course trend is down until you break looks like 12k more so alright so I don't think it's an actual real ascending triangle people could argue and say this is the same as that but that's not part of the reaction hi look this was part of the impulse down right when you bought them you want a rally create the so wall sell off and then rally again to the same spot and that's a reaction hi we'd sold again Brad Mitch what first cell level are you suggesting for BTC just a percent or all it was ten eight and then 11 one roughly 10 18 level one yeah that's for me though that that's for me around an intra around ninety four hundred okay so and that's it's really all justified with my reward to risk got a three point zero four roared risk on the first profit or on the first you know reward or risk and then my second one is three point six nine so they're pretty close together but again it's X and a it's of the patterns and that's like you can use Fibonacci but in this situation just felt like we're we were showing the divergence and the shortening of the thrust was really a big part of it to where it's like you sold off but barely and you just held and then you started kind of rounding a little bit whatever the eve Jill thank you for the twenty of it else helps and it's just 50/50 I mean like I don't know like because the thing is we know that it's not just a cypher right not just the bullish cypher now it's like at the time when a to the entry the double bottom had not it wasn't even real it there was no movement there was no action it was like it could have just kept selling off or could have bust the upside there but it went sideways and then a stupid little wick down kind of gave us the rounding action of the the eve bottom and so now it's making me think a little bit more like hey if we could ever break that 11:1 area we've got 11 – looking left so that's not gonna be easy especially you just go straight up to it you might pull back before then maybe we could see some consolidation at 11 1 where we sell-off flag descending broadening wedge pin it's something right give me indication ibly we might break out above the neckline of the potential Adam and Eve double bottom it'll again 11 1 I should be looking at it and you just again like show it right so right up here that's 2nd profit-taking level because that for me is the top of the pattern a cypher pattern but it's also the neckline it's also critical resistance all kinds of stuff up here not gonna be easy to break there's also a square up way up here – also square on the 60-minute yeah square up at major square up at like 10 9 10 9 5 0 alright that's the most Signet the next most significant to square up but now you got to think just remember there's now a square up down here right around 10,000 55 just like there was a square up down here at like 9 7 alright so if you ever do so off there you go man you're very robots on the 60 minute you're at 79 for our you're overbought – man barely though you just got it right like seventy two point six five so nice nice break out of the resistance right and why were we struggling right here well you can call that absorption Blanc was asking or talking about it right I gave the description of it right so what is absorption when you're rallying like this especially double bottom looking stuff you're confirming to the market that the bottom might be in for now at least temporarily your rally up then you hit this critical resistance area is that a joint mitzvah let me hear it man who let the dogs out which side right is it the stock market side or the Bitcoin side because stall market at a nice early you know an open that was nice and then it's the hold President Trump tariffs news came out or whatever and then bull market dumped and larlie brought up a good point there was a no a nice square up on the S&P 500 today so all those exchanges offloaded their position at a break-even price and then the dumpin in came after that shortly after that square Trump tweeted it shortly after the square piz what I mean all right so a self-fulfilling prophecy or was it something bigger it was it people scared with Trump stuff okay so my house about to say something sorry that threw me off crap train of thought we were in a discussion on something it happens sometimes man crab dude because when I get on one train of thought and then it shifts to another train of thought sometimes can be tough to get back to what I was talking about before so want to remind me or something I mean it was the Ilan contribution is that a joint so oh my god hey it's the first of the month best time to join the patreon if you enjoy the stream and you know want to learn more about what I'm doing we learn more about Adam Edo bottoms when we learn about harmonics and we learn about through and on Chi equities to channels and all that is that a joint Bitcoin but stop if I was nice dude shopped up 10% on earnings it gapped up um and then you know I mean dude for the amount of selling it happened on the SP five wonder it was oh yeah it together daily maybe yeah look at this for the amount of selling the market had I mean I guess it was up 10% at 3:53 yeah it's opt-out 350 68 and closed it looks like 340 181 Dane and pulled back that would make sense with the macro but the potential Adam and Eve double top looks like that's getting invalidate it right I mean it was like the same type of setup that big one had but on a daily timescale sorry man just gotta make it right the atom and then you had the eve the nice rounding action it was beautiful of a potential pattern but again you know Bukowski talks about he doesn't trade or wouldn't trade three weeks going into earnings right because stuff like this can happen he doesn't matter what the pattern looks like if your earnings coming up I can just completely destroy any type of pattern alright but yeah I think man a lot of volume came in and you pulled back with the macro look if it's gonna be a lot tougher for this asset to continue its rally if the macro wants to keep selling off macro being again S&P 500 I look at it real quick right now for some people that care you know what don't which is crazy but here you go big bearish engulfing candle right look how incredible was we were beginning to bullish ly engulf the first four hours of the day today $300 and then closed the last you know 60 minutes all the way down and look the rest of the day the last four hours of the daily session you bounce you hit 294 16 look left right previous all-time highs you're back testing and now a monkey-ass set up an alert oh my god chat looking weak hey man look at the four hour that mother of god this bearish divergence on a four-hour hold on a sec all right sorry uh my dad just got a bad transformer so for something or it's gonna get it fixed all right so whoops what's up doing man with the truck oh yeah yeah yeah trendline see all right look at that man like I was like every time you made a high a higher high higher high and a slightly higher high you're making lower levels of relative strength so that's a nasty nasty bearish divergence you know but extremely bullish conditions you know so even with this plan out all right you're getting closer and closer to oversold territory so but you still got some room to run the downside before our plenty rooms around on the daily though right yeah yeah that yeah if you can't hold this looking like your Nick support it's gonna be down to 86 there's a lookout man look out I think we had make this line that weakly I think we had some sort of like ascending broadening ledge we're just like an up slipping flag and I think we broke the support there not good man it's a to red days in a row decent amount of volume on that look at this man 43 on the RSI so marker participants they wanted to they'd have plenty of room to push this to lower prices all right similarly the 16 minutes it was a beautiful man look this is the square up right here the larlie was talking about man okay that was the square of right there hilarious man you opened rallied hit it and then dumped after the square up after the exchange I floated their position and a break-even price see you buy crazy man oh yeah I did want to get no one gets stuck on the stock market since uh crypto connect people got to have their crypto that's cool man I don't really know why you're that concerned I mean we look at a theory I'm nothing dude we're gonna look at litecoin nothing dude nothing yeah you broke out of the downtrend congratulations but very weak follow through you're not really doing anything this thing should be much higher with Bitcoin price action doing what it's doing man think about it if it's not going anywhere when big ones go in places higher when big one sells off this thing's just gonna go so off right could probably fall back into this channel or try or sorry the pattern but hey at least the divergence right here pull a bounce it played out man don't you sleep on bullish evidence on the 4:00 hour man yeah bearish divergence on the daily on the stock market as well yes I I completely agree with you sorry man didn't bring that up hey I don't even have to move my uh yeah there were certainly bearish divergence on them daily yes on both oscillators on the S&P absolutely in the short-term and like that more midterm – right pull it up real quick for you all right so you had that RSI bear separately that's high and just slightly higher high lower those real strengths but then you had not just there you also had think about it a high here and then a slightly higher high here and a much lower level of strength so in the more mid term a little bit more mid term and short term you had it and it has turned into you know five dollars down you know on a on the pretty much the sole the stock market that's pretty significant it's pretty crazy man alright yep so a little interjection right there for you alright litecoin so again it's like okay dude it's actually kind of showing a little bit of bearish divergence on how do you even do that man like how are you doing this come on that ik high slightly higher high and on your slightly higher high there is a lower level of relative strength on the four-hour give me a break man but if it ever did break out okay there's square up at 11779 square up but 131 and those are the major ones but you know I just don't playing a descending triangle or sorry descending broadening wedge this large you know these are targets man on swing trading very large patterns like this this is a man 100% retraced the top of the pattern and the 1 to 72 from the high to low hey bro can you show us what confirmation on a breakout looks like Brad Adrienne thanks for the 1099 euros sure man we have a break good what do we have a break could go on and we looked at it the other day I think it was a stock doe it's just gonna Bitcoin cash for the sake of alright confirmation on a breakout could be right here could be Bitcoin cash where you had price contraction there was a down sloping resistance you broke it look how the price action responded to this down slipping resistance you broke out of it step one what is also what you got you really want okay because it gives the whole market some more confirmation right everyone in the world seen the same thing you're seeing when they plot this you hit this support and you back tested it when it was once a resistance it became support very important all right now we didn't break couldn't go here which is a the strongest form of confirmation but we did rally we had a hammer at a bullish hammer rally but we're not making higher highs yet not yet man so what you want to do I wish I could like simulate like candles and stuff on here but I can probably have in my folder somewhere that breaking good let me see if I made something thanks again Adrian man be under patterns or to be under candlesticks Dayman oh nice okay here we go so this is what a break hook and go looks like okay this was Bitcoin by the way and this is Bitcoin on the way up I think this was like under 10k for sure alright so when you have a resistance and you break the resistance this was an ascending broadening wedge pattern we broke out of it then we back in the next candle we back tested the area that was once a resistance we had seen multiple times as the support and then after that the break the hook and then the go is the bullish engulfing candle so it can be a three candlestick pattern it can also be four five six however many right it just keeps back-testing until you eventually get that bullish and golden candle look it was like a break who can go but then it was like indecision back test three back tests and then another bullish engulfing candle and then see you bye we gone did Hadrian let me know if that helps at all man it's all about how you respond to breakouts are you gonna back test you're gonna fall right back in it because trend lines get broken all the time chat but it's all about their response after the breakout right it is the follow-through price action well gay men do you join us live stream and their like button that bill that sub thanks for the nearly 800 people here with the poor altcoins getting no love but maybe we're just uh maybe Bitcoin cash could be set over higher prices man I mean this is kind of the price action you get on breakouts before a bigger move up something to think about man you just think about uh you could do something just free-balling it man say we're back testing this you can have a pretty tight stop here because there's a decent amount of support horizontal line support all right you just keep it below that and then you could you would have oh my god like I'm Vic one cash them have the opportunity here even a failed man like you don't care about it if it breaks below 306 but this could very well if you can stay above this long enough you might have a shot dude 384 first target maybe the 415 the second target I mean it broke the downtrend it's showing a higher load double bottom bro sorry let me uh who was first I think it was mr. senton they show the trend more clear I don't know man like yeah they just someone else asked about it in the past maybe they share the trend clear but I don't know man it's if look you can study it and study and study and if it works for you that's great man I just stick with good old-fashioned Steve nice and Japanese candlesticks man all right it's just though it is but if you got some system that works for you dude there's so many different ways to trade to analyze assets fine will works for you and stick with it mr. Stinson okay all right let me uh well of course Oh Claudia man-bra thank you for the $8 96 cents of aetherium classic crypto contribution so it's happy you're here man keep on trucking sometimes you can get shown the lights and the strongest of places if you look at it right gangs gangs Andy Claudio man gangs D I think when we were on Sunday when we were like rounding out on that potential Eve bottom of the atom potential Adam and Eve dole bottom like really low numbers people not want like okay dude like now we got people watching cuz big ones moving up it's like well there was bullish divergence on both oscillators I don't know what you're doing you leave the market when there's good opportunity and then you come back to try to FOMO in it's like that's just not how it works man on how it works thank you should be like this man you got to have Bitcoin play ball man but again I just I just fear the way Bitcoin is rallying and these all coins are not they're all in the red today still like how how much how high does Bitcoin have to go for these assets to move with it and at what point does Bitcoin pull back some and then these alts are gonna pull back wait like just as hard as Bitcoin pulls back see that's the problem with these alts right now they're little action going on with them okay

Four Tet – Scientists



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Going Deep with David Rees – How to Pet a Dog | How To Show | Reel Truth. Science



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David Rees doesn’t love dogs but he is setting on a mission to learn how to pet a dog properly. During his journey he visits Yale University to find out everything he can about the genetic history, cognitive function and incredible senses of man’s best friend.

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SSC MTS Maths 【5th august, All shifts】 | MTS Tier-1 Exam Analysis & Asked Questions | SSC MTS MATHS



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SSC MTS Maths 【5th august, All shifts】 | MTS Tier-1 Exam Analysis & Asked Questions | SSC MTS MATHS

IN this video we have discusssed all questions asked in SSC MTS exam today.
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We Need to Talk About Physics – with Helen Czerski



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Helen Czerski explores the everyday oddities that shed light on some of the most important science of our time.
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When we hear about physics, we often hear about the weirdness of the tiny quantum world or the bewildering vastness of the cosmos. But there’s a lot in the middle, and it’s time someone starting talking about it. Helen Czerski will take us through some of the little everyday oddities that shed light on some of the most important science and technology of our time. Once the patterns are visible, a new perspective on the world beckons.

Helen Czerski is a Lecturer in the department of Mechanical Engineering at UCL. She is the author of “Storm in a Teacup”, a new popular science book exploring the physics of everyday life.

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Chemical Kinetics | IIT JEE Main & Advanced | Physical Chemistry by Prince (PS) Sir



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Chemical Kinetics for IIT JEE Main and Advanced by Prince of Chemistry (PS Sir). He is known for his focused and simplified IIT-JEE teaching to bring to students an easy and analytical methodology towards JEE Main & Advanced. Know more about PS Sir Courses:

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Respiratory System, Part 1: Crash Course A&P #31



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So we all know that breathing is pretty important, right? Today we’re going to talk about how it works, starting with the nameless evolutionary ancestor that we inherited this from, and continuing to the mechanics of both simple diffusion and bulk flow, as well as the physiology of breathing, and finishing with the anatomy of both the conducting zone and the respiratory zone of your respiratory system.

Table of Contents
The Mechanics of Both Simple Diffusion and Bulk Flow 2:44
The Physiology of Breathing 4:07
Anatomy of the Conducting Zone 5:47
Anatomy of Respiratory Zone 7:07

***

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دعوني أقدم لكم أحد أشجع الرواد
.في تاريخ الحياة على كوكب الأرض إنه كائن حي مهد الطريق لجميع الفقاريات
،التي تعيش على الأرض اليوم .وغيرها التي لم تعد موجودة .إنه واحد من أهم أسلافكم .تعرفوا على… في الواقع، ليس له اسم .ولا نعرف كيف كان شكله بالضبط أيضًا لكن نعلم أنه قبل نحو 380 مليون سنة، هذا الشيء
الذي يشبه السمكة ويملك زعانفًا لحمية كبيرة :حقق أحد أعظم إنجازات مملكة الحيوان
.تنفس الهواء ،يبدو هذا أمرًا بسيطًا
.ولكن صدقوني، لم يكن كذلك لأنه على مدى مليارات السنين
،التي سبقت هذا السلف الذي يشبه السمكة .تطورت جميع أشكال الحياة في الماء فمنذ البداية، قامت أبسط أشكال
،الحياة الأولية، مثل البكتيريا باستخراج الأكسجين الذي احتاجت إليه
.من المياه مباشرة عبر أغشيتها ،وقامت بذلك من خلال الانتشار البسيط ويحدث عندما تتدفق مادة من مكان تكون فيه مركزة
.إلى مكان تكون فيه أقل تركيزًا، لتحقق التوازن ،يعمل الانتشار بشكل ممتاز ولا يتطلب جهدًا
.لكنه لم يكن كافيًا أي شيء أكبر من دودة صغيرة هو كبير جدًا ببساطة
.ويحتاج إلى أكسجين أكثر مما يوفره الانتشار لذا من أجل أن تصبح أشكال الحياة المبكرة
أكبر حجمًا، احتاجت إلى جهاز دورة دموية يمكنه تحريك كميات كبيرة من الأكسجين
،بشكل أسرع داخل أجسامها وإلى جهاز تنفسي
.لجلب المزيد من الأكسجين لأغشيتها الرطبة لذا انتقلت أجهزتها التنفسية السطحية
.من خارج إلى داخل أجسامها ،أولاً، كانت هناك خياشيم
.لكن الخياشيم تعمل داخل المياه فقط ،وقبل أكثر من 380 مليون سنة بقليل
.بدأت بفقدان فاعليتها ،أصبحت الأرض أكثر دفئا، والبحار أقل عمقًا وقل تركيز الأكسجين في جزء كبير
.من المياه السطحية لكوكبنا مقارنة بما مضى ،وأخيرًا، سئمت سمكة لحمية الزعانف صغيرة ووحيدة
.وسبحت إلى سطح الماء وبدأت تتنفس الهواء استطاعت فعل هذا
لأنها طورت وُجيهة جديدة فاخرة .لنقل الغازات بين الهواء وأغشية خلاياها .أتحدث عن الرئتين، الرئتين الرطبتين بوسيلة فعالة جديدة لاستقبال
،كميات شبه لا نهائية من الأكسجين من الهواء استطاعت الحيوانات في النهاية أن تغدوا
،أكبر حجمًا وأكثر تنوعًا على مر العصور والآن أصبح ذلك الحيوان سلفًا مشتركًا
.لنا نحن جميعًا، الفقاريات ذوات الرئات بالنسبة إلى الكثير من الحيوانات، ومن ضمنها
البشر، تصاحب الرئتين مجموعة من المعدات الأخرى ،كأضلاع واقية ورغامى قاسٍ
.وحجاب حاجز قوي عند الثدييات ،ومعًا تشكل الجهاز التنفسي .والذي يصادف أنه صديق وشريك الدورة الدموية فقط من خلال العمل معًا واستخدام الانتقال
الانسيابي والانتشار البسيط للأكسجين .يمكنها أن تجعل عملية التنفس الخلوي ممكنة ،وبعبارة أخرى
.يمكنها أن تجعل الحياة بحد ذاتها ممكنة تم إجراء تحسينات كثيرة عليه
،على مر العصور لكن الجهاز التنفسي الذي تستخدمونه الآن
،هو ميراثكم من السمكة القديمة والطموحة قائدة إحدى أهم الثورات التشريحية
.خلال نصف مليار سنة الأخيرة ،تظاهروا للحظة أنه لا يمكنكم التنفس
.وكأنكم لا تمتلكون رئتين ،أنتم شذوذ تطوري غريب من نوع ما
كائنات حية كبيرة شبيهة بالإنسان .لا تمتلك جهازًا تنفسيًا بدلاً من ذلك، تحصلون على الأكسجين
،بنفس طريقة أسلافكم الأقدم والأصغر حجمًا .عن طريق الانتشار البسيط أو ستحاولون الحصول على الأكسجين
.بهذه الطريقة على الأقل .كيف ستعمل؟ بطريقة سيئة وهذا بسبب أن أحد المقومات المهمة
.للقيام بانتشار فعّال لأية مادة هو المسافة إن أردتم أن ينتشر جزيء
،على طول مساحة ما بسرعة ستجعلونه أقرب ما يكون لوجهته
.مع أقل عدد من العقبات في طريقه لكن من أجل أن ينتشر جزيء واحد من الأكسجين
من الهواء وعبر فروة الرأس مثلًا ،ويصل إلى عصبون في أعماق الدماغ عليه أن يعبر الجلد ثم الجمجمة
.ثم النسيج الضام وجميع هذه الأشياء .سيصل إلى هناك في النهاية، ربما بعد شهر لكن عندها ستكون الخلية التي احتاجت
.إلى الأكسجين قد اختنقت حتى الموت ببساطة، الحصول على الأكسجين
من خلال الانتشار فقط يشبه الذهاب إلى حفلة في منزل صديق ما
.والمشي مسافة 32 كيلومترًا للوصول إليه يمكن فعل ذلك، لكنه سيأخذ وقتًا طويلاً
.وعندما تصلون، ستكونون منهكين والحفلة مُنتهية .لذلك لا يكفي الانتشار وحده لإنجاز المهمة
،نحن نستخدمه بالفعل لكن فقط عند وجود مجموعة من المواد التي نحتاج
.إليها عند الأنسجة التي يمكنها امتصاصها .أتعرفون إلامَ نحتاج أيضًا؟ الانتقال الانسيابي ،إن الانتقال الانسيابي يشبه وسائل النقل العام
.فهو ينقل جزيئات كثيرة بسرعة ،بدلًا من المشي إلى الجهة المقابلة من المدينة
،يمكنكم ركوب حافلة مع أشخاص آخرين .وتصلون إلى هناك خلال 20 دقيقة كلما تتنفسون بعمق، تجلبون مئة كوينتليون
جزيء أكسجين تقريبًا إلى الرئتين !دفعة واحدة
.إنها في رحلة انتقال انسيابي بالحافلة وحالما ترشح
جزيئات الأكسجين تلك إلى خلايا الرئتين تصبح قريبة جدًا من الدم
.الذي تحاول أن تصل إليه فكل ما عليها فعله هو الانتشار عبر أربع طبقات
.من أغشية الخلايا لتصل من خلية رئوية إلى الدم ،الأمر كالترجل عن الحافلة
.ثم قطع مسافة بسيطة سيرًا للوصول إلى شقة صديق .ولهذا فإن الجهاز التنفسي كما هو حاليًا إنه مجهز لاستغلال
.الانتقال الانسيابي والانتشار البسيط بالكامل يتولي أمر جزء الانتقال الانسيابي بعض أكبر
،أعضاء الجسم المتحركة حجمًا وأكثرها وضوحًا ،بدءًا بالرئتين
.والتي تعمل كمضخة أو منفاخ بشكل أساسي ،لا تحتوي على أية أنسجة عضلية قابلة للانكماش
،لأنها يجب أن تكون قابلة للتوسع .لذلك تحتاج إلى مساعدة خارجية من أجل أن تتحرك الحجاب الحاجز، وهو مجموعة من العضلات
.الكبيرة الرفيعة التي تفصل الصدر عن البطن عندما تفرغ الرئتين، يرتاح الحجاب الحاجز
.ويبدو مثل قوس يدفع إلى الأعلى لسحق الرئتين كما أن وزن القفص الصدري يضغط
،على الرئتين من الأعلى والجوانب ومعًا، تعمل هذه القوى
.على تقليل حجم الرئتين ،عند الشهيق، ينقبض الحجاب الحاجز ليصبح مسطحًا
.وتنقبض العضلات الوربية الظاهرة بين الأضلاع ،تقوم برفع الأضلاع إلى الأعلى والخارج
.فيتوسع الجوف الصدري وهذا يجعل الضغط داخل الرئتين
،أقل من ضغط الهواء خارج الجسم ولأن السوائل تنتقل من مناطق الضغط العالي
.إلى المنخفضة، يملأ الهواء الخارجي الرئتين ثم يرتخي الحجاب الحاجز مرة أخرى
،ويعود تأثير وزن الأضلاع ويصبح الضغط داخل الرئتين أعلى من ضغط
.الهواء الخارجي، ويندفع الهواء خارجًا .وهذه هي أساسيات التنفس يا أصدقائي يحتوي الجهاز التنفسي
،على أجزاء كثيرة إلى جانب الرئتين بعضها معروض بشكل بارز على الوجه
.وبعضها مُخبأ في أعماق الصدر ومن ناحية وظيفية، تنتمي جميع
.هذه الأعضاء إلى واحدة من منطقتين وظيفتين الأجزاء العليا التي تُدخل الهواء إلى الجسم
.تُشكل ما يُعرف بالمنطقة الموصلة .ويبدأ الأمر بهذا الشيء يتلقى الأنف الدعم من العظام والغضاريف
والشعر الخشن والمخاط داخله .التي تساعد على تصفية الغبار والأجسام الأخرى لكنها تؤدي وظيفة مهمة أخرى إلى جانب
،الجيوب الأنفية، فهي تدفئ وترطب الهواء الداخل كي لا يجفف خلايا الرئة الحساسة
.التي يجب أن تبقى رطبة .تذكروا، إن الرطوبة هي المفتاح
.لقد تطورنا من كائنات تعيش في المياه ،لذلك، مثل أسلافنا البكتيرية المائية
نحتاج إلى الماء ليذوب فيه الأكسجين قبل أن ينتشر عبر الغشاء الشحمي الفوسفوري
.ثنائي الطبقة في خلايانا والآن، إن سبق وغصصتم بشربة ماء
،لم يكن توقيتها مناسبًا فقد لاحظتم أنكم تتنفسون من خلال الأنبوب نفسه
.الذي تنتقل الأطعمة والسوائل عبره وهذا من بقايا رئات الأسماك الأولى
.التي تطورت كفرع من المريء ،إن نظرنا إلى الأمر الآن نجد أنه ليس مثاليًا
.ولكننا عالقون معه ،إن الأشياء التي نبتلعها تواجه لسان المزمار وهو باب من الأنسجة يغطي الحنجرة
،ويوجه لقمات الشطائر ورشفات الكولا إلى المريء .ويمنعها من الدخول إلى الرئتين ،وستلاحظون أن المريء
،الذي يتجه إلى المعدة، يتميز بالمرونة بينما الرغامى أو القصبة الهوائية
.يكون جامدًا ويمتلك حلقات بارزة ،هذا لأن الرغامى مصمم كخرطوم مكنسة كهربائية ،ولأن الرئتين تولدان ضغطًا سلبيًا مع كل نفس
.يحتاج الرغامى إلى تلك الحلقات لتبقيه مفتوحًا فلو كانت لينة ومرنة، ستنهار
.كلما انخفض الضغط ولن تتمكنوا من التنفس من هناك، ينقسم الرغامى إلى مسارين
.مشكلاً القصبتين الرئيستين اليسرى واليمنى يمكنكم تخيل الأجزاء الداخلية للرئة هذه
.وكأنها شجرة مقلوبة رأسًا على عقب ،نحن الآن في أنسجة الرئة
.ودخلنا ما يُسمى منطقة التنفس ،هنا يحدث تبادل الغازات
.وكل ما تجدونه هنا يملك شكلاً ليناسب وظيفته ،الفروع الأصغر من الشجرة المقلوبة هي شعيبات
وتتفرع إلى أنابيب تضيق تدريجيًا كي تصب في القنوات السنخية
،ثم تنتهي رحلتها في أكياس سنخية صغيرة .حيث يحدث الجزء الأكبر من تبادل الغازات ،لأن كل كيس هناك يحتوي على مجموعة من الأسناخ وهي تجاويف صغيرة مُحاطة بأغشية رقيقة جدًا ورطبة
.مكونة من أنسجة ظهارية حرشفية ،هنا تتحلل جزيئات الأكسجين في المخاط الرطب
،ثم تنتشر في جميع أنحاء الخلايا الظهارية ثم تعبر طبقة واحدة من الخلايا البطانية
.التي تحيط بالشعيرات الدموية لتدخل مجرى الدم ،وهو موقع انتشار ثاني أكسيد الكربون خارج الدم ،ثم يتخذ نفس الطريق إلى الأنف والفم
.حيث يتم إخراجه بالزفير إذن، يلتقي الانتشار بالانتقال الانسيابي في
الأسناخ، لأنه بينما تأخذون حاجتكم من الأكسجين وتتخلصون من ثاني أكسيد الكربون بمقدار جزيء في
.كل مرة، فأنتم تفعلون ذلك بكميات ضخمة كل لحظة ،تحتوي الرئتان على 700 مليون سنخ تقريبًا والتي توفر مجتمعة
.مساحة تبلغ 75 متر مربع من الغشاء الرطب لذا، إن المبادئ التي تجعل التنفس ممكنًا بسيطة
،نسبيًا، وهي الانتشار والانتقال الانسيابي .وكذلك الآليات التي تستخدمها في أجسامكم أيضًا استغرقنا حوالي 400 مليون سنة
.لمعرفة كيفية جعلها تعمل ولكنكم اليوم تعلمتم كيف تعمل بالفعل، بما فيها
آليات الانتشار البسيط والانتقال الانسيابي ،وفسيولوجية التنفس
والتركيب البنيوي للمنطقة الموصلة .والمنطقة التنفسية التابعين للجهاز التنفسي الذين Patreon شكرا لجميع رعاتنا على
متاحًا Crash Course يساعدون على جعل محتوى لأنفسهم وللجميع حول العالم مجانًا بمساهماتهم
Crash Course الشهرية. إذا كنتم تحبون وتريدون مساعدتنا لمواصلة صنع فيديوهات مثل
.patreon.com/crashcourse هذا، زوروا موقع تم تصوير هذه الحلقة في استوديو
Crash Courseد. شيريل جيم سي كيني التابع لـ وهي من كتابة كاثلين ييل وحرر النص بليك دي
.باستينو ومستشارنا هو الدكتور براندون جاكسون وهي من إخراج ومونتاج نيكولاس جنكينز
ومشرفة النص هي نيكول سويني ،ومصمم الصوت هو مايكل اراندا
.Thought Cafe وفريق الرسومات هو

HOW To Check Original Casio fx-991ES Plus Scientific Calculator || Two Easy Method ||



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Hello FriendS… 🙋🙌🙏
This Video is About How to Check Original Casio fx-991es plus Scientific Calculator Before U Purchase or After Purchase. Especially Engineering Students Must Know And Only to Purchase Original One… Thank U🙏
#Casiofx991ESPLUS#Calculator#OriginalChecK

Coldplay – The Scientist | Tutorial of my Piano Cover



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🎹 And now, one of my oldest covers! Here is the tutorial of The Scientist
🎼 SHEET MUSIC is Available Here:
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● Watch the original performance here:
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#Coldplay #TheScientist #FrancescoParrino

The Philosophy of Kreia: A Critical Examination of Star Wars



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The character Kreia from the game Knights of the Old Republic 2 is arguably one of the greatest female characters in gaming. However, despite her fame, much of her philosophy has been misunderstood due to the puzzling manner in which the game presents her backstory and motives. This video will serve both as an examination of Kreia’s philosophy and her criticisms of the Star Wars universe as a whole.

Chris Avellone famously said in an interview that Knights of the Old Republic 2 was meant to question everything there had to be questioned about Star Wars. This video will be answering those questions.

This video has been five months in the making.

The Reason Antonio Brown Demanded A Trade From The Steelers



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Video Credit: SB Nation

Things between Antonio Brown and Ben Roethlisberger seemed fine.They had a connection envied by the rest of the league as Brown had the best four-year stretch by a wide receiver in the history of the NFL. The Pittsburgh Steelers were rolling as a result and always felt like a threat in the AFC, especially when considering Roethlisberger already having a pair of Super Bowl victories to his name.But early in 2017, the cracks began to show. After the quarterback failed to notice a wide-open Brown during a game against the Ravens, the receiver took his frustrations out on a water cooler. Instead of keeping things behind closed doors, Roethlisberger expressed his thoughts about the sideline outburst on the radio for all to hear. This would become a theme in their beef, as Pittsburgh’s signal-caller had used the tactic with other wide receivers, and would continue to voice his Brown-related opinions on 93.7 The Fan.It would become apparent that there weren’t many of his teammates that approved of this tactic, but the Steelers coaches and front office didn’t seem to mind. That only exacerbated the issues, and while Big Ben took to the radio, Brown took to Twitter to make himself known. With so much being aired out in the open, the speculation from the media grew and the players were peppered with questions about their relationship.They did their best to play nice, but by the end of 2018, it had snowballed into something that couldn’t be hidden. Brown was benched for their final game of the season after a spat at practice. It went off the rails from there in a way that all but guarantees we haven’t heard the end of it.Written and produced by Alex Rubenstein
Shot by Jiazhen Zhang
Edited by Jiazhen Zhang and Mike Das

Antonio Brown and Ben Roethlisberger made beautiful magic together as the league's most dynamic aerial connection for upwards of a half decade then all of a sudden the two Canton bound superstars just couldn't play nice this is the inexplicably stupid history of their beef the Pittsburgh Steelers drafted Ben Roethlisberger 11th overall in 2004 and he provided immediate dividends taking over a starting quarterback in week three of his rookie season and setting an NFL record by winning each of his first 14 career starts in guiding his squad to the AFC Championship game he won Super Bowl extra-large for an encore becoming the only quarterback to ever hoist the Lombardi Trophy before blowing out 24 candles in the ensuing years he'd break every meaningful franchise passing record get a 9 figure contract extension and win another Super Bowl in February 2009 he was an established bona fide superstar going into his seventh season in 2010 when the Steelers used a sixth round pick on a little-known wide receiver out of Central Michigan named Antonio Brown by year two he burst on the scene teaming with Mike Wallace to form one of the league's top receiving duo's leading to a lucrative five-year extension after just his second season once Wallace left for Miami in 2013 Brown and Benz set fire to the entire NFL and by the time the dust settled on the 2016 season Brown had posted the most prolific for year receiving stretch in the history of the game that led to another big-money extension ahead of the 2017 season which definitely seemed to cement his status as a Steeler for life the first few games that year were business as usual but then came a week floor trip to Baltimore when Brown broke wide open for what would have been a huge third down play only for Big Ben to never even look his way browned threw a temper tantrum taking his frustration out on this poor cooler then a couple days later when Ben was making his weekly radio appearance he threw his wideout under the bus for creating a needless distraction explaining that it's not like I intentionally didn't throw to him I was doing what my reads tell me to do I don't even want to say I made a mistake because I was reading the side I was supposed to read it's just unfortunate that it happened and it's unfortunate that he acted and reacted that way you see over the years Roethlisberger has consistently gone on the radio and aired team dirty laundry on a public platform and it's pissed off a whole bunch of his white outs after Emanuel Sanders left Pittsburgh to sign with the Broncos he went out of his way to note how much better of a leader Peyton Manning was than Ben Roethlisberger and noted his discussions with Wallace on the topic of been calling teammates out on the radio said of being called me out on a radio show the next day I would literally walk up to him a locker room is a bit like don't do that keep my name out of your mouth legendary Steelers wideout Hines Ward also voiced similar beliefs regarding Ben's leadership as it pertained to those radio segments you know I just think he has to take the initiative to kind of do more as a leader not just being able to call guys out on his radio show you don't have to air it out to the public where everyone can hear things were at least fine on the field throughout 2017 Browne notched his fifth consecutive all-pro season as the Steelers won 13 games and repeated his division champs but 2018 represented a huge fork in the road for the organization with Roethlisberger aging and star running back Le'Veon Bell on sabbatical their window to content was diminishing they kicked off the season by failing to defeat a brown squad who had lost 34 of their previous 35 games so tension was already high when they welcomed Pat mahomes in the Chiefs to the big ketchup bottle near the goal line down 12 with just a couple minutes left Brown expected and wanted that touchdown but then had other plans and was able to scramble for the TD Brown was irritated even though his team Yano scored they'd ultimately come up short in about an hour and a half following the game a tweet from a former team PR employee threw gas on the fire when he intimated that Browns massive success was simply and exclusively due to the presence of the two-time Super Bowl champ delivering him all the balls Brown responded with his first public acknowledgment to the world of his discontent in western Pennsylvania he'd delete that tweet but this is the internet where nothing is forever no putting that toothpaste back in the tube Roethlisberger tried to downplay the situation showering brown with praise and writing any antics off as a byproduct of his passion and burning desire to win they look to put this behind them and the team rebounded with a six-game winning streak providing a comfortable cushion in the AFC North leading into a week 12 game in Denver the Steelers were down a touchdown with just a minute left but this Roethlisberger scramble set them up with a first and goal on the doorstep of the goal line and what should have led to a game-tying score instead when Ben looked Browns way on this third down his toss was plucked out of the air by D lineman Shelby Harris as he's wont to do Ben took to the radio to publicly broadcast his blame of the whiteout and while he was at it voiced his belief that they should have just thrown four straight times to juju Smiths Shuster Brown shrugged it off as constructive criticism that he wasn't taking personally while Ben spoke to the media in front of his locker and dug in on his stance defending his unorthodox and antagonizing methods you have to know how to motivate different guys in different ways and I think that's part of being a leader being a captain sometimes you have to be honest with him and so I think that I've earned the right to be able to do that with as long as I've been here everything was falling apart and it showed on the field after that painful loss in Denver the Steelers dropped three of their next four putting themselves on the ropes and their playoff chances which looked like a certainty a month earlier on life support then all hell broke loose starting with the Wednesday leading up to that final game of the 2018 season former NFL wide receiver James Jones reported on NFL Network that Roethlisberger would consistently agitate Brown and it reached a boiling point when Brown allegedly ran the wrong route and a walk through practice and Ben demanded they replace him with someone else an irate Brown then Chuck the ball at Roethlisberger before storming out of Pratt hashing things out would also be tricky with the apparent lack of trust and respect brown hat for a signal collar well head coach Mike Tomlin tried to excuse Browns absence by making up a phony knee injury there was no keeping a lid on this brewing circus Brown would go completely AWOL ahead of their biggest game of the season skipping the entire week of practice including a Saturday walkthrough and their team meeting that night yet he somehow was under the impression that he'd still take the field and play the next day and when he didn't he left the stadium at halftime they wound up missing the playoffs despite losing only two of their first 10 games just the fourth time that's been done since the NFL's 1978 expansion to a 16 game regular season Ben ven did his final radio segment of the season and while he said some nice things about his whiteout he also made sure to point out that Brown wasn't returning any of his texts or calls about seven weeks later things reached DEFCON 1 see Ben Roethlisberger had been accused of committing sexual assault both in 2008 as well as in 2010 and in mid-february Brown had liked a pair of tweets that alluded to been getting away with these despicable allegations if there were ever any chance before that these two could bury the hatchet and move forward this was the match that burned any and all remaining bridges between brown and his quarterback but Brown didn't stop there the very next day he took to social media to accuse Ben of having an owners mentality that he can call out anybody he pleases with no means of recourse anyone can take their GM Kevin Kolbert was totally cool with it too even enabling that dynamic and alluded to Ben's 52 teammates as kids which only served to underscore and validate Browns point running back Le'Veon Bell fresh off signing a long-sought multi-year deal with the Jets explained that doing things Ben's way was tough and that management allowed him to become larger than the team the final straw came with the March 1st airing of an episode of the shop a talk show produced by LeBron James in which Brown executed a rapid-fire verbal assault on Ben oh yeah Guddu call me out we lose a game II like a bee should I ran a better route why would you why we been doing this how the guy hears you feel like he the owner brought you through the the very next day an interview with ESPN's Jeff Darlington aired in which he went in some moron been and their relationship I would have liked for me and be able to be cool you know I mean I thought we was cool but when I think I'd only what I've been in his house one time he'd been in my house one time and then we don't work out in the offseason it's like you know we really want to win you think that's winning that's not winning that's not winning culture for Roethlisberger the man who was never bashful about speaking his mind and sparking controversy on the radio had pretty much gone totally silent with nothing left to do but sit and wait for the end to come and he didn't have to wait long a week later Browns wish for a divorce from Ben and the Steelers was granted when they flipped him to the Raiders problems that could have seemingly been hashed out behind closed doors were instead exacerbated when taken public been perceived to star wide receiver to be too hot-tempered erratic and sloppy ground thought the two rings won by his star quarterback somehow managed to make his head even bigger and felt slighted by a lack of respect from his QB while resenting the deference the organization showed to Ben things quickly spiraled out of control when the two were forced to coexist his teammates now that's ancient history

Logic Pro for Beginners – 1.1 Intro



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Introduction to this free series of video tutorials on Logic Pro for beginners. By

hello welcome to my series of videos on Logic Pro for beginners in these videos I've tried to cover all the basic topics you'll need to know about to begin making music with logic just a quick word about me I'm not a certified logic trainer or anything like that I'm just someone who's used logic for about eight years I enjoy making electronic music of my own and I work part time in a commercial studio I also make and sell sound design tutorials presets and sampler instruments for logic at my website sound guru comm so please take a look if you're interested you should find everything you need to get started with logic here to get you recording audio programming software instruments and using basic mixing tools and techniques but of course there's no way for me to be totally comprehensive with these videos logics an extremely deep program and many people who have used it for years still regularly find new features and new ways of doing things myself included so for the sake of keeping these at a manageable length I've tried to stick to the really key topics that everyone needs to know about and I'll leave you to explore logics more esoteric features if and when you need to I haven't included much here in terms of being really creative with sound that's what my paid tutorials are for instead I've chosen to focus on the core tools in logic and learning how to use them quickly and efficiently and trust me it's really worth learning these well because the faster and more efficiently you do these tasks the more time you can spend thinking creatively so without any further ado let's get on with it we're going to start in the next video with a quick tour of logic so you can get a feel for its layout and the way it works you

Authoritarianism: The political science that explains Trump



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The obscure research that predicted Donald Trump.

For more, read Amanda Taub’s feature “The rise of American authoritarianism”: and her analysis of the consequences for the Republican Party:

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“He’s a war hero because he was captured.
I like people who weren’t captured ok? I hate to tell you.” The 2016 Republican presidential nominee disregards
the norms of adult behavior. He disregards the norms of American democracy
as we know it. “It should be heartbreaking to every American
that we have a frontrunner who suggests there will be a religious test for anybody that
wishes to come to our shores.” He’s so unusual, his rhetoric at times so
extreme, that political experts and commentators were blindsided by his rise. "We better be ready for the fact that he might be leading the republican ticket." [Laughter] "I know you don't believe that" How did Donald Trump attract such broad support
within the Republican party? And what does it mean for the US, beyond this election? And it turns out that this is
a question that can be answered to a really surprising extent via this niche field of
political science. It developed a theory about what’s called authoritarianism. We’re not talking about dictatorships here.
Authoritarianism is a term political scientists use for a worldview that values order and
authority, and distrusts outsiders and social change. And when authoritarians feel threatened, they
look for strongman leaders. Leaders who are punitive, who target
out-groups and have a simple, forceful leadership style that makes them feel strong. And if
you were going to grow that candidate in a lab… "I’m going to bomb the shit out of
them." He would look a lot like Donald Trump. "When you get these terrorists, youhave to take out their families. They care about their lives. Don't kid yourself. But they say they don't care about their lives. You have to take out their families. Authoritarianism is not, in an of itself,
necessarily a partisan issue. For most of this country’s history, authoritarians
were likely divided between the two parties. But now, only one of the parties really appeals
to them. What happened was the Republican party
started to embrace what it referred to as traditional values, and it stood against a
series of major social changes in this country. After initially supporting civil rights, Republicans
began courting southern white voters who opposed racial integration. They turned against the
Equal Rights Amendment, denounced abortion, and later, fought against same-sex marriage. Our nation must enact a Constitutional
amendment to protect marriage in America. More recently, foreign threats like terrorism
have become major political issues, with Republicans taking positions that align with authoritarian
fears and preferences. 2002 headline: Republicans get a bonus from
War on Terrorism So Marc Hetherington and Jonathan Weiler,
two political scientists. They tracked data over several decades, and they found that
authoritarian voters were shifting into the Republican Party. So that means that when
authoritarians become scared, when they become activated by a particular social change or
issue, the Republican Party can’t ignore them. And they are a ready-made constituency
for a candidate like Donald Trump. Are you going to have a massive deportation force? "You’re going to have a deportation force." "’d bring back waterboarding. And I’d bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding." Testing people for authoritarianism is a bit
tricky. You can’t just ask people, you know, ‘Are you really freaked out by social change?
Do racial differences unsettle you? ‘Do you support strongman leaders?’ because
those are very sensitive questions and people won't necessarily answer them honestly. So instead, political scientists ask people
about something more neutral: their parenting preferences. Please tell me which one you think is more important for a child to have: independence, or respect
for elders? Obedience or self-reliance? These questions seem like they’re about
raising children, but really what they’re asking people is how much they value order
and authority. So when political scientists tested these 4 parenting questions against the behaviors
they knew authoritarians exhibited, they found out that the correlation was very close. It was very predictive, at least for white voters. Using this 4-question test, Vox worked with
Morning Consult in February to poll a large sample of likely voters. Our results yielded a few really interesting things. The first one was that, yes, scoring
high on the authoritarianism questions was very predictive of support for Trump. A political science PhD student named Matthew
MacWilliams has found similar results. He’s done 2 polls, both of which found that authoritarianism is not only strongly
predictive of Trump support, but that it seems to do a better job of predicting it than virtually
any other factor. We also looked at what authoritarian voters
are afraid of. On things like gun violence, or car accidents, or prescription drugs, there wasn't a huge difference between authoritarians and nonauthoritarians. But
when it came to threats associated with people, and particularly foreign people, authoritarians
were much more afraid. And we identified policies that authoritarians
were more likely to support. So authoritarians were much more likely to say for instance that the United States
should use force rather than diplomacy when dealing with countries that threaten our interests
overseas. And they were much more likely to want to sacrifice civil liberties in exchange
for safety. "I want surveillance of certain mosques,
ok? If that’s ok. I want surveillance." It’s a set of priorities that doesn’t
always align with the Republican establishment. They don’t seem to have that much
interest in small government. And they definitely don’t seem particularly interested in shrinking entitlements like Social Security or Medicaid. This theory doesn’t fully explain the Trump
phenomenon — researchers will probably study this election for decades. But what it tells us is that he’s benefitted from a larger shift in this country – one that goes beyond any
one candidate. Trump isn’t just a fluke. He’s not somebody who is just doing well because he had name recognition or was a famous TV star. This is a large group of people. They want these things. And they’re going to be looking for politicians
who can give it to them. And that means that Donald Trump could be just the first of many Trumps in American politics.

THE FUTURE OF SPACE EXPLORATION – Discovery Science Universe (full documentary)



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The Future of Space Exploration (full documentary). Thanks for watching.

history life discovery science technology tech learning education national nature geographic earth planet channel universe space outer galaxy shuttle mars moon sun solar system black hole travel time alien world nasa milky way parallel dimension dimensions multiverse quantum physics mechanics energy mission satellite exploration mission complete documentaries pluto jupiter saturn astronomy planets astronaut astronauts

The Importance of Mathematical Practices



Views:72359|Rating:4.30|View Time:4:2Minutes|Likes:68|Dislikes:11
• Standards for Mathematical practice –processes and proficiencies
• Habits of mind of the mathematically proficient student
• Description of modeling; applying mathematics outside the math classroom
• Using mathematics tools in flexible, sophisticated, and relevant ways across disciplines
• Technology, structure, and generalization

the standards have content standards and they also have standards for mathematical practice those standards are meant to capture the processes and proficiencies that we want students to have not just the knowledge and skills but also how they use those knowledge and skills they they capture the habits of mind or thinking skills that are specific to mathematics one of those skills is the ability to construct arguments and to reason and to think about why what you're doing works mathematically that's a very important part of the practice standard sis's students who are going to go on to whatever career they go on to I get a need to be able to use mathematics in that career they might just be using the mathematics in their daily life when they read the newspaper and see some complicated data display that they need to understand they're understand a claim that's being made on that data they might be going into a scientific or an engineering profession where they need higher levels of mathematics it doesn't really matter they need to be able to reason mathematically so that's a very important group of practice standards at the beginning there's also a practice standard about modeling modeling means taking a problem external to mathematics thinking of a mathematical description of that problem that you can manipulate mathematically coming to a mathematical solution and then interpreting that solution back again in terms of the real problem it's really the heart of what most students when they go on will be doing with mathematics namely using it to solve problems outside of mathematics modeling in the high school standards stresses that students have to be able to apply mathematics to real-world problems and problems arising outside of the mathematics classroom this was something we heard very strongly from the business community and representatives from Career and Technical Education who gave input into the standards but it's not enough for kids to be able to do math when they're asked to do a math problem the math problems that arise in everyday life aren't like word problems in books the boss doesn't come in to you and say Johnson two trains left two cities two different times when are they going to collide what happens is that you're faced with a messy situation you have to make assumptions you have to simplify you have to bring the tools you know to bear on the problem and analyze it and gain insight into it modeling and real-world applications in the standards are an important component of college and career readiness another important standard is the standard about technology the content standards themselves don't say much about technology because they're about mathematics technology can support students doing mathematics but technology shouldn't be doing the mathematics the kids should be doing the mathematics and the technology practice standard basically says that you should learn to be strategic and wise about when it's appropriate to use technology and also when it's not appropriate to use technology and how to interpret the results when you have the technological tool when you when you do use one there's a group of standards at the end about structure and generalization those standards are really the heart and soul of mathematics in some sense in the sense that when you look at a mathematical object you want to be able to see it as having meaning let's just see it as something you have to sort of poke with a stick and hope it turns into what you want so the standards about seeing mathematical structure and about generalizing are describing the sort of skills you want students to have as they work with mathematical expressions equations functions geometric constructions you want them to be able to see hidden structures transform those objects into things that have a purpose and they use that they can be put you

8 PM – RRB NTPC 2019 – Compound Interest – Maths – Zero से Hero



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RRB NTPC 2019 Preparation: Attend this Compound Interest class for RRB NTPC with expert faculty of Adda247. This class includes Compound Interest for SBI clerk mains 2019 and also covers doubt solving session and question discussion for all SBI clerk mains exam.

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MIND-BLOWING PHYSICS TOYS /GADGETS THAT WILL SURPRISE YOU!



Views:270585|Rating:4.68|View Time:10:5Minutes|Likes:3273|Dislikes:221
Hi Everyone 🙂
Welcome back!

I get asked often: “Where did you get all this stuff?” My goal is to share the real magic of science and physics- and to this end I will update here (and in my store) suggestions on where to get some of these toys, kinetic art pieces, and scientific curiosities for yourself.

Buy them on : 

Follow on Instagram :

This video contains :

👉 Photicular Book: the foremost in lenticular image technology produces these looping motion images that look like videos on a computer screen. This amazing book of 8 astonishing moving images. moving images use Kainen’s patented process where a specially processed image slides under a thin film of lenticular lenses.

👉 Gallus Lamp: The Flame slants and ROTATES in this unique Swiss design. The glass of the lamp channels the convection and three inlets in the brass base direct the inflow of air into a slow swirl. Lovely engineering and physics of thermodynamics.

👉 Fresnel Mirror Array by exploratorium : 360 mirrors arranged to reflect to a single focal point in this exhibit entitled “All Eyes on Me”. A mirror version of the Fresnel lens, where each concentric ring of mirrors is slanted toward the center, with the lager rings slanted more, such that the full assembly acts like a parabolic mirror.

👉 Transmission Hologram: vintage hologram from the early 1970s. The 3D image is only made visible by backlighting the plate with the coherent light of a laser.

👉 CineSpinner Pencil Topper: motion animation from Moiré pattern effects of constructive and deconstructive interference.

👉 Moiré Motion Card: a hummingbird springs to life in this motion animation from Moiré pattern effects of constructive and deconstructive interference. Opening and closing the top of this SmartMove card slides an image of lines printed on transparent film over a second image to produce the short loop.

👉 Thermochromic Mug: Pour up some hot coffee and watch the crew of the USS Enterprise leave the ship and rematerialize on the planet surface with this color-changing physics mug. The color change employs leuco dyes, thermochromic chemicals that have two reversible forms, one colorless.

👉 Optical Trick Portraits: Hold a flat mirror up to this painting of Charles III, Duke of Lorraine, to reveal his daughter Christina in this 1593 work by Ludovico Buti. A very early example of lenticular images, Gioco Ottico hangs in the Galileo Museum in Florence as part of the Medici Collections.

👉 Mirror Anamorphic Cup & Saucer: endangered animals series- Thomson’s Gazelle by Luycho. The reflection in the 24 linear mirrors of the cup assembles the scrambled image on the saucer. Art meets math and physics!

👉 Chaotic Pendulum: adding magnetic forces to gravity gives this pendulum chaotic motion- not random, but very different each time it’s launched.

👉 Strandbeest Mini: A fully working model of artist Theo Jansen’s Strandbeest kinetic sculpture which features Jansen’s linkage- a unique leg mechanism which converts rotary motion of a crackshaft into smooth walking motion.

👉 TV Rock: the crystals of the mineral ulexite act as natural fiber optic image conduits. This sample came from a little rock shop in Boron CA, home to one of the largest boron mines in the world. If you take the Rio Tinto Boron mine tour you get a free TV rock!

👉 Tapered Mirrors Kaleidoscope: the unique design of this teleidoscope uses three mirrors to create an image of a geodesic sphere.

👉 Designer Kaleidoscope: the beautiful symmetry of multiple reflections. Tiny glass beads and a collection of shiny objects  provide the viewing material in this side-lit precision kaleidoscope by Carol Verde-Paretti.

👉 Fumed Spiral Marble: glass art intersects with the physics of optics and materials science in this gold and silver fumed marble by Colby James Boyd

👉 Vortex Marble with Gilson Opal Sphere: glass art intersects with the physics of optics in this spectacular piece from lampworking master Raven Copeland aka

👉 Min♡-3D Illusion Frame: two patterned acrylic sheets overlapping create this illusion of depth that seems a few centimeters below the surface.

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Redox Reactions: Crash Course Chemistry #10



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All the magic that we know is in the transfer of electrons. Reduction (gaining electrons) and oxidation (the loss of electrons) combine to form Redox chemistry, which contains the majority of chemical reactions. As electrons jump from atom to atom, they carry energy with them, and that transfer of energy is what makes all life on earth possible.

**Special Thanks to Matt Young at the University of Montana (Geosciences Department, Environmental Biogeochemistry Lab) who helped with the chemical demonstrations.**

Oxidation 1:42
Reduction 1:03
Oxidation Numbers 3:29
Redox Reactions 5:59
Oxidation Reactions 6:28
Balancing Oxidation Reactions 7:18

Also thank you to the following chemistry teachers for assistance:
James Sarbinoff
Rachel Wentz
Edi González
Lucas Moore
Chris Conley
Addie Clark
Julia Rosinski

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يُعد الإلكترون بالنسبة للكيمياء
كالمال بالنسبة للرأسمالية. يتمحور الأمر حول من يملكه ومن يريده
وما هو مستعد لفعله للحصول عليه. إن الإلكترونات هي ما يُمكّن الذرات
من الترابط مع بعضها لتشكيل جزئيات، وعندما يحدث ذلك،
يمكن أن يتم تبادل قدر هائل من الطاقة خلال العملية. ولكن لا تتضمن
جميع التفاعلات الكيميائية تبادل إلكترونات فقد تتذكرون أن التفاعلات الحمضية القاعدية
تتضمن تبادل hgبروتونات، لكن لأن الإلكترونات هي العملة المتداولة
في عالم الكيمياء فإن أهم التفاعلات التي تحدث على كوكب الأرض
تتضمن نقل إلكترون واحد أو أكثر من ذرة إلى أخرى. تُسمى هذه تفاعلات الأكسدة
والاختزال أو Redox بالإنجليزية، وهي كلمة مشتقة من كلمتي reduction
وهو الاختزال و oxidation وهو الأكسدة. ما قصة هاتين الكلمتين؟
تعرفون معنى الاختزال، إنه تقليل شيء ما، وربما تتعلق الأكسدة بالأكسجين بعض الشيء…
حسنًا، أحيانًا لكن ليس دائمًا. هاتان كلمتان غير مناسبتان على الإطلاق لما يحدث فعلاً في تفاعلات الأكسدة والاختزال،
لكننا عالقين معهما. الاختزال هو عندما تكسب المادة إلكترونات.
أجل، تكسبها، وهذا عكس معنى كلمة اختزال. هذا عظيم! وصحيح أنني أود في بعض الأحيان
أن ألكم الأشخاص الذين أطلقوا أسماء غير دقيقة على هذه الأشياء،
لكنهم لم يعرفوا الحقيقة وكلهم أموات الآن لذا لا يمكننا فعل شيء حيال هذا. كان الكيميائيون البدائيون يصنعون معادن خالصة
من خلال تسخين أو صهر المواد الخام. ولاحظوا خلال عملية الصهر
أن هذه المواد تصبح أخف وزنًا، لذا لم يكن أمرًا جنونيًا فعلاً أنهم قرروا
أن يقولوا عن هذه المواد بأنها كانت تُختزل. اكتشف صديقنا الفرنسي القديم أنطوان لافوازييه
أن هذا يحدث لأن غاز الأكسجين كان يترك المركب
ما يجعله أخف وزنًا. لكن ما لم يعلمه هو الكيمياء الحقيقية المعنية بالأمر.
إن الأكسجين هو المؤكسد المثالي، فهو يسحب إلكترونًا
من جزي واحد ليجعل نفسه مستقرًا، لكن إن سخنتموه إلى حرارة كافية، يصبح نشيطًا. نفهم اليوم أن الأكسدة والاختزال يتعلقان بنقل
الإلكترونات، لذا يتوقع المرء أن نعيد تسميتهما وقد حاول بعض الكيميائيين فعل ذلك، وأطلقوا
أسماءً عليها مثل الألكترنة وإزالة الألكترنة، لكن ما إن تصبح مجموعة من المصطلحات
مُقررة وتُستخدم لفترة من الزمن تصبح إزالتها صعبة جدًا. لذا نحن عالقون معها.
ولأحفظ وأفرّق بين هذين الإسمين غير المنطقيين أعتمد على كلمة "أخاك"،
وهي أن الأكسدة خسارة الإلكترونات والاختزال هو كسب الإلكترونات. يجب علينا
أن نعرف هذه الأشياء فحسب لأنها في كل مكان. عندما تحول خلاياكم
السكر إلى طاقة كي تتحركوا وتتنفسوا وتفكروا هذا تفاعل أكسدة واختزال. حين تحول النباتات
أشعة الشمس إلى طعام عبر التركيب الضوئي، هذا تفاعل أكسدة واختزال. البطارية التي تشغل
الحواسيب والنار، إنهما تفاعلا أكسدة واختزال. بما أن تبادل الإلكترونات هو الموضوع الرئيسي،
حين تدرسون تفاعلات الأكسدة والاختزال، فإن تتبع الإلكترونات
هو أمر مهم وضروري وأساسي جدًا. تخيلوها كعملات، ففي أي صفقة، سيكسبها شخص ما وسيخسرها شخص آخر.
ومن أجل أن تبقوا متحكمين في الأمور يجب أن تراقبوا من يكسب ومن يخسر. لكن الذرات مولعة بمشاركة الإلكترونات
وتشكل روابط تساهمية لذا يكون تتبع أماكنها وأين ستذهب
ليس بأمر سهل في بعض الأحيان. أحب تخيل أن كل مركب تساهمي يشبه زواجًا.
لكنه سيكون زواجًا غريبًا لأنه قد يكون فيه ستة أشخاص،
وقد يكون الشخص نفسه موجودًا عدة مرات، ولا يوجد فيه التزام ولا عواطف.
لا تفكروا فيه كثيرًا. ومثل الزواج، حيث تتم مشاركة المال فيه،
تتشارك المركبات التساهمية بالإلكترونات. والحيلة هي معرفة من سيحصل على المال عند نكث
العهود. لذا استحدثنا نظامًا مفيدًا جديدًا وهو تعيين جميع الإلكترونات للذرات
التي تتشاركها في تلك اللحظة. يُدعى عدد الإلكترونات الذي نعينه
بحالة الأكسدة أو بعدد الأكسدة للذرة. ومع أننا على دراية تامة
بالروابط التساهمية وتشارك الإلكترونات، إلا أنه من الأسهل تتبع العمليات
إن تخيلنا أن الذرات تتقاسم إلكتروناتها، وكأنها في رابطة أيونية أو رابطة غير تشاركية. إذن، عدد الأكسدة للذرة هو ما ستكون شحنتها لو كانت تملك جميع الإلكترونات بشكل حصري حقًا. إذن، لفهم حالات الأكسدة أو أعداد الأكسدة هذه لدينا قواعد بسيطة لبعض الذرات.
أولاً، عدد الأكسدة لأي عنصر لوحده، سواء كان أحادي الذرة أو ثنائي الذرة
أو متعدد الذرات مثل ذرة الكالسيوم أو جزي هيدروجين أو حتى جزيء الكبريت الثماني
الأكبر حجمًا، يكون عدد الأكسدة صفرًا. لا تملك الذرات شحنة بطبيعتها،
فإن كانت تملك شحنة ستكون أيونات، وإن كانت تتشارك مع نفسها، تتشارك بالتساوي.
وثانيًا، بالنسبة لأيون أحادي الذرة، وهو ذرة مشحونة ببساطة،
يكون عدد الأكسدة هو حجم أو رقم شحنته. إذن الحديد في أيون Fe2 الموجب
يمتلك حالة أكسدة تساوي موجب اثنين، وتساوي سالب 1 لأيون الكلوريد. ثالثًا، الأكسجين
المستفحل في كيمياء تفاعلات الأكسدة والاختزال يمتلك دائمًا تقريبًا حالة أكسدة تعادل
سالب اثنين، إلا إن كان في جزيء بيروكسيد مثل بيروكسيد الهيدروجين.
رابعًا، حالة الهيدروجين تعادل موجب واحد. وخامسًا، حالة الفلور تعادل سالب واحد
مثل جميع الهالوجينات الأخرى في معظم الأحيان، إلا إن كانت مرتبطة بالفلور أو الأكسجين،
لأن الفلور والأكسجين سيئان جدًا لدرجة أنه يمكنهما أن يجعلا عدد أكسدة
أي عنصر موجبًا إن كنتم تعلمون ما أقصده. وهذه هي القوانين، هذا كل ما يجب أن تعرفوه.
سيكون مجموع جميع أعداد الأكسدة لجميع الذرات في مركب متعادل الشحنة صفرًا.
مثل الماء الذي يحتوي على ذرة أكسجين لديها حالة أكسدة تساوي سالبة اثنين وذرتي
هيدروجين حالة كل منهما تساوي موجب واحد وهكذا، يمتلك المركب المتعادل الشحنة عدد أكسدة يساوي
صفرًا. لكن أيون متعدد الذرات من الناحية الأخرى يجب أن يمتلك حالة أكسدة تماثل
شحنته، لذا SO42 السالب، وهو أيون الكبريت، لديه أربعة ذرات أكسجين
تساوي سالب ثمانية، لكن لا توجد قاعدة للكبريت لذا أعتقد أنه علينا أن نستسلم ونرحل.
من يكترث لهذا الآن؟ كلا! نستخدم علم جبر بسيط جدًا
لأنه يجب أن نملك في النهاية عدد أكسدة يساوي سالب اثنين للمركب بأكمله،
ونحن نعلم أن الكبريت في هذا المركب المعين يمتلك حالة أكسدة تساوي موجب ستة. لكن
حالة أكسدة الكبريت لا تساوي موجب ستة دائمًا ولهذا لا توجد قاعدة للكبريت
أو للعديد من العناصر الأخرى في هذا الشأن لأن حالات الأكسدة لمعظم العناصر
تتغير بحسب العناصر المرتبطة معها. والآن بإمكاننا تطبيق
المنطق نفسه لاكتشاف ما يحدث عند تفاعل هذه المركبات في تفاعلات الأكسدة
والاختزال. محاكم طلاق الإلكترونات الجزيئية حيث تنتقل من طرف لآخر ويتم التفاوض عليها
ومقايضتها حيث يأخذ بعض المشاركين أرباحًا كبيرة بينما يخسر آخرون كل شيء تقريبًا.
هذه هي الحياة! لنبدأ بمثال بسيط: تفاعل كيميائي
قام برأيي بإنقاذ أرواح أكثر من أي تفاعل آخر في تاريخ الكيمياء، صُنع من قبل مجرم حرب
لتفجير الناس خلال الحرب العالمية الأولى، وهو طريقة هابر. تزيل طريقة هابر
عنصر النتروجين شديد الاستقرار من الهواء وتدمجه مع الهيدروجين لتكوين NH3
وهو أمونيا، ليتم استخدامه في القنابل وفي السماد أيضًا،
ما يزيد من قدرة التحمل للأرض بمقدار مليارات. يوجد النتروجين في الهواء
كنتروجين عنصري ثنائي الذرة، والهيدروجين عنصري ثنائي الذرة مثله،
لذا نعلم منذ البداية أن جميع الذرات تملك حالة أكسدة تعادل صفرًا.
نتاج التفاعل هو الأمونيا، وهو مركب متعادل الشحنة يمتلك ذرة نتروجين
وثلاث ذرات هيدروجين تملك كل منها حال أكسدة تعادل موجب واحد. تذكروا القواعد، لذا يجب أن
يمتلك النتروجين حالة أكسدة تعادل سالب ثلاثة. وبالتالي اكتسب النتروجين إلكترونات،
فانخفضت حالة أكسدته ولذا اتم اختزاله.
عندما نتحدث عما تفعله حالات الأكسدة، تكون كلمة "اختزال" منطقية. فقد الهيدروجين
إلكترونات فارتفعت حالة أكسدته وتمت أكسدته. هذه معادلة توازن بسيطة جدًا، لكن يمكن
أن تكون معادلات تفاعلات الأكسدة والاختزال عويصة جدًا في بعض الأحيان
بسبب عدد الذرات الفردية المشتركة فيها، لذا علينا أن نوازنها
في تفاعلات نصفية في الغالب. مع أنه ليس علينا أن نقوم بالتفاعلات النصفية
لأنها معادلة بسيطة جدًا، سنقوم بها على أية حال
لأنها مثال بسيط لنبدأ به. لذا نبدأ باختزال النتروجين. لدينا N2 حالة أكسدته تساوي صفرًا
ويصبح NH3 حالة أكسدته سالب ثلاثة. أولاً نعادل عدد ذرات النتروجين،
ثم نضيف إليها عدد الإلكترونات التي يجب أن تكون موجودة ليكون عدد الإلكترونات
نفسه موجودًا في كل جهة من المعادلة. قوموا بالشيء نفسه لنصف تفاعل الأكسدة
ثم اجمعوهما لتحصلوا على التفاعل بأكمله حيث تلغي الإلكترونات بعضها.
والآن تتساءلون إن كانت تلك خطوة غير ضرورية لكن اسمحوا لي أن أعرض عليكم
تفاعلاً أكثر تعقيدًا سيثبت لكم كم يمكن أن يكون ذلك مهمًا.
يوجد ديامين الفضة في هذه القارورة. سنستخدم تفاعلات أكسدة واختزال كيميائية لإخراج
عنصر الفضة منها بشكل لطيف ونظيف ولامع، ولن تكون بطريقة هابر بسيطة على الإطلاق.
سيتفاعل ديامين الفضة مع ألدهيد عضوي، أو أي ألدهيد في الحقيقة. الجانب الأساسي من الألدهيد هو CHO. والـ R
في الكيمياء العضوية هي رمز لمجموعة ذرات عضوية ولا توجد أهمية لهذه الذرات في هذا التفاعل. يتفاعل ديامين الفضة مع الألدهيد والهيدروكسيد ما ينتج حمض الكربوكسيل والأمونيا والماء.
أولاً، لنُعين بعض حالات الأكسدة. الفضة موجودة في مركب
يحتوي أيضًا على ذرتي أمونيا متعادلتي الشحنة ولن تتفاعلا طوال التفاعل،
لذا يمكننا أن نعاملهما وكأنهما نوع واحد وحالة أكسدته تساوي صفرًا.
بما أن شحنة ديامين الفضة موجب واحد ولا تؤثر الأمونيا على ذلك،
يجب أن تكون حالة أكسدة الفضة موجب واحد أيضًا. يمتلك الألدهيد ذرة هيدروجين شحنتها موجب واحد
وذرة أكسجين شحنتها سالب اثنين لكنه مركب متعادل الشحنة لذا لا بد
أن تكون شحنة الكربون موجب واحد أيضًا. شحنة أيون الهيدروكسيد بسيطة:
سالب اثنين للأكسجين وموجب واحد للهيدروجين وشحنته الإجمالية سالب واحد في حالة الأكسدة
هذه. في جانب المتفاعل، أصبحت الفضة ذرة الآن لذا إن حالة أكسدتها تساوي صفرًا. يحتوي حمض
الكربوكسيل على ذرتي أكسجين وذرة هيدروجين لذا حالة أكسدة الكربون الآن تعادل موجب ثلاثة.
تبقى شحنة NH3 صفرًا ولم يغير أكسجين وهيدروجين الماء
حالتا أكسدتهما أيضًا. لذا انخفضت حالة أكسدة الفضة،
أو تم اختزالها، من موجب واحد إلى صفر بينما تمت أكسدة الكربون من موجب واحد
إلى موجب ثلاثة. حان وقت نصف التفاعل. تم اختزال الفضة واكتسبت إلكترونًا واحدًا
فشكّلت عنصر فضة وأمونيا من ديامين الفضة. تمت أكسدة الألدهيد
وشكّل حمض كربوكسيل ويحتاج إلى إلكترونين. نعلم بمساعدة هذه الإلكترونات
أنه على أقل تقدير يجب علينا أن نضاعف كامل نصف اختزال المعادلة
من أجل أن نحصل على عدد الإلكترونات الصحيح في كلا الجهتين.
نفعل ذلك و… يا إلهي، هذا أمر جميل! ثم ندمجهما معًا لنحصل على معادلة
تفاعل أكسدة واختزال متوازنة تمامًا. والآن شاهدوني
وأنا آخذ هذه الإلكترونات وأحولها إلى مال. وها هي أمامكم أيها الناس،
هذه فضة خالصة تكسو القنينة من الداخل. شكرًا على مشاهدة هذه الحلقة. إن كنتم منتبهين، تعلمتم أن أي تفاعل
تنتقل فيه الإلكترونات من ذرة إلى أخرى هو تفاعل أكسدة واختزال،
وأن الأكسدة هو خسارة الإلكترونات وأن الاختزال هو كسب الإلكترونات،
وتعلمتم أنه يتم تعيين أعداد الأكسدة للذرات المشاركة في التفاعلات من أجل أن تقوم بتتبع
ما تنوي إلكتروناتها على فعله. تعلمتم بعض الحيل البسيطة
لتساعدكم على معرفة ما هي حالة أكسدة ذرة ما وتدربتم قليلاً
على معرفة كيفية تعيين حالات الأكسدة وموازنة تفاعلات الأكسدة من خلال مثالين، أحدهما سهل جدًا والآخر أقل سهولة. كتبت أنا وكيم كريغر هذه الحلقة،
ومحرر النص هو بلايك دي باستينو. الدكتور هايكو لاغنر هو مستشارنا الكيميائي،
وقامت مجموعة من معلمي الكيمياء بتقديم المشورة لهذه الحلقة وبتحريرها،
لذا شكرًا جزيلاً لهم. هذه الحلقة من تصوير
ومونتاج وإخراج نيكولاس جنكينز، مصمم الصوت ومستشار النص هو مايكل أراندا،
وفريق الرسومات هم Thought Café.

#RRB JE 75 Days Special | Science (विज्ञान) Biology | By Amrita Ma'am | Marathon Class | Genetics



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#RRB JE 75 Days Special | Science (विज्ञान) Biology | By Amrita Ma’am | Marathon Class | Genetics/Plant Tissues

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Change your state in 60 seconds – Holotropic Breathing Style – Wim Hof Breathing Technique Inspired



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Check out this breathing Course:
The forgotten art of breathing, now backed by Scientific studies has catapulted elite athletes’ performance levels by 300% – 500% while simultaneously boosting testosterone levels, brain function, improving recovery time, curing anxiety, fatigue, sleep problems, respiratory conditions, controlling weight gain issues. AND hacking you into the optimal performance state of mind…the flow state:

About this video:

This video is designed to help you change your state with less than 60 seconds of breathing.

This is a taste of Holotropic breathing at a pace and rhythm that’s designed to alter how you feel and oxygenize your body.

A powerful, cleansing breathing technique, perfect if you want to feel more energy. Also, a great practice if you feel grumpy or angry.

Make sure you are sitting or lying down before you begin!

Safety Information:
– Don’t take the method and techniques too lightly, they go deep and the effects can have a huge impact.
– Don’t do the breathing exercises in a swimming pool, before going underwater, beneath the shower or piloting any vehicle, without proper supervision. Always practice in a safe environment.
– Keep in mind to do the exercises without forcing them, gradually build up and don’t exceed your limits.
– Do not practice the method during pregnancy, or if you are epileptic.
– Consult a registered doctor (GP) before starting any new health regimes such as this.

welcome to take deep breath today's exercise is designed to create a massive change in your physiology in just 60 seconds this is an incredibly powerful breathing exercise to make sure that you are lying or sitting somewhere safe and comfortable make sure that you are deep breathing into the belly for this exercise at the end you're likely to feel some tingling or some lightheadedness that's perfectly normal just make sure that you stay lying down for at least three to five minutes afterwards and just relax okay let's begin deeply letting go okay that's it you're finished so just relax now thank you for watching take a deep breath make sure to hit that subscribe button how did you feel after this exercise did it create some tingling has it changed your state let us know in the comments below and also let us know what other sorts of videos you'd like to see in the future from take deep breath okay guys have a great day take care bye

Games as Lit. 101 – Literary Analysis: Bioshock



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Time to take a look at one of the masterpieces of interactive storytelling, and determine what it thinks of the philosophies it explores.

Part 1: Summary – 2:52
Part 2: Backstory and Objectivism – 13:31
Part 3: Summary (cont.) – 26:02
Part 4: The Twist – 35:00
Part 5: The Third Act – 50:44
Part 6: Bioshock and Objectivism – 1:00:32

Enjoy the series? Support it on Patreon!

—————-

Gameplay Footage:

Music:
Arcade Academy, by Pixel Head –

Little Sister, by Miracle of Sound

Art:
Jimi Bonogofsky-Gronseth – [email protected]

Website: www.gamesasliterature.com
Facebook:

If you want to know which games we’ll be talking about in the future, take a look at the episode schedule:

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hello and welcome to Games's Lit 101 i gotta say i am really really excited for this one when a rational Games released Bioshock in 2007 it was met with nearly universal and very high praise the atmosphere the story the philosophical themes the setting the mind-blowing plot twists it was just brilliant it will forever have a spot in my top 10 favorite games so needless to say I've been looking forward to this one for a long long time I mean what I actually taught this class it was in high school and this game was rated M so I couldn't actually use it so I I've been itching to talk about this one for years but before we get started I do have to note a few things first I've strived to keep this show appropriate for all ages it is an educational series after all so I want it to be something that wouldn't feel out of place in a classroom setting that said Bioshock is rated M and it's rated M for a reason so some of the game footage in this analysis is going to include some adult language and some fairly graphic violence secondly since this analysis is much much longer than previous ones I actually have a number of links down in the description that will link you to different sections of the analysis so if you want to skip around for whatever reason or access a specific part of the analysis just refer to those down in the description thirdly and finally I know I have a habit on pontificating on how horrible it is to watch these analyses without previously having played the game because spoilers and I have explained my stance on spoilers in full detail in a previous episode that said for the purposes of this analysis specifically let me make this absolutely clear Bioshock is meant to be played it simply cannot be done justice and even the best summary and while there are a great many reasons the most powerful is this Bioshock has one of if not the most well executed plot twists in the entire medium of video games and much of its impact is based on your own personal experience of play additionally the backstory to this game is fairly complex and so I'm going to spend a decent amount of time in this analysis explaining a lot of things that the game itself tells with expert pacing and environmental design my summary will not and for that matter literally cannot contain all of the interesting techniques that make this story work so well even watching this game be played would be too short yourself the incredible experience of actually playing it so please do not ruin this for yourself by listening to me tell you about the story before experiencing it for yourself so that's really all the warning I can give you so let's go the game opens with our player character Jack on a plane in 1960 they told me son you're special you were born to do great things you know what they were right [Applause] and interestingly enough that's the last time we hear Jack's voice in the entire game I've talked in a previous episode about the silent protagonist as a form of the projection protagonist the whole idea is to let you easily slip into his roles so from now on he never actually talks and that makes it a little easier to believe that we are him this sense of agency is absolutely key to the game for reasons that we'll go over as we continue through the story so for now sit back and enjoy one of the greatest openings and video game history and boy you come to underwater the wreckage of the plane sinking to the ocean floor around you as you desperately swim to the surface despite being in the middle of the ocean you find safety on a small island with a lighthouse as you enter music from the 40s is playing softly and a statue looms above you with a banner reading no gods no kings only man you work your way through the lighthouse as it lights to guide your way until you reach a small pod you enter and it plunges you underwater to an unknown destination as a video begins to play I am Andrew Ryan and I'm here to ask you a question is a man not entitled to the sweat of his brow no says the man Washington it belongs to the poor no says the man in the Vatican it belongs to God no says the man in Moscow it belongs to everyone I rejected those answers instead I chose something different I chose the impossible I chose city where the artist would not be in a sense where the scientist would not be bound by petty morality where the great would not be constrained by the small with a sweat your brow grant you can become your city as well oh just get over becoming about splicing on [Applause] man I love that open it I mean it with all the visual fidelity we have in games these days it takes a lot to impress us now you know we've come a long way from just being awed at how huge Midgar is in the opening video of Final Fantasy 7 we've seen it all at this point and it takes a lot to impress but this doesn't solely rely on visual splendor though that's certainly a huge part of it Andrew Ryan's monologue here is excellent and lays forth a basic foundation for the philosophy the game will be exploring before revealing – an excellent soundtrack a sprawling underwater city founded on principles of absolute freedom and unbridled progress there's an immediate sense of wonder at this impossible city and the ideals from which it's sprung but unfortunately it quickly becomes clear that this is anything but your salvation someone you grab a radio from the bathysphere and speak with Atlas a man who explains that he moved his family to rapture when it was intended as utopia but it's not what it once was and he now must reach them in order to escape with them in a submarine wanting just as badly to get out of here you agree to help him or at least it's assumed so jack is a silent protagonist after all but in games like this your silence and compliance is considered to be consent now at first we don't actually know what happened here only the basic reasons why Andrew Ryan created it in the first place and the fact that it seems to have gone completely to hell since then the first hours of the game is riveting and disturbing discovery of raptures beauty and its ruin objects and corpses are strewn about and crazed people roam the halls with little more purpose than brutalizing others they come across a mother cries over an empty carriage flying sentry BOTS patrol the halls and water leaks in from the crushing expansive waters that surround the city this first sequence in rapture is when you're hit with the brunt of the game's atmospheric power the Art Deco styling dramatic lighting and excellent sound design all contribute to the feeling of simultaneous wonder and fear curiosity and oppression you work your way through rapture following ad Lass's directions to Neptune's bounty and fighting off some of the crazed people with nothing but a wrench until you find a vile and disturbingly large syringe naturally upon seeing a giant needle with strange glowing liquid inside of it you leave it alone and why would you do that randomly jabbing the needle into your wrist is probably the most confusing scene in the entire game if only because it seems like a completely stupid thing to do mostly because it it is that's actually really stupid but stupid though it may be it does actually make a bit of sense and I'll explain why later the thing you injected into yourself is a plasmid it alters your genetic code to basically grant you superpowers in this case you can throw lightning from your hands you get a variety of plasmas as you play through the game and can only use them based on your supply of Eve which you find throughout the game to replenish your ability to actually use your plasmids think of it like ammo for your superpowers though of course you're far from the only one who can use things like this they are all over rapture after recovering from the shock of having your genetic code rewritten you continue on and something strange careful now would you kindly lower that weapon for a minute do you think that's a child down there don't be fooled she's a little sister now somebody went toward a sweet baby girl into a monster whatever you thought about right we're all on the surface well I don't count for much down and rapture those little sisters they carry Adam the genetic material that keeps the wheels of rapture turnin everybody wants us everybody needs us Big Daddy the little sisters and Big Daddy's are the most recognizable elements of Bioshock and for good reason these little girls genetically engineered to the point where they're arguably no longer human and doomed to gather genetic material from the dead protected by deadly creatures whose wail like moans echo throughout the dying halls of rapture will go further into what's up with the little sisters as well as how they factor into the major theme of parenthood in the game later on once the Big Daddy is gone you continue following ad Lass's lead but just as you're about to enter Neptune's bounty and alarm sounds the door slams shut in your face and crazed people referred to as splicers by Atlas begin attacking and you get caught in a room where you're trying to get away Andrew Ryan appears on a screen accusing you of being sent by the CIA or KGB before leaving you to the splicers thankfully Atlas gets the door open and you escape so we have a row in utopia insane superhumans and a leader that seems to have gone mad with power and a god complex but interestingly enough the majority of Bioshock story actually takes place before the events of the game itself and it's told to us through audio Diaries that we find scattered throughout rapture these audio diaries were at the time of raptures creation a fairly novel concept and it seems that people took to recording their memories and ideas in this way rather than something more traditional like a pen and a notepad and now the little snippets we get from these audio Diaries fill in the back story of rapture from Ryan's original intent to the eventual fall of the city the audio diaries are used to space out the little tidbits of backstory we get as we progress through the game so we gain a greater and greater understanding of the history of rapture which is incredibly important to the story that we are actually experiencing in the game itself now that said my goal here is to give a clear and understandable summary of this story not necessarily to recreate the original presentation so I'm going to take this opportunity after the basic introduction of the game to give a clearer picture of the history of rapture and the four major figures involved in it Andrew Ryan was born in Russia and saw the Russian Revolution as a boy in 1917 his childhood in Russia convinced him of one major thing great men shaped the world as the result of their own work and effort and anyone who relied on others or on government was a parasite he moved to America at the age of nine having heard of the Freedom and opportunity available there and enjoyed the capitalist society for a long time he amassed a great deal of wealth and fame and he loved the country that allowed him this however over time the United States began requiring more of those with wealth and power in order to help those who didn't have it in Ryan's mind those people were weakened undetermined and it was immoral for him to give what he had rightfully earned to feed these parasites possibly the defining moment of his character pre rapture at least was when the government tried to secure a large plot of land he owned for a national park claiming it was God's country and that it belonged to the people in response rather than letting him have it he burned it to the ground the philosophy that Andrew Ryan seems to a forum for himself over the years is Iran's philosophy of Objectivism now objectivism simply cannot be explained in as many words as I have to explain it to you and full disclosure I'm personally not really a fan but I'm going to try and give you the basic ideas faithfully and objectively as possible I'm Rand author of such books as The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged believed in a pretty pure form of rationalism the only truth is that which we can see and understand and that truth is absolute what we can observe and prove exists and what we cannot does not rational thought is the only valuable method of judging anything in this world when applied to social and moral issues this philosophy led Randa to believe that the only moral good is for man to act in his own self-interest not to the direct detriment of others so for instance killing someone else to put yourself further ahead would still be considered immoral but self-sacrifice for the good of someone else would also be considered immoral so charity for instance is actually considered immoral from an Objectivist perspective everything you do must be for your own gain a trade of equal value that benefit you in the end to give of yourself without getting anything in return is actually just as wrong from this perspective as taking from someone else without giving anything in return following from that the only function of government is to ensure that the parasites thieves murderers freeloaders etc are properly punished for holding back society and doing harm to others it's a laissez-faire system of capitalism in which the government cannot actually force anyone in it to give of themselves in any way so for instance the minimum wage requirement or welfare in any form would also be considered wrong art is viewed in a similar way it's a necessary element of life and it takes rational thought and effort thus according to objective ISM non-representational art isn't actually art at all and good art objectively good art no less is actually that which strives to accurately represent reality and rational things and especially that which portrays man is a free creature in charge of his own destiny and of course it's not to be limited whatsoever by any legal or moral boundaries so in short objectivism dictate that self-interest chosen of man's free will is the basis for morality and any social structure must facilitate this by in no way limiting mankind's choice aside from ensuring that they do no harm to other free men some all right there's our little philosophy less and again it's super basic and I imagine there's some philosophy buffs and Iran fans out there who aren't particularly happy with it but look this episode is already absurdly long anyway alright so there are a ton of great resources online if you want to really look into it and fully understand what objectivism is as you may have figured out by this point Bioshock is heavily heavily based on Objectivist concepts whether it ends up supporting or opposing objectivism in the end we'll talk about as we get through this analysis but the whole concept of rapture is a society based on pure objectivism so then back to Ryan the thing that broke him completely was the use of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki at this point he reasoned the parasite could now destroy anything they could not take this world was forfeit and so he used his entire fortune to build a new one he gathered the best and the brightest thousands of brilliant accomplished people and gave them a proposition a city with no legal or moral limits where their work could achieve greater success than the parasites would ever allow those he saw worthy he took to his great city and in reference to that fact he named it rapture and for years it prospered just as he expected it experienced exceptional economic success and unprecedented scientific advancements then it began to fall apart the rise and fall of rapture has four major players Andrew Ryan obviously Frank Fontaine Brigid Tenenbaum and Yi soo Chung and it's a fairly complex series of events that I'm going to try and boil down to it the most important parts to make it a little easier to digest though I'll mostly be covering su Chun and Tenenbaum later when they both become more relevant to the story of the game itself the first thing worth noting as it will become important later is that a lot of people of the working class were brought to rapture in order to build it in the first place now since rapture was based on a philosophy that rejects the idea of supporting others there was nothing in place to help these people reintegrate back into society once their job was done the result was a fairly large population of people just kept in low quality housing and left up to their own devices since Ryan's assumption and for that matter his philosophy was that they should just fend for themselves they would have to find work themselves and work their way up to support themselves now this is going to become important later so remember that the most important thing to happen to rapture was the discovery of Adam Brigid Tenenbaum a brilliant scientist who saw rapture as a chance to do good after she regretting li participated in the infamous experiments in Nazi Germany discovered and as of yet unseen sea slug with secretions that held the secret to immense amounts of genetic alteration when she searched for funding most scoffed at her but she eventually made a deal with a ruthless businessman named Frank Fontaine in which he had the rights to all profits extending from her discoveries her experiments yield to tremendous things she could cure diseases and fundamentally change how an organism worked in various ways seen as a rebirth for Humanity this substance was dubbed at later it was discovered that the sea slugs when implanted into the stomach of a human host formed a symbiotic relationship that produced exceptionally higher amounts of Adam strangely and unfortunately enough however the only viable hosts for this process were young girls so in hopes of mass-producing Adam Fontaine opened the little sister's orphanage advertising it as a place for impoverished families to send their girls for care into education of course the orphanage was just a front for the production of Adam the girls sent there would have the slugs implanted into them in secret Tenenbaum was kind of troubled by this but really just wanted to keep them in a vegetative state at least but unfortunately it was discovered that the production of Adam only works so long as the host was awake and active this mass production made it possible for Fontaine Futuristics to make and sell a variety of products based on Adam most notably plasmids which altered the human body in such a way is to grant superhuman abilities better yet the supply of Adam was plentiful enough that these products were quite affordable at this time Ryan praised Fontaine for his success after all he had risen to power and well through his own ingenuity and effort Gregory don't come whining to me about market forces and don't expect me to punish citizens for showing a little initiative if you don't like what Fontaine is doing well I suggest you find a way to offer a better product now Ryan didn't know how Adam was produced but he began to suspect Fontaine of a number of other crimes ranging from murder to smuggling and indeed the only reason Fontaine's production of Adam was financially feasible for him was because of the money gained from the smuggling ring he began soon after arriving in rapture which would bring various items from the surface including Bibles and other items of religious significance down to the homesick denizens of rapture of course that's very much against Ryan's vision for rapture not because of Objectivism as it would dictate that he allow free trade without any restrictions but because rapture only would work if it's completely separated from the outside world Ryan wanted it to operate independently free from the corrupted processes and the parasitical philosophies of the world from which he Payne the methods of fontaine success brought him from respectful businessmen to wanted criminal and Ryan's eyes because the success he enjoined came at the expense of the well-being of the other people around him which is quite telling of one of the issues Bioshock seems to take with objectivism as we'll discuss more when we go over the game's final stance on such philosophical matters Ryan instructed his security chief to put an end to Fontaine smuggling ring and Fontaine was eventually killed in a shootout with Ryan's men Ryan took over Fontaine Futuristics after that and discovered the little sisters he was appalled and immediately shut down the orphanage and thus also the production of the little sisters but recognizing them as a necessary evil he opened the little wonders educational facility keeping them there for safety as well as the benefit of soojeong's experiments it was eventually realized that the production alone wasn't providing enough Adam to the city so sue Chong created the Big Daddies by taking convicted criminals essentially lobotomizing them and used mental conditioning to bond them to the little sisters allowing them to wander the halls of rapture and gather Adam from the dead recycling the supply yeah at this point I think it's safe to say the grap sure has gotten pretty messed up and that's not even talking about characters like dr. Steinman or sander Cohen yet we'll get to them in a bit for now the situation with Fontaine had created a good deal of civil unrest and the people of rapture were increasingly unhappy with Ryan's leadership and eventually of course someone else came up to stir up the masses a little bit more Atlas remember what I said a while ago about the working class of rapture being left to fend for themselves and low-income housing after their jobs actually building the city we're complete well as you might imagine those people were pretty easy to rile up and it did not take long for Atlas to end up inciting raptures civil war and this was really the beginning of the end for rapture chaos erupted and people spliced themselves up to the point of insanity it's easy to see how rapture got into its current state based on all this information so I'm not going to bother accounting all the details of the civil war but there is one more important thing to go over before we can continue with the story of the game itself the point where Ryan completely gave up on his vision for rapture even if he could never actually bring himself to admit when the Civil War had been raging soo Chong developed an option for Ryan to stop it lease the plasmids they produce with pheromones to put the splicers under his control dr. su Chong frankly I'm shocked by your proposal if we were to modify the structure of our commercial plasmid line as you propose to have them make the user vulnerable to mental suggestion through pheromones would we not be able to effectively control the actions of the citizens of Rapture free will is the cornerstone of this city thought of sacrificing it is a poor it however we are indeed in a time of war yep Atlas and his bandits have their way will they not turn us into slaves and what will become a free will then desperate times call for desperate measures this effectively put rapture ruin desert was back under Ryan's control and trapped Atlas and his family here until of course a nun spliced stranger happened upon raptures front door so hopefully that surprisingly long summary of the back story of rapture hoped you gain a clearer understanding of those events than when you were trying to piece them together from the scattered audio Diaries in the game itself which brings us right back to the events of the game after the narrow escape from Ryan's pheromone controlled splicers Atlas continues leading you throughout rapture along a longer route the player comes across Tenenbaum as she kills a splicer threatening a little sister note of course that though we just went through that summary and know her background this is the first time the player meets her turns out since creating the little sisters Tenenbaums guilt began to catch up with her as rapture descended into chaos she began taking in the little sisters and developing a way to cure them restoring them once again to normal little girls she now acts as their mother figure and has been working to rescue and care for as many as she can Atlas tells you to kill the little sister and take her Adam you'll need it to survive here and he reasons that the little sisters are too far gone anyway they're not little girls anymore just monsters killing them would be a mercy Grilli and would help you survive Tenenbaum begs you to show mercy and gives you a plasmid she developed it allows you to safely remove the slug from the little sisters without killing them and the choice is left up to you and man if this image of the little girl backing away from you and fear doesn't make you at least a little uncomfortable I don't know what will this scene is beautifully framed we'll talk more about the moral choice system in Bioshock when we can look back on it in the context of the whole game but it's one of the three most often criticized elements of Bioshock and rightfully so though it does have some positive things offer to the game as well for now we're going to go through this analysis assuming that you don't kill little girls because seriously don't kill little girls unfortunately the second major criticism of the game and it's not as big a thematic issue but on a basic level that's probably the most problematic is the pacing and plot development of act 2 it basically consists of a bunch of fetch quests kill this guy find that thing fix this system photograph this stuff you spend most of the game being blocked from any of your actual goals by random kind of unnecessary plot developments until you get past them and move on to the next stalling tactic the good news is that however problematic this presentation may be it's at least done fairly well it makes replays kind of arduous but honestly I didn't even notice it the first time through the game because all of these little tangents do at least develop the backstory and setting of rapture now I'm just gonna do you a favor and skip to the relevant plot points but there are actually two of these little tangents that I think are worth going over the first is that of dr. Steinman he was a plastic surgeon the best in rapture when Adam became commonplace and splicing became a regular activity Steinman was famous for fixing up the scarring that wanton splicing caused but as time went by and the potential of Adam became clearer that wasn't enough for him there was a time I was happy enough to take off of water to turn a real circus freak into something you can show in the daylight but that was then when we took what we got but with Adam the flesh becomes clay what excuse do we have not to sculpt and sculpt and sculpt until the job is done he began to see himself more as an artist and then a doctor and took inspiration by hearing the goddess aphrodite in his head when Picasso became bored of painting people he started representing them as cubes another abstract formed the world called him a genius I've spent my entire surgical career creating the same tired shapes over and over again the upturned nose the cleft chin the ample bosom wouldn't be wonderful if I could do with a knife that old Spaniard did with a brush because he basically went completely insane he began using people as his canvas if you will whether they wanted him to her not as time went on he went even deeper into his insanity and his attempts to create a new standard for beauty with the power of Adam resulted in many a gruesome death before you put an end to it this actually happens before you even encounter the first little sister Bioshock wastes no time in exploring what happens when a society eliminates morality and selflessness in favor of unbridled artistic freedom and scientific progress you eventually make your way into Neptune's bounty and the dock where ad Lass's family waits in a submarine but as you approach ryan addresses you the radio the sub destroyed and atlases family dead you pursue the only option left available to you we'll find the bastard we'll find them our hair is hard out after yet more of the runaround you run into the second side quest interesting enough for me to mention sander Cohen he blocks out the radio signal so you can't communicate with anyone that says he'll that you through his domain fort frolic if you help him finish his masterpiece annoyingly enough said masterpiece requires killing his four proteins all men who studied under him at some point and it's mildly hinted may also have been his lovers at one point or another scattered around his domain are plaster statues that are actually real people killed and plastered over because Cohen is a freaking lunatic after killing each of his targets you take a picture so he can hang it in his masterpiece Wow Cohen is not actually very good at what he does is he sheesh you well maybe he's better at poetry a wild bunny hi sander Cohen I want to take the ears off but I can't I hop and when I have I never get off the ground it's my curse my eternal curse I want to take the ears off but I can't it's my curse it's my fucking I want to take the ears off well alright then though actually Bioshock is probably trying to say something here about the way that objectivism views art I mentioned a bit ago in my absurdly brief overview of Objectivism that the philosophy views art as something that has inherent an objective value but that value is judged based on its realism and value to the society and since objectivism values things like free will and the empowerment of the individual art that portrays these things is really the only thing worth being called art in the first place which interestingly enough might actually disqualify Bioshock considering the defining scene of the game in a few moments it's noted in some of the audio Diaries that Cohen is considered a nutjob by a lot of people even before he completely lost it but Ryan always liked Cohen might not be a good artist but he appealed to Ryan's desire for art that spoke to the triumph of the human will and that of his City of course as well and it probably helped that Cohen had a distaste for the derivative to an account peppers latest musical insult worthy artisan rapture why you continue to devote column inches to this musical gremlin is beyond my imagination where she is not derivative she's boring where she's not boring she's obvious where she's not obvious she's dangerous he made art that portrayed real topics in a victorious light and did so while refusing to be the same as those who came before him he sounds like Ryan's kind of guy even if he sucked now obviously at this point Cohen much like Steinman is not actually following the tenants of Objectivism or even really his own originality he's certainly putting himself above others but he's actively and arbitrarily hurting others to get there in both cases the complete freedom granted them by raptures Objectivist principles became something twisted and horrible after getting through Cohen's twisted circus you continued through some more fetch quests that get you closer and closer to where Ryan is holed up Ryan desperate not to lose rapture to you activates a destruct sequence before outright taunting you I'll be it in a cryptic fashion even as the problem lies sometimes you fight through there's a deer season for all things now that I see but but I know I cannot raise my hand against you but know this you my greatest disappointment does your master hear me atlas you can kill me and you will never have my city just before entering Ryan's office you come across this room with the words would you kindly paint it over all these papers stuck up on the wall and you come across two audio Diaries one accounting the results of an experiment and enhanced growth rates and another notably more disturbing one on psychological conditioning you got a party she's very pretty break her neck for me what like that sweet panic make that puppy's neck after this kind of confusing discovery you move forward into the office of Andrew Ryan I'm not even going to narrate this part all right allow me to emphasize once again that if you're watching this analysis and haven't played Bioshock for yourself you are about to see one of the greatest scenes in this entire medium of video games and if you get done watching this scene and go well that didn't seem like the greatest scene of all time that's because you haven't actually played the game and aren't experiencing this in its intended context all right so even if it can't have the same impact which it certainly can't in this context I can't stand to talk over it so here you go the assassin has overcome my final defense and now he's come to murder me in the end what separates a man from a slave money power no a man chooses a sleigh you think you have a farm yeah a crush and then this place was there really a family did that airplane crash or was it hijack forced down forced down by something less than and then something bread sleepwalk through life until they are activated by a simple phrase spoken by their kindly master was a man sent to kill for a slave a man chooses a slave obeys come stop would you guide me would you kind powerful phrase familiar phrase would you kindly would you kind to get this huge acclaim fine tiny head to Ryan's office and killed the son of a bitch sit stand would you kindly Ron a man chooses a slave obeys ah juices Oh Oh hurry now Barbara genetic he feel what you clearly put it in that goddamn machine nice work by or [Applause] I'm there great rain oh I'm little kid the names of a group on that Wow okay if you've played the game before you know exactly why that's so great if you haven't played the game and you just watched that I hope you have even some little concept of the significance of what you just saw but either way let me explain to you exactly what makes this brilliant it's a good plot twist just from a narrative perspective obviously but there are many layers to what makes it work beyond just it was unexpected and deftly foreshadowed to start I'll have to explain the backstory leading up to this part it's all detailed in audio Diaries and save some of the most important pieces of this narrative puzzle for after the scene we just saw so I'll just go over it alright now Jasmine Jolene was a chorus girl and Cowen's shows on the surface before Ryan invited her to rapture upon arrival she started working in fort frolic specifically at the exotic dancing establishment Eve's garden Ryan continued his correspondence with her and she became his mistress the fact that Ryan liked her so much was even used in the advertisements for East garden at some point Jasmine ended up pregnant with Ryan's baby she hesitated to tell Ryan himself and she ended up confiding in a friend instead Fontaine having bugged her room found out about it and since dr. Tannenbaum to offer jasmine and Dean let them extract the unborn fetus for a large sum of money Ryan would never know Jasmine wouldn't have an actual pregnancy and she would be able to support herself financially without relying on Ryan's continued patronage and goodwill of course she didn't know Fontaine was behind the request unfortunately Ryan did eventually find out and in a fit of rage murdered Jasmine I find this outburst rather interesting for Ryan I mean Jasmine's actions were honestly perfectly justifiable under Ryan's own ideals she made a choice that put her ahead without directly harming anyone and obviously she had no idea there would be any negative repercussions for Ryan and Ryan's usually pretty good and acting based on his principles rather than his emotions and yet this sets him off and drives him to a crime action Ryan cracks more and more on his principles as rapture falls into ruin but not only does this take place before any of that actually begins but it's a decision made out of rage rather than out of necessity I can only guess it had to be a combination of betrayal by someone he felt close to and the stress of Fontaine's increasing power of a rapture in any case it seems that even Andrew Ryan isn't completely immune to these types of emotional decisions in any case this is where dr. Yi soo Chong comes in the baby boy that resulted from this deal was experimented on in order to make him grow stronger and faster than your average person but su Chong specialty was psychological conditioning he's the one who basically programmed the minds of the little sisters and Big Daddy's if you recall and he practiced his techniques on the boy as he grew up training him to respond obediently to the phrase would you kindly thus that disturbing puppy murder from a bit ago sometime before Fontaine faked his own death in that shootout he had the child of Ryan and Jasmine smuggled out of rapture as a sleeper agent with implanted memories of his family and life on the surface Fontaine resurfaced under the name Atlas and incited the rebellion that led to raptures civil war but when Ryan's pheromone laced plasmids had put all the mad splicers under his influence Fontaine had to activate his backup plan thus that package we saw in the opening which told Jack not to open it until specific coordinates the coordinates of raptures lighthouse at which point Jack hijacked the plane and brought it down surviving the crash due to his genetic enhancement and going down to rapture so Atlas or Fontaine rather has just been manipulating you this entire time and you know why that's brilliant because it's more than just a twist on the story Bioshock is telling us it's actually a twist on us on the player it used our active role in the story our expectations and understanding of how video games work to trick us in video games we're used to following instructions whether it's Cortana telling us where to go and what to do or subtle environmental clues directing us toward a certain path we're used to continuing on to where there's more play more story more content because that's what we're meant to do that's what we do to play more of the game and as long as it gives us even just a a bit of narrative reason to do so we don't question it better yet the open nature of Bioshock helps create an illusion of choice and free will we choose to explore beyond where we need to go we choose to save or harvest Louisville sisters we choose to work with Atlas because there's not really a better option all games are structured of course as I talked about on the show before but that bit of freedom combined with the excellent atmosphere and world building was all we needed to feel like we were exploring a world we had agency and it turns out we didn't have anything of the sort the game works hard to make jack a projection protagonist you can step into he never talks after the opening the game only takes control away from you twice in the entire game once to make sure you see Tenenbaum when you first encounter a little sister and when Ryan reveals how little you actually control not counting the plasmid at the beginning because you're the one who picked it up the automatic use of it is yet another bit of commentary on our willingness to blindly follow in games though there's also a really nice moment early in the game when atlas tells you to kindly lower your wrench and you comply automatically so when Ryan takes control the feeling of not being able to control your actions is entirely foreign to you when incredibly uncomfortable I don't think I know anyone who wasn't desperately pressing buttons during this scene trying to stop themselves from killing Ryan but to no avail so wait wait oh my gosh was was Cohen stupid rabbit poem about this like you want to take the ears offer the control but you can't and when you hop or you know you're pressing buttons trying to do stuff you can't nothing actually happens I a what even in any case this is the thing that makes this twist so incredibly well accomplished it's setup and foreshadowed and all the usual narrative ways of course and trust me there is a lot of that set up in foreshadowing but more importantly it uses the players interaction to immense effect this isn't just surprising because it's an unexpected turn in the story it's surprising because you the player genuinely feel played because you have been it's the kind of meta-commentary that not only serves its story ball but actually reaches out to hit us directly by making us think about the media we're consuming to begin with about the assumptions we make both in everyday life and in the games we play and that's amazing so then back to the narrative surrounding the twist we'll move on to the rest of the story in a second but I do want to briefly talk about Ryan's motivations here as that seems to be something that confuses a decent amount of people and it's a super interesting capstone on the life of a super interesting character let's not mince words here this is a suicide on the part of Andrew Ryan but it's also two other things firstly it's death on his own terms with his pride relatively intact but secondly and more importantly in his mind at least it's proof of everything he believes and it would have been even if Jack had managed not to kill him he said before that you are his greatest disappointment because his own son is nothing more than a slave to the parasites by having you killed him at his own command he's demonstrating his superiority over you he is a free man and you are nothing but a slave your inability to choose for yourself renders you less than human less than him and he demonstrates this with abundant clarity with his dying breath had you managed not to kill him though he would have seen the triumph of the human will over the attempts of the parasites to lock it down and control it and for that matter you would be his best bet at taking rapture back in full either way it ends year and his point is made so really grinds actions here are the actions of a man desperate for validation rapture didn't work and Ryan has already been did on almost all of his principles but in each case he explains it away and just excuses it off as the weakness of others all of his actions were necessary a reaction to the weakness of the people around him and in the end he arranges even his own death as proof of his beliefs so that he wasn't a man whose vision ultimately failed he was a martyr who was shot down by men too weak to take any agency in their own lives to add insult to injury the game gives you one last order from Atlas alright now we put it down here the game puts you directly in Jack's position you know you've been betrayed and you probably don't want to do what you're told anymore even if it will save your own life but you have no choice Jack's conditioning overrides his free will here and the game won't move forward until you do what you're told Fontaine six the security on you and you're led to safety by a little sister remember earlier I mentioned there were three major weaknesses to Bioshock the first two were the binary moral choice system and the structure of act 2 and now we're coming up on the third and final major flaw in BioShock storytelling act 3 it has some major problems but it's also not without its merits so let's dive in you wake up in Tenenbaums hideout where she keeps the Little Sisters she's saved she explains to you some of the backstory I just went over and says that she's done what she can to free you of Fontaine's influence but to free yourself fully you'll need a serum that souchong developed and so your quest begins to rid you of this curse to take the ears off if you will I still can't even believe that this scene intended bombs nursery is probably the best thing about the moral choices system in the game the little sisters who react differently to you based on your actions if you've been harvesting them they whisper about how they're supposed to stay away from you but if you've been saving them you hear them talking about how you rescued them I know for some people they went through the game treating the little sisters like any other game mechanic you get more from harvesting them so you do the thing that gets you further ahead but this is the scene that convicts those people for their decisions and it resulted in some players restarting the entire game to undo their horrible actions though now's as good a time as any to talk about the problems with the moral choice system two issues in particular the first of which being that this is quite possibly the most unsubtle choice I have ever seen in a video game I mean you can excuse the way your actions all you want but at the end of the day the entire concept of the moral choices in this game is whether or not to murder little girls there's not really a gray area there anywhere which means the choice itself says little about you as a person you're either a good person a terrible person or just a person who doesn't take videogames seriously enough to actually care about anything but trying to win which isn't evil necessarily but certainly isn't a good thing and definitely is what Bioshock is meaning to appeal to the other major issue is that theoretically doing the right thing is supposed to be the more difficult path and that makes sense often in fiction evil is represented as the easy route to power that hurts others along the way and leaves you unprepared to actually handle the power you've gained is the dark side stronger no this your motion back again but despite what the game may imply your rewards are actually far greater if you save the little sisters than harvest them because they leave you gifts every now and again that in total give you more atom plasmids and gene tonics so in the big picture there's not really good choice at all don't kill little girls and you get ahead in the game awesome that undercuts the whole point of the moral choice to begin with which is definitely a problem but you know what I'm also going to posit that it's actually thematically appropriate for this game specifically and don't get into all the reasons why in the conclusion but for now note that Bioshock rewards altruism and selflessness so you're off to gather the components necessary to free yourself fully from Fontaine's control it's another fetch quest of course but at least it's pretty relevant to the story and the bit where he orders your heart to stop is actually pretty tense and interesting you also get this great audio diary detailing soojeong's death clinical trial protector system plot amid a lotta 255 practice our own client Orion industries a very frustrating day I can't seem to get the damn Big Daddies to imprint on the little branch the protection Bondy – just enough forming a potato kick it away maybe if I modify the genetics should sure sequence to allow full turn get out man that's some satisfying irony that guy was a douche you eventually get the serum made up of course and move on to dealing with Fontaine now that you're free and coming for him he starts splicing up trying to become powerful enough to kill you when you come for him but there's one more really interesting bit before the final encounter you need a little sister like an actual still active little sister to open the way to Fontaine which means becoming a Big Daddy at least enough to make them follow you and open the door which of course means more fetch quests as we gather the necessary components followed by an escort mission by this point the runaround is kind of tedious and after the amazing scene in Andrew Ryan's office we can't really help but feel like we're kind of spinning our wheels of it for this last hour or two of gameplay but annoying is the fetch questing is I really feel like there's something pretty cool about taking on the look in the role of a Big Daddy not because it's cool to be a Big Daddy but because of what it represents essentially jack is taking on the role of these girls father figure the relationship between the Big Daddies and Little Sisters has always been a disturbingly confusingly heartwarming one and I will never not be sad at that moment when a little sister is crying over their protector and father figure when you kill a Big Daddy depending on how the player has been treating the little sisters this could be either kind of a bittersweet and heartwarming implication or actually a really disturbing one but either way it's a really nice symbol and feeds further into the game stance into the tension between selfishness and altruism that objectivism presents we'll go more into that in a minute but the time you reach Fontaine he's spliced himself into insanity and looks like a man out of Mythology interestingly enough he actually looks similar to Atlas like the man holding the world on his shoulders Atlas make of that what you will and in a frankly rather plain and uninteresting boss battle you eventually kill him then the good ending happens because you didn't kill little girls they offered you this city and you refused it and what did you do instead I've come to expect of you you saved them you gave them the one thing that was stolen from them a chance a chance to learn to find love to live and since the end what was your reward you never said but I think I know a family that ending is way too short which may just be another instance of developers putting minimal effort into narrative sequences that don't lead directly into more gameplay but you know I really like it anyway it's real sweet and it really plays into the themes of parenthood and family that I'll talk about a little more in a minute there's also an evil ending but it's basically just the type of stuff you'd expect you abused the little sisters and use your control over rapture to take over the world with an army of splicers or try at least many say that doesn't really make sense and I'm inclined to agree but mostly it's just a lackluster ending with little more meaning than if you're evil you'll do more evil things that boss fight that ends the game is just far too pedestrian for lack of a less pretentious sounding word it just feels like a major letdown after the game blew our minds in Ryan's office in no small part to how utterly typical it feels in comparison and indeed this is a problem for the third act as a whole to some say the game should have just ended after the scene in Ryan's office but honestly that just would have been a horrible ending we did need closure after that it just could have been done a lot better ultimately I think the major problem of the third act is that it fails to continue the subversion of the plot twist the scene in Ryan's office pointed the finger directly at us the player and chastised us for just going along with whatever we were told instead of thinking and choosing for ourselves but the third act doesn't really change that at all it just changes who we're listening to I honestly think even one simple choice would have improved this sequence greatly give the player the option to just leave rapture after putting the serum together I mean the whole idea of this point of the story is that we're breaking free of Fontaine's control but really even after that our choices are just being dictated by Tenenbaums guidance this isn't like the similarly subversive spec ops the line where the only right choices not to play we're supposed to play this sequence and it's supposed to be us taking control of our own lives and exerting the free will we thought we always had but without actually giving the player any will of their own in this part it just kind of falls flat in any case that's a Bioshock I've covered most of the relevant information throughout the summary but there is still one major question that deserves to be looked at what does Bioshock ultimately say about objectivism ken levine himself has said that Bioshock was meant to be an exploration of the danger of extremes rather than an indictment of Objectivism specifically and while I do value authorial intent I also think it's possible for a work to end up meaning something more or even something different from what it was intended to mean and Bioshock is pretty clearly opposed to Objectivist ideals not just because rapture failed after all Ryan himself managed to explain that away as the weakness of man and the persistence of the parasites but rather because of course rapture failed because of the weakness of man man is kind of imperfect a society based entirely on Objectivist ideals is based on the assumption that an entire community of people can operate solely on their own self-interest and still operate peacefully without doing harm to anyone else around them you can argue whether that's an inherently self-defeating concept but the simple fact is that humans aren't perfect an entire community based on that kind of self-centeredness eventually fell into ruin because it's kind of inevitable that someone like Fontaine would come along and of course you'd have conflicts of interest between people like Tenenbaum and Jasmine and Ryan or even Sophia Liam from the second game and the game showed quite clearly what complete freedom from moral and legal limitations did to people like Cohen and Steinman it's worth noting the symbolism of the fact that the substances that allow you to use plasmids are called Adam and Eve this is a clear reference to the biblical story of the fall of man in which sin is introduced into the world when the first two humans believe that they will become like God if they disobey the one rule he gave them for God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened and you will be like God knowing good and evil so the genetic material that brought about raptures success as well as its failure is named after the to humans who brought about mankind's ruined by trying to play God there is no way that symbolism is unintentional but regardless of whether you believe objectivism could work as a philosophy or a social structure we're here to look at what Bioshock says about it and Bioshock has some very clear themes of sacrifice and altruistic behavior both of which run wildly contrary to Objectivist principle this is what I was talking about when I mentioned earlier that the moral choice system in Bioshock is thematically appropriate risking your life and your own well-being in order to help the little sisters is actually rewarded and you're better off for it in the long run so in bioshock choosing to help someone else at cost to yourself is actually better for you than just acting in your own self-interest this position is also shown very strongly and clearly in the game's themes of parenthood Parenthood inherently requires the giving of oneself for the benefit of the child and it's a recurring theme throughout Bioshock especially in the comparison of dr. yi su Chun and dr. Brigid Tenenbaum both of whom were instrumental in both the creation of the little sisters and Jack himself su Chong works with the children purely for his own benefit he doesn't care about them at all he simply works for the furthering of his scientific goals in his career in the end of the fact that he only cares for himself rather than the girls he's working with is what leads to his wonderfully ironic and very much deserved demise Tenenbaum on the other hand started off the same way largely due to her ability to distance herself from the moral implications of her work from back when she survived the Holocaust by helping the Nazis with their experiments but interestingly enough something eventually kicked in for her that never did for su Chong maternal instinct make no mistake Tenenbaum is portrayed as the better of these two people and she's the one who abandoned all of her attempts at scientific progress in order to help young girls she felt she had wronged yet again altruism is glorified while selfishness is met with nothing but depravity and eventually death ultimately Bioshock reveals its stance against objectivism not only in how it portrays its characters and scenarios but in how it treats the player you're rewarded for putting the needs of others above your own thus glorifying self-sacrifice and completely opposing the whole idea that acting your own self-interest is the highest moral good even though I noted some major criticisms of the game and though the game plays generally pretty great there are some problems there that I didn't even go over in this analysis Bioshock is honestly still one of the greatest video games ever made it's one of those works that accomplishes so much and does so much right and just has so much power and depth that ultimately it's pile of flaws are completely dwarfed by its towering Colossus of achievements whoo all right I think that about covers it I mean not all of it because Bioshock is large and complex and objectivism even more so but with how long this episode already is I think it's best that I return to Bioshock later if there is more to be said so I hope you learned something and can better appreciate one of the great works of our time if you enjoyed this analysis please subscribe and check out some of my other videos and of course if you would like to see more analyses of this length and complexity then please consider supporting the show on patreon more support means a lot more time and effort that I can dump into this series so the link for that is down into the description if you want to help out next week we're going to talk about how games like fatal frame and dead space and still the horror of the games into the mechanics themselves and next time on literary analysis well you know we've had some heavy stuff the last few games we've analyzed so let's try something a little more fun and fluffy next time on literary analysis we're going to take a look at the first Halo game and see how compelling presentation can overcome a relative lack of depth to still deliver a very interesting story so until next week class dismissed this child is my Savior my reason to be underneath all my crashing weight she's safe in the sea a lumbering Hulk aside a Dalek and gentle a fine of terrible power of the sea a broken man a cheater II country of the sea there's no red just for me you

TOP 10 reasons to become a PILOT!!!



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Dear friends and followers!
Welcome back to my channel, and thanks for tuning in to watch this video where I show you ten good reasons why to become a pilot.
I know this video will bring many comments, as many of you know that flight school is expensive etc. This video is more about showing you what your benefits are as a pilot and having a career in aviation.
I want to do a video very soon on how to finance your flight school costs etc.
Apart from that enjoy my top 10 reasons why the life as a pilot is so great. Sure I could make a video about the top 10 reasons not to become a pilot, and maybe I will. And maybe many pilots don´t agree with my attitude/opinion about the career as a pilot. But as many of you know me from my channel, I´m a very positive minded person, I deal with things as they present themselves, sure it can be harsh getting up at 3:30 am and get ready for your flight, but therefore I get to enjoy my breakfast with a fantastic sunrise and be done for the day at about 2:00 pm. Make the best out of your life, stop whingeing about how stressful life can be. Get your act together, cause nothing ever good came out of your comfort zone.

Please leave a comment if agree with my list, but please spare me with comments about the cost of flight school, standby duty, and jet leg problems, I have to deal with them as everyone else has and had too.

Big thank you to my Instagram and youtube colleague pilotpatric for sending me his picture of the executive jet. Go to Instagram and look for @pilotpatric or here on youtube @pilotpatrick and check out his great pictures and videos.

Also big thank you to “People of the sky” on Facebook for sharing and supporting my channel. Go to @thegoballife here on youtube to check out their videos.

Thanks for your time, see you next week,
All the best your “Captain” Joe

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Joakim Karud – Loudness and Clarity

Dear friends and photos welcome back to my channel today. I want to show you 10 good reasons Why she's become a pilot, [so] let's get started 33 Runway 27, cleared for take off The flight training to become a pilot is relatively short compared to a doctor for example You need approximately three years of flight training to become a first officer on an airline jet Depending on the country you live in obviously and there are pilot curious out there where you need even less than two years? Compared to at least 10 years to become a qualified doctor You constantly get to know new and interesting people your crew members change frequently so do your passengers and everyone else involved in the industry don't be mistaken there are other pilot careers out there than piloting a passenger jet you can be a Corporate pilot flying rich people around in their private planes Or do a mail run in a cessna Caravan in the outback of Australia the opportunities are endless [if] you're a technical Orientated person flying is the job for you during your type rating you're going to deal with all [sorts] of different Airplane systems which are fairly complicated but once you understand the technical background and how it works in Daily Operation can be very satisfying you stay at beautiful holiday Destinations and get paid for it you have overnights in different cities And you have a chance to get a closer look at your destination and bring your girlfriend on the trip with you Ok I admit this can vary from airline to airline but if your company flies two long-haul holiday Destinations on a weekly basis you have a good chance that you stay there for an entire Week and more or less wait until the aircraft comes back so that you can fly back home You and your girlfriend or wife and family can fly to lower prices and other passengers? varying from airline to ellen you have two to three flights per year entirely for free plus You can book standby tickets throughout the year for at least half the price or less with your company Or other partner airlines which make your holiday trip fairly cheap And I know a few [low-cost] carriers who let their pilots fly entirely for free to get to the hole? Destinations as often as they want sounds pretty good to me Flying is not a job. It's a passion Having control over a big airbus or boeing or any other plane is absolutely mind-blowing Approaching airports you have not yet flown to give you that thrilling sensation as you are flying into the unknown Or to land approaches into dense fog where you completely rely on your instruments and the autopilot give you a rush Battling with adverse weather and enjoying the freedom of visual approach and flying a big passenger jet like a little cessna Never gets old, trust me. What is the best pick-up line in the club? It doesn't really matter what you say, but if the girl asks you about your job And you tell her you're a pilot your chances are pretty high that you get the girl's attention It's no secret everyone knows that similar if you would say you're A doctor. Maybe it's the uniform or the money which attracts the women or the fact that it's a job with a high responsibility which can be very sexy Funny enough there is a joke about it. How do you know there's a pilot in the room? He will tell you soon enough and By the way true story. I went out with my friends and one of them came up to me and said oh, Joe I just met this gorgeous pilot what a great guy, and I got into talking with him and he had no clue What serve about flying he just used it as a pickup line very sad, but very true. The job still enjoys a huge acceptance within the public it represents courage and power knowledge and discipline and Pilots are respected for their skills of knowing how to control a plane and act responsibly [in] case of emergency and getting their passengers to their Destination as quickly and safely as possible and it is still ranked as one of the most favorable dream jobs and many men Everyone out front should have been a final Exactly pilots get paid pretty good compared to other jobs [for] their time They're actually at work to give an example a friend of mine works as a doctor at a clinic [kicking] off [60] hours per week accumulating 200 hours per [month] And I find average of 70 hours per [month] and get paid the same or even more also if you're away from home [staying] overnight in different cities, ETc. You get paid for not sleeping in your bed Fantastic and what is the number [one] reason? No doubt about it Pilots have a lot of free time this obviously varies from airline to airline if you fly for Charter airline which has most of its luggage in [this] summer season you have a lot of free time during the winter [months] Long-Haul Pilots might only have eight flight per month, so approximately 20 days off not necessarily at home But outside of the airplane and thanks to new regulations Pilots have to have more free time in between flights And I've added all [my] off dates from last year Including holiday and Standby duty size didn't get called out of and I had [204] days off which is more than half a year of free time, not bad if you're considering the good salary so to sum up Being a pilot is great despite the fact where many other people say you have a huge responsibility Regarding your plane and the safety of your passengers and therefore you get paid adequately And you need in a free time to rest and recuperate Pilots still enjoy a big acceptance within the public and have less trouble meeting up with girls, but all the fun aside Becoming a pilot requires a lot of discipline courage will power belief in yourself Money and a bit of luck me personally I couldn't imagine doing anything else I hope you enjoyed this short video about the top [10] reasons to become a pilot Make sure to perform a touch & go at my instagram account The link is in the description below and don't forget to hit the subscribe button and the notification bell so you won't miss out any upcoming videos see you next Thursday all the best your and

In the Beginning: Explanations from Science and Religion



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Eugenie C. Scott, Francisco Ayala, and Denis Lamoureux on the intersection (and collision) of faith and evolution. Hosted by NPR’s Neal Conan, sponsored by Ohio State University and the Center of Science and Industry. Air date: 10/14/2009

production of this program was made possible by the John Templeton Foundation and as a co-production of the Ohio State University cosig and WOSU Public Media good evening and welcome to in the beginning explanations from science and religion i'm neal conan from NPR news and talk of the nation we've gathered at the Battelle studio at wosu at cosi to talk about the tangled intersection of faith and evolution we'll hear from a distinguished panel about their views on how the universe and life began how they changed and maybe even why they've changed denis Lamoreaux his holds degrees earned degrees in dentistry theology and biology his appointment at Saint Joseph's College is the first ten year track position in Canada dedicated to teaching and research on the relationship between scientific discovery and Christian faith he's the author of several books on the subjects we'll be discussing tonight Eugenie Scott has been the executive director of the National Center for the science education since 1987 she's a leading critic of creationism and intelligent design brought up in Christian Science by her mother and grandmother she later switched to a Congregational Church under the influence of her sister Scott is now a secular humanist and describes herself as a non theist in 2005 Scott and other members of the National Center for science education staff served as consultants for the plaintiffs in the Kitzmiller versus Dover Area School District case Judge John Jones ruled against teaching intelligent design or creationism in the public schools as a result of that trial our next panelist Francisco Ayala was a member of the US President's Committee of Advisors on science and technology from 1994 to 2001 in 2001 he was awarded the National Medal of Science at the White House in 2003 he was appointed University professor the highest titled at the University of California and he's currently the only professor holding that title at the University of California Irvine he has a long list of honours and achievements to his credit that has authored several public there's one especially intriguing title that we will no doubt discuss tonight Darwin's gift to science and religion so let's begin the conversation and dr. Lamoreaux let me turn to you first you're a proponent of evolutionary creation what is evolutionary creation well it sounds like a contradiction in terms doesn't it and the reason that is so is most people when they look at this discussion they set it up in a dichotomy in other words it's you're either on the atheistic evolutionary side or you're on the young earth creationist side the world was created in six days I use the terms the way professional theologians and professional scientists use it so when I'm using the word creation the professional definition of is simply this the world was made by a creator period now when I get into the lab with my scientific colleagues and do some evolutionary biology when we look at evolution we simply see evolution as a natural process by which all forms of life emerge period so an evolutionary creationist to someone who is first and foremost the noun creationist being the most important term one who believes in a creator just happens to be that the process is through an evolutionary one and evolutionary creation claims that the Father Son and Holy Spirit created the universe and life any evidence for that that would then be a that would be a religious statement to say Father Son and Holy Spirit that would be a distinctly conservative the Christian position obviously to talk about it being scientific evidence no it's a religious statement of faith when it comes to evolution it is simply a natural process and I'm gonna do this again period okay now whether there's a god behind it or whether what someone wants to make a commitment and say there is no god that indeed if you wish is a religious statement or I've got to use the technical term a metaphysical statement so we look at evolution and there's different ways of packaging it my my basic challenge ultimately would be to folks like Richard Dawkins who want a packaged evolution as being atheistic and I think that's a step beyond the science so when evolutionary creation is definitely a conservative Christian who's looking to evolution and seeing it as God's process dr. Scott and this is a question I'm gonna come back and ask all of you but dr. Scott was there a turning point that changed your mind about creation and what convinced you that God was not the explanation oh goodness no I I can't think of one I don't think anybody's actually ever asked me that before Neil no first of all I grew up in a in a in a liberal Protestant church environment very much enjoyed going to church enjoyed singing in the choir it felt it was a very comfortable sort of place I don't know I guess I just gradually drifted away from from faith I think I just became interested in different things I became a scientist I don't believe it was science that turned me away from faith or anything like that you don't see any contradiction between the two you know I don't faith religion well first of all I shouldn't I should you know people can get tied up with definitions but definitions are important because what I might mean saying a term may not be what you were here you may have a different definition so you have to remember that I come from this toward religion from an anthropological standpoint and when I'm thinking of religion I'm trying to think of a definition that would work not just for all the different forms of Christianity or not even for all the middle-eastern monotheism's or not even for world religions but something that would work for for the Hopi or tribal religions something that would that could be used across the board to describe this extremely important human practice and and basically to me religion is the set of ideas and practices and beliefs that that relate human beings to a non-material reality we we live in a material world a matter in energy world and we all recognize that most human beings believe there is something other than a material reality that that they can interact with and it can be where it can be the home of God or the gods or the ancestor spirits or whatever your tradition is most human beings believe there is in existence there is a reality like that a minority of human beings probably in every culture probably back there in the caves there was somebody thinking I don't think so but you don't mention it too often and in most societies exactly exactly or you get put on an anthill somewhere and so you sort of don't do that this is a much better time to be an unbeliever than probably any other time in human history but religion doesn't speak to everyone religion does not speak to everyone but it does speak to our next guest Francisco Jose Ayala and let me ask you some people find a contradiction between faith and belief in evolution do you know I don't I think that faith or religion and evolution or science are like two windows through which look at the world you are looking at the same world you are seeing different scenes science has to do with natural explanation with the process that account for the natural phenomena the religion has to do with the meaning of life the purpose of life life perhaps after death moral values these two things don't need to be contradictory at all as perhaps you may know in image shock some others who do not know not only I don't think that there is a position in particular between evolution and religion I think evolution is quite compatible with religion while this ideas which are go under the name of intelligent design and creationism are not compatible with religion earlier we were ahead there in propose in the name of religion by people who even do not know enough theology or do not know enough science in both cases they do not know either one very well implications of intelligent design for religions are the source disasters because we have been designed by God that is very incompetent engineer you know we have a job which is not big enough for all our teeth so we they have to pull the wisdom teeth and they have to straighten there all this 25 years and I made a lot of money on wisdom teeth so I'm grateful for that so you said you should thank God well maybe God just like the dentist plenty of examples from employing humans I mean the birth canal of a woman is not big enough for the head of the baby associated me the same processor the one of the teeth get respect you can you can pick up body parts and as you know they angry ation is pick up the human eyeball and say this is a perfection of design which could not possibly be achieved any other way the perfection of the eye mm-hmm other than by design well you only have to look at mollusks you know which include the test nails the clams and the octopus and squids and and they you see their degradation from very simple eyes very simple just a few cells in limpets to very elaborate eyes like ours in a squeeze and octopus they have a camera eyes like ours but they don't have a defect that we had because of the way they evolved in vertebrates the nerve forms inside the eye cavity so to reach the brain to pass the information from the retina to the brain has to cross the retina which is how we have a blind spot octopuses and squids don't have this problem because they they know they unearth forms in the outside so he goes directly to the brain without having a blind spot prove definitive according to the proponents of intelligent design that God loves squids and octopuses more well let me let me make Dennis Lamoureux uncomfortable with the same question I asked dr. Scott just a moment ago you were at one point in the in the creationist camp what changed your mind was there an epiphany let me tell you I was in medical school at the University of Toronto in 1983 and I was wrestling with this this issue and I was a young earth creationist and I walked out of medical school to become a creation scientist to actually go after people just like this the story's a long one it's it's basically 13 years of graduate school and you know I'm an evangelical Christian and I will say that when I made this move there was a sense of calling but in that sense of calling before I went to the Institute of Creation Research and I wrote my letters to Duane Gish in in Henry Morris there was a sense of if I was going to deal in this business how about having a hard look at what's going on in Genesis those early chapters so I became a specialist in Genesis went to 11 and what happened was the surprise of my life that reading Genesis is a lot more complicated than what I learned in my evangelical Sunday schools and so the process started there realizing my faith didn't move a bit my approach to Genesis I started seeing things they never saw before and then following a degree in in theology a PhD in theology there was still this wrestling with evolution and I thought well what about doing a PhD in evolutionary biology in teeth and jaws which is some of the very best evolutionary evidence and I came in as under the radar as a skeptic and after three and a half years of seeing the day to day in and day out I learned two things number one not all evolutionary biologists are raging atheists and mean-spirited eighth is in fact that department head was Reverend dr. David Payton an ordained Anglican minister was also an evolutionist and then too I mean I went little by little after three and a half years of seeing the data I just kept seeing more evolutionary elements at first I was like the little Boyd the Dyke I could sort of block it out and give a counter-argument and then it just kept coming over and over till finally I just put my hands up in the air and I'm not the only one who said this and has gone through this process and you'll hear the old word from me that the evidence for biological evolution is simp over whelming now the advantage I had to see that is I had this approach and that was going through theology realizing and I'm gonna give my faith I believe the Bible's holy spirit-inspired and that the Holy Spirit went and inspired at the level of the ancient people so in other words was not providing modern science but rather using an ancient understanding of nature and from there I was able to accommodate if you wish both my science and my theology and look at evolutionary biology in the following way and I ask this to Christians you know when you were being created in your mother's womb do you ever think of the Lord coming out of heaven and putting on an arm or putting on a leg I've yet to meet a Christian who said yes well rather we see ourselves and that wonderful Psalm 139 being nipped fearfully and wonderfully together and in the womb and so I look at evolutionary biology in the very same way evolution is is God's process through what you create so I do the analogy from the womb to life overall let me turn to you Francisco Ayala was there a moment when you said wait a minute or were you educated to see that there was no contradiction I was educated to see no contradiction I grew up in Spain Franco Spain we had a dictatorship and the nation was officially Catholic I went to a Catholic school the first science class that I had was about the equivalent of about 70 grade in the United States was taught by priest father Pedro and his talk about science in general many subjects and about evolution – and they never in my schooling there was any perception there was a contradiction between religion and evolution it's interesting we mentioned the dates on which you served on the presidential Advisory Board which of course were during the Bush administration I'm not going to draw any parallels to Francisco Spain yet some of the people that you may have met on that panel certainly don't hold your views no I self in the panel of advisers of Science and Technology during the AES of the Clinton at least you'll forgive me yeah I was presented the national medal of science by President Bush in the first year of his presidency at the White House but the one with whom we work actually we work mostly with with Vice President Gore on occasionally the presses will come to sit with us and be interested in some of the topics that we were discussing as advisors it was definitely Clinton not Bush and a group of people is a very interesting group of people I think could be very similar to the three of us we have a range of people from being top-notch scientists 3.so Nobel laureates and several people who were quite religious a couple of them at least and most of this would in any case do not so do not did not see any contradiction between religion and science so this issue of the apparent controversies compel contradiction by some people between evolution and religion never arose there as a subject they require discussion we were all in agreement we will refer to it would be as a social phenomenon dr. Scott you've written that although Americans may doubt evolution and public opinion polls tell us that a quite sizable percentage of Americans do you think they are reachable huh maybe one of my character flaws is is an optimism that that's looks toward the future I think ultimately whether you accept or reject a scientific idea has to do with your understanding of the idea and also has to do with what precepts you might bring in or or or already hold when you are presented that idea in order to get people to accept evolution or you they have to understand it and what I find is that most people really don't know what evolution is I have a colleague who teaches at a community college and one of the southeastern states which I will not mention and she told me that you know this is a college level class so of course you teach evolution you know evolution is not controversial at the college level it's taught routinely at every university including places like Baylor and Brigham Young and Notre Dame and places like that and but she had these students in her class who had never never learned anything about evolution when those chapters of the book came up the teacher just kind of passed over them and went on to other topics and but you know this College so she just taught evolution matter-of-factly after a couple of weeks a couple of these students came up to her and said well well if course species change through time you mean that's evolution mm-hm we thought evolution meant you can't believe in God and I get this regularly not just that from high school teachers but I even get get to told it by college teachers and I'm a former college professor myself and I ran into that idea the big idea of evolution is that living things shared common ancestors that there is this huge genealogical tree of life that relates all living things together that is in direct contradiction to one religious idea that God specially created everything in its present form indeed you know if that's your view of creation evolution isn't going to work for you but as my colleagues who are both Christians have pointed out there's more than one Christian view and actually the best-kept secret in this whole controversy is the majority of Christians Catholics and mainstream Protestants accept evolution as the way God did it so I think what we need is we need better understanding of what evolution really is we also need better understanding of the difference between science and religion which is sort of what we're working up to here on this panel but we also need I think more theological understanding I think most people don't really understand the view toward evolution that their own denomination holds dr. Lamar let me turn to you because to some degree this is also a reaction of people saying you are telling me what to believe you are telling me I must believe this and I don't hold with that yeah and you know I respect that and I and I never tell people what to believe I mean my pedagogical technique or teaching technique is as follows I want people to see the range of positions I want them to know that there's important people holding all these positions then I want them to make an informed decision to me that's the way I teach at University and you know I'll give you an example when it comes to the teaching of evolution I want the scientists in the major universities and I think the vast majority do to simply teach the science but as Jani points out if they're bringing in the metaphysics or a certain philosophy and collapsing them together I have no trouble the professor saying that to their students but not to say that this is evolutionary theory let me give you an example from my class I had this absolutely delightful young woman my first three weeks of the classes here are what the terms mean and I teach in a Catholic school within a public university the University of Alberta so I have a range of students she raises her hand and she says well before I start off I want you to tell you that I don't believe any of this Jesus stuff I said her that isn't a problem you're within a university I will defend you to make those statements and defend the case and she said I am an an aunt I'm a double major I'm in paleontology and honors evolutionary biology I am an atheist and now that I've been introduced to these different categories to suggest there are different forms of evolution I'm aghast at how a few of my professors come in to science class teach evolutionary biology and overlay it with Richard Dawkins –is Athey form of atheism and she says you know and what they're doing is they're baptizing evolutionary science with atheism and you could you could have heard a pin drop because all the you know the religious kids in the class going yeah this does occur so effectively and I think Jeanne you know Jeanne and I get along so you know in terms of our categories of discussion let them teach the science I have no trouble with the professor saying this is what I believe but do not and I'll use the technical term do not conflate or collapse evolutionary theory with a certain atheistic secular agnostic worldview and at the same time don't conflate it with my Christianity as well separate the science from the religious beliefs the nice thing about science is that it's really an equal-opportunity substratum for all kinds of philosophical ideas now you can somebody like like me or like Richard Dawkins would we'll look at the evidence from science and say you know we believe that this supports a conclusion of materialism that there's only matter and energy operating in the universe somebody like my friend Dennis or like dr. Collins would look at the evidence of science and evolution and say you know that supports his idea or their idea that that there is a in intelligence in the universe that there is a creator God that there's meaning and purpose at cetera my only argument is that neither side should say that science compels either of those conclusions because I think that's doing damage to what science is all about and to me it's just sloppy philosophy of science because like like Francisco was saying science is a way of explaining the natural world and we restrict ourselves to natural causes and explaining the natural world not because we're all a bunch of atheists because we aren't some of us are and not everybody is but because we don't have a theater all right we don't have a way of controlling for or holding constant any sort of actions of God whatever experiment you set up if you try to use God as part of that explanation you're not going to get anywhere because any result of that experiment is compatible with God's actions so you know lacking the theater we just have to leave God out and leave it just say nothing of God is not to say that God is nothing as if I add genie and I can go in the lab we could come out with the identical scientific results but then when we go to faculty club and start saying what are the religious or philosophical implications that becomes a completely different discussion we'd end up at different conclusions but the science the science is inert in that regard would that it be Francisco I think they are correct I certainly agree with everything that either one of them has said and was worth by world but however there is possibly a positive relationship between science and religion religion faith can be a motivating force to study the natural world and trying to understand the world as a creation of God and for a scientist who studies the beauty of the natural world there can be a source of religious inspiration so the two fields of knowledge of human activity I think can interact positively in the sense explained the problem arises when we enter into the into the notions the concepts in the way of explaining and accounting for things because again saying that once more science deals with natural causes with what happens in the natural world what explains the natural world religion deals with meaning purpose our relationship with God and with each other completely different subjects so I can be a positive feedback of sorts but neither science explains religion nor religion explain science and it's better to keep them aside in that sense when you were president of the Society for the study of evolution how do you study evolution I was a professor of at the University of California in Davis interestingly enough it was when I when I was professor of expression of the Society for the study of evolution that the state of Arkansas passed the famous or infamous law is that you does was called which required to teach creation science whenever evolution was being taught now nobody had heard of creation science before they statute itself the legal law that was passed in the last day of the legislature in the state of Arkansas with 15 minutes discussion said define what creation science and there were six statements taken from the Bible as in the Bible where the textbook of biology or or of astronomy you know so anyway that the statute was passed and as a consequence had been president of evolution I was the first contacted by the ACLU the American Civil Liberties Union to try to plan strategy as to how to deal with with the Institute and eventually as you probably know they were say they were challenged in the courts another thing that was going on at that time I was also member already a member of the National Academy of Sciences and there was a new president of the Academy and I went to him to tell him you know this is a matter in which the Academy of Sciences pronounced itself and Frank priests who have been science advisor to President Carter worse than the president of the Academy and he told me I came for the electrical purposes he said well why should the Academy get involved in a particular field of science and I told him I do remember they almost exactly the words I said this is not about a particular field of science this is about the survival or rationality in this country if we require that something which is not science be taught the science in the schools anything they pick a step backwards so I was one of the expert witness in the trial in late in 81 and as you may know just for to remind those of you who know one to to tell those who do not know they we expected the state of Arkansas to appeal the decision against the state of Arkansas the state of Arkansas decided not to appeal much in the disappointment of the Society for the study from the ACLU fortunately the way the state of Louisiana had passed esta – it was exactly the same world by world by world and the judge in the federal court in Louisiana decided he was not going to hold a trial because it was identical statute as the one in Arkansas has already been declared identical unconstitutional but the state of Louisiana appealed and that went all the way to the Supreme Court and was decided a second constitutional by the Supreme Court and this went on to the intelligent design in the Dover case and I want to ask you we know how that case came out to the same side nevertheless critics will say what is your problem with teaching competing ideas you have your ideas they have their ideas teach them both let the students decide absolutely nothing wrong with teaching competing ideas well we're talking about what do you teach in a high school science class and that's the big distinction in a high school science class you teach the consensus view of science or history or mathematics or whatever you don't teach opinions right you don't teach that either the Earth revolves around the Sun or the Sun evolves around the earth and let the students decide you present the consensus view of science heliocentrism is here to stay trust me on this in biology living things and common ancestors that's a consensus view of science it is not the consensus view of science that either evolution happened or everything was created as we see it in its present form which is the special creationist point of view now if the intelligent design proponents or the old creation science proponents wanted to present their ideas to the scientific community argue them in the professional meetings argue them in the journals argue them in the body of scholars and try to convince them that in the case of intelligent design something like irreducible complexity or complex specified information these other buzzwords that they use are really legitimate ways of explaining biology they have that opportunity science is open to new ideas if some you can come up with an idea that really shakes the idea of common ancestry that'll be fabulous we'll have a whole bunch of new research to do it'll be really really exciting evolution isn't a belief it just happens to be a really well demonstrated science which is why it's taught at the university level and why it's taught at the high school level and until the intelligent design people are able to make their case that they have a valid science they don't deserve to be taught at the high school level yet this allows your critics to portray you as opponents of academic freedom exactly yeah it's an extremely clever strategy if you don't have the science go for the culture they don't have the valid science so instead they're arguing on American cultural standards of fairness and academic freedom and we'll just let both sides be heard or let all sides be heard well you know we don't present that in a history class that Lee surrendered to grant and grant surrendered to Lee and let the kids decide we just teach them straightforward history with regards to intelligent design as I went from my young earth creationist phase I was loosely attached to these guys back in the you know the mid early 90s you know Phil Johnson might be he dam ski bill dam skia Steve Meyer and I might add there some people will say they're charlatans and such I will defend these guys they are true believers they're genuine spirits I don't agree with where they end up but the one thing that I've seen with this group and Jeanne is absolutely right science starts with certain ideas that are outside the pale fair enough but they've had 15 years now to present the intelligent design theory and I'm still waiting for that theory to come forward at that 94 meeting it was in Cambridge at the CS Lewis Summer Institute it was a who's who in science and religion still remains the best two-week conference I've ever been to I always remember William Lane Craig who's an evangelical philosopher and theologian one of this country's and the world's leading apologists asking Michael Behe he was this is 94 so black box came out in 96 and Bill said to Mike three times well if it's not evolution what's the theory if it's not evolution what's the theory if it's not evolution what's the theory and three times Mike didn't provide a theory so I'm still waiting to find out what's the theory now we hear a lot of things like irreducible complexity and you know the fame flagellum and and and things like that but is that indeed the theory are you telling me that we need this divine intervention with regards to the first cell if that's the theory then put it in print and let's debate it but it's not there and it's not clear now as a theory and I will defend these guys as a possibility let's say there is that one event that God put the cell all together from there everything evolved which by the way interestingly is Michael B he's Theory Michael B he's an evolutionist except for that first cell in Darwin's black box and if in that indeed is the case that is what is called the God of the gaps and we have a track record of people proposing divine events to you know to account for things and for missing information and what happens as science goes on that information gets found and the gap gets closed now if ID and the first cell is true this is what we're gonna find from biochemistry the next generation of biochemists will say there's no way molecules could self organize into the cells then the next generation after that you see instead of the gap closing the gaps gonna widen and widen and widen I'm waiting to see the gap widening and what's happening to evolution in terms of you know ask any good molecular biologists have we figured out how molecules turn into cells oh goodness gracious we're a long ways away from that but have we figured out bits and pieces and parts of it we have and when it comes to this fame flagella in flu or flagellum we have bits and pieces of how that came about so my concern with intelligent design theory is number one it's really not out there clearly and number two it's a god of the gaps and we have a historical record the gaps have always closed different asylum we have more than bits and pieces the evolution of the flagellum has reconstructed in great detail all the genes that were involved first of all there is not such a thing as the bacterial flagellum because it's bacteria had different forms of la jolla flagella that serve different purposes but in general and for all of them has been reconstructed gene by gene duplication of gene interaction between genes going down to the present day flagella so this has been done in originally in two very profound papers and published in a magazine not known as nature the other one in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences and did and afterward is this evidence and arguments have been repeated and clarified in many ways for the general public so actually they all the examples useful Michael Leahy is a bona fide biologist as has been pointed out he's not really an evolution is he say biochemist but all the examples that he uses in that book some of them they devolution le history was already known in detail he didn't know it and the other cases have been reconstructed completely so he does not use any longer those examples you know in in my way of looking at this matter first what you were saying about why don't we want to teach alternative theories you know my response to that is you know our children our young people received a very poor education in science the last thing we we can do we can afford to do is to teach in something which is not science as science and to make the point I ask people would you want them to teach alchemy together with chemistry and astrology dwelling with astronomy and witchcraft whether we medicine obviously not we want to teach as Geneva said the scientific consensus and I will go further in with respect to evolution being an evolutionist of course I'm passionate about the theory there is no scientific theory at present that is as well corroborated as the theory of evolution because it has happened that as particles displace or biology have come about is like neurobiology what is called evo-devo evolution and development and particularly molecular biology this discipline we are not looking for evidence for evolution but are providing the strongest evidence for evolution and so we are in a situation where you know challenging now the theory of evolution as a scientific theory makes no sense if somebody comes with an idea that will make sense as Jeanne says well let me just try one more shot at this and that is that the critics the creationists and the anti evolutionists say wait a minute you don't let us speak at your colleges you don't let us write in your publications you exclude us we do the thing about the thing about the academic life and I'm an ex college professor I'm a former president of a professional scientific society I know how these things work most associations of scientists have meetings at those meetings they're pretty freeform you can present a poster or a paper if you can write a coherent abstract the in Physical Anthropology we actually have one or two individuals who come to our physical anthropology meetings and present papers on Bigfoot now Bigfoot is not a real popular topic amongst is acclaimed Paula gist you know you're not going to find it but he can write a coherent abstract he has ideas about footprints or fingerprints or something he can present these papers he can try to draw around him a group of people who would be willing to do research on this topic and maybe he can build a movement this intelligent design people can go to their biochemistry meetings and their molecular biology meetings and their information theory meetings or whatever they can go to their professional associations they can present their ideas when you present your ideas your ideas are going to get shot down by your opponents I mean sometimes when I'm at a campus I'll say raise your hand if you ever submitted a paper for publication a whole bunch of papers go up a whole bunch of hands go up keep your hand up if all of your papers have been accepted and there's a big you know roar of laughter all the hands go down nobody promises you a rose garden the the field of scholarship is not easy you actually have to have something substantial to say you have to support it and you have to fight for your ideas the intelligent design folks have the right to do that they are not instead they're going to the op-ed you are going to the school board I want to take that even one step further if any scientist or any person who know science would would develop a scientific theory contrary to the theory of evolution which is well argued that scientists will get a Nobel Prize they will be celebrated notified there is nothing that we like more in science that finding an argument against something which is generally accepted of course science develops in a tentative way sometimes things which are tentative at the time become firm later you know I have been in the last few years working with parasitic protozoa which cases the Seas like malaria and Chagas I have turn around some of the general concepts were accepted about how these parasites reproduce and how they live and how they function I normally has shut down my ideas on the contrary they are celebrated scientists want to have contrary ideas so long as they they are airing it scientifically we good evidence and so that they can be accepted as scientific ideas and can I follow with a specific example from vertebrate paleontology I work in a laboratory most of my time is spent doing theology but I still do some evolutionary work on evolution of teeth and jaws I'm in a laboratory of Mike Caldwell the chair of biology at the University of Alberta and he's a Mosasaurus specialist which is a aquatic reptile a specialist and there was a conference in Iowa a number of years ago and Marcus Ross who was a young earth creationist from Liberty Baptist University was giving a presentation and Mike is Mike Mike like snowin theists and Mike point-blank Lee said and I saw the email that Marcus will be allowed to present his ideas and that he didn't want any disrespectful rhetoric with regard to that to the say that they're not given the opportunity I mean he didn't convince anyone in fact he didn't engage and there were a few people asked questions but didn't go much from that so like dr. yahwah says you know scientists with lifes put it this way genie wouldn't you love to find a human molar down in the cambrian i mean let's say you and i want a human that's right no if we found a human molar down in the cambrian and this is what a word of exaggerated we turn all of science upside down and and and and it's not like it would be hidden I mean and there's the scientific community is massive and I guarantee if there was that one human molar down there everyone would be there and books and the money behind that hate to be cynical the money behind that would be spectacular you know just just to shift things a little bit I think a lot of the problem with religious opposition to evolution really is religious opposition to the idea of being able to explain things through natural causes and its really misunderstanding what science is all about and we keep hammering away at we're trying to explain the natural world using natural causes that's true of cell division that's true of explaining Chagas disease or parasites and whether that's true of explaining how to straighten teeth that sets true of all of science but when people try to explain the origin of all living things on earth and how we got this lovely diversity of creatures and where human beings came from in our relationship to other organisms when you try to explain to that kind of thing by reference to natural causes that's when people get all upset well and and they shouldn't you know because that's just the way you do science I've often asked conservative Christians who have come up and spoken to me after lectures if we because they always bring up the idea well you haven't discovered the origin of life therefore evolution didn't happen which is really not the case because even if we don't understand step-by-step way of getting from inorganic chemicals to that first reproducing cell we still have common ancestry once you get that cell from then on its evolution and we're not dependent upon a natural origin of life for evolution but what I say to them is okay let's just say two weeks from now let's say that somebody in a laboratory someday someplace comes up with a really plausible series of events going from inorganic molecules to organic molecules to something that can reproduce to something that we can reproduce within a membrane a first cell would that mean there's no God and they'll say of course not just because you can explain something with natural causes doesn't mean there's no God dr. lamoureux let me ask you you're the one here who currently teaches students some of whom come like that young girl who is an atheist but some of whom are not and they will see this evolution as an attack on their way of life Wow you've teed it up for me I teach exclusively science and religion and if I had to describe the average student that came comes into my class it's a student who's got a religious background a personal faith and a good portion of them want to go to med school they want to go to the next program they've got to go through the biology department and they need a lot of A's to get to the next program evolutionary biology sure you've got the fossil record but you want to know where the greatest evolutionary evidence is occurring that gentleman's discipline right there genetics and molecular biology so if I had to describe the average student and I love these these young men and women they are compartmentalized and I'm not dissing them they compartmentalize for their own psychological safety they're seeing the evolutionary evidence on one hand in the laboratories and in their their university education and they're they're working hard at it to get their raise they're having their Sunday morning experience but in their Sunday schools there's this be suspicious of evolution but they've also got this faith how do they do it and you know what I find so amazing and basically a 13 week course I can show them and again simply my position a variety of different models of people who have done both the science and the theology and are very faithful so here's how you can do it and so they can integrate and they know intuitively they want they don't they don't want this compartmentalised worldview and in simply 13 weeks I read these papers and I just I know when I was their age I could never process there's there's absolutely brilliant and they put it together and they're basically doing it in the way that all three of us and remember I think what's great about this panel is remember genie is a non theist and this makes sense to her categorically and it can be done by Francis like Francisco Ayala there is no reason why being a scientist should be incompatible with being a person of faith or accepting science being being compatible with accepting faith as I said earlier I think that one can be a source of inspiration for the earlier but I want to go back to the statement that I made him passing before you asked me or gave me the opportunity for it that you know with intelligent design you have this problem of the imperfections is not imperfections is that in the world of life there is these functions that is cruelty there is oddities there you know parasites can only live by killing their hosts so it seems like if somebody has to be serviced to have designed that well sometimes when I try to explain to people including my students when they ask me questions about this well but that does not excuse god of being you know responsible for these things if these things occur in the world ultimately god that has to be responsible my view of that is that the theory of evolution in fact solves with the theologians called the theodicy problem why there's this kind of evil in the world because cruelty you know when you have a troop of baboons which usually is a group of him with a dominant male and then many of the females are breast feeding the babies is that dominant male is kill or dies or it's removed by some other dominant male the first thing that the new male does is to kill all the babies now that is favored by natural selection because by doing that the females go all into estrus and then the male fertilizes them and the babies are going to carry his genes so any genes that move him to kill the babies will be favored by natural selection because they will multiply more so at limiting you know the design of organisms to God to me amounts to blasphemy now some people say well but he God has not done it still one step removed I don't care with what they say that my explanation is this is something has been said by Willie and demske he's like saying the God is not responsible for the evil in the world because you say that he has not decided that he's a creator of the world is like a mugger that comes with a wild dog and rather than killed killing his victim has the dog killing the victim and there's not so because you see baboons are not moral subjects parasites have no moral subjects they cannot cause evil so in the actions they do are not caused by an AI agent specifically the sign then they stop being evil actions they're just phenomena of nature you know there there is no morality in the actions of a baboon Oh a parasite so that eliminates completely this problem of the presence of evil in the world we don't have to explain evil in the world by somehow creating a theology that comes for it simply there is no moral evil knievel baboons and parasites there still is human suffering I mean their fiamma see problems everything she did well is explained at least in certain Christian traditions explain human suffering and human sin because you have God I think most marginal explanation in in Christian is certain in the Catholic tradition but also you notice in some of the main mainstream churches is that you know God could have created robots rather than humans but they would not be very interesting beings it's much better to have humans that we have freedom now having free will yes as a consequence they have we can do good or we can do evil now and do we who do good we earn you know or eternal reward that's it we're dead weight Esther stay does the doctrine you do evil will be punished now he with God would have created robots there would not be human evil no it would it would not exist but but that would not be first of all an interesting world second it certainly it would be not really humans the same with a with the rest of the animal and you know up world and in fact all of life God would have created a word that did not evolve freaks there will not be a very interesting word the word which we live that evolves were new species appear new nuclide kinds of organ is no relationship new ways of life I mean the the devolution of life I was saying nearly can be a great source of inspiration for religion for a religious view of the world we have to keep them apart it can be a source of religious inspiration so God is responsible for the evil in the world the kind that comes from evolution no because those that evil is no longer evil because they are not moral subjects God could have created a world in inner world yes but they would not have been a very interesting world I'm happy that we have free will and the world of all is much more interesting you know I used to say that I didn't go into science because I never did well in the courses in which there was only one right answer and now I suspect I just didn't study it long enough but we're not science here did you notice the interesting dialogue that started emerging here the problem of evil in the world you know with a loving God where is this loving God now that's a challenging and great question and that's one of the questions we have to wrestle with I'll make an just because this is something that I was thinking of when Francis was talking to if you're going to be a religious person your religious views have to take into consideration the real world no I mean you if you're gonna have if you're I'm not a believer but you know I hang out with a lot of theologians and you know they will tell me that if you're going to have a real meaningful theology it has to accord with what we know of the natural world so obviously science has to inform religion now where we run into problem is with something like creation science and I would argue also intelligent design which is where people are saying well the theology has to inform the science the theology has to tell science how the real world is that doesn't that's not the way science works you know we metal along best we can trying to explain things using natural causes not supernatural because it's not gut because it happens to be a very good way to find out in a very reliable way and a way that ends up with providing very good explanations of the natural world but theology has to consider science and not all theological views are concordant with what we know of science what have we learned from this challenge what have you learned specifically doctors creationism and intelligent design have you learned anything from the critics I have learned some good things but mostly I don't know how to put it my my I have learned from this dialogue is a very sad situation the one that we are confronting in the United States because we are creating a problem a conflict where there is no need for conflict where there should be if anything collaboration and much reinforcement and the problem exists because we have very poor scientific education and we have very poor religious education because even the proponents of intelligent design could benefit of taking a few courses in theology you know they will learn things that they don't seem to to know so what we need how to deal with to solve the problem more education more education in the schools but also once people leave the schools you know the media the press the radio television should play a role in continuing education and and certainly with respect to science that does not happen in this country does not happen really in any country seriously but it does not happen in this country and we are the leading country in the world in matters of science and technology you know how many pages you see dedicated to science every day in the main newspapers nothing I mean you have six or eight pages dedicated to sports you have probably a portal page to half a page to the horoscope but science does not get anything I mean you have some exceptions you know the LA Times yes I mean the New York Times has on Tuesdays you know for a fight rages Tuesday but as an exception is very in occasional newspapers publish an article about some newly-discovered thing or whatever you need young celebrities to you need continues education and would be wonderful if the media would pay more attention to the needs to educate the public respect to science production of this program was made possible by the John Templeton Foundation and as a co-production of the Ohio State University cosine and WOSU public media

National Geographic Documentary Lake Monster of the North Full HD Science Documentaries



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in northeastern Canada harbors a legendary monster the descriptions match those told by Native Americans of swimming demons and water Devils eels longer than a canoe and strong enough to capsize a boat we hear of stories of gigantic eels is it possible that something dreadful has made this Lake its home or is this a local legend passed down for centuries it's almost a badge of honor if you've seen it a monster quest team dives into the icy murk to find out what slithers beneath and employs the latest technology to seek the truth about Lake crescents monster eel witnesses around the world report sea monsters are they you or imaginary science searches for answers on Monster quest Roberts arm a fishing town nestled amid the rugged bays of Newfoundland northeastern coast is a seemingly peaceful place but beneath the still black waters of majestic Lake Crescent something is said to live as it has for untold years I started here it was kind of long featured there was no waves on either side was just a deep swell to be vibrating the head was like long pointy 30 feet long witnesses describe a serpentine creature 20 to 40 feet long with a snake-like head and featureless body it most closely resembles an eel but compared to any known eel fresh or saltwater this is a monster sightings of similar phenomena are reported across Canada from Lake Okanagan in British Columbia and Lake Manitoba in Manitoba kalegnon from agog in Quebec on the Vermont border but this is the first scientific investigation into the monster of Lake Crescent Lake and ocean monsters have a long history a Swiss naturalist Conrad jester was the first to try to classify these unknown Giants for two centuries North American sailors have reported sea serpents all along the eastern seaboard but the oldest accounts in this area come from stories passed down from the very first native settlers of this continent if you talk to the Algonquin and you interview them they talk about serpents John Castleman a biologist at Queen's University Kingston has investigated these native legends and you asked them and you question them and you think maybe serpents are snakes but when you talk to them about serpents they'll tell you that serpents are not snakes tales of these unlikely Lake Monsters have persisted here for centuries terrified Native Americans refer to them as pond Devils or swimming demons what were these tribal members seeing is it possible that these stories of the swimming demons can be explained by a giant heel there are about 600 species of eagles in the world they are fierce carnivores with a notoriously indiscriminate appetite preferring live fish and large invertebrates most eels possess a highly developed sense of smell to track their prey with their serpent like heads slimy bodies called beady eyes and razor-sharp teeth the eel is a creature reviled and feared by some although not common eels have even been known to attack humans in April 2005 British tourist Matt butcher was diving off the Similan Islands in Thailand when a moray eel latched on to butchers left thumb once the eel bit into his flesh butcher was powerless to get it off within seconds the powerful jaws and needle-like teeth had sliced through the skin bone and cartilage Castleman is the first to admit that even after a century of research biologists still know very little about heels heels are very interesting and in anyways many ways very mysterious because we've never seen a spawning eel there are very ancient fish they're among the most ancient fish the largest and most ferocious of the species are all oceanic eels and although Castleman doubts the existence of a 30-foot long eel living in a lake he cannot say with certainty that it could not occur every now and then we hear of stories of gigantic eels occurring in freshwater and and there's some really well documented observation certainly one of these sightings was by a man who has decades of experience with the native North American eel I've been fishing since the late 50s I started with feels–oh it kept going from there and the first thing I knew I was in the eel fishing business John Roraback is a commercial eel fisherman on Lake Ontario the fish is considered a delicacy in Europe and Asia it's a profitable catch in 1974 Roraback was fishing with his father on Lake Ontario and claims that he encountered an eel of gigantic proportions after a long day fishing for eels Roraback caught sight of a massive shape coming towards him in the water well when it come to me I was in moss so all I could see was a big hump coming so I dropped on top of him like that I was gonna flip him in the boat as Roraback attempted to catch hold of the creature it reared up and was strong enough to lift the man out of the water he just wasted me in the area went right on underneath me he was too big Roraback fought to wrestle with a large slippery creature he turned around come back and when he come back I got on him again this time my whole body but whatever the creature was it was too strong he just slid right onto just shove me in there there's no way but she's gonna hold that thing it was monstrous that's to see something like that it's like something you think you looking at a movie you know the incident left war of X shaken whatever it was that he encountered that night he knew that it didn't belong in these waters it wasn't the North American heel the only other you let it know is that any anywheres near that size is the conger but conger eels do not inhabit freshwater lakes they can tip the scales at 200 pounds and have been known to measure over 12 feet in length they are terrifying and voracious Knight predators locking they're incredibly strong jaws onto their prey they twist and turn their bodies like a screw ripping away chunks of flesh and although the Conger is exclusively an ocean eel Roraback suggestion may make more sense than it seems the thing that's unique and interesting about Congress is from time to time we see eels in fresh water that are gigantic eels these reels that were 2 meters more than 2 meters long 6 7 feet long you know 8 to 10 inches in diameter and truly gigantic 800 miles downriver from we're Roraback had his encounter in Lake Ontario the island of Newfoundland in eastern Canada guards the entrance to the st. Lawrence estuary it's here at Crescent Lake that locals say the granddaddy of such creatures has been sighted for centuries ever since I was a kid I always heard stories Fe Colborne has lived on the lake side for more than 32 years she says many of the older generation told of something menacing in the lake I believed it because all the holder folks were reliable people at certain times they would see ok they'd have a sighting of the Contra monster so there have been numerous sightings here over the past 100 years and the legendary stories from Lake Crescent continue to emerge one such account from the 1980s told of royal canadian mounted police divers searching for the corpse of a drowning as the scuba divers braved the murky waters they found themselves surrounded by a school of vicious eels said to be as thick as a man's thigh the massive creatures then attacked the divers who quickly swam to the surface to escape there's a problem with the story the Royal Canadian Mounted Police have no record of such an attack still many legends bear a kernel of truth in this case it's the sightings that date back to ancient times even so this man is skeptical of the existence of crécy the nickname given to the monster by locals it's not likely that there's something unknown to science in these waters after years spent investigating the lake monsters of North America author and researcher Joe Nickell believes that Lake Crescent Monster is more local legend than scientific fact he believes it's self-perpetuating someone sees something and they tell a story and pretty soon it's almost a badge of honor if you've seen it nickel will offer up his own explanations and will perform an experiment to test whether the sightings can be explained away as mere optical illusion 22:30 meanwhile a forensic sketch artist will produce the first images of the lake monster and analyze the startling consistency between the many witness sightings if a professional sketch reveals that different people are seeing the same detail it could suggest that what they are seeing is very real an eel three times longer than the largest documented specimen lurking in the waters of Lake Crescent waters that marine biologist Richard Heydrich will search employing traps sonar divers and submersible technology most of my experiences is working in the ocean and particularly in the deep sea I'm a firm believer that there's plenty out there that that we don't don't know about now Richard Heydrich is determined to find what would be the greatest discovery of his career a monster eel so guess what we want to do now just head down the middle of this of the East basin here you're crowding this leg and there's salmon and there's what we call salmon veal you know yeah but there are but there are only other deals area honey yielder local fisherman and expedition pilot all went right out has lived on the shores of this lake his whole life when you hear stories like this particularly ones that go back a long ways they they have their foundation in something so that the idea that that something could could be in here of large size and quite mysterious is it's not at all surprising the local topography suggests an extremely deep body of water lake Crescent is nearly as mysterious as the monster that locals say inhabit it although there are no depths indicated in the lake people have told us that it's virtually bottomless will Lake Crescent finally give up its darkest secret you saw it didn't you you you the people of Roberts arm in eastern Canada claim to have seen an extraordinary and terrifying beast rumored to be over 20 feet long I think people think you're crazy if I am I say assault Fe Colborne is not the only witness in the past two decades there have been at least a dozen sightings I was just appalled that what I saw my wife and I were driving and I I've got a tendency to to always look in the lake what Fred parson saw in July 1991 was astonishing lo and behold Thera was the creature just laying on the water so that's when I backed up and I don't know I would say I observed it for 30 to 40 seconds I was shocked I was dumbfounded I I just couldn't believe it you know it wasn't moving in the water but it was it had this tendency to to be vibrating and consequently there was a number of low profile waves and ripples emanating from his body all around I mean I estimated to be between 15 and 20 feet long I'm convinced that what I saw was some kind of a giant eel that's the way I described it the Lake Crescent eyewitnesses are about to undergo their first real test if you see a creature like this in the lake your emotion will be quite high so you will store that information in that very very special place in your in your brain Michel Fournier a forensic sketch artist is more used to working with victims of crimes but for him the principle is exactly the same due to a lack of photographic evidence Fournier will sketch the monster based on detailed recollections of witnesses you need to enter somebody else mine and extract that information but first of all you need to establish if that person is telling the true so there was those small waves emanating from all around his body that thing is not moving no the thing except except the shivering shivering motion exactly four days intensive training allows him to deduce from questioning whether the eyewitness is reliable this thing was round and Fred not flat it was round exactly after two hours work Fournier let's the witness see his final sketch is there any change you want me to no no okay okay so on a scale one to ten I'm going to rate it at least a nine okay that's good that's good meanwhile Richard Heydrich is trying to get a better understanding of Lake Crescent and makes an interesting discovery you can tell that certainly the deepest places are going to be hard by those cliffs and then down along there then there's a connection to the lake through this river where there are no prominent waterfalls it provides very good access to the sea eel is traditionally spawned in the salt water of the Sargasso Sea an elongated region in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean but exactly where in this region remains a mystery it's very unique because we have never seen a spawning eel they leave fresh water and go to the ocean and when they go to the ocean the only time that do we know that they've been successful is their young or starting to swim back by way of the Gulf Stream it's a pattern of behavior that goes back 250 million years to the time of Pangaea the supercontinent that existed prior to the continents splitting into their current configuration eels evolved probably a hundred and twenty-five million years ago we know that they survived continental drift in other words they lived in the ocean started to use fresh waters before the continents divided is it possible that this ancient species at home in both fresh and salt water might have spawned a monster still living in Lake Crescent if so then modern technology like side scanning sonar might help find the beast what this is called is a it's called a fish and and what it is something is that you tow along and it has little echo Sounders basically built into the sides of it that's what this does it'll look at the bottom of things where things might like to hang out sit around yeah there 6969 okay yeah the sonar images show the areas that should be explored further with divers and submersible cameras plenty of water maybe it's showing it rough well well that's probably a lot of rocks it's gonna be a very interesting place to dive and have a look at this is just right here eels are known to hide in dark crevices and deep waters the sonar images show that this could be an ideal habitat there's kind of a little Basin in between us and the cliff and the cliff face so there's a rock ridge it's running underneath this it goes up here so this is a real good place these are going to provide caves and ledges and overhangs and that sort of thing which would be it which would be good shelter particularly for a for a large eel a baited crab trap is used to attract the attention of whatever lives at the bottom of Lake Crescent this is the area where most of the sightings of any of these mysterious creatures have have been in a lake that's only six miles long a few herring can go a long way especially for the highly refined senses of a giant heel an eel can smell a herring a thousand miles away they really can they are extremely sensitive pedra CH is hoping that an easy prey will lure the monster to the spot and Joe Nickell examines a strange set of photos that could explain the lake beast no question is if it's an eel it's huge you the residents of Roberts arm on the coast of Newfoundland in northeastern Canada are convinced their lake is home to a monster eel that the local media has dubbed cressie but Joe Nickell as he examines the evidence is skeptical he's an investigator of cryptids creatures whose existence has been reported but not scientifically proven I have here a series of photographs and this certainly this first photograph could be a very long very gigantic eel as far as one could tell from the photograph it's it's obviously long curved snake-like you can see from some idea of the surrounding rock and so forth that it's this is not just a little something little but it's sizeable here we see it where the animal's body is very flexible and it it looks like an arch or a hump in the water we sometimes hear something having a series of these as if it's moving a very snake-like very serpentine no question this is a living living creature it's if it's an eel it's certainly eel like and it's huge then we see in the next photo dramatic shift we see now that we can see two creatures and we begin to they begin to look familiar to us otters here it is furry and not looking so sleek and wet and flexible but this is the same creature river otters are rare but not unknown in the area around Robert's arm could locals have misidentified this lake monster here's a classic sea serpent lake monster type of drawing and yet if we look closer if we could if we were the eyewitness and could peer underwater and see what we're actually the case we see that this is a separate animal this is a separate animal we recognize them now as otters and it's like a magician's illusion it's an optical illusion of sorts it's a misperception whatever skeptics say locals are sure that what they are seeing are not otters or anything else known to man I definitely saw a head and a body whatever it was it was real in 1995 Fe Colborne had the longest sighting of the creature yet she watched the months to cross the lake for more than 15 minutes I was just more or less in deep thought and the movement just when I just glanced and movement caught my high I went and to the window kind of I started here it was kind of long feature and in the body and when it swam was like a swell there was no waves on either side it was just a deep swell I watched it for a big 15 20 minutes because the lake is wrong and I watched to tell it when it sight aye-aye sir always at the time but it was probably 20 to 30 feet and under forensic artist Michel Fournier attempts to translate EFI's account into an accurate image when at the beginning I said about K my mind my horses he had but was not as big as a horse's head it was more more slim and more painted but yes that's the first thought when I saw the hand I look at the sketch what do you think is the thing that it looks like the shape of the update yes kind of look like this anything you want to change or add or no no you're happy with this yes back on the lake the monster Quest expedition adds some new technology to its arsenal well we're up to the second day now and we've added a bunch of new pieces of gear which are very exciting to have one of them is a sonar not unlike the side scan sonar that we used yesterday but it's going to be much higher resolution and in conjunction with that we have an ROV which is a wonderful little instrument with this instrument we hope the perhaps we might have actually be able to see Cressy at some point today okay Richard Vandervoort has been working with underwater robotics for over 25 years he has piloted remote operated vehicles in many dangerous environments from oil rigs to shipwrecks but this is his first at Lake Crescent so for today's exercise we have our video ray eyeball ROV which has dual camera color pan and tilt camera in the front black and white stationary camera in the back visibility is always a problem with operating our Ovie's we do have our avoidant sonar which we deployed earlier that allows us basically to see in the dark so if there any object there we can pick them up on sonar first that will give us a target to fly over to with the vehicle with an ability to go as deep as 1,000 feet the ROV is the perfect way to investigate rocky outcrops caves and crevices where bottom-dwelling eels are most likely to be found including possibly a mammoth species that shouldn't be here the idea of a conger eel which is one of the largest of eels and does occur in the saltwater here coming up and occasionally making its home here is perfectly is is believable for sure you know it gets lost and this happens a lot in the ocean the conger eel is a fearsome creature they can weigh up to 200 pounds and are known by fishermen for their terrifying fighting power they will eat anything that moves that are strong enough to take down sea birds and aquatic mammals their razor-sharp teeth and huge jaws easily crushing through bone and crustaceans Heydrich has a plausible theory for how a displaced Conger could grow to monstrous proportions what happens instead of some of the food energy that it gets having to go into reproduction it can you can all go into growth and so these things can grow and get very large a 30-foot Conger could reach half a ton easily capable of overcoming and devouring a full-grown man leaving no trace of its victim the Monster quest expedition crew is about to see for the first time into the deepest reaches of Lake Crescent you for nearly a century the residents of Roberts arm in eastern Canada have spoken of a monster that lurks in majestic Lake Crescent described a serpentine but larger than any known heal some believe it could be a displaced ocean dweller the monster Quest expedition crew have captured something on their ROV camera okay now just sticks line there or actual trails either they look to me like trails something's made these little tracks now we can't see anything right at the moment except when you see that stuff now heels hey it could be I mean there's not a lot of candidates that would make those tracks there there are there they're small tracks well there's a big one there's another one right there there's something once the waters settle Heydrich wonders if the trails could be typical lakebottom disturbances a closer look show strange patterns emerging from the murk as if something heavy has slithered along the lake floor it's very familiar to people that look at bottom photographs all the time to see tracks all over the bottom usually made by crabs and snails and things like that I think if this looks like a latticework of sticks to me meanwhile investigator of cryptids Joe Nickell wants to put eyewitness claims to the test so we're gonna take this out the middle of the lake anchor it and then ask the eyewitnesses to guesstimate the length of it and we'll see if they're able to do that at an unknown distance the log seems a good idea it's it's a natural object it's something that people would see in a lake and sometimes do mistake for Lake Monsters people make estimates but they really don't usually have any frame of reference they're just it's an impression if there's something next to it a rock of known size or a boat or something then you would have some scale nickel anchors the log in the center of the eastern Basin the location of most of the Cressy sightings as Nikhil gathers the eyewitnesses for the experiment Richard Heydrich and the team have found an excellent spot to search for an oversized and hungry my belief is that that any animal isn't is never gonna go very far from where it can get something to eat and the best place in here is where the lake narrows chokes down to that that little narrow entrance at the at the bridge and there were fish jumping there were there was a loon there were all kinds of things going on so that for my money is where you want to look for something that that is probably out looking for a meal and to find it the ROV is sent back into the murky water yes look at this aww look at all this salt sediment yes hard to say for the divers to have a look at see what the heck that really is I mean it's all a lot of structure in that a lot of structure see these little Thanks the soft bottom of the lake would provide excellent coverage for a needle waiting to ambush its next victim the massive disturbances on the lakes floor grab hydrogen attention that looks like a bunch of bones with some intriguing targets to explore the divers prepare to go head-to-head with whatever's hiding down in Lake Crescent okay so we make this too diverse right at the moment we'll see what happens on this Sweetback we've been pointing the position where the divers are now those are two men and basically you've got a relatively small dot you know because they're only about 2 meters long or 2 meters high if you had a large animal that was say 10 15 20 meters long it would cover 2 or 3 of the bar that the range indicators on the screen all right it would be compared to that dot it would be 5 6 7 8 10 times longer the water is just above freezing and visibility is less than three feet as the divers swim along the bottom something looms in the distance it's a branch so far no signs of any food source the bottom is a barren landscape and yet they see something else a place to hide another place to hide I was very concerned for the safety of the cameraman support diver Robert Lynn field knows that uncharted Lakes can be treacherous as we swam along the bottom and approached any object it was invisible and then all of a sudden it was there the entire Lake is a complete hiding spot because where the water is so black the creature could be you know within feet of the surface and you could pass over it in a boat and never see it the footage they bring back is worth the effort it's wonderful to see these logs that are all they're all cut cut wood they're not things that have fallen in there and so they might well be left over from the logging days just lots of sort of looks and crannies but a very inhospitable place basically looks like a rock but for Joe Nickell the log strewn lake bed suggests another case of misidentification given the amount of logs at the bottom of the lake it's possible for overtime for due to the rotting of the log to produce methane gas and this makes the log buoyant and at the surface it can rock back and forth or bob at which point it loses the methane and the log sinks again good Fred Parsons vibrating eel-like creature via log rolling at the surface of the water the rising and sinking log effect is roughly demonstrated with this old science experiment where we're putting a moth ball into some carbonated water and as you see it quickly becomes coated with bubbles and rises to the top now the bubbles should hopefully dissipate whereupon we're going to expect as it loses bubbles it rolls it's animated it's alive back on the lake the Monster quest team is about to discover there may be something in Lake Crescent and it's big enough to drag a 40 pound crab trap we came up alongside the buoy we set it down off the point there so so something moved it around you native legends and historical accounts describes sea serpents all along the eastern seaboard why ologists suggests that a stray infertile conger eel could grow into a monster his Newfoundland Canada home to a record-setting creature this woman watched for 15 minutes as an undulating monster made its way across Lake Crescent this man is convinced that the mystery lake creature he saw was real this fisherman saw what he thought was a 20 foot long giant eel Michel Fournier a forensic artist creates the first images of the monster based on detailed recall of the eyewitnesses and Joe Nickell is putting the locals through a test of perception I'd like to try a little experiment with you if I can what we're gonna do is we are going to see if you are able to guess at the size of something in the water it's an unknown distance unknown object and we'll see how well you do okay okay so we're gonna stand I think right here's a good view I want you to say how long do you think that is what do you think I think it's probably 20 feet what do you think okay that's perfect no well how long do you think that that is twenty to thirty twenty to thirty okay I say he if he's on okay okay the real distance is the real length is actually you know you did that's a bit it's 14 feet three inches they did overestimate this size I think that's almost always the case and people tend if they see something alive and alarming or really rare and wonderful the sighs I think it's magnified by some factor however two of the estimates were within six feet of the actual length showing that the eyewitness recollections of a monster or creature up to thirty feet long may have been accurate paid rich and the Monster quest team returned to the crab trap earlier the crab trap was baited with herring and attached to a buoy to offer an enticing meal to the creature suspicions are immediately raised when they realized the trap has been moved we came up alongside the buoy and we set it down off the point there and expected to go right back to it but it seems to have moved down here so so something moved it around it wasn't very windy at all last night in fact this morning it was flat calm it's a pretty heavy trap and it's gonna take something pretty big to shift that around that in this real deep water where there are no currents or anything it has moved what would you say 200 feet 200 feet or more the ROV is used to check whether anything has disturbed or damaged the trap 30 how deep is it or do you think we think it's about a hundred now that now we're coming right to the trap that's the line off the top of the trap okay and so you're gonna see that you're gonna see the trapping just a just a very short distance that's it there's the trap oops and this is why we're seeing all the turbulence because we're telling the trap look at that and there's the herrings and nothing's been Adam that we got a real good look at the trap and we saw it from the top and from the bottom because it was tipped over a little bit was by the by the vote itself and what we could see was that the herring were in fine shape nothing had been in there munching away Adam or eaten up or anything the untouched trap is a disappointment but then they see something moving across the bay whatever it is it's not visible on the surface but it's producing a footlong wake well was a mysterious creature swimming along I don't know I don't know you saw it didn't you there it is right there that's a beamer did you get him going across towards a rock right in the steel area it's too bad it's a beaver it's quite a mysterious place down here but Michelle Fournier forensic artist concludes that his sketches do depict something real I believe that we are all dealing with the same same creature the clarity of the witness recollections and consistencies in their descriptions are difficult to dismiss details in the size movement and shape of the creature are unwaveringly similar the three person I met today definitely saw something in that plate and the Monster quest expedition reluctantly packs up if I'd gotten a sonar target then I'd go to court tomorrow certainly if we could spend a lot more time you get a little more Hardware out here I think if there was something to be found I'm I'm confident I could find I really am the mystery behind the creature of Lake Crescent will remain just that whether it is an oversized conger eel that has lost its way a sunken log or his witnesses believe truly a monster there's a kind of person who loves a mystery and once it kept a mystery they do not want an explanation and for those people this will continue I saw something in the water I don't know what it was so it must have been a lake monster and you can't draw a conclusion from I don't know it was kind of long feature there was no waves on either side was just a deep swell it wasn't moving was it had this tendency to to be vibrating the head was like long pointy it was I'd say 30 feet long witnesses describe a serpentine creature 20 to 40 feet long with a snake-like head and featureless body it most closely resembles an eel but compared to any known eel fresh or saltwater this is a monster sightings of similar phenomena are reported across Canada from Lake Okanagan in British Columbia and Lake Manitoba in Manitoba to Lake Memphremagog in Quebec on the Vermont border but this is the first scientific investigation into the monster of Lake Crescent Lake and ocean monsters have a long history a Swiss naturalist Conrad yester was the first to try to classify these unknown Giants for two centuries North American sailors have reported sea serpents all along the eastern seaboard but the oldest accounts in this area come from stories passed down from the very first Native settlers of this continent if you talk to the Algonquin and you interview them they talk about Serpent's John Castleman a biologist at Queen's University Kingston has investigated these native legends and you ask them and you question them and you think maybe serpents are snakes but when you talk to them about serpents they'll tell you that serpents are not snakes tales of these unlikely Lake Monsters have persisted here for centuries terrified Native Americans refer to them as pond Devils or swimming demons what were these tribal members seeing is it possible that these stories of the swimming demons can be explained by a giant eel there are about 600 species of eels in the world they are fierce carnivores with a notoriously indiscriminate appetite preferring live fish and large invertebrates most eels possess a highly developed sense of smell to track their prey with their serpent-like heads slimy bodies called beady eyes and razor-sharp teeth the eel is a creature reviled and feared by some although not common eels have even been known to attack humans in April 2005 British tourist Matt butcher was diving off the Similan Islands in Thailand when a moray eel latched on to butchers left thumb once the eagle bit into his flesh butcher was powerless to get it off within seconds the powerful jaws and needle-like teeth had sliced through the skin bone and cartilage Castleman is the first to admit that even after a century of research biologists still know very little about heels heels are very interesting in anyway many ways very mysterious because we've never seen a spawning eel there are very ancient fish there among the most ancient fish the largest and most ferocious of the species are all oceanic eels and although Castleman doubts the existence of a 30-foot long here living in a lake you cannot sled right on through just shove me in there there's no way but you're gonna hold that thing it was monstrous its to see something like that it's like something you think you looking at a movie you know the incident left Roraback shaken whatever it was that he encountered that night he knew that it didn't belong in these waters it wasn't the North American eel the only other yield that I know is that any anywheres near that size is the Conger but conger eels do not inhabit freshwater lakes they can tip the scales at 200 pounds and have been known to measure over 12 feet in length they are terrifying and voracious night predators locking they're incredibly strong jaws onto their prey they twist and turn their bodies like a screw ripping away chunks of flesh and although the Conger is exclusively in ocean eel Roraback suggestion may make more sense than it seems the thing that's unique and interesting about Congress is from time to time we see eels in fresh water that are gigantic eels these reels that were 2 meters more than 2 meters long 6 7 feet long you know 8 to 10 inches in diameter and truly gigantic 800 miles down river from where Roraback had his encounter in Lake Ontario the island of Newfoundland in eastern Canada guards the entrance to the st. Lawrence estuary it's here at Crescent Lake that locals say the granddaddy of such creatures has been sighted for centuries ever since I was a kid I always heard stories they would certainty that it could not occur every now and then we hear of stories of gigantic eels occurring in freshwater and and there's some really well documented observations on each one of these sightings was by a man who has decades of experience with the native North American eel I've been fishing since the late 50s I started with feels–oh it kept going from there and the first thing I knew I was in the eel fishing business John Roraback is a commercial eel fisherman on Lake Ontario the fish is considered a delicacy in Europe and Asia it's a profitable catch in 1974 Roraback was fishing with his father on Lake Ontario and claims that he encountered an eel of gigantic proportions after a long day fishing for eels Roraback caught sight of a massive shape coming towards him in the water well when it come to me I was in moss so all I could see was a big hump coming so I dropped on top of him like that I was gonna flip him in the boat as Roraback attempted to catch hold of the creature it reared up and was strong enough to lift the man out of the water he just wasted me in the area went right on underneath me he was too big Roraback fought to wrestle with a large slippery creature he turned around come back and when he come back I got on him again this time like my whole body but whatever the creature was it was too strong in northeastern Canada harbors a legendary monster the descriptions match those told by Native Americans of swimming demons and water Devils eels longer than a canoe and strong enough to capsize a boat we hear of stories of gigantic eels is it possible that something dreadful has made this Lake its home or is this a local legend passed down for centuries it's almost a badge of honor if you've seen it amongst request team dives into the icy murk to find out what slithers beneath and employs the latest technology to seek the truth about Lake crescents monster eel witnesses around the world reports these monsters are they you or imaginary size searches for answers on Monster quest Roberts arm a fishing town nestled amid the rugged bays of Newfoundland northeastern coast is a seemingly peaceful place but beneath the still black waters of majestic Lake Crescent something is said to live as it has for untold years

A Mathematical Fable – Numberphile



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I'm going to tell you a fable a king growing old has two daughters and wants to partition his land he goes to his counseling and says counselor I have four pieces of land and two daughters and I want to partition my land equally amongst my daughter my surveyor says that the land masses I have are of this shape I have fun triangular piece of land and it has a square angle here a right angle this is the counselor you have a right angle trying ahh a right angle trying and then I have a square piece of land whose edge is the side of the longest side of my triangle and I have another whose edge is the side of this side of the triangle and a third the side of this side of the triangle the surveyor tells me they're all squares the counselor says oh no problem don't be one of these foolish kings who gives away all your land keep that triangular piece for yourself give the largest square to one of your daughters and the two small squares to the other daughter it'll be perfectly even that's easy since the king and he's about to leave but then says counselor I haven't told you anything about how long the sides of these squares are or the shape of the triangle council says don't worry what we have here is three squares one triangle if the edges of these pieces of land are doubled all the areas get multiplied by four if they're triple all the areas get multiplied by nine that's three squared if you change the all the lengths of your figures by some factor the area is changed by the square of the factor and so the proportions are exactly the same it says this is called scaling and similarity if you scale your figures in this way you get similar figures scaling a length by some factor scales the area by the square wonderful says the King King walks away but even before he leaves the room he says but I didn't tell you what the angles of the problem counselor says uh that doesn't matter what we have here is something called the Pythagorean theorem it doesn't matter what the angles are as long as one of those angles is a right angle King Lee's returns to the next day distraught and says my surveyor tells me I don't have squares I have things that he called blobs that is I have a triangle a right angle triangle I have three fields each landmass has one linear edge the linear edge equal to the edge of the corresponding edge of the triangle and he also tells me that my blobs are similar if I scale any one of these blobs appropriately it will become any of the others now what do I do asks the King apprehensively and the counselor says no problem do exactly as before you keep your triangle give the larger largest blob mass to one of your daughters and the other two to the other daughter and even Stephen King is amazed he says it doesn't matter what blob they are as long as they're similar Khan sir says yes what do you call that says the King oh I call that the blob Pythagorean theorem for every blob there's a blob Pythagorean theorem says the King strange the counsellor says yes and not only that but if you know the blob Pythagorean theorem for any blob you know it for everyone the king says how how can that be well the counselor says look look at this you have three blobs here imagine that there's what I'll call a unit blob that is a a blob that's similar to it but its length is 1 let us say the length of its straight edge is 1 y then if the length of this straight edge is C and the length of this straight edge is a and the length of this straight edge is V then we know that whatever area this blob has what we call the area of that blob capital A the area of the unit blob the area of this blob is the square of the factor that one needs in order to scale the unit blob to it so the area will be C squared times a the area of this will be a squared times a and the area this will be B squared times a so if I prove to you that for some blob with some area a this large blob is the sum in area of the areas of these two small ones what I will have shown is C squared times a is equal to a squared times a plus B squared times a I counseling out the A's I have C squared is equal to a squared time plus B squared and so would you give me any other blob I will get exactly the same result so one blob Pythagorean theorem implies Pythagorean theorem for all blobs says the King and he leaves sort of contented King comes in day three and says it's wonderful what you've told me what you've explained to me but can you show me the blob Pythagorean theorem for some blob in which case I'll know it for all concert says oh well for that you have to draw me a right-angled triangle and the counselor says oh well so no job within would be to produce a blob with a linear side of length see a blob with a linear side of length B that blob being similar to the blob of length C and a blob with length a similar for the other two and then I will have to show you that the area of the larger largest of these blobs is the sum of the area of the other two blobs of a king says well yes this might be quite a chore the counter says well try this counselor draws a single line which meets the large side in a right angle and then steps back and says there you are where am I says the kid the blob whose linear edge is C is the entire triangle the blob whose linear edge is B is the triangle to the right the blob whose linear edge is a is the triangle to the left all these triangles are right-angled triangles because one of their angles is a right angle each of these triangles have another angle in common for example this large triangle has this angle in common with this one and it has this angle in common with this one all three right angle triangles are similar so those are my three blobs and to see that the sum of the two small blobs is equal to large Bob is heaven King says ah okay so now what's my moral can you guess the king's ask a lot of questions

Assam TET 2019 Maths and Science 20 mcq



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Welcome to KSK Educare. আজি আমি বিভিন্ন competitive Examination ত আহি থকা 20 টা প্ৰশ্নোত্তৰ আলোচনা ও Practice কৰিম।
Here we have discussed 20 most important Maths questions and answers. We will be discussing General Maths and science as well .And also Assam TET 2019 is coming so lets prepare for it as well.
Hi guys we KSK Educare, have discussed Mathematics for Upcoming TET 2019 examination and how to study for it?. A trick to find out the answer in short time. Watch the video fully. Hope this trick will help you in your competitive examination.

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Is coding important when studying physics?



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Coding and computer science are important skills if you want to become a physicist or astronomer. They are often overlooked because sometimes their value is not obvious. I would recommend taking as many comp sci courses as possible to supplement your other learning.

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well this is a bit fancy I'm somewhere a bit different today my uni has a recording studio where they've recently set up that's free for students to use and so I thought I'd come in and try it out it's probably a bit too serious for the kind of casual video I filmed today but I think it might be good in the future I'm filming sort of educational or more scientific videos so let me know if you have any suggestions for the things I could film in here one thing I didn't expect to learn when I went to uni was computer science at that time I was only interested in theoretical physics and astronomy but in my first year I was enrolled in a computer science course because it was recommended for the astronomy major I sort of showed up having no idea what to expect I kind of thought we'd be doing learning about hardware on what Iran is how things actually work but I was sort of surprised with what we actually did learn which was a lot of variables and types and how do you make functions and how do you tell a computer how to do something for you I kind of had a love-hate relationship with this course I liked it because unlike all the other courses I was really learning something new especially the first year physics courses it almost felt like we were rehashing basic ideas that we learned in physics at school so we were doing mechanics or electricity and magnetism or a little bit of quantum and whilst they were harder than school it was sort of still the same ideas this computer science though that I was introduced to I'd really never learnt it before but actually there were also reasons I didn't enjoy this course in comparison to my other courses it was the only one where I really felt like I was behind all of my peers instead of aiming for the top of the class like I was trying doing my other courses I felt like I was struggling to keep up and I always had to ask for help and I sort of felt a bit uncomfortable with that at first when some of my friends were discussing coding projects they had done previously in various languages I was still thinking oh can you tell me again what is a function but I got over that it sort of got over myself and I did enjoy the course so much that eventually I took some more computer science courses and learnt things like algorithms or data structures and how to write a more effective code and I'm really glad I took some of those further courses so the first research project I ended up doing in my degree I was working at an observatory in Sydney and I was essentially processing images of galaxies to design a CubeSat satellite and also a telescope I found out that there wasn't really much astronomy knowledge needed to do this research project it was kind of an exercise in coding my supervisor Phyllis project actually had done his degree in computer science and then specialized in astronomy later on and I think that's kind of a good way to do it actually I think someone in astronomy with no computer science knowledge would actually really struggled because you'd have to teach yourself coding as you go and else you can probably do that it might not be as efficient as a few new some more of that background behind it as for physics it really depends on the kinds of things you want to specialize in theoretical projects that involve a lot of modeling or coding simulations I think coding is of course going to be a very important skill there and also for experimental work if you're often handling really large datasets you have to know to manipulate and keep track of that data often through coding it is possible to find projects within physics that don't use a lot of coding if you really want to stay away from it and personally my project now doesn't actually use much of that but it is really useful skill to have especially if you want to automate tasks on a computer and and make things easier for yourself I also think that a knowledge of coding or computer science is going to help you not just in research and with research projects but going out into industry and your employability later on a lot of physicists end up working and storing and manipulating data in roles such as a software engineer working for big companies so I think no matter what you want to do it would be a really good skill to supplement all of your physics or your maths or astronomy course work but courses I did were taught in the language Python and that's what I've used for all the research projects I've done as well but there are lots of other languages that are applicable to science and you might also encounter some other sort of coding software along the way for example are for statistics MATLAB for managing data and doing things with linear algebra and matrices and also Mathematica which is really good for solving equations you probably encounter some of these throughout your course work and therefore solving the more everyday problems learning how to use these tools is more about learning syntax and you can sort of get away with not knowing some of the more theoretical computer science aspects but it certainly it doesn't hurt if you're not yet at uni I really recommend you try and learn some basic coding skills there's lots of really awesome programs that run now whether it's in schools or outside schools where you can learn the basics of programming so that maybe when you get to uni you don't feel as bewildered as I festered I thought sort of think it's a skill you can pick up quite early on as well it doesn't require a lot of background knowledge to get started you don't need to have really good math skills or anything you can sort of learn the language from quite a young age I think and if you are already at uni maybe majoring in physics I would say to try and take as many computer science courses as you can alongside your studies I think they'll really help you especially if you don't already have sort of a self-taught prior knowledge in the field keep an open mind as well if you take maybe a couple of extra computer science courses along the way you might find you enjoy it more than what you're initially intended to major and that might be your new thing

Covalent Bond + Quiz on Fajans' Rule | Chemical Bonding | 11th (CBSE) NEET JEE | Arvind Arora)



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In this video students can learn about Conditions of Covalent Bond and types of covalent bond + some Quiz on Fajans’s Rule by Arvind Arora(Your chemistry teacher).

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Way To Make Short Notes | BIOLOGY | Free Notes | Pooja ma'am



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For Your Better Results, Make sure you have your own short notes. The Way to make short notes are explained by Pooja ma’am.

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Challenges to Defining the Fleischmann and Pons Effect | Vittorio Violante



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Material Science Challenges to Define the Fleischmann and Pons Effect
Vittorio Violante
Rome Tor Vergata University

The Fleischmann and Pons Effect is the appearance of excess energy when a Pd cathode is electrolyzed in heavy water (D2O). Results with signals well above the measurement uncertainties confirm the anomalous production of excess of power during electrochemical loading of palladium with deuterium.

The excess power has the following features: Threshold effect Unobserved with hydrogen
Unexplainable as a chemical effect occurs only if materials shows specific characteristics.

The figure shows a mass flow calorimetry result giving 500% excess power. Material science is the key to understand it, since some material characteristics support some processes rather than others. Future work, by applying the scientific method, will have to be oriented towards the definition of the effect rather than its demonstration. Mass flow calorimetry excess power: output
power becomes 5 times larger than the input.

Professor Violante earned a Masters Degree in Chemical Engineering Naples University in 1979. PhD in New Materials in 1992. ENEA (Italian Agency for Energy and Economic Development, ex CNEN) Graduate Fellowship (1980-1983) studying hydrogen metal hydrides interactions for energy storage and liquid membranes for metals separation. Associate researcher at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago (USA) (1983) working on liquid membrane processes studying distributed parameters modeling. Permanent position researcher at ENEA Laboratories (1984). Working on simulations codes for fusion reactors fuel cycle for tritium control into breeding materials and plasma facing components, and isotopic separation. 1987 and 1988 visiting scientist at Max Planck Institute in Garching (Germany) working with the ITER nuclear engineering team. Since 1989 has been involved in the ENEA program on thermal anomalous effects in deuterated palladium, including calorimetry, transport phenomena and hydrogen isotopes interaction within the metallic lattice, laser triggering and interface electrodynamics. The studies on material science allowed to increase the deuterium loading reproducibility in Pd cathodes. Adjunct professor of Transport Phenomena at Calabria University (1992-1995). Responsible for the ENEA Section of Special Nuclear Technologies for Fusion (1996-2002). Adjunct professor of Physics for Advanced Energy Conversion at Rome Tor Vergata University (2001-2010). Adjunct professor of Physics of Nuclear Energy at Rome Tor Vergata University (since 2010). Visiting scientist at GW University (2009) working on metal hydrogen systems. Chair of ICCF 15 (2009) in Rome. Responsible for the ENEA Task Force for Energy from Metal Hydrogen Systems (since 2011) and ENEA Coordinator for LENR Research.

Recorded at the 33rd annual SSE Conference in 2014 at the Hyatt Regency San Francisco Airport,
Burlingame, California, USA.

Join the SSE to support to support the Society’s commitment to maintain an open professional forum for researchers at the edge of conventional science:

The SSE provides a forum for original research into cutting edge and unconventional areas. Views and opinions belong only to the speakers, and are not necessarily endorsed by the SSE.

ladies and gentlemen good morning it's my pleasure to say this conference I thank professor garret model for inviting me to stay at this event so we will approach the matter studying the research strategy we apply it with metallurgy calorimetry material science and reproducibility and study of the interface and then conclusions so for people that are not confident with the matter let me say that the Fleischmann and pons effect is the appearance of excess of energy when a Palladium cathode is electrolyzed at the in a water we have done a long work on that along 25 years including a revision of the effect and during this revision we obtained the signals very well above the measurement uncertainties and these measurements are confirming that the anomalous production of the excess of it during loading or palladium with the deuterium is real so such an effect as the following features is a threshold effect so there is no way to observe the onset of the effect if the atomic fraction of deuterium in palladium is below point nine is unobserved with hydrogen is not explainable as a chemical effect and it takes place only if materials are showing specific characteristics it seems to be a resonant effect and it seems that radio frequency emission is related to the effect so nevertheless in general this effect is considered to be a dangerous mistake by most of the scientific community so which one is the research approach we adopted so first of all we have done Ana 14 material science to increase both the reproducibility and the signals by enhancing the loading the calorimetric experiment have been considered that to have an appropriate signal noise ratio materials have been designed to control the effect and we like to obtain the definition of the effect through the materials characteristics and we want to use a statistic relevant data to develop a theoretical work concurrently with the experimental evidence so let's start with the reproducibility of loading mic Macabre several years ago demonstrated as you can see in in the first picture on the left side that the access is a parasol defect so in the abscissa you have the the the loading ratio of deuterium in Palio and the excess of power is plotted versus the loading ratio you can see that up to 0.9 about we don't have any access and then the excess increases and the larger the loading the largest v8 we access the loading is typically measured on the basis of the measurement of the electric electric resistivity of the Palladium Delta ride or I Drive in the plot on the right side you can see the evolution the resistance normalizes the resistance as function of the loading so it's very easy to realize on the basis of the measurement where we are this is our compass the loading of palladium is going until we achieve the equilibrium and equilibrium is achieved when the two interacting phases of the same chemical potential chemical potential is as most of you know much better than me that I'm a dynamic function telling us how the energy of system increases or decreasing decreases by adding or removing a particle so for a metal this for I'd urgent is solving in a metal the chemical potential as several contribution the first one is the standard then we have the configure configurational contribution the than the electronic contribution then the interaction of the protons with with lattice X is the atomic fraction of the hydrogen in the metal for gas loading the chemical potential is is a function of the fugacities all let me say the pressure that we apply to the system into an electrochemical loading the electrochemical overpotential replaces the pressure of hydrogen and the effective pressure given by the electrochemical approach is described by the annual a question this is some somehow an extended version of the Nernst equation if we try to apply the Nernst equation to this system we arrive at the paradox so the using the over voltage we have the the effective pressure will be 10 to the 20 atmosphere this is not true with the one volt of our voltage the effective pressure is 10 to the 6 atmosphere is quite high so that's why it's much better to work with an electron system to put hydrogen into palladium instead of working with I Regina ten to the six atmospheres it's possible that is not simple so when we are working with the hydrogen dissolving into a metal lattice we are not leading with only with an equilibrium problem but we are approaching the system where we have a deficit process so we are also in a not equilibrium position in visible alumina condition and the diffusion is guided by the the chemical potential gradient is given by the chemical potential gradient so the chemical potential gradient produces the loading and the loading is characterized by a concentration gradient I tried to schematize the system this the the the picture is our sample and on the external edge on the left side we have the maximum concentration value so the lattice is elongated and the larger the concentration the larger the elongation of the of the sample so that the region that are at lower concentration are producing a compression stress on the regions that are at larger hydrogen concentration so chemical potential is modified because in additional terms turns out that is due to the contribution of the force field so are the force fields that are able to modify the free energy of the system so such a turn is given by the product between the volume molar volume of the solute times the trace of the stress tensor and in this condition with some this guy the algebra we can demonstrate that the flux equation is not the Fijian one that is described just by the first term in the brackets but there is an additional terms that is containing the stress and we can realize that even if we're the very strong concentration gradient the the difference in in the bracket can be zero if we have an appropriate value of the stress so we can have zero flux despite we have a strong concentration gradient and this is limiting our our loading if we use in differential mass balance such an expression for the flux we arrive at the not linear mass transfer equation described by the relationship at the bottom of the slides and I published this paper many years ago beyond physical therapy so we have also to work with mass transfer at the grain grain boundary system and this process is well described by the two equation differential equation you can see on the screen and fortunately this system of differential equation as a closed form solution and we can identify that this solution is strongly affected by the product between the dimension of the grain boundary and the diffusion into the into the grain boundary so the larger dot product the better the loading so if we apply the model to our system we can see that if into the material we don't have a significant or a very large stress field we have a loading that is sorry we are the loading that is nicely described by these modeling and is reproducing the sample characterized by a good load we are going to the maximum and then to this value that means that we are quite close to point 95 in atomic fraction if into the material we have some stress as in this case the loading is is really really bad we cannot go much more than point seven point eight and we are not into the regime for observing the onset of the effect this is the model and experiment so on the basis of this study we have designed the mythology that is obtained by making cold rolling of the sample and then an specific annealing in the plot you can see that there is an optimum annealing to add a good loading so we have the loading versus the annealing temperature so in general we annealed our sample around 850 900 centigrade if we have a lower temperature the loading is less if we have a larger temperature the load that the loading is less to because the there is a relevant effect of the stress gradient inside the metal it depends on the size of the grains basically so let's talk about calorimeter so in our system we have a closed cell closet cell ourselves where there is a recombine or a catalyst that is recombining the gas that are produced at the by the electrolysis so I mean deuterium and oxygen are recombined to the water and the electronic configuration is realized with metric geometry the Palladium cathode is in the midway between to plan a platinum anodes of course the cell is equipped with a pressure sensor just to know if the catalyst is working or not and to know if we have some recombining effect inside that is very important to understand if the effect is chemistry or not as I will show you in short all our system have been properly designed in order to define the temperature field and in order to identify the answer of the system in terms of temperature changing also thermal hydraulics effect due to the bubbling into the cell have been studied in the same way the cut we have adopted two kind of calorimeters the first one is mass flow calorimeter that is based on first principles and is very precise very accurate very difficult to be operated but we are making directly measurement of the output power if the cell is operated in constant current the input power for a closed cell is just the scholar product between the voltage and the current and the output power can be estimated on the basis of the difference of the temperature of the coolant passing through the calorimeter times the mass flow rate times the specific heat of water so the excess is quoted by means of the output power divided by the efficiency of the calorimeter minus the input power so very simple technically the calorimeter is realized putting the cell inside the vessel containing a water jacket the water jacket is cooled by a thermostatic water coming from a thermostatic bath and the input temperature and output temperature of the coolant are measured with two pt100 thermometers and the mass flow rate is measured then the control led at about point you cubic centimetre for second with an accuracy plus minus 1 percent the other concept is an iso parabolic calorimeter I mean the output power is not directly measured we need the calibration in this case that is not necessarily required for the mass flow calorimeter and the calibration allows us to estimate the output part correlate the output power with a measurement of a variable that in the case of this calorimeter developed by novel research laboratory the parameter is the voltage difference between the two pal T cells one is below the active cell so the cell while we are doing the experiment the other one is below a dummy cell that is just a reference this is a differential calorimeter so let me show you now electrodes from the same lot operated with light water and the water you can see in the in this plot that the input power that is the black cube perfectly overlaps at steady state the output power that is the red cube and the integral of both the cubes are given above so we are the input energy and the output energy and at the end we have a difference that is due to the thermal losses from the calorimeter in this case 2.5% that we cannot completely eliminate and this is the brother of the sample we have experiences with light water treated into the water and you see in the plot the different green curve is the difference between the output and the input power when the effects of course so also the also the energy cubes are behaving in a different manner you see the output energy overlaps the input power and at the end despite the losses we are into the calorimeter we have a energy gain we have tested the electrodes in other labs this is an experiment performed by Michael macabre a pleasure AI with similar sample and this is an extraordinary excess obtained at the into energetics Technology Laboratory with one sample preparator in Frascati you see the input power was about one watt and the output to achieve up to 32 watts is about 3500 percent excess so we presented these results to a conference in qo3 and then at the panel organized by the Department of Energy in almost qo4 and people staying at this panel at the opportunity to study our results for some months and after that they got a sentence that was positive the nearly unanimous opinion of the reviewers was that founding agency should entertain individual well design and the proposal for experiments so after that stamp SSRI in Stanford novel research laboratory and my Institute energetics and later University of Missouri have been involved into a cooperative revision study for several years these are some of the results most most significant results we obtained during this working time on the left side you have the comparison between the output and input power for this L 17 experiment you see the blue line is the input power the the pink one is the output output power we had a little excess is not a bias it's a real little excess but at once we had a burst and you see the spike of power that is correlated with the increasing of the temperature of the electrolyte that you can see on this on this plot here that was measured with a different instrument after that if you go down here I mean into the loading cube you may observe that since we were on the right side of the are on our zero plot the reducing of the concentration means an increasing of the are on our zero value and this is what is occurring here so the cathode is deloading because of the heating of the cathode and as soon as the loading which was below the threshold the excess disappeared here and we had to wait some time to gain another bus that occurred after reloading the electrode up to this value so in this case also the electrolyte temperature is measured and the bus was long enough to achieve the more or less the steady-state of the calorimeter so it's about 500 percent of the excess you can observe that the input power was decreasing during the excess the reason is very simple we have a power supply that is a galvano stud so is designed to maintain the setpoint current so since the electrolyte is warming up during the excess power the electrolyte conductivity increases and the power supply to maintain the setpoint current as to reducing the voltage that means that the input power is reduced but that's why we have this going down on the input power so in practice we were practically we had five hundred percent access in this case this was was more robust it was explosive we had you know the increasing of the electrolyte temperature and this is the answer of the mass flow calorimeter and you see that the the bus stop as soon as the loading ratio was again below the threshold value this was not long enough to have the steady state of the calorimeter and we had to quote the excess of power on the basis of the time constant of the calorimeter first and then with more complex finite element calculation it was 7000 percent at the end of the job might Macabre as organized these synoptic picture that is must be read in this way and on the bottom we have the number of the lots of palladium that we produce it and in the ordinates you have the percentage of excess of power you see that for instance lot 14 gab one access eighty percent in an air and qxs 80 percent at s RI lot 17 gap to access not very high but to access at s RI to 18% and 500% a tener the one I shown you before and so on so when a lot of material was working in one lab was working also in the other if the lot was not working in one lab was not working also into the other and the treatment was always the same but is very difficult to to find the right condition of the material so it's not the effect that is irreproducible is the material that is difficult to be reproduce it with that specific condition so what we observe during this job I power gain during the excess no power gain during the excess or no excess and the different behavior was related to some feature of the samples ascribed to the contaminants that were into the sample in fact as you can see we have two lot of raw palladium that we purchased from the same producer you see that there are several difference into the distribution into the concentration of the contaminants look for instance at platinum that is not not only is not the only one that is important but it is more clear in this in this material we have about 200 partner millions of platinum and in the second lot – we have about 80 partner millions of plotting and working with the part per millions is very very very very difficult so the first lot have up to 60 percent of reproducibility or larger and excess of power above 100 percent the second lot we have a reproducibility that was quite close to ten percent excess of power that were not about twenty percent but if the two materials had this you know name was palladium 99.95 percent we know that contaminants can have a critical role contaminants may act on the grain size that is affecting the stress and mass transfer as I told you before is working on crystal orientation because some impurities are linking preferentially to one plane during the growing up of the of the crystal during the annealing so they controls the orientation of the grains and coronation of the grains is controlling the kinetics and double layer capacitance is also affecting the grain boundary so the mass transfer at the grain boundary is controlled by impurities and is also affecting the effect of the surface treatment I mean the chemical etching that we are doing and we will go more in deep later on this point so the morphology of the surface is controlled by the impurities so these are the two samples one produces with the first lot the second one the second lot so you see that the sides of the grains is different you see that the orientation of the crystal is different in the first case in the first case we have 100 mostly oriented grains in the second case when mixing the 50 percent 100 101 103 bution of the grain size you see that our q completely different materials from my point of view of course despite the day yet the same name and they were from the same producer so this is a strong correlation and bottom you have the number of lots red bar means that the lattes produces an excess of power excess power and the blue is giving the value of the ratio between the maximum loading we achieve it and the current density where to apply to obtain such a maximum load so as you can see there is the fare sold below that threshold we don't have any access width so the larger the the easier the loading the the larger the probability to observe the effect this is new to the characteristic of the material is due to the probability to the mass transfer at the grain boundary so again we need to control this property of the material since it's a resonant effect if I move from the resonance condition maybe working a tiger current to achieving an Uyghur loading maybe I go outside the windows of parameters I need to obtain the excess so the identified condition appropriate metallurgy to achieve a good loading and answered the mass transfer for palladium for palladium be careful one mostly oriented material and appropriate surface morphology so we have seen that contaminants can affect the crystal orientation can affect also the the the grain size but are also affecting the status of the surface so we we have studied the surface in terms of the marriage figure and we identify these figures as the power spectral density function of the surface I mean the score module of the Fourier transform of the roughness the simple example power spectral density is telling us how a periodicity is reproducible in this case as you can see we have Q periodicity the one the first one is a frequency periodicity and the second one is this channel that is a low frequency periodicity so this material is characterized by a power spectral density with two peaks in case of a sign like surface we have one tick pounding okay this is the material giving the large axis of power and you see the power spectral density achieving a value forget the scale spot four point five the other material have an excess in the order of two hundred fifty percent and the value is one close to one point eight this other sample has a power spectral density having a value of point six similar shape the Thunder dumping shade but lower signal of the power spectral density and this sample has given only 25 percent excess this other sample that is in the picture below on the left side as a completely flat power spectral density and was completely inactive so now what we have to do we have to play with the contaminants and this is a very difficult task as to repair in the engine of an airplane during the fly so let's produce an active material so what we have done we have selected the material having a 1 0 0 orientation but not giving an appropriate surface to obtain the onset of the effect and what we have done is we dope it the material with the platinum and there is a specific reason for doing that if you make an experiment if you weld the Platinum to piece to a palladium piece and put this into the acid you will observe the hydrogen before mostly on the platinum because the potential of hydrogen on platinum is much less than potential on on palladium so that if we have platinum dispersed into the metal each point where we have a platinum impurity becomes like a cathodic point and the surround is the anodic protection so palladium is eroded around the Platinum impurity is a micro corrosion problem so doping with platinum and making the etching this was resolved with the same material same treatment and instead of airing this very flat power spectral density we obtain at this power spectral density and this is the result of our calorimetric measurements so we got an excess of power not tremendous but control it is about 50% in this case we repeated the experiment in the same manner and we reproduced this this effect so again modify the surface again excess power on the basis of this data NRL decided to produce some law with platinum and this is a palladium rhodium alloy ten percent of rhodium ninety percent per little and you can see the excess of power produced by this sample during their experiment we identified palladium rhodium as a possible candidate for studying this effect and we produced also palladium rhodium alloy but at the beginning as you can see this material was interesting but the power spectral density was not significant from our point of view but we decided to make the experiment despite this morphology of the surface was not up the loading was good the x-ray defraction x-ray defraction vanilla that palladium rhodium is captured crystalline structure but anyway the loading was appropriate and we have removed ok the cathodes from the cell during the excess and we observed that the surface was completely changed so giving the proper power spectral density this was spontaneous so the experiment was carried out in this way look the excess power was originated spontaneously then we inverted the current in order to see if was a bias of the calorimeter we D loaded the cathode and as soon as we have done this the excess disappeared so it was real the calorimeter was perfectly working we reloaded and the excess started the game and after some time we decided to perform an impedance spectrometry of the of the electrode so we perform at the first spectrometry in this in this point then we have which said of the excess and we replicated the the impedance spectra spectroscopy so it's very important from my point of view to highlight that during the excess we had an electrochemical instability so there was a fluctuation of the current that is indicative of a specific mechanism at the interface so let me show you what happened this is the study of the in interface electrochemical interface electrochemical interface is characterized by an equivalent circuit and this is the equivalent circuit when we don't have any excess the pictures during the excess is this one is a completely different system with a completely different equivalent secret showing inside the resonator we have done several measurement of this and we have seen that the resonator survives until we apply a strong perturbation to the system by putting the current to zero value and after that the resonator disappeared and the system was was without any access reapplying the current again in the right in the right way we will start at the excess the important is that the surface of the samples have specific fusion so you see the contaminants on the surface this is aluminum and this is silicon obtained by headaches analysis we tried to replicate the experiment with another sample not adding these contaminants in the surface and you can see the difference with the active electrode I have shown you before so it's a different material and we don't have any excess in this case after five Lots working to replicate that material we obtained that last one with similar characteristic that was experiences and gaba gain excess of power so again the problem is the reproducibility of the material not the profitability of the effect so in conclusion we can say that material feature related with the occurrence of the effect have been identified so we have a loading threshold loading dynamics grain grain boundary sides surface morphology crystal orientation we have identified the specific role of some contaminants and the in situ throw chemical impedance spectroscopy as shown that there is a specific structure at the interface so we have resonating the circuits component during the access so the emerging scenario is revealing us that there is a specific electrochemical regime during this effect and we consider the material status be the key to observe the effect while material science is the key to understand it since some material characteristics are supporting some process rather than others in my opinion I think that by applying the scientific method the future work should be oriented toward the definition of the effect rather than to its demonstration because this work has been already done for 25 years so there are many contributors of this work and thank you for your kind attention thank you very much it's wonderful to see the replicability of this excess energy which is something I know the the field has been looking for for many many years and you're you're finally getting it and it just seems great where do you think a theory to explain this will come from is this a material science theory is that a quantum theory is do you have any foundational theory that you like well we have some theories as I mentioned at the beginning we are producing the data that should be the basis to refine the tails the system is very complex because you know we have one region that is one micron thick in this region where the electrolyte that is a liquid we are with the bubbles format by the electrolysis we have the double layer the electrochemical double layer that is a statistical system of charged particles so by definition is a plasma and then we have the solid state we have four status of the matter in one micron so each of them with its physics all all talking each others and is very complex to define completely at every certainly on the basis of what we have seen what I can say is a an electro dynamic effect a very intense electro dynamic effect and how this can act on the nuclei must be better defined so we have many tables so me several times that are oriented in this way but I think we need more data to to do that talking about reproducibility to obtain working the lot we are to make a long job so if we make me be let's say 2025 experiment for year we can expect 12 to 3 X s so this is our possibility we are few people and I think this is the big limit of this discipline we don't have what we exactly meet in terms of intelligence in terms of manpower and also on instruments that believe me have to be the status of the art instrument I would like for instance to make the measurement inside the grain boundary to know exactly what we have there but for doing that we need in high resolution logic for 40 nanometers resolution and this is not simple to air so for us so and so on okay all right thank you so much for this wonderful talk I think you guys did excellent science but what struck me is having followed cold fusion or lower near low nuclear reactions as it's called now 25 years ago I am surprised that you have not gotten more funding or support and I'm surprised that this is not done at every University I mean your your presentation shows there is no question anymore whether there is an effect or not so obviously we need to throw all we have at this effect how so my question is this why has it taken 25 years and what is the future of this well thanks for meeting this question I think that we can answer both me and Mike I do believe that this discipline had a bad starting so the scientific community had not the right position to approach this study and this had an effect for the following so papers are typically not accepted in the magazine we don't have any chance to offer job opportunity to young people so this is an I risk job for people that are starting young so and I think this is the worst situation that we may have in approaching the discipline because the Youngs can guarantee the future we don't have this guarantee at all so what we can do i I don't know I think we are demonstrated that the effect is real as a very strong correlation is not a chemical effect in the last x-axis I shown you we had an energy gain that was 50 times larger than the largest chemical effect that we can have in that cell so that we have much more than that I had no time to show you but so for our level of knowledge we can consider that this is a nuclear effect we have some data that are indicative in that direction but for making a sentence in this way we should replicate a joint research program organized as the one we have done for demonstrating that the access to it is real in terms of search for new garages this is important so with well organized research institutions working together overlapping their results making mutual check on results I don't think there is any other way to approach the matter with the scientific method but we need a minimal support for going on thank you just a question I noticed you said when you pulled the cathode out there was some damage to it or it had been impacted or affected and I know that fusion in the past has always been issues regarding the containment vessels or whatever being affected by the process itself and does this become a real future problem in that you're constantly having to deal with that sort of effect okay I shown you that during that experiment I removed the electrode from the cell without uh switching off the power supply so to maintain the surface of the electrode as was during the excess from that experiment we have collected a lot of information status of the surface status of the interface in terms of equivalent electric secret we have observed the growing of these nano fractures on the surface force and nano structures on the surface that are giving us information on the possible mechanism that we can add there so this was done and of course sometime we are able to control it I mean to produce a material that as these fissures as soon as is installed into the electrochemical cell sometime we have to wait that this condition is created because into the system there are the right ingredients but to have a control at level of part of a million's we we need a much better approach so the best way to go on if we decide to continue this research instead of stopping it because I I see that there is nonzero probability to stop such a research is to a very well conceived at the research international research project shared between several counties and with the very precise that that can be material science no garages Vittorio thank you I got the impression that resonant frequency of the electrolyte current was a critical factor in your success and you may have shown data on those frequencies that I missed is my understanding correct and can you review that for us again I mentioned at the beginning about electromagnetic signals so we have preliminary measurement of radio frequency emission from that system certainly we have the frequency identified by the electro chemical instrumentation but we have also either frequencies and to extract signal at a frequency from an electrochemical cell is not a simple task again we we need the support for doing that we are in cooperation with National Instruments to try to understand which one are the the most appropriate measurement instruments to be applied for and if in case is possible to design specific instrumentation for for doing that but as I told you this can be done within a general research project that at the moment doesn't exist thank you do you have any view on Rossi's ecad energy catalyzer learner device well honestly I don't know too much with the exception of what is available on on the web or into the literature my Institute is one of the largest hot fusion Institute in Europe is Frascati Research Center and I am from hot youth I was not human so our task is to try to identify the mechanism Rossi is working for producing a commercial device so I don't have any elements from them to um we presented I'm not sure if you were here yesterday morning about water and about a special zone interesting professor thank you okay so maybe it's interesting for you because we studied what happens next to platinum and gold and a little bit palladium to our surprise we found these zones existing next to those metals and there is apparently a separation of charge between the exclusion zone and the exclusions don't right next to it and therefore I wonder if first of all whether that might be relevant to some of the findings that that you mentioned and the second maybe I don't know but in in the case of these exclusion zones we show that the energy for creating them comes from the environment so I'm wondering if there are some relevance of our stuff to your stuff is it possible that the excess energy is really energy that coming from the environment let me ask as I mentioned at the beginning in this experiment if we consider the electrode the bull electrode without any distinction between palladium and deuterium the the energy of the chemical bond should have been in the order of 10,000 electron volts for giving an excess like this we can also imagine that for some reason we are accumulating energy into the cathodes at very low power let's say 1 milli watt that our calorimeter is unable to reach for amount and then for some reason for instance as is happening into the graphite nuclear power station we could have some mechanism like the vignette effect and these heat energy is released at once so in that case we have a releasing of a significant amount of energy in a very short time and this will give a big power that we can see with the calorimeter but also in this case the integral must be you know consistent with the energy of the chemical bond you could observe that this could be energy accumulated into the liquid I agree with you but assuming that we have a so strong guy so topic effect that these energies accumulated into the Edie water we cannot explain why with a small amount of EB water we can have access much larger than with the large amount of EB water so this is in conflict with the evidence and another point that I have to answer is we don't have any reaction any chemical reaction in the cell we don't have product the cell fortunately for us because it's expensive is use at four years so the materials are conserved so this is what I can tell you just on the basis of the observations Thank You professor Pollak fascinating thank you doctor [Applause] you you

24 mins Citi Heroes Series 10 "Saving Scientist"



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Poetry Critical Appreciation The Second Coming: W B YEATS, UGC/NET/JRF/MA/BA



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Poetry Critical Appreciation The Second Coming: W B YEATS, UGC/NET/JRF/MA/BA
It was written in 1919 and published later, predicting the returning of Christ, but not in human form but in the form of dangerous beastly figure to control, as the things have fallen apart and the centre cannot hold. The civilisation id breaking as a result of WORLD WAR.

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make sure you subscribe to a channel by clicking on the red subscribe button and tomorrow miss another lecture from Erica Heaphy by liking to get regular updates on English literature you hello and welcome to miracle English language and literature Institute I'm professor Abhay Sharma and today I'm going to do a very famous poem of William Butler Yeats the second coming in our poetry critical appreciation segment Yeats was a scene a contemporary of Eliot a Norden Auden wrote in memory of WB Yeats on his death as an unconventional elegy not this poem the second coming was written in 1919 and was published two years after and the initial title in the draft was second birth and later he changed it to the Second Coming it refers to the coming of Christ traditionally that is Christ will return to the earth as promised in the New Testament an unconventional theme is there in the poem which has alluded many readers because of its oblique references and ambiguous images now Yeats had lived through the tough times world war one he has written many poems in the shadow of World War one if you have read prayer for my daughter and then 1919 and many other poems are based on the same theme of war or an Irish revelation so here also he had seen unprecedented slaughter several Irish nationalists had been executed in the struggle for freedom so let's understand the poem first there are two stands us and let's take up the first stanza first turning and turning in the widening gyre the Falcon cannot hear the falconer Things Fall Apart the center cannot hold mer anarchy is loosed upon the world the blood-dimmed tide is loosed and everywhere the ceremony of innocence is drowned the best lack all conviction while the worst are full of passionate intensity the poet in these lines describes a nightmarish scene the image of a falcon flying out of the hands of its human master Falcon and falconer so Falcon is a bird hawk like bird and Falconer is the master so he takes the image from the medieval times when people would use Falcons or Hawks to track down animals at ground level now he says that this Falcon has gone out of the hands of his master it is lost it is out of control and now it is not going to come back so you can take this as the present situations which had gone out of the hand of man because of the wars so Anarchy chaos all was there in abundance so much that the center cannot hold things fall apart very beautiful phrases here which were used later on also by many poets dramatist play writers it's a trap so it is difficult to hold the center it has gone out of control me the cyclone of death and disaster is filed in the Geyer there is at the spiral movement of the wind or the smoke which carries away everything in its force and destroys it this word is very famous with the AIDS I mean it is his favorite word he had used it in sailing to Byzantium also so the center is going out of control things fall apart again very significant that the civilization is breaking very fast the devil evil has taken over the innocent spirits the good are dying under the terror of the body they have lost any faith in goodness this survival is in question where is the bad destructive powers are becoming powerful and I helping to destroy this present civilization now this is all in reference to the collapse of traditional social arrangement in Euro a kind of apocalypse is shown through these lines another significant phrase in these lines is the ceremony of innocence is drowned we all feel that good people are tortured more they have to face miseries and pains more than the people who are devilish were evil who have tried to govern this world through bloodshed and all evil activities and the good they suffer at the hands of the bad people a lot so he is in a way being very personal here because maybe he being a good moralistic man had to suffer a lot in his own life now let's take the second stanza surely some revelation is at hand surely the Second Coming is at hand the second coming hardly are those words out when a vast image of a spiritus Mundi troubles my sight somewhere in sands of the desert a shape with Lion body and the head of a man a gaze blank and pitiless as the Sun is moving it's slow thighs while all about it will shadows of the indignant desert Birds the darkness drops again but now I know that twenty centuries of stony sleep were vexed to nightmare by a rocking cradle and water of priests it's our come round at last slouches towards Bethlehem to be born so now the inevitable collapse of systems and society is predicted in these lines a big revelation something soon seems to be coming up it is seen in store the present conditions have aroused or instigated the storm now announcing the second coming in the new testament this phrase the second coming says that Christ will return to redeem the sins of man once again when this world will be full of mysteries of man Christ will be forced to walk in again on this earth but as he speaks this phrase the spirit of this world that is the spiritus mundi makes Yeats feel as if a monster has arisen from its sleep and had started coming towards them it is likes Phenix or the monster with it lion's body and a human face which is slowly advancing with the blank gaze and with no pity and the comparison is made to the Sun Patil son that means Sun also doesn't have pity on humans so similarly this monster is coming without any pity sympathy for the humans so these are quite disturbing thoughts indicating the collapse or total degeneration of civilization the darkness is here and soon the terror chaos world war all responsible to arouse this monster will witness the end of this world it's almost been 20 centuries or 2,000 years since Christ came to earth in human form and was crucified but now a rough beast will reveal itself these times are not for Christ in human form things have changed and this disastrous time cannot be controlled by any human spirit it needs a monster to wake us up from our 2000 years deep sleep it will rock us shake us from our deep slumber it has already started its journey towards Bethlem where it will be shown first the phrase slouches towards Bethlehem imparts the visual through words the biblical reference of Bethlehem when Christ was born there the poem ends with a question mark will this be so his mystical belief that history repeats itself in cycles is shown there it is very obvious with the images of a tire which is widening and moving apart from the point of origin losing control of the center maybe Yeats is trying to D Center Christianity the faith is lost the center cannot hold therefore the second coming will be from other deity some other religious philosophy so it is coming to fulfill the prophecy from the Biblical Book of Revelation it is the new Messiah coming either to redeem or to destroy it is ambiguous we can interpret in many ways and this forum can serve as the best modern text to evaluate the literary theories many of its most celebrated poems end with a question see from amongst culture the last line is how can we know the dancer from the dance and then from leader and thus when did she put on his knowledge with his far before the indifferent we could let her drop so in the second coming also he ends with the rhetorical question which really amounts to a prophecy that the Beast is on its way to Bethlehem the birth place of Christ to be born into this world he believed that the world was on the threshold of an apocalyptic revelation the poem is unwind with loose I am big pentameter and many of the phrases and lines from the poem I used in many works by the novelist by the TV episode makers by the dramatist for example Pacino achieved in his novel which was published in 1958 things fall apart the title has been borrowed from the phrase of this form and also LL sokka's autobiography his name is the center cannot hold which was published in 2007 then there is another essay titled slouching towards Bethlehem by Joan Didion's in 1968 and then Robert B Parkers 1983 novel the widening gyre so have my best to evaluate this for him which is very different ambiguous the images are also quite ambiguous they are not clear but then I think you must have liked my fault so please like comment share and subscribe the channel and take care until I come for the next point thank you you

Reasons vs Excuses – Jocko Willink and Echo Charles



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Flinders VR – Science



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Welcome to the Flinders University virtual reality experience. Learn more about studying Science at Flinders and the degree options available. Check out the Flinders bird aviary and learn more about animal behaviour or view a blood spatter demonstration to find out how crime scenes are analysed.

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[Applause] hi guys welcome to the Flinders University biology Discovery Center today behind us we have an experiment where students are extracting the DNA from different native grass species to see how closely related these species are to one another at Flinders University you can major in many different fields in science from physics to chemistry biology and even earth sciences today would given you the chance to look inside our bird ovary we have right here on campus or have a blood splatter analysis demonstration by the forensic science department so here in the Avery next to the bio Discovery Center and this is a great place for students to study animal behavior to be able to view these birds on campus the way in which they socially interact with each other their eating habits and also the way in which the different species have a life story called a life history trips to places like second Valley and around the ed Lane field where we can do nifty netting and touch to release the birds like the ones that see around here and it's Avery let's take a look around and see what birds we can find my name is Adrian lineker I'm the chair here in forensic science and one thing I teach is blood pattern and body fluids there's key to a reconstruction of crime scenes when blood leaves the body it does so in a particular way the Basel laws of physics so when you got kicking punching stabbing blood leaves the body in a particular way it will always travel in certain manner and one thing we can do is this so we're standing into wet blood creates a particular blood pattern and if you look at these you get a gradation in sizes but all of these ones here are very small you picture what that would look like on someone when it came into a forensic science lab that's a spray pattern you would get now if you just move away a second you can see there's blood on the ground but there's one what would call a Boyd so you know if you go to a crime scene well odd to us here it's no longer there something's happened

Alfred Nobel Documentary in Hindi | Scientists Stories in Hindi | Inventions Stories HD



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Pretty and Sexy Pinay Dance The Mathematics Dance Challenge Part 1



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SSC MTS Maths 【5th august, 2nd shift】 | MTS Tier-1 Exam Analysis & Asked Questions | SSC MTS MATHS



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SSC MTS Maths 【5th august, 2nd shift】 | MTS Tier-1 Exam Analysis & Asked Questions | SSC MTS MATHS

SSC MTS (5 Aug 2019, 1st Shift) | MTS Tier-1 Exam Analysis & Asked Questions

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Chair Conformations of Cyclohexane – Cis & Trans / Axial vs Equatorial – Organic Chemistry



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This organic chemistry video tutorial focuses on the chair conformation of cyclohexane. It shows how to draw the most stable conformation. It contains a few notes, examples, and practice problems to work on.

Here is a list of topics:
1. Chair conformation of cyclohexane
2. Axial vs Equatorial Positions – Stability
3. 1,3-Diaxial Strain / Interaction
4. Cis and Trans Isomers of Chair Conformation – Up and Down
5. Energy Diagram of Cyclohexane Conformations
6. How To Identify The Highest and Lowest Energy Chair Conformations
7. How To Draw The Most Stable Cis-1-tert-butyl-4-methylcyclohexane chair conformation
8. Half Chair, Twist Boat, and Boat Conformation of Cyclohexane

in this video we're going to focus on the chair conformation of cyclohexane cyclohexane is a ring with six carbon atoms it's a cyclo alkane we can draw it like this or we can draw the chair conformation like this now you need to be familiar with the axial and the equatorial bonds in the chair conformation for cyclohexane so the axial bonds are usually in the upward and downward direction the equatorial bonds are on the side so this is an axial bond and it's up the next one is going to be facing in a downward direction and then this is axial up again and then down up and down it's always going to alternate in that same pattern now for the first carbon because the axial is in the upward position the equatorial bond is going to be in a downward position and it's going to alternate so this is going to be equatorial up down up down up and so forth now sometimes you might get a question that ask you draw the most stable conformation for this one cert butyl for methyl cyclohexane so if you get a problem that asks you to draw the most stable a chair conformation for this molecule how would you do it how would you begin so feel free to pause the video and see if you can try this problem yourself now the first thing that you need to realize is that there's four confirmations that you can draw for one two butyl four methylcyclohexane the two groups can both be in the axial position the first could be in the axial position the second could be in the equatorial position or it can be reversed e to the EA or both can be in the equatorial position it's more stable to place a group on the equatorial position and then the axial position the reason why that's the case let's say if you put the methyl group in the axial position it's going to interact with these axial hydrogen's and so there's something called 1 3 diaxial string if this is carbon one then this will be carbon 3 and you can count it this way as well so it's going to interact with the other axial hydrogen's and so put in a bulky group on the axial position will make the molecule less stable but if you put it on the equatorial bond it's going to be more stable but we're going to draw all four confirmations and we're going to rank them in order of increasing stability so on carbon one we're going to put the tert-butyl group we can place it in the axial position or we can place it in the equatorial position so carbon four is going to have the methyl group we can place the methyl group in the axial position or we can place it in the equatorial position so these are the four possible structures that we can draw the four share confirmations that we can draw for once our butyl four methylcyclohexane so now let's rank the following confirmations in order of increased instability let's say number one is the least stable and number four is the most stable so which of these four structures is the least stable chair conformation it's going to be the one where both groups are in the axial position so this is number one this is the least stable structure so which one is the most stable structure the most stable structure is the one where both groups are on the side they're in the equatorial position so this is number four that's the most stable conformation that we can draw now which one is the second most stable or which one is number three so between the remaining two structures is it better to put the tert-butyl group on the equatorial position or should we put the methyl group on the equatorial position which group is bulkier the tert-butyl groups it has a lot of methyl groups it has three of them and so it's going to have a lot of run to be the axial strain because it's so bulky so we want to put the bulky group in the equatorial position it's going to be more stable that way so it turns out that this is number three this structure is more stable because if we can put that big tert-butyl group on the side we can relieve a lot of run 3d action string the secondly stable is this structure because it has the tert-butyl group in the axial position even though the methyl group is in the equatorial position so now which one is the answer to the original question which one is the most stable structure for cysts one tert-butyl for methylcyclohexane is it number four or is it something else now out of these four structures two of them represent the SIS isomer and the other to represent the trans isomer you need to be able to determine which one assists in which one is trans so here's what you need to do let's analyze each one so the tert-butyl group will know it's in the axial position but is it axial up or down notice that it's facing the upward direction and the methyl group is in the axial down position so because one is up and the other is down do you think it cysts or trans if they're facing opposite directions it's going to be the trans isomer if they're facing the same direction then you have the SIS isomer so this is trans so now let's look at number two the tert-butyl group is still in the upward position now the methyl group is in the equatorial position but notice how it's slightly up so this is equatorial up because they're both going in the same direction this is the sis I summer and let's look at number three the tert-butyl group is facing the downward direction and the methyl group is in the axial down position so they're both facing the same direction so this is also the SIS isomer now looking at number four the tert-butyl group is in the downward direction the methyl group is in the equatorial opposition so we have up and down that's Trance so even though number four is the most stable structure it's not the most stable stiff structure so we have to get rid of number one and number four because we're looking for the SIS isomer so we have to compare two and three and we know that number three is more stable than number two because the bulkier group is in the equatorial position so therefore this is the answer to our original question it's the most stable sis one tert-butyl for methylcyclohexane chair conformation structure now there's some other things that you need to know the chair conformation is not the only conformation for cyclohexane there's also the twist bolt the bolt and the half chair so you need to know that the chair conformation is more stable than the twist boat conformation and that's more stable than the boat conformation which is more stable than the half chair conformation the half chair conformation is the least stable conformation for cyclohexane it has the highest energy whereas the chair conformation it has the lowest energy so let's draw the potential energy diagram for the confirmations of cyclohexane so we're going to get a graph that looks something like this let's say number one is the least stable that's the half chair number four is the most stable the chair conformation is going to have the lowest energy on the y-axis we have potential energy and on the x-axis we have the different confirmations so number four it is going to be the lowest energy structure which is the chair conformation the highest energy structure is the half chair so that's going to be at the top at the peak of the graph the second highest point is number two that's the boat conformation the second lowest point or the third highest point is the twist boat which is over here so just make sure you know that the chair conformation is the most stable structure it has the lowest energy and then the half chair has the highest energy the half chair is the least stable structure now you need to know the shapes of these confirmations so this is one way to draw the chair conformation and then for the twist boat it looks something like this and then you have the boat conformation it actually looks like a boat and then there's the half chair conformation which looks something like that so make sure you can recognize the shapes of these confirmations and make sure you know the stability as well so that is it for this video thanks for watching and have a great day

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SSC CHSL 2018 / Railway 2018 Maths Class fro HCF & LCM online classes by Amit sir Live Schedule Of 14th Feb 2018 1. Hindu Show – 8:00 Am 2. Maths …

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