PUPAJIM / STAND HIGH PATROL – “Dancehall Scientists” 12″
PUPAJIM / STAND HIGH PATROL – “Dancehall Scientists” 12″
This poem teaches us to create the atmosphere of equality for everyone so that everyone can achieve their dreams and goals in a happy society.
Rise Against – Appeal To Reason In The Studio – Part 1
Enjoy this unusual set of personality tests, crime riddles and logic puzzles. These riddles and brain games will nicely exercise your brain, improving your logic and giving you a lot of food for thoughts. If you dare to test your logic and at the same time learn the truth about yourself, then let’s start right away:
00:14 – A nice ‘crime riddle’ that has to be solved before Christmas! (or Santa won’t bring any presents to this house)🎅 You will have to question all family members, and I bet they have already come up with good alibis! Pay attention to the smallest details to bring the culprit down; he or she will have to make another Christmas dinner instead of the one eaten and I believe they will invite you to share it😉
01:38 – Who is the killer? Hard crime riddles that are not that hard if you turn on your logic and observation skills. The evidence is right there, just open your eyes and brain.
03:11 – This crime riddle is extremely difficult because the crime scheme was being elaborated carefully for a long time. It’s almost impossible to reveal the way the murderer managed to get rid of one brother without doing any harm to the other one, but there is nothing impossible for a brilliant Detective! Maybe one of the brothers is poison-resistant? Or he just pretended drinking? Who knows… You’re the only one to solve this case and make the murderer suffer the consequences!
04:40 – Will you dare to answer these tricky questions and share your results? I will understand if you won’t, really😉 This personality test will make you look deeply into your soul and you’re likely to be afraid of what your will see there!
07:06 – Sherlock, it’s time to investigate the next case! The picture puzzle awaits your brain to spot the evidence and solve this detective riddle!
08:05 – Do you believe that our subconscious can give us signs and messages we can’t understand sometimes? If you do, try this short implicit association test (if you don’t, try as well) to check what your subconscious needs to tell you about yourself. You’re likely to be surprised a lot!
09:08 – A fun warming-up riddle to test your common sense and the ability to find the shortest way out of a situation. If you can come up with at least one solution for this short riddle, then you’re a creative and at the same time rational person and use your mental power in the most efficient way! Try this short riddle with answer can help you understand how to train your creativity.
10:28 – These picture puzzles will turn your mind upside down and blow it away for sure 😈Share your ideas in the comments, let’s see who is the smartest alec here! A tough visual test to stretch your mind😜
10:56 – Who lives with parents? Let’s see what your choice reveals about you.
TELL me IN THE COMMENTS your answers: who lives with parents?
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From episode seven of the first season titled, “A No-Rough-Stuff-Type Deal”
This video shows the cycle of mathematical modeling using the Nuna solar car as an example: A real-world problem is described mathematically using functions. Equations help to solve these problems in order to make predictions in the real-world. This video is part of the edX course: pre-university Calculus (Calc001x)
Hello! Welcome to the first week of the pre-university
Calculus course! Do you remember this from our course promotion
video? The World Solar Challenge. A race for cars using only solar power to
cross Australia. Racing three thousand kilometers from Darwin
to Adelaide. Students of the Delft University of Technology built the Nuna7 and won this
world championship of Solar cars. How are mathematics like Calculus, important to building a winning car? The students of the Nuon Solar team have a
clear challenge: Design a solar car that can drive the long
distance as fast as possible, using only the sun as a power source. This is what we would call a real-world problem. In terms of energy:
you want to build a car that maximizes power input and minimizes power loss. The first step with such a problem or challenge
is analysis: You try to break down the question in smaller
and more specific questions, like:
how much power can you harvest from the sun? What is the influence of power losses like
air friction, roll friction and battery loss? Here starts the modeling cycle that is used
in science, design and engineering. You have a real-world problem and you try
to formulate it in terms of a mathematical model. A mathematical model describes the relation
between the different parameters that are of influence in this real-world problem. Such relations are described by mathematical
functions. Just a small example of such relations.
The power input of the Nuna car is described by a function relating the efficiency of the
solar cells, the area of solar cells,
the height of the sun and other quantities. Power loss depends on roll and air friction,
which both depend on speed and other parameters, and loss of electrical power. Once you modeled your problem in terms of
functions, you can start making calculations. This often involves solving equations. In particular if you try to find an optimal
situation. For example:
what is the highest speed the Nuna car can attain given certain weather conditions? After solving the mathematical questions,
you have to interpret the results to predict how a design or phenomenon will work in real-life. And,
ultimately, you will have to test your predictions and
see whether they are correct, or whether you need another or more refined
model. This cycle of mathematical modeling is used
in medicine, economics,
science and engineering to tackle real world problems. Think of questions like:
What is the optimum dose for this medicine? How can you maximize the profit of your company? How can you design a thrilling roller coaster
ride? How can you reduce energy consumption? In particular,
it shows how important it is to have a thorough understanding of mathematics if you want to
be a scientist or engineer. This starts with understanding the building
blocks of any model: mathematical functions. In first two weeks of this course we will
review the standard functions like polynomials, exponential functions and trigonometric functions. You will have lots of opportunity to practice
with these functions, their properties and their applications. Have fun!
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Chor Do – Dream or Distraction | by Physics Wallah
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Check out the online video lecture of Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds – Distillation from chapter Purification & Characterization of Organic Compounds of Chemistry class 12th for JEE Main Advanced preparation prepared by Misostudy’s expert faculties. (
Organic compounds are obtained from natural resources. When these compounds are obtained, they are in their impure form. Hence, several methods of purification of organic compounds, they are sublimation, crystallization, distillation, differential extraction, chromatography.
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hello students welcome to the chemistry sessions I hope everybody is doing great so are you enjoying the techniques that we are doing in the last session we had started off with yes crystallization we had discussed crystallization and relives crystallization along with the simple distillation so I hope everybody has revised all the concepts so what we were doing in this simple distillation before moving on to that I'll just write down what all techniques we have covered we have covered the sublimation right I hope everybody remembers this we have covered the crystallization in the last session crystallization right what else the recrystalization also known as recrystallization here and what else we had started off with a very very simple procedure that is of distillation so I have got a simple one so I've got a simple distillation I have got what kind of distillation I hope everybody has a read it or not so every time whenever I give you homework you need to go through the concept first because that would be pretty easier for you to then follow up the session so here simple distillation we have got we have got fractional distillation right distillation every time I am writing down the incorrect spelling what else we have got we have got reduced pressure it's a very very interesting technique reduced pressure distillation and the last one is what kind of distillation the steam distillation also very popular so as we have discussed about the simple distillation in the last session so what actually the simple distillation is we just boil off the mixture of compounds which are having so here main thing is the boiling point difference must be sufficient enough must be enough that is around 50 to 70 Kelvin an approximate value I'm telling you telling you about so that is the minimum kind of boiling point difference that must be there there why there must be a different difference in the boiling point because if the boiling points are nearby or closer to each other and we have taken up let's just say we have got a round bottom flask here and we take up the mixture let's say of compound a and B 1 is having let's just say a boiling point of 105 degree Celsius and other one is having let's say 1 1 5 degree Celsius so what is the possibility over here the possibility is if we try to boil off the compounds they might be boiling off together and there will be no use of then this technique because it won't be separated we will be getting a vapors which is a mixture of the two again so again we are back to square one we are back to the same position again we need to separate it out via some other technique so that is why we need compounds which are having a difference in the boiling point and what are those compounds can you give me an example so it's ether and ether and toluene that is also mixture they have got sufficient enough difference of boiling points so ether and toluene I've got hexane and Halloween and also I've got a very popular mixture that is of chloroform and aniline so that is also a mixture which is separated so these are some kind of mixtures which are actually separated wire this technique because these mixtures have got sufficient enough difference between the boiling points so I hope everybody's clear with the fact now let's just move on to the fractional distillation we are through with the simple one so let's just move on to the fractional so again we'll be drawing the structure first we'll be drawing the apparatus first then I'll explain you so what is actually the fractional distillation in fractional distillation so basically what we do is we implant we actually put a fractional waiting column fractional ating column we have got a similar kind of an operator that is we take up our B that is the round bottom flask what else we take up we take up a wire goes on which it's kept right so that is the wire goes on which the RB has been kept clear what else we have got we have got a tripod stand so here we have got a stand like that and a burner so we have got a burner also so that is how the burner would be so just draw with me simultaneously so that you have a practice of it so a similar kind of procedure we are following up and what else now here comes the fire we light it up so that is the fire that is the flame we have got and what else we have we have the RB and the RB has got a mixture of compounds here so it has got a mixture of compounds so here is the liquid that we have taken up fine here is the liquid again what do we have we have got a stop called we have got a stopcock over here it's always orange in color orangish red even if you see these in laboratories so that is stopped pork here and what else we have got a tube which is penetrating inside the core and then going inside the round bottom flask so that is our B we name it as RB flask nothing but the round bottom flask what will happen there is a tube inserted in here but not a tube exactly over here what is the difference between the simple distillation and the fractional now we'll see here so here we have got is a column we have got a column over here that is the column that is this is the column over here and here it's again of stop cork over here the column has got something in it let us just see what is that so it has got some weeds in it some crystals in it so these are the kind of beads which are present which are actually what the beads are doing whenever the liquid boils off so whenever the liquid boils up from the round bottom flask it goes into the fractionating column it has got so many kinds of glass bead that the surface area or the traveling time of that vapor increases and that means what those kind of liquids which are having the closer boiling points will actually be separated very efficiently via this technique so what is happening here is let me just draw more some more glass plates over here now that is how the glass beads are so these are glass beads increasing the surface area basically what will happen the liquid will then again boil off goes into the condenser gets condensed and finally into some kind of container we have got so what is that container that container will look like somehow like this it may be a conical flask that we can take up like that so that is how the conical flask go to be so that is the conical flask we have got and what else we have got the pure liquid what are we missing out we are missing out the condenser part right so just try to draw the condenser along with me the condenser has got an inlet and an outlet so that is the inlet and that is the outlet here now what does the procedure see here also what we are missing out again is a thermometer a thermometer is also kept over here along with a fractional eating column we have got I'm just making because there's not enough space so I'm just making the thermometer like that so that is a thermometer fine that is the water condenser so always and always mark the things so we have got a mixture of compounds over here mixture of compounds and that – let's just say a and B the difference between the boiling points in the mixture of compounds here in the case of fractional distillation is approximately n – 30 gallons not more than that so here the boiling points are closer so that is boiling point difference between the two that means the boiling points are boiling points are closer to each other fine so that is the entire technique over here what do we do let us just discuss that I hope everybody has drawn it out now we have got a round bottom flask in round bottom flask we take up the mixture of the compounds that we need to boil up that we need to separate what we are doing is the purification technique we are separating out the compounds with purity so we obtain pure compounds over here in this technique as well if any kind of impurities is present that will remain as it is in the RB flask so that is what it is so we take up a mixture here not in the case of simple distillation in simple distillation we had taken up the boiling points which are the boiling point difference which is quite large because we need to separate it out the liquids one by one we do not have any kind of source other than that over here I have got a source what kind of a source we have we have got a fractional aiding column reaction relating all oh yeah and this column what it does is whenever the liquid gets heated up like that it moves into this fractional ating column it travels so long that the temperature keeps on rising in the Army flask so what happens is first of all if I just assume that the boiling point of a is greater than boiling point of B right so which will boil off first the one having the lower boiling point so this one so it will boil off first the B will be traveling and traveling in the fractionating column slowly and slowly the procedure is very slow so it just travels and travels till the time what happens is the temperature here rises so much that a starts boiling off and when the air starts boiling off the B has almost reached at the top so B has got time to travel up and then gets condensed before mixing with the vapors of a right so we are actually increasing the traveling time we are actually increasing the surface area so here the surface area is increased the traveling time is increased and when it reaches the top when the B reaches the top it gets enough temperature it gets enough time for the a to boil off finally the B condenses off first the B condenses off first and then gets collected over here and again what happens then a will start boiling off after some time so it will boil off and then gets collected so that is how the different liquids get collected and since the liquids are actually having a very very less difference of temperatures of boiling points so we cannot use a simple distillation method because that would gave us both the mixtures of pure liquids so we don't want that we want a separate one so here that is how the separation technique is and not only these type of columns we have got different kind of columns so a column would be like this as well so we have got different kinds of formations like this that is how one column could be we need to just provide the enough surface area we need to just provide the enough timing to travel so that is how our main motive is in order to separate so that is how the different kind of columns look like there are hundreds and hundreds of columns available in the market which has got a different kind of structures different kind of shapes present then just in order to have a different kind of attainments different kinds of organic compounds attained so depending upon the criteria depending upon the type of organic compound we want to obtain we use different kind of columns we can choose different kind of columns also there are such columns which are having bulbs like that so that is also column so these are the bulbs these are the different shapes of the columns and I hope everybody has got the procedure what we have done so we have just boiled off and till the time the B rises the B gets collected over here it first condenses then a will come up that is how the procedure is I hope everybody is clear with the fact we are through with the fractional distillation as well what is and where is this technique used so fractional distillation most commonly is used whenever we are separating remember the procedure of pyrolysis you must have done this in lower classes pyrolysis and the breakdown of the crude oil in two different kinds of oils that means kerosene paraffin wax and patrol whatever it is so there are so many kinds of gradations in crude oil we can obtain so many kinds of oils from the crude oil the procedure involves a fractional aiding column a fractionating column just as we have done this here but a quite a bigger one something like this you can say so this column is so big that is it has got so many inlets over here so depending upon the boiling points the liquids will boil off and then condense from different outlets and the different outlets actually attain or obtain a different kind of oil stem so that is used it is so let me just try it over here fractional distillation used in separation of different products products from crude oil you must have recalled the concept that is the cracking of hydrocarbons so yes so we have done this already so I hope everybody is clear with the idea now let's move on to the next one what is the next one is the reduced pressure distillation what is reduced pressure distillation this particular distillation is actually used whenever we are having so much of high boiling point for a compound that we cannot just heat the RV and then obtain it so in order to that what we do is we reduce the pressure of the liquid on the surface of the liquid and it boils off that means we are in turn reducing the boiling point so here is the technique the distillation technique most suited for separating glycerol from spent lye in the soap industry is so first of all let us just analyze what the question says so they are asking about some kind of distillation technique and what we have done so far is different kind of distillation techniques which are given over here so suited for separating now we need to separate glycerol from the spent light what is this particular thing glycerol from the spent lies basically nothing but the saponification reaction and the spent lye is basically what this pent lye is the alkaline glycerol what is this alkaline glycerol when the fat is converted into saponifies into what is a quantification into the glycerol along with the soap naturally so what is left in the mixture is glycerol along with the soap that is alkaline mixture of both that is known as the spent line so we need to separate it out and we need to take out the glycerol as a whole so for that purpose if I go for the simple distillation so that would be a cumbersome process because simple distillation would be requiring lesser temperatures but if we go on to the boiling point of glycerol so I would like to tell you over here the boiling point of glycerol is approximately 290 degree Celsius right which is quite high so simple distillation will be unable to achieve this much of temperature easily if I go by fractional distillation again it would be a very very improper method steam distillation if I go so steam distillation also it must be having some immiscibility with the steam with in with the water and that is not possible over here because glycerol is soluble in water right so here all of these three methods will be wrong but distillation under reduced pressure which will actually reduce the boiling point of the glycerol and now glycerol can easily boil off easily separated so that is what the answer over here is distillation under the reduced pressure so we need to reduce the pressure of the entire reaction mixture reducing the boiling point of the glycerol separating it out clear so answer is D over here let's move on to the next question very next question what does it say a miscible mixture of benzene and chloroform can be separated by so I have given a lot a lot many techniques here so let us just analyze first what benzene is benzene is a non-polar compound right whereas chloroform will be polar but they are saying over here is a miscible mixture they have taken that means they have taken both of them in such a quantity that they are miscible with each other so there's no point of sublimation because sublimation is solid to vapor conversion right so here both of the things are in liquid state chromatography again we are not sure about what kind of adsorption will be there on the stationary phase crystallization what is crystallization we need to first dissolve it into some solvent but these are itself liquids so how can that be possible and now comes up the distillation and also I would like to tell you a point over here in crystallization is if I've got a liquid only and then I boil off then I heat it out with some kind of solvent what will happen if I then try to cool it down again I will be getting the liquid and not the crystals so the condition for crystallization is we must be having what a boiling a melting point right melting point a higher then the room temperature right so that is how we can obtain some crystals at room temperature for that substance so this crystallization is also not applicable because here both of them are liquids benzene is a liquid and chloroform is also a liquid at room temperature now comes up the distillation so if I look at the boiling points the boiling points of benzene so it will be around 80 degrees Celsius whereas for the chloroform it's around 60 degree Celsius so there is a difference of 20 degree Celsius boiling points so right we can apply we can take out the method of distillation for the separation and to be very precise I can also use the method for fractional distillation because the two boiling points are closely related right so I can have to be very precise steam distillation sorry non the steam but the fractional distillation over here and thereby the correct answer is d i hope everybody has got it which of the following compounds gives blood red coloration when it's lust signs extract is treated with alkali and ferric chloride right so again the question for assigns extract a very very famous la signs extract an organic compound and organic solution that is used to detect the various elements present in the organic compound right so they are asking about when are we getting the blood red coloration when the lesan extract is treated with alkaline ferric chloride so basically for this particular question you need to have a proper knowledge about what all reactions are happening so I've got the le right I need to react it with alkali and then ferric chloride so how do we get the blood-red coloration that is the question over here so the blood red coloration how does it observe how it's get observed is the Le should be in the form of first of all any Sen right sodium thiocyanate so that is the Le which is need to be there and when this le reacts with Fe 3 plus ions it will give what it will give the blood red coloration now what is the compound which is formed so that is the compound which is formed which actually is responsible for the blood red coloration into the solution so that is blood red coloration right so what we need over here is in this particular reaction in this particular reaction we need to form Sen that is thiocyanate and for this SCN we need to have s c and n all the three elements present in the reaction side right so out of these three out of these four options what is the answer so first of all if I consider the IOU urea you need to have a proper information about what is the structure of all of these compounds how you do looks like this next is diphenyl sulfide so I hope everybody knows what dye self diphenyl sulfide if if not you can just very easily form the formula so that is the structural formula for it diphenyl hydrazine if you just look here very carefully in diphenyl hydrazine as well you will not found it you will not find any sulfur present over here right so there is no sulfur present right in bends amide as well no sulfur over here sulfur is present but nitrogen is not present so no nitrogen and it is the only a option in which nitrogen carbon as well as the sulfur is present that is what we need in the particular reaction getting the blood red coloration so we need sulfur carbon and nitrogen whenever a question pops up about what all compounds will give the blood red coloration you need to just see which compound contains all the three that is sulfur carbon and nitrogen is the important thing over here I hope everybody now remembers it is the correct option now let's move on to the next question so what does the next question say okay now it's the type of multiple type question multiple choice sodium fusion extract obtained from aniline what is sodium fusion extract that is lel assigns extract obtained from the aniline on treatment with iron sulfate and sulfuric acid in the presence of air gives Prussian blue crucian blue color again it will remind you of what the test for the nitrogen right that is the detection test for nitrogen where we get the Prussian blue color hence the blue color is due to the formation of you need to have a proper knowledge about what all reaction is going on but as you can see it's a multiple choice question so we need to be very careful while choosing our choices right so first of all let us just have the reaction related to it so the reaction is if I get three and negative that is from the le nez and right what was the Le initially taken NaCl it reacts with Fe plus 2 ions right that is coming from the ferrous sulfate and what we get is this is hexa sign of ferret so this is what we get we are not complete yet next is when due to the presence of this sulfuric acid it converts most of the FE 2 plus ions into fe 3 plus so those also react with the compound which is fault for negative plus what Fe plus three ions giving the compound that is Fe for fe CN six whole thrice so that is what we are getting ferry Ferro cyanide right ferry stands for the ferric over here Ferro stands for the ferrous over here right and we need to look for this particular option so if you look for this particular option I will be getting only one as my answer that is a if you go by the other options Fe plus 3 let us just check because this is a multiple choice question so Fe three-plus over here if this is Fe three-plus right that means this will be ferrous because this is to the counter ion is two by the cross multiplication method I have found out that this plus two this cannot be the case again by the cross multiplication plus two again cannot be the case and by cross multiplication yes this is plus three but this would be three minus which is not at all formed in the reaction mixture so this particular multiple this question appeared in the multiple choice question but that is just to confuse you because some of the students might think that there will be multiple answers going on over here so they may mark one or maybe more than one options that would make your answer completely incorrect so you need to be very careful by choosing the options this has got only one answer right right so that is a we have got it already so I hope everybody is clear with it so it is not necessary that each and every multiple choice question will be having multiple answers so you need to be very careful next question says okay now it's the comprehension type question what is the passage over here during the detection of elements by the science test again the sinus tract question the covalent compounds are converted into ionic compounds by fusion with metallic sodium right they've told us the process of what all process is happening in the law science test right the nitrogen sulfur and the halogens present in the organic compound these are the detection of elements via the science test right so in the organic compound are converted into cyanide sulfide and halides respectively we all know that which are then detected by their usual tests so that is they have given just an information about how the license extractors fall and what is the use of this law science extract I hope everybody gets that now let us just check the questions based on it an organic compound containing n c o as an extra elements is fused with the sodium metal and then extracted with water the species which is not present in the solution of the extract so I've got my trojan let me just rub that I've got my Trojan I'm good sulfur I've got oxygen fused it with na what all do we get NaCl and a 2 s right we all know what all are the formations and for oxygen there is no such kind of an interaction with the sodium so then these are extracted with the water I've got an alkali as well right the species which is not present in the solution extract now the solution extract we have formed so these are the species which can be formed over here I can have CN right I can have CN s right I can have sulfide but nitrate cannot get formed over here so that is there is no such possibility of formation of nitrate this can be possible if the sulphur gets hindered with the nitrogen so in that case we get n AC n s right in that case we get this otherwise we can just get the sulphide right and there is no chance of formation of nitrate a nitrate here right so that is the option right so I hope everybody has got it answer number C is the correct one yeah we have ruled out all the other possibilities
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If pregnancy does not occur, the lining breaks down and is expelled from the uterus. This is known as menstruation.
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UAP is making advice about Area 51. Wanna invade? Don’t. Making fun of super-seriously funny business. Making fun of quackery like main-scream scien-tainment does more than going on some foolhardy crusade.
If I’m doing something on another YouTube Channel it will be at “UAP” on
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Who is UAP?
UAP (as conferred by my subs) stands for Underrated Actual Physicist. I’m Orthodox in faith and technologically inclined by profession, but my nature here is rebellious… it usually lines up with the traditional wisdom of Church Fathers, and knowledge of the Ancients by way of THE scientific method;
-and yes, that may be revolutionary.
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Any subject that is fascinating, extraordinary, uncommonly known but very useful, and true, I demand answers about official stuff I don’t want misrepresented by popular science, first by researching it myself, then by spewing forth my own wild conjecture, and finally seeing how myends up being correct more often than I expect.
My analysis includes humor, but is serious about finding the observable+ repeatable+ reproducible data that IS fact, especially when the Bible has given us the right direction, inspiration, and corroborating testimonials.
Even more when these Orthodox ideas have been systematically contradicted and suppressed only by widespread belief in popularly conjectured hypotheses. These things are my targets of opportunity.
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►The Truth About the Stars and Flat Earth
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okay all you folks before you go out and storm area51 let me save you some trouble first of all even though you may be a US citizen and it's technically yours and you should be able to travel across it through it you should be able to audit it inspect it you should be able to show up unannounced and have access to pretty much anywhere in there you don't you can't and the consequences are severe so but I get it you want to know the truth you want to know if they're hiding if they are hiding something well yes they are it's secret but what they're hiding mm-hmm it's not so exciting I mean there's a little bit but it's not what you think they are not hiding a ullians because those don't exist not outer space aliens no way man so get off at get over it if you're disappointed do some introspection why are you disappointed that there aren't a humans that's kind of weird then the other thing is so what are they hiding well it's not so exciting stuff news news flash the government lies and the things they lie it out well it's having to do with the stuff we've the most part already found out that space is fake and such and so forth that kind of stuff MOOCs are fake on and on so what do they do there well why do they hide that they do there well they hide the stuff that they do they run drugs the traffic people probably they make space you know they fly airplanes and things that shoot flares that are supposed to be meteors and pretend to be satellites and pretend to be the ISS that's just a jet that they fly when they when they schedule the jet to fly that's when they send out the meteorologists to say the ISS will be visible blah blah blah because the Sun supposed to be in this certain position to illuminate this tiny little metal thing up in fake space that you wouldn't really be able to see and when you do see it it's just this kind of blurry thing doesn't really look like the ISS is supposed to look like but it does look a little bit more like this plane that they fly so anyway that kind of stuff now whether all of that is done at area 51 I'm certain that I don't know but it's just a big cash cow man they just they take the money whatever they do there is less important than getting the money and they get the money and so a whole lot of nothing goes on there I'll tell you that and then what does go on there that's secretive is nothing too different from what any criminal organization would do so any movie you watch where they have a secret lair that's what it's going to be there's a little bit more elaborate a little bit more sophisticated when it comes to the things that they do to fake a space and to fake nukes and to fake some of the other things that they fake but as far as high-technology and aliens and that kind of stuff you're not gonna really see that and then it's part of it is just to be a place where they can say that they do things that they don't do like test scramjets and ramjets that they don't really have they don't have these jets that can go Mach 10 they don't and so they don't test them because they don't exist so sorry to disappoint you some of the other things that they do there are the things that they do to make up for the fact that they don't have satellites they don't have fake space and so they have to do some mundane routine things that aren't there exciting that they don't really talk much about they do it a lot just to maintain the the illusion you know so a good example that would be launching weather balloons we've ever been watching the weather and heard the weather man or woman say okay so we're going to our weather balloon data now and we're looking and we can see that there's a storm tracking from 500 miles west of blah blah blah no they say satellite but it's not satellite not satellite not satellite it is weather balloons so they launch those things like madness there are thousands of weather balloons launched all over the world every day that's how they get all that data another thing that they do there is the aerosol spraying and for all the different ideas about how sinister it is and what it is and all this kind of stuff a main reason why they spray the aerosols is simply to put metal particulates into the air so that they can use radar to track the wind speeds directions moisture levels you know the ebb and flow of the atmosphere so that is something that they don't really want to tell you much about but they they do sometimes they call it chaff or you know the military planes are practicing throwing out chaff and then yeah right that and that covers half of a state and it appears as rain on the radar but it's just a metal particles you know so that kind of stuff is done out of those types of places there's some really weird creepy stuff that they do but it's not aliens that would get into more like the human experimentation and that kind of crap and if there's any reason to storm it it would be that but you better bet with all the advanced warning they're gonna have it all locked down I mean what honestly what you're gonna do storm in there okay you got in there it's an absolutely huge place are you going to go underground even if you find the place the place you go into that tunnel and you walk along underground you're gonna find locked doors and armed guards you know but at some point it is a good idea that hey maybe these armed guards have a conscience and if they're experimenting on people behind those doors maybe they'll unlock the doors so that the people could be rescued and their story be told but you think they're gonna allow that I don't know it would be very very revolutionary but it needs to happen because the compartmentalization is the real problem the people who work at area 51 with top-secret clearance themselves do not know what goes on at area 51 because of the compartmentalization so there you have it before and you get too excited about storming it just know the things that I've said here that's a pretty good primer and hopefully it will be your guide may God be with you ciao you
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☆ 55 Reasons to ship CHONI (4)
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I probably it's too close you know I think that Waverly has been our whole life Taylor name she is the people she's with she's only now just starting to figure out what she wants Oh walking bumper sticker hey isn't that champs traffic whatever leave boyfriend unfortunately she what was the last thing you saw me from their front porch into a Roadhouse part you whipped off your shirt that was that like a beautiful fairy tale porno thing I like that oh I can't I mean I love to black play like Jamie you know judging from your roster has proportions much right accept that compliment oh and you can do better well small-town options remember I'm in a relationship with men and my sister 9 seconds tell me you're back jumping up the champ what are you doing in town I mean besides my boyfriend eight seconds no sorry so I'm having flashbacks of watching champ play video games and come on he's just so beneath you missing your valedictorian speech I wasn't gonna do anyone who smile at manchild no honey wait who neither quite a popular girl down here limited he plays pregnant pictionary hope you're gonna join us I am you're not crazy well I'm not sure I'm really ready to serve you know the lowest be the keeper of my boner huh all right well let's shut that brain oh no help don't want my brain shut off we're done yeah we're done Jim any man in her Kotori would be lucky to have you I'm sorry I never wanted cause he distress and I was awesome thank you doctor you should find a gal like me only tolerant it's not I have to go okay you look so pretty when you smile all right place you can actually get up in that custom lifting trick to pick up do it more really sucker that's okay it kind of really just discovered it when I met you there's kind of special realistic nutty unicorn egg we've been doing what others want you to do for so long now you can do whatever it is we want remember some of the best things in life no surprises at Russell but what we want who we want you know what I've always played what to pass that other plane at 15,000 feet yeah to swim far far out into the ocean so they can see what te Pido point is I've always wanted to do things that scared me but oh it's not so easy to be breathing and the thing that you want scares you to death is sitting right in front of you when I think about what I want to do most in this world it's you you're interested in we had my sister maybe I should be grilling the shit out of you I said see Nicole afford that poker spectacular you guys are Emily's office woman yes are you Nicole best friends oh you think insular dude stick scars to chicks or I've managed a bunch of sand we release girlfriend girlfriend of kind of okay because they seemed to think it was something about like candles do try to get me just sexy black dress how long as that's like you have never been hiding at the back of your closet okay if we get out of here we are getting dressed up her weight loss well what is saving it for a one-year anniversary but how about a frickin explanation huh so where you think you're going well I thought I'd visit my mom was greater than God knows enough about time bullshit you're headed northeast keep that getaway car running this is history I'm gonna go down as the revenue that got me that makes one of us you know trying to go she don't do that but when that gatling sociopaths a to freak you out your Waverly's friend that's not super relevant to she hurt you I'm sorry that Tucker was so awful to both of you it's fine I could always talk to her I said get out I swear it security don't I can't let it go now I need to leave no come on how many times do I have to tell you that stuff is poison my poor brave babe I've been dressing her wonder for the past few days I should do a lot of patching each other up these days you are week the truth so this is my sister Waverly her girlfriend maybe you can get your Cochran to treat me with more respect bots are hot is my girlfriend her sister attacked my girlfriend you taste you taste like stay calm well I guess that would be their own private business hey hey chin up you sure we've been waiting 20 years officer Hawkes the strongest deputy I've ever had Emily I've never asked her to be so on your nor you sure about this we have to go you guys need to get some more hands I were gonna need a few more of those peppermint shots because it's like drinking Brisbane when I am sure you will be both respected and supported redheads are one yeah I will also create our dozen retailers I'm April this year happy Easter to me so exciting no I was just coming up the community of advanced planning skiers I went on No discuss your final wishes with your husband's if my head and wake up a patriarchal bullshit land yeah that's right baby it is so you're kind of judge you for Kappa koi yeah well I'm also a cop so forgive me if I don't find a bad boyfriend dance music yeah we're all about challenging gender norms it's for her own protection no I would die if anything happened to her and as long as you want me there matters I wanted to say sorry for earlier I was so preoccupied with my own stuff you know that I couldn't properly celebrate your big news so shit Nicole let me make it up to you Wow and it's maybe that's that's everybody's thing by sexist is makeup sex right maybe you should stop talking to I'm exhausted I know when there are so many other things you should be doing why'd you distract so competitive so cocky you know what how about you just Damien I like the worst thing advantages to my douche picker brother makes the rest of healthy to go through Tucker all right charge them up and then immediately delete all your textbook Jim especially David confound me the way the teachers you guys got each other it's anybody's call Waverly tell her that her sisters in a situation she said she was glad I called I'll bet later and I knew recognize that right now cool Waverly I called Waverly it barely got a word in high school no okay great I'm worrying neither of them are answering sweetie you're really starting to freak me out I have so much to tell you that underly should be hanging out with you finally pick the smart one hey Cole was brave yeah you would be a good wife ah thank you in my defense he's the worst don't judge me I will judge you to the beating try to check skip no I used to think you were an outsider to judge you is practically awesome what not many things would get 2d money go my sister with a broken are my coal can be married with us don't resent squeezing Nicole wants to be eaten by vultures and then cooked out again her corn my Nana I love her you bet I love you too you are the earliest the mall but in his own way he loved Waverly butts no excuse Nicholas is Tom you're right you swoop in and steal my girl a little horse Waverly doesn't Oklahoma too many guys to selling sureties she acts like she won't that she is she didn't think I was nervous and ether Jacomo waste way no no remembers he's who are you gonna transform your sister or a sociopathic revenant muscle and everything's changing around me but it's all too fast you know and it's like nobody ever asks me if I'm okay with it my whole thing I want to have to trust either you sent to the South would be a fool not to marry me as long as you believe it in her told me to find the iron-rich the way he said it I think he meant an actual bitch it's like could everybody just stand still for one 30-minute search feel like yeah move running toward the cliff Terrence right you don't think about the cliff because you're showing your schedule Beverly what are you doing being alone I want to be alone Kevin Carter no thank you I knew answer already you are so pretty and I like you so much you are drunk and in trouble to collect something for me I got it thought you said fun trying not to look but I'm seeing a lot of sorry to be so illegal freedom get me her address you know I just happen to blow off work sort of pass by but she'll open the door for you no matter what time can you both agree that your sneaky sneaky swirls and trying to have each other's backs for change at least I don't do that but don't give me that sad little someone stole mine you cut me look I'm here like you're not ruled by Konoha okay yes I admit I am a little worried about my girlfriend due to impending apocalypse Gibson date of birth tempura beans but you know my birthday yeah that's annoying closet everything always been there just a bike rental I mean you know come back that's not in ten minutes well you guys make the no booklet bleak situation you breakfast those googly eyes in the mirror or just that felt out instituted knickers on the doorknob policy since you're not using words girlfriends like me would bug news those your ears are you just happy to see me don't okay what you're doing every day you made me do it no me no I have can't light will always smell like vanilla dick doughnuts they're my favorite I just want to make sure you okay you know but deep down you're still my Waverly have you noticed any changes she's been actin motors I really I would never say something like that I'm gonna be a better time Missouri were you are you the cross-eyed hooligans a clump of a gamer gonna love it because because he's had things private show who's hungry okay all me maybe there's a trouble yeah Julian clergyman Hey gonna be okay with this you and I'm working side by side with my batch potatoes just it just really that is the worst fresh lights that I've ever heard I improvised okay you don't even like the dragon over use it lacks grace I bring the sister of the air I don't need grace I need precision okay more anyways hello beautiful I'm just waiting for a waiver ladies know you've been a Thrall of a powerful super evil demon attempting that bad something it ain't having to stare at your gorgeous smiling pretty friend that was so new year's 2012 like you know what it's all of that we helped I feel like I should unite you with a candy cane and the nicest person birth story or the book really was a nightmare Robbins I said that you are oh and she doesn't give a rat 3 me about her killer you can say ass it's just a super cache bgd big a dinner oh I'm leaving don't make me belly both you look who would I rather piss off you or your sister the fact that would be terrible at keeping really anywhere should convince me to do anything your regular two can tell it but I edit the content well oh great we really sent you to babysit well mommy said technically you thanks for lunch you can eat those pickles what you know what I do now got a blazing Phoenix I do all of your bet yes that's what you 104 yeah a shot best case on your panels roleplay you know what I gotta get to work and I know she's breaking bad because my house we do they don't tell me please don't shoot me I got cases track looks like you might do are you serious rate because I was trying to protect you or control me bodies compel oh you sure it wasn't someone else's lighting that you've stolen here because you thought you have the right to make that pattern every decision lets you look you can't even see the result I don't need you to make decisions for me okay sometimes lying that's kinda guy tried that trust me okay see the look in his eyes you're right there we don't like never do tell you what to think or feel but you know do Henry tell this conversation who empty double agent and a little too much but it's gonna be okay Oh Nicole that text was so nasty I messed up we had it been so perfect I'm with Nicole what do I care about some change or butch cop I noticed she'll do it to Beverly if I don't have it in three yo please can you tell me how to save her well let's can't kill us get more venom yeah test subject I'll do it no no I hang on val-kill teacher 192 fine we're gonna find a way to stop the toxic okay you're gonna be just fine doing everything you can do what you can with the last of failed juice let me worry about test subject awesome babies formula is killing me they said you'll be great over to help we're gonna have to sleep this off first Nicholas died they better bring your knives to got a ginger to save by let's go I like this simple one thing marriage is not – is that I'm say I'm her wife we done married in a fever rittany alive and a big win at the slot machine will do that to you he's a hustler Jerry's inside of me no sorry don't you want to talk the truth I'm sorry for being such a Dez first you're on a job and you don't want to talk then they tell me to talk sometime maybe we should humanity girlfriends fight it's normal leave the register marriage it's kind of the worst it's totally the word yeah nothing cuz I don't really make anything you're making out with a hot resin and I'm hot it sounds like she's really gonna need you after Hey I'm gonna go get her give her five more minutes I'm I'll make sandwiches pastrami salami egg dunno cucumber have at East Hampton with have no cheese where's Bettina is over what happened – bullshit – no but she's got me and us we don't be analogous for an iron had five friends four of them are right here so it's left your mother had a psychological disorder may she's gone now was someone he had a traumatic past so he felt like he could help me with nails what happened we survived how many six-year-olds think to jump in a canoe to escape a fire there was a minute I'm a man who loved her so much – screaming and blood last spring when would have mercy he said his name man I was already down by the river when something attacked okay but we release nothing about her neck no idea of survivors your sisters broken so here I have to talk about her later if we live you know one of those I mean Eve not Adam and Steve me who are you God purgatory prize in favor that here you guys do that times after stuff do you know I do a lot of things to you yeah technically hey Waverly maybe blow your alcohol what are you doing whoa maybe maybe we need more little bit we're just and I know she's pretty bad because my chopsticks very thin walls your sex life is either about together really great or listen I can't really talk in a bar and wired to explode also I think I'm thinking eater not even you boil when we get that done we get on which is Nicole gonna join us and dinner yes thank you for making my Waverly so happy always thought she was an angel okay yeah which makes me the luckiest know love her and you know I love her too and now that thing is trying well you of all people should understand why Tucker was drawn to Waverly love takes on many forms what you did to the woman you love just gun it some space screw space look you need to get up you know things and make things right look I know that you two were your that would be tap-tap-tap but mainly my coffee my sister Jenny she's funny we should keep her she really loves you wave earlier I have eyes Waverly Nicole loves you way hot is taking it to the rendezvous point where your heart hear that face Widow Katie offered to save Nicole as long as I give me the 13 that seals the only thing preventing the widows from unleashing mega diamond 3,000 tells you to wait maybe my word I'd get a curing it is where really what did you do I'm terrified because my sister who's supposed to be the smart moral one or Whalley screwed us anyway suppose it was for someone you love it's gonna be okay baby listen thanks for coming to get me standard operating procedure no notes oh hey absolutely nothing hey that's gonna be smarter you're right okay I'm so sorry didn't work out the way you wanted I thought I'd lost him no I'm just having some of the carrots I am only chance of living you go I go you're free to go you tell the Waverley another bitches okay I just want attractive killing you as a child looking thinking she's my mother and I'm a pop in think it talked to me about it first you spend your life rescuing others you think I like you oh did you get rid of his ring yet no I'm still looking another perfect spot which is Swee to the butcher's ring is following me hot ring came off a withered chopped-off demon arm and meniscus also keeps Rikishi back to us this isn't a demons and angels ring on you something very powerful that work here and it found its way back to you we had to confirm the couldn't we open the power of the Ring you're only half angel if they've Nicole just immunity because what I don't even blame her nobody I knew her loves me and despite what happened today I know I know that Nicole does do a nice day everything good that I have in my life is because I came back to the ghost River triangle miss Esther okay being Waverly it was a serial killer when he was human who knows what he's capable of now what he's gonna do I don't know poor officer huh hey did we observe happen without me seeing she's homesick really uh cuz I spoke to her last night then fine I left three messages did she get them her I know really tried to stay away but I got worried and quit oh she's mad one okay nobody nowhere does that mean that way nobody gets hurt Nicole got hurt autumn in her little queen risk of bossy town for my taste but I know love her and you know I love her too and now that thing is true Nicole has bitten because of me I know she saved me you know they're not taking another one not today whatever it takes adults I don't want to be a burden and I don't want a machine you gave you my body please don't ask except if you can't I don't know what if he can't well we all left before we meet girl and there is knowing how cheese I can fix this good this is the love of you drivers like I bet you tell me what you like best I'll share fine how about that oh wow where to start um well she's just brave and loyal real be great after we and she likes me when when I'm none of those things I'm skinny when extra you're pretty good oh my god yeah hot baby you are the daughter of one of two angels task of protecting the garden Juan Carlo and Julie so literally here to stop Wilshire you take your rightful place and your Father's throne what's it gonna cost us her life she'll turn to stone I don't think I can do this you selfish short-sighted meet wheels Millennials what was she not okay I used everything I had to say there you get this for me okay yes I admit it I am a little worried about my girlfriend due to impending apocalypse so clingy okay seriously where the RIP is Waverly sorry you just really like her never apologize for love bread not to me be cool what am i that's easy you are extraordinary I can't when you told me because I love you I can Kenji channel away but I love you you betrayed I love you blade earlier and nothing will ever tear us apart and we're all gonna die anyway so what's the point the point is that I love you I love Waverly no you don't yes I do I love her Wynonna I love her I do Nicole really hot I really really love you I don't care that can deliver spider listen can you tell me you tell her
Get a Family Size Hot Logic Here Discount code: KATHY
Make this super yummy supper in your hot logic or slow cooker crock pot. Quick to assemble, cook it on low 8 hours. Pepper Rings, sausage, Gruyere cheese, Alfredo sauce. Enjoy a dinner that is so delicious and satisfying! Try it!
good morning everyone I'm gonna start my dinner for tonight but at 6 o'clock in the morning I'm going to take a few minutes to prepare it and let it cook all day long in the family size hot logic container it's going to be sausage stuffed in pepper rings with mini cheese ravioli and cheese sauce so we're gonna use about a pound of sausage we're gonna use a 8 ounce bag of mini raviolis these are dried you can get them in store shelf about 3 peppers some shredded Gruyere and I'm gonna use them afraid of type sauce this is prego artisan 3 cheese sauce all right then I'm gonna start by slicing the peppers in thick slices and stuffing them in the bottom of a casserole dish with the sausage it'll only take a few minutes to prepare this and I'll show you how to put it together all right let's take the peppers and just take the core and the seeds out all right we're gonna slice these cord and seeded peppers into some wings so let's make them about half inch to 3/4 of an inch thick and then we're going to set them on the bottom of the pan I have a couple pieces of pepper left we're gonna save them till the end and see how we can fit them in just forward here we're gonna take the sausage I'm gonna take it out of the casing and I'm gonna stuff it in each one of the Rings so I'm just gonna flip the casing here so we can get the sausage out if you buy it without the casing that's great good for now we're gonna take pieces of the sausage and stuff them into the middle of these rings as the sausage cooks it will shrink a little bit so I like to put a bit extra in there alright we're going to use as many of the nice bigger rings as we can with this amount of sausage so I'm going to use the rest of the peppers though in the dish so let's see how much we can fill see I'm just kind of stuffing it in here so that it's flat on both sides something like that so many we can get these three peppers are not the largest oh they're just kind of medium sized peppers like this red one for okay so we got six pepper rings out of that I'm gonna spread them out and then we're going to chop up the rest of these into pieces all right now we have all the pepper rings spread out in the pan stuck closely I'm going to take this small bag of ravioli I really like these little red lilies or tortellini bags because they don't take that long to cook and they get nice and tender and they have a filling inside so that's really cool also so we're taking off the tops of the peppers let's spread it out throughout the pan all right then I'm gonna put a layer of Briere cheese this is one of my favorites and it's nice for cooking it spreads out nice and cheesy good flavor it's a little bit different than the usual you know it's a little bit different than some of the usual cheese we use like cheddar and stuff okay so we got this covered with a little cheese and then I'm going to take all those nice pepper pieces that were left chopped them up it's a little niblets here but look at the nice color and nutrition that this will add so we're just going to spread this around to for some fun I have the veggies gotten out of the veggies here [Applause] next I'm gonna take the prego artisan 3 cheese sauce this is kind of thick so we're gonna spread this around make sure that each of the sausage patties has that sauce over top of it make sure we did it all out with her nice little fertile yeah spread out a little bit and then we're gonna add some butter because remember those little raviolis are not cooked and they will absorb water so I have about the same amount as the jar here let's just rinse the drawer out another jar full-size of water we're gonna get the rest of that sauce out of there just gonna pour that in so that we don't wash it off the top legs to make sure it's wet all around the parts where the ravioli are laying all right now the family size how logic is a great size for our servings like this it fits a 9 by 13 pan so we're just going to take the she's like let's put some pepper on this you can add salt if you like here there's a lot of seasonings in these sauces so the sausage is also seasoned it's Italian size so we're going to stop with that so we get all the great flavors now let's put the lid on and take a look from the side to see there's quite a bit of water in there for the raviolis sausage will give somewhat or to as it cooks those of you who have watched my hot logic videos before I get a lot of questions about how is this cooked it's a warming tray but it's not just keeping things warm it keeps it to the temperature that's similar to a low setting on a crock pot so that's why we're cooking raw food in here and comes out nice after so many hours we're gonna let this cook for eight hours today and it'll be ready for suppertime so all we got to do is plug it in and go about our business all right later in the day Rick will be the first one to have supper and he'll open this up and show you what it looks like and possibly show you how it tastes consider this hot logic is a real time-saver in your kitchen this is a 9 by 13 and this is the 6 cup mini which is so useful for warming up food or just individual or two-person servings so all right I just want to show you that and I'll put a link below in my description in case you're interested in getting them for yourself all right we'll be back later in the day with a sample of what this looks like when it's done cooking enjoy your day I'm awake let's see what my supper is today you might know what is it peppers smell the red peppers smell oh yeah sausage peppers looks like you see how convenient this one's cooking why slept you know that well it's in a pepper rank say ELISA yeah how logic so convenient for cooking like this that clip flash left you know we put the lid back on for the next person that comes home don't stay good get yourself hot logic if you didn't get one yet I'm gonna enjoy this use Cathy's discount code down there in the description I think you save 20% that's pretty good isn't it check him out use them all time talk you soon thank you
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So. Space elevators. Are they are thing that we should talk about?
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*Space Elevator – Science Fiction or the Future of Mankind?*
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من الصعب الوصول للفضاء كما أننا جميعا نتمنى لو كانت هناك وسيلة سهلة و غير مكلفة لرؤية كوكبنا يطفو في الظلام الآن، الوسيلة الوحيدة هي أن تصبح رائد فضاء أو مليارديرا لكن هناك فكرة قد تجعل ذلك ممكنا كما أنها تساعد كنقطة انطلاق لاستكشاف الكون مصعد الفضاء كيف يعمل بالضبط لنفهم كيف يمكن أن ينقلنا مصعد الفضاء إلى الفضاء يجب ،أولا، أن نفهم "ما هو المدار" أن تكون في مدار يعني، أساساً، السقوط باتجاه شيء ما لكن بسرعة كافية كي تخطئه إذا رميت كرة على الأرض فإنها ترسم قوسا في الهواء ثم تصطدم بالأرض في الفضاء، الجاذبية تجعلك تتحرك بنفس الطريقة، لكن إن تحركت جانبيا بسرعة كافية منحنى الأرض يجعل الأرضية تسقط تحتك بنفس السرعة التي تشدك بها الجاذبية نحوها لذالك، كي تدخل المدار الأرض، يتوجب على الصواريخ أن تتحرك للأعلى و جانبيا بسرعة على النقيض، فإن مصعد الفضاء يحصل على الطاقة من دوران الأرض ليجعل الشحنة تتحرك بسرعة تخيل طفلا يدور لعبة مربوطة بحبل مع نملة على يد الطفل بينما تتسلق النملة على طول الحبل فإنها تتحرك أسرع فأسرع كلما صعدت بالمقارنة مع الصواريخ، فإن شحنة مرسلة بالمصعد تحتاج فقط إلى طاقة تحملها إلى أعلى أما الحركة الجانبية السريعة فتأتي من دوران الأرض لكن مصعد الفضاء بلاشك سيكون أكبر و أغلى بناء صنعته البشرية أبدا فهل يستحق هذا كله ؟ يحدد ذلك التكلفة الصواريخ تحرق كميات ضخمة من الوقود إرسال شحنة صغيرة فقط إلى الفضاء بالأسعار الحالية، تصل التكلفة إلى حوالي 20,000$ لإرسال 1 كيلو غرام إلى الفضاء هذا يعادل 1.3$ مليون دولار أمريكي لإرسال إنسان وسطي 40$ مليون دولار لسيارتك مليارات لمحطة فضاء دولية هذه التكاليف الباهظة أحد أكبر المحددات لطيران الإنسان في الفضاء حتى مع تقدم التقنيات (التكنولوجيا) فإن من غير المرجح أن تصبح هذه التكلفة قابلة للمقارنة بسعر تذكرة الرحلات الجوية في المستقبل المنظور إن مصعد الفضاء قد يحل المشكلة بعد بنائه مصعد الفضاء مخطط له أن يخفض التكلفة 100 مرة إلى 200$ للكيلو غرام الواحد إذا كانت تكلفة مصعد فضاء رخيص 20 مليار دولار فإننا سنعوض خسارتنا بعد ارسال مليون طن فقط ما يعادل تقريبا وزن محطتي فضاء دوليتين إذا كيف سيبدو مصعد الفضاء في الحقيقية مصعد الفضاء يتكون من 4 أجزاء رئيسية السلك، المرساة، الوزن المضاد و المتسلق المصعد فعليا في مصعد الفضاء هو السلك و المتسلق يمتد من سطح الأرض إلى الفضاء المتسلق يشبه حجرة المصعد العادية حجرة تنتقل على طول السلك صعودا و نزولا في القاعدة سيكون هناك المرساة تثبت السلك إلى الأرض مع ميناء للمتسلقات في الأعلى الوزن المضاد الذي يمسك السلك السلك يبقى مشدوداً كالحبل و مدعوماً من الأعلى بسبب شد الوزن المضاد الموجود على ارتفاع أعلى ن 36,000 كيلومتر فوق سطح الأرض عند الوزن المضاد من الممكن أن توجد محطة فضاء نقطة انطلاق لكل المهمات من مصعد الفضاء لكن هل نستطيع فعلاً أن نبني واحداً؟ من الصعب البت بذلك التجدي الأكبر هو السلك يفترض أن يكون خفيفاً، مقبول التكلفة و أكثر استقراراً من أي مادة نستطيع انتاجها حالياً هناك مواد واعدة كالغرافين و الأسلاك الماسية النانوية ولكن حتى هذه قد لا تكون قوية بما يكفي و بالإضافة لكونها قوية فوق الوصف سيتوجب على السلك مقاومة العوامل الجوية و الإشعاع و النيازك الصغيرة وارتطام الحطام بالإضافة لذلك قد يحتاج تسلق المصعد إلى عدة أيام كيف نمد المصعد بالطاقة؟ سيتطلب الكثير من الطاقة للصعود إلى أعلى هل نحتاج غلى مفاعل نووي في حجرة المصعد؟ أم نمدها بحزمة من الليزر الخارق من الأرض و من أين نأتي بمواد خام لسلك بطول 36,000 كيلو متر هل نصنعها على الأرض و نقذفها إلى الفضاء؟ أم نصنعها في الفضاء و ندليها للأسفل نحو الأرض هل من الممكن أن تكون مناجم الكويكبات هي الحل باختصار، مازال هناك بعض العقبات التقنية لنتجاوزها و مصعد الفضاء لا يأتي بدون أخطار إن إنقطع الحبل سينهار بأسلوب استعراضي إذا اتقطع قرب المرساة فإن القوة المطبقة من قبل الوزن المضاد ستسبب ارتفاع المصعد كله عارجاً إلى الفضاء إذا انقطع بالقرب من الوزن المضاد السلك سيقع ملتفا حول العالم عاقدا عليه (متشابكا) الحطام الناتج في المدار قد يشكل مشاكل جدية لرحلات الفضاء المستقبلية إذا كنا سنبني مصعد فضاء على الأرض، فيجب أن ننجح في المرة الأولى لهذه الأسباب بعض الخبراء اقترحوا أولا بناء مصعد فضاء على القمر جاذبية القمر أضعف بكتير من جاذبية الأرض لذا فمادة أضعف لكنها موجودة كالكيلفار قد تنفع كسلك حتى مع كل هذه التحديات العائد من وجود مصعد فضاء فعال سيكون هائلاً قد تكون الخطوة الأولى لنصبح فعلا حضارة عابرة للفضاء قد لا نبني أبداً مصعد فضاء لكن بمحاولتنا أن نفعل ذلك قد نتعلم الكم الكتير و عندما يتعلق الأمر باستكشاف الكون فلا يمكن أن نكتفي من الأحلام عن مستقبل عظيم تُرجم من قبل فريق Amara.org
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I think we are over an hour in we're gonna keep going here I have not looked at these ones which I always all right is the sign of a good interview but I have to look at them because I want to talk some math stuff that's probably going to go over my head and some of these phrases oh hey are spring of tacular let's start with the e8 and tits Royden Thal magic square Wow I googled that okay tits Freud and ball very funny to me very strange yeah I was now a long time nobody ever made the obvious joke ever and it's all May all-male group I swear to God is that say about math people yeah and humor that we can be trusted apparently yeah um no all right so I want to knock out just a couple just interesting mathematical theories and and some other stuff and I have a few here let's start there because I want to impart some of this because as I said at the top this is not my department knowing about this kind of stuff so what God's name is the e8 and tits Freud and all magic square you're already looking around well on an example of something so you have these you have these uh origami very symmetrical origami shapes my grandma made them so this is living in three dimensions and we would call its symmetries a group and the problem is that there are very strange isolated sets of symmetries that don't act in three dimensions but act in very high dimensions so 5233 the largest of these strange objects is called ea8 and it acts in 248 dimensions so it's like the monolith in 2001 it shows up we have no knowledge of why it's there the average human being is never worried about it because they don't know it exists we have no idea what its symmetrize it only seems to symmetrize itself and the tits Freud and Thal Magic Square is this collection of symmetries that are generated by some procedure and it's almost as if it's a message from pure design from pure order and nobody knows what it means and so this is something that we should be worrying about this is like you know if I were running the NSF I would say why are we not putting money into these four very strange objects called f-4e 67 and e8 to try to figure out what they are telling us we know that they're at the center of mathematics and then at another level they're like the platypuses to mammals they're so different and so strange that we have effectively no understanding of them yeah this is going to maybe sound like a stupid question but so this is understood purely at a at a theoretical level or this is understood at a literal level like it this idea has been we can construct them we okay that's that's what I'm at mathematically but we can't fit that over here yeah so we can't build them I can't build you a model right and we don't know all all indications are that these should be absolutely central to mathematics and maybe even to physics you know a friend of ours also a rival who lives in Maui has built a theory of everything around this this object ehm we know that the symmetries of our universe seem to generate all four of the fundamental forces and so symmetries and physics are closely intertwined now the question is does this physics somehow come out from these very strange objects so do you start with the most complicated simple objects of a type and then try to recover our world or do you try instead to start with an extremely simple object and have the complexity of our world emerge and so these are you know that I've taken that route trying to think about physics but these are things that people should at least know exist and with your viewer base hopefully a couple of kids are going to google these things and say holy crap yeah and spend the rest of their life trying to bring it home for us or they're gonna go man Dave's looking at him like yet no frickin clue what do you think nobody does you're in the same boat as I I mean all I can picture as you're talking about this I can understand what you're saying in a in a certain sense but I am picturing the monolith from 2001 so it's the idea of something that is packed with itself or something I think I so that's the core everything strange and with Noah it doesn't come with an instruction manual right we just thought we can prove that it's there yeah yes so for example Plato had these 5 solids and platonic solids turns out that in dimension 4 all of them have an analog but there's a new one that had never been thought of and wasn't understood until the 1800s that it existed mathematically called the 24-cell so these are these puzzles where you know if you were a religious minded person you might think that these are messages from a creator that have not been decoded and if you're a different sort of person you think well these are undoubtedly structural elements that have not been tied together with the major themes of mathematics so probably they unlock something amazing and if you were Indiana Jones you would try to find them but you wouldn't necessarily beautify it but believe in them right but prior I think he kind of believed in a lot of stuff yeah and and so that's that's one of the things is that it takes a certain level of confidence to say I'm going to pursue this because there's no indication you know what are you gonna get from the monolith does that make better toast or you know right or do you become one with the universe or nobody understand glass see exactly you just end up in a bed as an old man and somewhere beyond desire the sirens of Titan yeah you mentioned the theory of everything which was a movie last year but also is beyond just the movie when the hell is the theory of everything um well it's the source code whatever we're you and I are talking in something that I referencing the matrix call the construct and the construct isn't some fake computer program is the geometric underpinnings of what we would call quantum field theory in the theory of gravity and these two theories are known to be flawed in some sense and so they're not complete and yet there's no way that we currently have of having a single graceful and elegant theory that particular eise's to both of these that is what obsesses me which is we are the artificial intelligence that lives inside of this differential geometric construct and our job is to figure out what is our own source code so we sort of did this at one level with let's let's say DNA or the theory of selection from Darwin so humans have been trying to figure out progressively okay what is this place where are we having this conversation with the Rubin report right right and the idea it's not just LA it might be deeper than that oh yeah it could fever yeah it could be Simi Valley you don't know but uh I think that what it is is it's the greatest puzzle ever this is this is the main story can we understand each level of our source code right down to the machine code do you think we can actually get there well that's an awkward question because I think that I'm I'm gambling that I've broken through something which could could put me pretty close so let's talk about that thing all right this was about three years ago three and a half well that's it about there yeah I know your mathematician has to be very precise so can you explain what you did about three years ago that clipped some of I'd Stein's stuff sure so when I was a a young guy I watched string theory start to bubble up in 1984 there was a discovery and there was a lot of desperation because for about ten years theoretical physics had been stalled and I looked at strength here and I said this is fascinating it's really interesting and it doesn't feel right and I bet the whole field is going to go down this path at least give me string theory 101 just for string theory 101 says the your concept of the world is not a theory of waves built on idealized little balls but instead you imagine some sort of rubberband like geometric structures and then you'd build waves in some sense on top of that rather than on on point particles and very quickly it starts to get greedy and it demands I want to live in 26 dimensions or I want to live in 10 dimensions maybe 11 I want to have this super symmetric aspects which has to do with a symmetry between force and matter and the problem is is that it feels intellectually like a check-kiting scheme where you're constantly repairing something but you're opening up a new can of worms and I don't think that solvent at the moment that nobody's figured out how to get this this game to close and to rejoin what we think of as experimentally verified physics so I think I was early saying this is madness and I went into mathematics in order to avoid what I saw is like the tulip bubble of string theory huh and so what I believed was that actually the hardest thing is to unthink Einstein because Einstein laid the groundwork when we talk about string theory we still think about space and time as space-time and there's something wrong at that level but there's nothing to correct it's it's so elementary that it's as if there's no room to fix it right you'd have to untie a gajillion other things or so it seems all right and so what I what I did was I tried to spot a couple of things that people had in my opinion miss thunk about the geometric underpinnings that were there were some discoveries in the mid-1970s by Jim Simons the world's most successful hedge fund manager and CN yang arguably the greatest living theoretical physicist where they figured out a dictionary between mathematics particularly geometry and theoretical physics which has spawned a revolution that is now 40 years old right and so some of the equations that came out of that I saw as capable of replacing Einstein's field equations which are very elegant and again have this this feature of locking out any attempt to play with them so if you think about the world that we see around us as currently understood by physics there are three main equations Einstein field equations there's the souped-up Maxwell's equations called yang-mills and then there's something called the Dirac equation for matter and those three equations are in some sense probably the simplest equations in their classes so we're a little bit stumped because it feels like okay there's nowhere to go we've searched the room for our keys we cannot find them and we can almost say that they can't be here but that's not quite true so the way I saw it is is that physics conceived of a battle between Einstein and Bohr relativity and quantum mechanics and in fact what we found was is that Einstein was derived from a kind of geometry called Romani in geometry and only recently in the 1970s did we find out that quantum mechanics seems to come from a different geometry from a guy named Arish mon-sol era shmaaya geometry and so what I did is I said I don't think it's a battle between Einstein and Bohr I think it's a battle between Riemann and Arish MA and the question is is there any geometry known that can incorporate the advantages of both of these two different kinds of geometries and in generically there isn't but in a very special case you can marry them and get something new and when I was in graduate school we thought there were only 16 particles and what we call a generation that mostly makes up this construct but it turned out that neutrinos had a little bit of mass and that meant that there was an extra possible particle from 15 to 16 particles so we thought 15 now 16 and if you have two to the two to the n particles so in this case two to the fourth there's a new kind of geometry that combines arish monte and geometry and romani and geometry that might govern our world and so what I believe is is that physicists have an economic incentive to study the generic cases because that's what you can build a career on but our world may be the most particular of cases and so it's a sort of a one-way suicide pact dieter it's going to work or it isn't right and so I went to non-economic route which was sort of self-destructive but that I lined up Eric I am NOT going to pretend that I fully understood all of them but I got some of it okay how about that that's a start right you gotta start somewhere it's not I'm doing like Einstein thing you got to start somewhere exactly we'll go from there you know all right so I got one more for you sure the edge question we toss a question that goes out to about it was about 200 tuna public intellectuals per years public intellectuals fair to say it's always kind posers acres and blowhard by – look yeah yeah this question Jon Brockman does a beautiful job of assembling some of the more interesting minds and I somehow snuck in and I've remained in every year but one for the last seven or so years so every year at the end of the year he sends out this question to all of these people and he asked them to respond and then they post all their answers publicly you were one of the 200 or so people I want to get the question absolutely right the edge question of the year of 2016 was what scientific term or concept should be more widely known right what was your answer to that so I deliberated it's very similar to the question he asked in 2011 what would improve everyone's cognitive toolkit and I said professional wrestling and kayfabe because my wife told me as well take the risk yeah but so this year you would have to write about the professional wrestling's actly as you explained it with Trump so there you go in 2017 I chose Russell conjugation and Russell conjugation was so we were talking privately before about the need to push out new language to understand our world okay I'm glad you're ending with this I was going to do a bonus thing so we'll do it we'll do it right now okay so the the thing that I I was searching for was what word should I use that sounds like synonym where two words are content synonyms but maybe emotionally antonyms so a good one is fink and whistle-blower mm-hmm right and so I asked this question on Quora and people said oh it's you know it's loaded speech no no that's too general finally somebody I think in Florida wrote in and said you're looking for a motive conjugation or Russell conjugation turns out Bertrand Russell had been here earlier and in 1948 he was on the BBC and he said let's look at the construction I am firm you are obstinate he she or it is a pigheaded fool and that that was just a moment where I said oh my gosh I don't realize that I have been given no extra information about the three conjugations that he's gone through and yet I feel differently I like the fact that somebody is firm in steadfast and I dislike the fact that somebody is pigheaded and then I realized that this could actually be weaponized and as part of an arms race that maybe the newspapers were in fact conjugating president strongman dictator mm-hmm and so I remembered this very strange phrase from years past Panamanian strongman Manuel Noriega and I thought who would come up with a construction that awkward and always invariant and then everyone read and everyone uses it exactly hawkish he's hawkish right or controversial businessman was was applied to a friend of mine declan Ganley who had fought the Lisbon Treaty in the EU and at some point they removed controversial businessman so he just became businessman declan galley and so what I what I came to understand is is that the big boys don't play around with faking the facts what they realized is that we have multiple opinions on everything but our emotional state selects which opinion and the person who figured this out it is Frank Luntz and Franklin's is a Republican pollster there's video of him where he asks people you know what do you think about undocumented workers oh you know they're doing a great job and we have to recognize the contribution well do you support illegal aliens no no they should be deported yeah and in an instant and then you see that the mind doesn't see itself it's having two reactions to death tax in a state it's the same object and so we are both for and against everything and so while we're watching information they're not looking at information they're looking at the emotional shading because our emotions pick out which of our multiple opinions we're actually going to act and so what I'm pointing to here is that this is the language that you need to get underneath the constructed world that you're presented with and what I hope is that this essay is going to show people that you can code up a computer program to crawl text with against the table of Russell conjugates to figure out what the exact bias is of any news source I don't need to know about Breitbart is conservative let me crawl it let's just look at the buzzword let's look at the Python program use regular expressions grab the text match it against the table and I'll tell you exactly what you're being told to feel irrespective you can be trusted with the knowledge what you can't be trusted with is your feelings because the feelings determine the opinion and so this is the great binary weapon the information superhighway had very little effect relative to what we were expecting because it needs the second emotional component there's no emotional superhighway to go next to it this is so fascinating because it's so everything that's happening right now and it actually does maybe this is the unifying principle of our entire conversation because it fits within the fake news thing it fits within the algorithm thing it fits within trying to talk about talk about honestly talk honestly difficult issues I mean it's all it's all right there well you think about it like this if if you're going to trust somebody like a physician to put you under and operate on you you want to have a lot of previous discussions so that you feel that person is aligned with you what I'm trying to do is I'm trying to get the power tools into the hands of the people who've not been trusted with them and to say hey I want to upgrade my relationship I don't really want to kill the New York Times I want the New York Times to learn how to respect people who are as smart or smarter than the editors who drive the narratives then the reporters will go out and report and I want them to come to see themselves as part of the problem and part of the story which is please stop with the editorial headline everything's editorialize now right and stop with the narratives and you're going to have to be in partnership because you don't have the gatekeeping ability anymore and previously we democratized information but we kept turning the New York Times please tell me how to feel those aren't revolutions in Tahrir Square those are demonstrations right and so I was the one who was off of social media I was saying I'm watching a revolution but in New York when I went to a party people would say what are you talking about the demonstration yeah right and so these conjugates then they realize that after Mubarak went down that it was no no this is the amazing part about it it's only when you actually hear the authoritative source that you've empowered right to switch the language that you actually feel safe because what happens is if you just take what you see and then you go into your social group you will find that you will be instantly ostracized and so what we've been we've been depending on the New York Times not for information we've been depending upon it for to tell us what's safe to feel with whom should I empathize who should I consider a pariah who should I hug to my bosom and this is the thing that we're now going to break through so 2016 was the year when that started to crumble yeah so let's just go through a couple words that wave that we've discussed and that you've been part of so first off the word bigoted ear I had Tim Ferriss on and I think he came up with the phrase when you were on his pod yes and basically it was this idea of what the social justice warriors are doing is not good they are finding bigotry everywhere and they are cheering bigotry because that is the ultimate virtue signaling goodness what's a hunting license for people that you disagree with right you can anybody I can label a bigot I'm allowed to hunt yeah so I love the fact that I've been pushing it out a little bit now and I see it starting to gain a little traction so that's one and then one that you actually came up with on your Sam Harris's podcast was steel Manning which I thought was not mine oh that's not you don't know oh I've given I'm giving you who know no that comes from sort of the rationality community that I run with I'm a huge on attribution I think it's important oh absolutely I they taught into me to tribute all right so dude you know who actually came up with it I think I first heard it from the first person I heard use it powerfully was Yan Tollan who is a brilliant Estonian who coded up Skype uh-huh and just an all-around very deep thinker well now I know you're very honest because I was I was attributing it to you much as I wish I could claim credit yeah I know I think that you know for example one thing I've been focused on is long short positions so the idea that your long support for Muslims and your short support for Islamists where those things sound very similar to most people right right but the idea of pulling apart something that's good from something that sounds similar to it but is in fact very dangerous is something that we are going to be doing and that's I think one of the things that we're going to give is our gift to the dialog how do you hold these nuanced positions that we've talked before but there seem to be about 20-25 people who can try to do this in public without falling off the a frame roof where they're dancing on rationality and if you follow this direction you end up as a troglodyte and if you end up this direction you end up with political correctness right so almost no one can managed to do this because the forces are making it impossible so I think that long short thinking which is taking the marketplace of ideas and treating it as we treat market the marketplace of investment of anything else right yeah all right I love that I'm going to start using that let's just backtrack voters to steel Manning real quick even though you didn't show up with it but I but I think it's such an important piece of what's going on here because we know that in the public space there are so many people who do the reverse of that they strawman this is and steel Manning is basically laying out your opposition's ideas in the clearest most concise way so that you can attack them properly right I mean that's the idea you are still Manning their position so that you can then disassemble it fairly and honestly as opposed to what we see so many people doing these days which is making up a person's position and then attacking the non position right so that I talk about liberal clairvoyance where a lot of the left believes that if you state even a little bit of your position oh I know why you hold that position because you secretly just like this and you're for that terrible thing that's so in this idiom one of the things is is that I look at very smart people I think Glenn Greenwald is a very smart guy like a lot of stuff he's done I think Reza aslam could be very impressive and what happens with these folks is is that they strong in repeatedly and they try to find the most powerful argument for their for their readership and you look at Sam and Sam whatever you think his faults may be is frequently trying to steal man somebody who is strong Manning his position and that is the cinah qua non of that's the ante to get into the the higher-level conversations and I know I'm going to take a tremendous amount of guff on Twitter for that but that's what I'm signed up for because I believe that fundamentally it's not just about attacking your opponent's position sometimes I'll steal me on somebody's positional say you know what I don't think they had the best version of that but now that I see what they may be saying maybe I'm even moved and I think that it's really important to sort of extend that as a courtesy as a grace what do you do though when that courtesy is not extended back to you repeatedly so without getting into Glenn and Reza who I think most of my audience knows they're they're bad intentions I mean I could even think of other examples where just in the last couple days you know I saw Judd Apatow and Sarah Silverman both of them I really like Judds from the same town as me when same high school I like both of their work I saw them tweeting about how Simon & Schuster should get rid of Milo's book now that would these are people who were comedians that are supposed to be getting to the edge and crossing it and write edgy and all of this stuff and I say I tweeted at them and I said you know I love I've Milo coming on a couple weeks I'd love to have you guys sit down a conversation I didn't mean it as a debate I'm not attacking I like Milo I like Judd I like Sarah although not they didn't respond to me and I suspect that they won't respond to me but that does make our job as people willing to extend the the fig leaf a little more the fig leaf the fig leaf yeah I was they all branch with the olive branch the fig leaf that sang us but I was I was going to the big leaf for some reason but for those of us that are willing to extend that willing to have those conversations willing to to do the intellectual work to make the world better if it's not handed back to you and I'm not I'm giving a bit of a stretch with sure position on the two of them maybe they've responded to me while we're talking right now but it does make our work a little bit harder right well let's try to steal man their position which is a sign of good faith I think that in part we haven't pushed out the language we haven't pushed out the toolkit and as a result everybody is fumbling around with language that was barely adequate in the 1980s it totally doesn't make sense now and I'm not positive that all of these people will stay where they are I think that it's quite possible that when we stop focusing just on the intellectual and of course I'm guilty of intellectualizing everything but we start to come more into contact with our own humanity and pushing out some of the empathy and emotion when I was on Sam's podcast for example he started talking about the beauty of the poetry of Rumi and the the call to prayer as being one of the most beautiful songs you know the one hears all the time in the Middle East which is you know central to Islam yeah and so horrible I think I've been called a prayer yeah it's probably I'm extremely moved but yeah I heard you say that I thought pretty obnoxious in the middle of day four times and all it's just no we had have a different reaction I lived in Jerusalem for a couple of years but what I what I find is is that when we show that we are empathic that we understand you know Reza's in a tough spot and that's hard for me to say because I really don't like the way he savages but he's in a tough spot and you know Glenn Greenwald probably thinks at some level that he's doing the right thing and I'm pretty unhappy with the biasness of some of those arguments but I find that when I extend a certain amount of just I muster any grace I can to listen and to not react once people feel a level of security in the conversation they say you know I can climb down from these battle positions I thought you were saying this and so I had to make this move I don't think you're going to get everybody that way but I think what part of what the problem is is that we have to be more willing to be emotionally vulnerable it's not the easiest thing for a middle-aged hard-charging you know male but I'm trying and I'm trying to do it on Twitter and I'm finding that I'm able to say things they're quite difficult with so far a minimal amount of blowback in part by just being slower on the draw not thinking about these as enemies thinking that we are in some confused state and that it's the language and the impoverished nature of the language that's keeping us trapped here so I'm up for a good fight if I'm really looking at the enemy but some of these people like you were saying about Sarah Silverman right she's making some bad calls in my opinion and I just think the world of some of some of the comedy and the insight and and the decency and the bravery so something has gone wrong and I think it's up to us in part not to fight it out but to try to figure out well what went wrong logically yeah well I mean that's exactly why I even phrased the tweet in a specific way where I didn't say debate I said conversation because I wouldn't make it a debate I think at the end of the day Milo and Judd and and Sarah could all sit down and actually be okay I really do even if they don't agree on every political this or that well this is one of the reasons that I was so excited to come here because I forget what the original title of Casablanca was but like everybody comes to Rick's or something like that and I feel like strangely this particular home studio is the crossroads of this new emerging sensibility which is that you have a lot of people on some of whom should be you know allied some of whom should be antagonistic and what you're doing is you're providing a substrate where it is safe to hash some of these things out now people are going to interpret what's going on here very different oh my god yeah Milo and siRNA which you know he's gone completely crazy all right right wing yeah but I don't think that's what's happening I think that what's happening is is that the world is going to wake up to the fact that we're having an inauthentic conversation and this is the germ of a new way of being which dovetails with older ways of being that have been lost you might say that this very room is the tits prudent all of the thing you might say that I can't get away with it I might say X I know what the hell I'm talking about there you go well it's been a pleasure to talk to you of course and I got a whole bunch more here but we'll do this again how about that love – all right thanks for having us on that note you can check out more of Eric's work well you know we'll do we'll put his answer to the edge question we're going to link to it right down below and can I pick out your website you said it was a throwback so yeah about some I think I think well maybe my Twitter feed or he's on the Twitter it's just at Eric Weinstein right at Eric our Weinstein at Eric our Weinstein and thanks for watching we'll do it again next week you
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Volcano BREAKTHROUGH! Scientists Test New Method to Predict Volcanic Eruptions!
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this is a volcano breakthrough scientists now have a new method to predict when volcanic eruptions will occur they've been telling us for quite some time from USGS and other agencies that it's impossible to predict earthquakes even though they work with statistics and can predict just about when to expect a major earthquake now they have a new method of finding out how magma can be viewed can be assessed to see when another earthquake another volcanic eruption will be probable this is by tom fish from Express UK the volcanic eruptions could one day be predicted this is after cutting-edge research in one of Europe's most volatile volcanoes comes to light as we know one of the worst is the campi Flegrei it's a supervolcano in Italy and a lot of the Italy volcanoes are quite active right now Stromboli and Etna for example now a new method designed by a multinational research firm could potentially allow geologists to predict how a volcanic eruption will occur with great precision they say they combine physics and statistics and the new technique reportedly chases the magma to understand what path it will take from the depths of the Earth's core magma as we know frequently does not spew from the mound main mouth of volcano it can find other routes for example features or dykes and even fractures earth fractures now this example is what happens in iceland's bardarbunga eruption is what happened in August 2014 and also in Hawaii's Kilauea in August 2000 18 this is why volcanologists are faced with serious challenges to predict what will happen with the aim of minimizing the risks of volcanic eruptions to the populations in the areas while this research led by Italian scientist dr. Eleonora revolta she developed a new technique which can be invaluable for planning and exploitation of the soil in areas at risk dr. Eve Alta says when trying to predict how an eruption will occur in the main difficulty lies in the fact that magma is transported underground and because of this obviously it's not visible with the naked eye we can't see what's happening underneath researchers have only been able to employ precise monitoring tools in the last 20 years and this reveals dynamics by helping them with computer models dr. Eve Alta explains that the new volcano prediction combined two levels of analysis she says those methods are used up to now our base either only on statistics and now is analyzing the sites in which the previous eruptions occurred more frequently or only on physics that is calculating the paths that offer the least resistance to the magma in the first case the available data are not sufficient to drop a fairly accurate map well in the second case the forces involved are difficult to assess accurately as she goes to explain we have combined the two methods based on the physical method but calibrating it so that it is compatible with the eruptive now researchers demonstrated the validity of this new technique they tested it in the flagger Ian fields in the captive legree meaning the fields of fire in Europe your most dangerous supervolcano one of the areas with the highest volcanic risks on earth and it's a supervolcano as we know the area extends for more than six miles as 10 kilometers it has about 80 fractures in the ground that have erupted with regularity in the past 15,000 years so the researchers concluded quote the most difficult part was to make the method valid for every volcano the secret lies in quantifying well all the forces of the subsoil which will always be different and recalibrate the model every single time the flagrant feels her captive legree meaning to burn is a large supervolcano in the west of Naples Italy declared a Regional Park in 2003 the caldera consists of 24 craters and volcanic edifices most of them lie underwater though hydrothermal activity can be observed in the area of Luke Renault nano and the town of Port Wally there are also effusive gaseous manifestations at the solfatara crater sulfur sulfuric acid sulfuric cassis the mythological home of the Roman god of fire Vulcan this area is monitored by the Vesuvius observatory the area features Braddy seismic phenomena which are most evident in the mess elem of pozzuoli bands of four holes left by marine mollusks on marble columns show that the level of the site is in relation to the sea level has varied the flagrant period thought to have erupted in the volcano eruption of about thirty nine thousand hundred and eighty years ago erupted 200 cubic kilometers of 48 cubic miles of magma to produce the champion in Buda England eruption with a volcanic explosivity index of seven the second flagrant period was between thirty-five thousand ten and a half thousand years ago the third flagrant period between eight thousand years ago up to five hundred years ago material forms the majority of volcanoes in the fields and more recently the recent history the caldera now is essentially at ground level accessible on foot containing many fumaroles from which steam can be seen issuing over 150 fools in 1538 and eight-day eruption of the area deposited enough material to create a new hill Monta no ever and it has risen about seven feet from ground level since 1970 a 2009 Journal article stated that inflation of the caldera center near Pozzuoli might presage an eruptive event within decades of course we would expect that if you have something kind of an a rising of the ground of course it would mean an eruption in 2012 the International continental scientific drilling program plan to drill two and a half miles below the earth's surface near pompeii in order to monitor this massive molten rock chamber below and provide early warning of an eruption local scientists are worried that such trillion could itself initiate an eruption or an earthquake in 2010 the Naples City Council halted the drilling project program scientists of the drilling was no different from industrial drilling in the area the newly elected mayor allowed the project to go forward Reuters article emphasized that the area could produce a supervolcano that might kill millions now in August 2017 there was a magnitude 4 earthquake on the western edge of camp a flagrant area and we know that of course it's a very volatile very delicate place and we also know that we have a list of various listing of let's see the volcanoes in Italy there's quite a few and this is Wikipedia I'm reading from there's at least 40 40 the ones that have most recently erupted our rule cine 104 BC will canelo 1550 volcan volcano at 89 now Vesuvius erupted in 1944 Panta Pantelleria in 1891 in and also Ferdinand era in it's a submarine volcano 1831 campi Flegrei in the sea of Cecilia in 1911 again can't be Flegrei 1538 and there's many others here that were a lot older than that 10,000 years ago 5,000 BC and the like I'll leave links below for you for this if you'd like to join me on my patreon account you will hear content not covered by mainstream media these riveting stories will be based on my research and I will state my opinions and give my personal insight on diverse and controversial subjects and world events and that's not covered by mainstream media and not certainly on not supported by 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you tell who I feel like you take me you take me I feel like you take me you take me I feel like you take [Applause] the traders welcome to episode 620 of the show you could be doing anything but you're here and I really appreciate that sorry like kind of running around errands and stuff and my dad's over here we're trying to fix my something with my ring and stuff like that and it's got my new Wi-Fi so like everything's broken right now so anyway whatever but hey man the corn did it right the corns doing it it's doing things 10,000 420 is that a joke nine looking good man looking real good the trade set up from Sunday the 28th holding in there man getting closer and closer closer and freaking close remember the bullish divergence on both oscillators the remember the stats was the first four-hour RSI bullish divergence we had actually seen since February a dish of this year a long time really long time so there you go man don't take heed of that stat that have been throwing out whatever dudes anyway the wick if you can't see it because it's right here the wick went down to like 90 100 s at our stop below X as suggested by Casey Stubbs and the ultimate harmonic first probably taking level is at a second profit-taking level is at C for this bullish cipher so getting closer and closer to it Brad not bad man not bad at all so we're just continuing to climb we broke the critical resistance which was around ten thousand two hundred very good stuff on the daily if you ask me man all right hey what happened as discussed man we never hit the a day at six not yet did if you break ten thousand seven eight hundreds I mean cuz that's a square up up here we know that there's a square up up here but like we can break above that dudes you might not be getting your your 786 the whole market was coveting Ryan oh my god man we got to have it it might have stopped in his tracks on the potential double bottom but anyway looking left talked about this yesterday how good it was we were breaking this area we were around 10,000 yesterday and guess what continuing to climb no real overhead resistance chat historical overhead resistance until eleven thousand two hundred thirty just saying man so good good I guess we can go to good sandwich we've been looking at all right please understand that where we are looking left besides the stuff we manufactured recently there's nothing here there's absolutely nothing here I mean you might have a small resistance at ten eight ten thousand eight hundred but really the overhead resistance 11 – well that's not showing up man no the four-hour that's I got my scuffed Adam and Eve double bottom where's my good one dude did none of that save it all whatever dude I'll just do it right now we'll do a live F is f s– in the chat okay give me a set man so went live early you know price action a little bit of it a little bit of the cause but also because because I it will be a travel day for me tomorrow so I will not be able to be as attentive to content creation because of the again the travel which is cool man you know whatever but sorry man OCD on this stuff kind of sometimes so I do it privately but it just didn't save or something so potential Adam and Eve double bottom and it's not confirmed as a pattern as a real pattern until it breaks 11,000 137 and we know up there at those levels very critical overhead resistance look and left so dude getting up to those levels I'd be great profit taking levels if we can get up there and be really good profit taking levels because if we hit it we may fail miserably and sell off but as it stands now it's beautiful beautiful development and all we did was talk about it but if he didn't believe man whatever and it's not even like it was just an Adam and Eve double bottom developing it was like that bullish cypher that was there and like we didn't get stomped out because the and the thing is we had to have a pretty large rewards on that pattern because were stop-loss was because we were worried maybe I was worried about maybe something stupid like that happening and it not falling below it and it did and we just didn't it was good man it was all good so who's laughing now chat who's laughing now all the people call me crazy I guess I am crazy a little bit but whatever man we all are we are all a little crazy man you didn't know so that's it dude unfortunately with Bitcoin bringing the upside being up 3% today the other big boys they're all down there all in the red today like very little movements with this price action from Bitcoin get rekt okay speaking of interesting though right it does look pretty good how we're just holding the support man but where is the price action you were making you're not really making higher highs then your previous eyes at all – it's just like and you're still very much in the downtrend on a theory up you have not broken out anything jeez man trend is still down Kenya of course trend is down until you break looks like 12k more so alright so I don't think it's an actual real ascending triangle people could argue and say this is the same as that but that's not part of the reaction hi look this was part of the impulse down right when you bought them you want a rally create the so wall sell off and then rally again to the same spot and that's a reaction hi we'd sold again Brad Mitch what first cell level are you suggesting for BTC just a percent or all it was ten eight and then 11 one roughly 10 18 level one yeah that's for me though that that's for me around an intra around ninety four hundred okay so and that's it's really all justified with my reward to risk got a three point zero four roared risk on the first profit or on the first you know reward or risk and then my second one is three point six nine so they're pretty close together but again it's X and a it's of the patterns and that's like you can use Fibonacci but in this situation just felt like we're we were showing the divergence and the shortening of the thrust was really a big part of it to where it's like you sold off but barely and you just held and then you started kind of rounding a little bit whatever the eve Jill thank you for the twenty of it else helps and it's just 50/50 I mean like I don't know like because the thing is we know that it's not just a cypher right not just the bullish cypher now it's like at the time when a to the entry the double bottom had not it wasn't even real it there was no movement there was no action it was like it could have just kept selling off or could have bust the upside there but it went sideways and then a stupid little wick down kind of gave us the rounding action of the the eve bottom and so now it's making me think a little bit more like hey if we could ever break that 11:1 area we've got 11 – looking left so that's not gonna be easy especially you just go straight up to it you might pull back before then maybe we could see some consolidation at 11 1 where we sell-off flag descending broadening wedge pin it's something right give me indication ibly we might break out above the neckline of the potential Adam and Eve double bottom it'll again 11 1 I should be looking at it and you just again like show it right so right up here that's 2nd profit-taking level because that for me is the top of the pattern a cypher pattern but it's also the neckline it's also critical resistance all kinds of stuff up here not gonna be easy to break there's also a square up way up here – also square on the 60-minute yeah square up at major square up at like 10 9 10 9 5 0 alright that's the most Signet the next most significant to square up but now you got to think just remember there's now a square up down here right around 10,000 55 just like there was a square up down here at like 9 7 alright so if you ever do so off there you go man you're very robots on the 60 minute you're at 79 for our you're overbought – man barely though you just got it right like seventy two point six five so nice nice break out of the resistance right and why were we struggling right here well you can call that absorption Blanc was asking or talking about it right I gave the description of it right so what is absorption when you're rallying like this especially double bottom looking stuff you're confirming to the market that the bottom might be in for now at least temporarily your rally up then you hit this critical resistance area is that a joint mitzvah let me hear it man who let the dogs out which side right is it the stock market side or the Bitcoin side because stall market at a nice early you know an open that was nice and then it's the hold President Trump tariffs news came out or whatever and then bull market dumped and larlie brought up a good point there was a no a nice square up on the S&P 500 today so all those exchanges offloaded their position at a break-even price and then the dumpin in came after that shortly after that square Trump tweeted it shortly after the square piz what I mean all right so a self-fulfilling prophecy or was it something bigger it was it people scared with Trump stuff okay so my house about to say something sorry that threw me off crap train of thought we were in a discussion on something it happens sometimes man crab dude because when I get on one train of thought and then it shifts to another train of thought sometimes can be tough to get back to what I was talking about before so want to remind me or something I mean it was the Ilan contribution is that a joint so oh my god hey it's the first of the month best time to join the patreon if you enjoy the stream and you know want to learn more about what I'm doing we learn more about Adam Edo bottoms when we learn about harmonics and we learn about through and on Chi equities to channels and all that is that a joint Bitcoin but stop if I was nice dude shopped up 10% on earnings it gapped up um and then you know I mean dude for the amount of selling it happened on the SP five wonder it was oh yeah it together daily maybe yeah look at this for the amount of selling the market had I mean I guess it was up 10% at 3:53 yeah it's opt-out 350 68 and closed it looks like 340 181 Dane and pulled back that would make sense with the macro but the potential Adam and Eve double top looks like that's getting invalidate it right I mean it was like the same type of setup that big one had but on a daily timescale sorry man just gotta make it right the atom and then you had the eve the nice rounding action it was beautiful of a potential pattern but again you know Bukowski talks about he doesn't trade or wouldn't trade three weeks going into earnings right because stuff like this can happen he doesn't matter what the pattern looks like if your earnings coming up I can just completely destroy any type of pattern alright but yeah I think man a lot of volume came in and you pulled back with the macro look if it's gonna be a lot tougher for this asset to continue its rally if the macro wants to keep selling off macro being again S&P 500 I look at it real quick right now for some people that care you know what don't which is crazy but here you go big bearish engulfing candle right look how incredible was we were beginning to bullish ly engulf the first four hours of the day today $300 and then closed the last you know 60 minutes all the way down and look the rest of the day the last four hours of the daily session you bounce you hit 294 16 look left right previous all-time highs you're back testing and now a monkey-ass set up an alert oh my god chat looking weak hey man look at the four hour that mother of god this bearish divergence on a four-hour hold on a sec all right sorry uh my dad just got a bad transformer so for something or it's gonna get it fixed all right so whoops what's up doing man with the truck oh yeah yeah yeah trendline see all right look at that man like I was like every time you made a high a higher high higher high and a slightly higher high you're making lower levels of relative strength so that's a nasty nasty bearish divergence you know but extremely bullish conditions you know so even with this plan out all right you're getting closer and closer to oversold territory so but you still got some room to run the downside before our plenty rooms around on the daily though right yeah yeah that yeah if you can't hold this looking like your Nick support it's gonna be down to 86 there's a lookout man look out I think we had make this line that weakly I think we had some sort of like ascending broadening ledge we're just like an up slipping flag and I think we broke the support there not good man it's a to red days in a row decent amount of volume on that look at this man 43 on the RSI so marker participants they wanted to they'd have plenty of room to push this to lower prices all right similarly the 16 minutes it was a beautiful man look this is the square up right here the larlie was talking about man okay that was the square of right there hilarious man you opened rallied hit it and then dumped after the square up after the exchange I floated their position and a break-even price see you buy crazy man oh yeah I did want to get no one gets stuck on the stock market since uh crypto connect people got to have their crypto that's cool man I don't really know why you're that concerned I mean we look at a theory I'm nothing dude we're gonna look at litecoin nothing dude nothing yeah you broke out of the downtrend congratulations but very weak follow through you're not really doing anything this thing should be much higher with Bitcoin price action doing what it's doing man think about it if it's not going anywhere when big ones go in places higher when big one sells off this thing's just gonna go so off right could probably fall back into this channel or try or sorry the pattern but hey at least the divergence right here pull a bounce it played out man don't you sleep on bullish evidence on the 4:00 hour man yeah bearish divergence on the daily on the stock market as well yes I I completely agree with you sorry man didn't bring that up hey I don't even have to move my uh yeah there were certainly bearish divergence on them daily yes on both oscillators on the S&P absolutely in the short-term and like that more midterm – right pull it up real quick for you all right so you had that RSI bear separately that's high and just slightly higher high lower those real strengths but then you had not just there you also had think about it a high here and then a slightly higher high here and a much lower level of strength so in the more mid term a little bit more mid term and short term you had it and it has turned into you know five dollars down you know on a on the pretty much the sole the stock market that's pretty significant it's pretty crazy man alright yep so a little interjection right there for you alright litecoin so again it's like okay dude it's actually kind of showing a little bit of bearish divergence on how do you even do that man like how are you doing this come on that ik high slightly higher high and on your slightly higher high there is a lower level of relative strength on the four-hour give me a break man but if it ever did break out okay there's square up at 11779 square up but 131 and those are the major ones but you know I just don't playing a descending triangle or sorry descending broadening wedge this large you know these are targets man on swing trading very large patterns like this this is a man 100% retraced the top of the pattern and the 1 to 72 from the high to low hey bro can you show us what confirmation on a breakout looks like Brad Adrienne thanks for the 1099 euros sure man we have a break good what do we have a break could go on and we looked at it the other day I think it was a stock doe it's just gonna Bitcoin cash for the sake of alright confirmation on a breakout could be right here could be Bitcoin cash where you had price contraction there was a down sloping resistance you broke it look how the price action responded to this down slipping resistance you broke out of it step one what is also what you got you really want okay because it gives the whole market some more confirmation right everyone in the world seen the same thing you're seeing when they plot this you hit this support and you back tested it when it was once a resistance it became support very important all right now we didn't break couldn't go here which is a the strongest form of confirmation but we did rally we had a hammer at a bullish hammer rally but we're not making higher highs yet not yet man so what you want to do I wish I could like simulate like candles and stuff on here but I can probably have in my folder somewhere that breaking good let me see if I made something thanks again Adrian man be under patterns or to be under candlesticks Dayman oh nice okay here we go so this is what a break hook and go looks like okay this was Bitcoin by the way and this is Bitcoin on the way up I think this was like under 10k for sure alright so when you have a resistance and you break the resistance this was an ascending broadening wedge pattern we broke out of it then we back in the next candle we back tested the area that was once a resistance we had seen multiple times as the support and then after that the break the hook and then the go is the bullish engulfing candle so it can be a three candlestick pattern it can also be four five six however many right it just keeps back-testing until you eventually get that bullish and golden candle look it was like a break who can go but then it was like indecision back test three back tests and then another bullish engulfing candle and then see you bye we gone did Hadrian let me know if that helps at all man it's all about how you respond to breakouts are you gonna back test you're gonna fall right back in it because trend lines get broken all the time chat but it's all about their response after the breakout right it is the follow-through price action well gay men do you join us live stream and their like button that bill that sub thanks for the nearly 800 people here with the poor altcoins getting no love but maybe we're just uh maybe Bitcoin cash could be set over higher prices man I mean this is kind of the price action you get on breakouts before a bigger move up something to think about man you just think about uh you could do something just free-balling it man say we're back testing this you can have a pretty tight stop here because there's a decent amount of support horizontal line support all right you just keep it below that and then you could you would have oh my god like I'm Vic one cash them have the opportunity here even a failed man like you don't care about it if it breaks below 306 but this could very well if you can stay above this long enough you might have a shot dude 384 first target maybe the 415 the second target I mean it broke the downtrend it's showing a higher load double bottom bro sorry let me uh who was first I think it was mr. senton they show the trend more clear I don't know man like yeah they just someone else asked about it in the past maybe they share the trend clear but I don't know man it's if look you can study it and study and study and if it works for you that's great man I just stick with good old-fashioned Steve nice and Japanese candlesticks man all right it's just though it is but if you got some system that works for you dude there's so many different ways to trade to analyze assets fine will works for you and stick with it mr. Stinson okay all right let me uh well of course Oh Claudia man-bra thank you for the $8 96 cents of aetherium classic crypto contribution so it's happy you're here man keep on trucking sometimes you can get shown the lights and the strongest of places if you look at it right gangs gangs Andy Claudio man gangs D I think when we were on Sunday when we were like rounding out on that potential Eve bottom of the atom potential Adam and Eve dole bottom like really low numbers people not want like okay dude like now we got people watching cuz big ones moving up it's like well there was bullish divergence on both oscillators I don't know what you're doing you leave the market when there's good opportunity and then you come back to try to FOMO in it's like that's just not how it works man on how it works thank you should be like this man you got to have Bitcoin play ball man but again I just I just fear the way Bitcoin is rallying and these all coins are not they're all in the red today still like how how much how high does Bitcoin have to go for these assets to move with it and at what point does Bitcoin pull back some and then these alts are gonna pull back wait like just as hard as Bitcoin pulls back see that's the problem with these alts right now they're little action going on with them okay
5 reasons to like Zach Choi ASMR
Logic and Argument: the joys of symbolic and philosophical logic
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Helen Czerski explores the everyday oddities that shed light on some of the most important science of our time.
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When we hear about physics, we often hear about the weirdness of the tiny quantum world or the bewildering vastness of the cosmos. But there’s a lot in the middle, and it’s time someone starting talking about it. Helen Czerski will take us through some of the little everyday oddities that shed light on some of the most important science and technology of our time. Once the patterns are visible, a new perspective on the world beckons.
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So we all know that breathing is pretty important, right? Today we’re going to talk about how it works, starting with the nameless evolutionary ancestor that we inherited this from, and continuing to the mechanics of both simple diffusion and bulk flow, as well as the physiology of breathing, and finishing with the anatomy of both the conducting zone and the respiratory zone of your respiratory system.
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دعوني أقدم لكم أحد أشجع الرواد
.في تاريخ الحياة على كوكب الأرض إنه كائن حي مهد الطريق لجميع الفقاريات
،التي تعيش على الأرض اليوم .وغيرها التي لم تعد موجودة .إنه واحد من أهم أسلافكم .تعرفوا على… في الواقع، ليس له اسم .ولا نعرف كيف كان شكله بالضبط أيضًا لكن نعلم أنه قبل نحو 380 مليون سنة، هذا الشيء
الذي يشبه السمكة ويملك زعانفًا لحمية كبيرة :حقق أحد أعظم إنجازات مملكة الحيوان
.تنفس الهواء ،يبدو هذا أمرًا بسيطًا
.ولكن صدقوني، لم يكن كذلك لأنه على مدى مليارات السنين
،التي سبقت هذا السلف الذي يشبه السمكة .تطورت جميع أشكال الحياة في الماء فمنذ البداية، قامت أبسط أشكال
،الحياة الأولية، مثل البكتيريا باستخراج الأكسجين الذي احتاجت إليه
.من المياه مباشرة عبر أغشيتها ،وقامت بذلك من خلال الانتشار البسيط ويحدث عندما تتدفق مادة من مكان تكون فيه مركزة
.إلى مكان تكون فيه أقل تركيزًا، لتحقق التوازن ،يعمل الانتشار بشكل ممتاز ولا يتطلب جهدًا
.لكنه لم يكن كافيًا أي شيء أكبر من دودة صغيرة هو كبير جدًا ببساطة
.ويحتاج إلى أكسجين أكثر مما يوفره الانتشار لذا من أجل أن تصبح أشكال الحياة المبكرة
أكبر حجمًا، احتاجت إلى جهاز دورة دموية يمكنه تحريك كميات كبيرة من الأكسجين
،بشكل أسرع داخل أجسامها وإلى جهاز تنفسي
.لجلب المزيد من الأكسجين لأغشيتها الرطبة لذا انتقلت أجهزتها التنفسية السطحية
.من خارج إلى داخل أجسامها ،أولاً، كانت هناك خياشيم
.لكن الخياشيم تعمل داخل المياه فقط ،وقبل أكثر من 380 مليون سنة بقليل
.بدأت بفقدان فاعليتها ،أصبحت الأرض أكثر دفئا، والبحار أقل عمقًا وقل تركيز الأكسجين في جزء كبير
.من المياه السطحية لكوكبنا مقارنة بما مضى ،وأخيرًا، سئمت سمكة لحمية الزعانف صغيرة ووحيدة
.وسبحت إلى سطح الماء وبدأت تتنفس الهواء استطاعت فعل هذا
لأنها طورت وُجيهة جديدة فاخرة .لنقل الغازات بين الهواء وأغشية خلاياها .أتحدث عن الرئتين، الرئتين الرطبتين بوسيلة فعالة جديدة لاستقبال
،كميات شبه لا نهائية من الأكسجين من الهواء استطاعت الحيوانات في النهاية أن تغدوا
،أكبر حجمًا وأكثر تنوعًا على مر العصور والآن أصبح ذلك الحيوان سلفًا مشتركًا
.لنا نحن جميعًا، الفقاريات ذوات الرئات بالنسبة إلى الكثير من الحيوانات، ومن ضمنها
البشر، تصاحب الرئتين مجموعة من المعدات الأخرى ،كأضلاع واقية ورغامى قاسٍ
.وحجاب حاجز قوي عند الثدييات ،ومعًا تشكل الجهاز التنفسي .والذي يصادف أنه صديق وشريك الدورة الدموية فقط من خلال العمل معًا واستخدام الانتقال
الانسيابي والانتشار البسيط للأكسجين .يمكنها أن تجعل عملية التنفس الخلوي ممكنة ،وبعبارة أخرى
.يمكنها أن تجعل الحياة بحد ذاتها ممكنة تم إجراء تحسينات كثيرة عليه
،على مر العصور لكن الجهاز التنفسي الذي تستخدمونه الآن
،هو ميراثكم من السمكة القديمة والطموحة قائدة إحدى أهم الثورات التشريحية
.خلال نصف مليار سنة الأخيرة ،تظاهروا للحظة أنه لا يمكنكم التنفس
.وكأنكم لا تمتلكون رئتين ،أنتم شذوذ تطوري غريب من نوع ما
كائنات حية كبيرة شبيهة بالإنسان .لا تمتلك جهازًا تنفسيًا بدلاً من ذلك، تحصلون على الأكسجين
،بنفس طريقة أسلافكم الأقدم والأصغر حجمًا .عن طريق الانتشار البسيط أو ستحاولون الحصول على الأكسجين
.بهذه الطريقة على الأقل .كيف ستعمل؟ بطريقة سيئة وهذا بسبب أن أحد المقومات المهمة
.للقيام بانتشار فعّال لأية مادة هو المسافة إن أردتم أن ينتشر جزيء
،على طول مساحة ما بسرعة ستجعلونه أقرب ما يكون لوجهته
.مع أقل عدد من العقبات في طريقه لكن من أجل أن ينتشر جزيء واحد من الأكسجين
من الهواء وعبر فروة الرأس مثلًا ،ويصل إلى عصبون في أعماق الدماغ عليه أن يعبر الجلد ثم الجمجمة
.ثم النسيج الضام وجميع هذه الأشياء .سيصل إلى هناك في النهاية، ربما بعد شهر لكن عندها ستكون الخلية التي احتاجت
.إلى الأكسجين قد اختنقت حتى الموت ببساطة، الحصول على الأكسجين
من خلال الانتشار فقط يشبه الذهاب إلى حفلة في منزل صديق ما
.والمشي مسافة 32 كيلومترًا للوصول إليه يمكن فعل ذلك، لكنه سيأخذ وقتًا طويلاً
.وعندما تصلون، ستكونون منهكين والحفلة مُنتهية .لذلك لا يكفي الانتشار وحده لإنجاز المهمة
،نحن نستخدمه بالفعل لكن فقط عند وجود مجموعة من المواد التي نحتاج
.إليها عند الأنسجة التي يمكنها امتصاصها .أتعرفون إلامَ نحتاج أيضًا؟ الانتقال الانسيابي ،إن الانتقال الانسيابي يشبه وسائل النقل العام
.فهو ينقل جزيئات كثيرة بسرعة ،بدلًا من المشي إلى الجهة المقابلة من المدينة
،يمكنكم ركوب حافلة مع أشخاص آخرين .وتصلون إلى هناك خلال 20 دقيقة كلما تتنفسون بعمق، تجلبون مئة كوينتليون
جزيء أكسجين تقريبًا إلى الرئتين !دفعة واحدة
.إنها في رحلة انتقال انسيابي بالحافلة وحالما ترشح
جزيئات الأكسجين تلك إلى خلايا الرئتين تصبح قريبة جدًا من الدم
.الذي تحاول أن تصل إليه فكل ما عليها فعله هو الانتشار عبر أربع طبقات
.من أغشية الخلايا لتصل من خلية رئوية إلى الدم ،الأمر كالترجل عن الحافلة
.ثم قطع مسافة بسيطة سيرًا للوصول إلى شقة صديق .ولهذا فإن الجهاز التنفسي كما هو حاليًا إنه مجهز لاستغلال
.الانتقال الانسيابي والانتشار البسيط بالكامل يتولي أمر جزء الانتقال الانسيابي بعض أكبر
،أعضاء الجسم المتحركة حجمًا وأكثرها وضوحًا ،بدءًا بالرئتين
.والتي تعمل كمضخة أو منفاخ بشكل أساسي ،لا تحتوي على أية أنسجة عضلية قابلة للانكماش
،لأنها يجب أن تكون قابلة للتوسع .لذلك تحتاج إلى مساعدة خارجية من أجل أن تتحرك الحجاب الحاجز، وهو مجموعة من العضلات
.الكبيرة الرفيعة التي تفصل الصدر عن البطن عندما تفرغ الرئتين، يرتاح الحجاب الحاجز
.ويبدو مثل قوس يدفع إلى الأعلى لسحق الرئتين كما أن وزن القفص الصدري يضغط
،على الرئتين من الأعلى والجوانب ومعًا، تعمل هذه القوى
.على تقليل حجم الرئتين ،عند الشهيق، ينقبض الحجاب الحاجز ليصبح مسطحًا
.وتنقبض العضلات الوربية الظاهرة بين الأضلاع ،تقوم برفع الأضلاع إلى الأعلى والخارج
.فيتوسع الجوف الصدري وهذا يجعل الضغط داخل الرئتين
،أقل من ضغط الهواء خارج الجسم ولأن السوائل تنتقل من مناطق الضغط العالي
.إلى المنخفضة، يملأ الهواء الخارجي الرئتين ثم يرتخي الحجاب الحاجز مرة أخرى
،ويعود تأثير وزن الأضلاع ويصبح الضغط داخل الرئتين أعلى من ضغط
.الهواء الخارجي، ويندفع الهواء خارجًا .وهذه هي أساسيات التنفس يا أصدقائي يحتوي الجهاز التنفسي
،على أجزاء كثيرة إلى جانب الرئتين بعضها معروض بشكل بارز على الوجه
.وبعضها مُخبأ في أعماق الصدر ومن ناحية وظيفية، تنتمي جميع
.هذه الأعضاء إلى واحدة من منطقتين وظيفتين الأجزاء العليا التي تُدخل الهواء إلى الجسم
.تُشكل ما يُعرف بالمنطقة الموصلة .ويبدأ الأمر بهذا الشيء يتلقى الأنف الدعم من العظام والغضاريف
والشعر الخشن والمخاط داخله .التي تساعد على تصفية الغبار والأجسام الأخرى لكنها تؤدي وظيفة مهمة أخرى إلى جانب
،الجيوب الأنفية، فهي تدفئ وترطب الهواء الداخل كي لا يجفف خلايا الرئة الحساسة
.التي يجب أن تبقى رطبة .تذكروا، إن الرطوبة هي المفتاح
.لقد تطورنا من كائنات تعيش في المياه ،لذلك، مثل أسلافنا البكتيرية المائية
نحتاج إلى الماء ليذوب فيه الأكسجين قبل أن ينتشر عبر الغشاء الشحمي الفوسفوري
.ثنائي الطبقة في خلايانا والآن، إن سبق وغصصتم بشربة ماء
،لم يكن توقيتها مناسبًا فقد لاحظتم أنكم تتنفسون من خلال الأنبوب نفسه
.الذي تنتقل الأطعمة والسوائل عبره وهذا من بقايا رئات الأسماك الأولى
.التي تطورت كفرع من المريء ،إن نظرنا إلى الأمر الآن نجد أنه ليس مثاليًا
.ولكننا عالقون معه ،إن الأشياء التي نبتلعها تواجه لسان المزمار وهو باب من الأنسجة يغطي الحنجرة
،ويوجه لقمات الشطائر ورشفات الكولا إلى المريء .ويمنعها من الدخول إلى الرئتين ،وستلاحظون أن المريء
،الذي يتجه إلى المعدة، يتميز بالمرونة بينما الرغامى أو القصبة الهوائية
.يكون جامدًا ويمتلك حلقات بارزة ،هذا لأن الرغامى مصمم كخرطوم مكنسة كهربائية ،ولأن الرئتين تولدان ضغطًا سلبيًا مع كل نفس
.يحتاج الرغامى إلى تلك الحلقات لتبقيه مفتوحًا فلو كانت لينة ومرنة، ستنهار
.كلما انخفض الضغط ولن تتمكنوا من التنفس من هناك، ينقسم الرغامى إلى مسارين
.مشكلاً القصبتين الرئيستين اليسرى واليمنى يمكنكم تخيل الأجزاء الداخلية للرئة هذه
.وكأنها شجرة مقلوبة رأسًا على عقب ،نحن الآن في أنسجة الرئة
.ودخلنا ما يُسمى منطقة التنفس ،هنا يحدث تبادل الغازات
.وكل ما تجدونه هنا يملك شكلاً ليناسب وظيفته ،الفروع الأصغر من الشجرة المقلوبة هي شعيبات
وتتفرع إلى أنابيب تضيق تدريجيًا كي تصب في القنوات السنخية
،ثم تنتهي رحلتها في أكياس سنخية صغيرة .حيث يحدث الجزء الأكبر من تبادل الغازات ،لأن كل كيس هناك يحتوي على مجموعة من الأسناخ وهي تجاويف صغيرة مُحاطة بأغشية رقيقة جدًا ورطبة
.مكونة من أنسجة ظهارية حرشفية ،هنا تتحلل جزيئات الأكسجين في المخاط الرطب
،ثم تنتشر في جميع أنحاء الخلايا الظهارية ثم تعبر طبقة واحدة من الخلايا البطانية
.التي تحيط بالشعيرات الدموية لتدخل مجرى الدم ،وهو موقع انتشار ثاني أكسيد الكربون خارج الدم ،ثم يتخذ نفس الطريق إلى الأنف والفم
.حيث يتم إخراجه بالزفير إذن، يلتقي الانتشار بالانتقال الانسيابي في
الأسناخ، لأنه بينما تأخذون حاجتكم من الأكسجين وتتخلصون من ثاني أكسيد الكربون بمقدار جزيء في
.كل مرة، فأنتم تفعلون ذلك بكميات ضخمة كل لحظة ،تحتوي الرئتان على 700 مليون سنخ تقريبًا والتي توفر مجتمعة
.مساحة تبلغ 75 متر مربع من الغشاء الرطب لذا، إن المبادئ التي تجعل التنفس ممكنًا بسيطة
،نسبيًا، وهي الانتشار والانتقال الانسيابي .وكذلك الآليات التي تستخدمها في أجسامكم أيضًا استغرقنا حوالي 400 مليون سنة
.لمعرفة كيفية جعلها تعمل ولكنكم اليوم تعلمتم كيف تعمل بالفعل، بما فيها
آليات الانتشار البسيط والانتقال الانسيابي ،وفسيولوجية التنفس
والتركيب البنيوي للمنطقة الموصلة .والمنطقة التنفسية التابعين للجهاز التنفسي الذين Patreon شكرا لجميع رعاتنا على
متاحًا Crash Course يساعدون على جعل محتوى لأنفسهم وللجميع حول العالم مجانًا بمساهماتهم
Crash Course الشهرية. إذا كنتم تحبون وتريدون مساعدتنا لمواصلة صنع فيديوهات مثل
.patreon.com/crashcourse هذا، زوروا موقع تم تصوير هذه الحلقة في استوديو
Crash Courseد. شيريل جيم سي كيني التابع لـ وهي من كتابة كاثلين ييل وحرر النص بليك دي
.باستينو ومستشارنا هو الدكتور براندون جاكسون وهي من إخراج ومونتاج نيكولاس جنكينز
ومشرفة النص هي نيكول سويني ،ومصمم الصوت هو مايكل اراندا
.Thought Cafe وفريق الرسومات هو
Hello FriendS… 🙋🙌🙏
This Video is About How to Check Original Casio fx-991es plus Scientific Calculator Before U Purchase or After Purchase. Especially Engineering Students Must Know And Only to Purchase Original One… Thank U🙏
🎹 And now, one of my oldest covers! Here is the tutorial of The Scientist
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The character Kreia from the game Knights of the Old Republic 2 is arguably one of the greatest female characters in gaming. However, despite her fame, much of her philosophy has been misunderstood due to the puzzling manner in which the game presents her backstory and motives. This video will serve both as an examination of Kreia’s philosophy and her criticisms of the Star Wars universe as a whole.
Chris Avellone famously said in an interview that Knights of the Old Republic 2 was meant to question everything there had to be questioned about Star Wars. This video will be answering those questions.
This video has been five months in the making.
Video Credit: SB Nation
Things between Antonio Brown and Ben Roethlisberger seemed fine.They had a connection envied by the rest of the league as Brown had the best four-year stretch by a wide receiver in the history of the NFL. The Pittsburgh Steelers were rolling as a result and always felt like a threat in the AFC, especially when considering Roethlisberger already having a pair of Super Bowl victories to his name.But early in 2017, the cracks began to show. After the quarterback failed to notice a wide-open Brown during a game against the Ravens, the receiver took his frustrations out on a water cooler. Instead of keeping things behind closed doors, Roethlisberger expressed his thoughts about the sideline outburst on the radio for all to hear. This would become a theme in their beef, as Pittsburgh’s signal-caller had used the tactic with other wide receivers, and would continue to voice his Brown-related opinions on 93.7 The Fan.It would become apparent that there weren’t many of his teammates that approved of this tactic, but the Steelers coaches and front office didn’t seem to mind. That only exacerbated the issues, and while Big Ben took to the radio, Brown took to Twitter to make himself known. With so much being aired out in the open, the speculation from the media grew and the players were peppered with questions about their relationship.They did their best to play nice, but by the end of 2018, it had snowballed into something that couldn’t be hidden. Brown was benched for their final game of the season after a spat at practice. It went off the rails from there in a way that all but guarantees we haven’t heard the end of it.Written and produced by Alex Rubenstein
Shot by Jiazhen Zhang
Edited by Jiazhen Zhang and Mike Das
Antonio Brown and Ben Roethlisberger made beautiful magic together as the league's most dynamic aerial connection for upwards of a half decade then all of a sudden the two Canton bound superstars just couldn't play nice this is the inexplicably stupid history of their beef the Pittsburgh Steelers drafted Ben Roethlisberger 11th overall in 2004 and he provided immediate dividends taking over a starting quarterback in week three of his rookie season and setting an NFL record by winning each of his first 14 career starts in guiding his squad to the AFC Championship game he won Super Bowl extra-large for an encore becoming the only quarterback to ever hoist the Lombardi Trophy before blowing out 24 candles in the ensuing years he'd break every meaningful franchise passing record get a 9 figure contract extension and win another Super Bowl in February 2009 he was an established bona fide superstar going into his seventh season in 2010 when the Steelers used a sixth round pick on a little-known wide receiver out of Central Michigan named Antonio Brown by year two he burst on the scene teaming with Mike Wallace to form one of the league's top receiving duo's leading to a lucrative five-year extension after just his second season once Wallace left for Miami in 2013 Brown and Benz set fire to the entire NFL and by the time the dust settled on the 2016 season Brown had posted the most prolific for year receiving stretch in the history of the game that led to another big-money extension ahead of the 2017 season which definitely seemed to cement his status as a Steeler for life the first few games that year were business as usual but then came a week floor trip to Baltimore when Brown broke wide open for what would have been a huge third down play only for Big Ben to never even look his way browned threw a temper tantrum taking his frustration out on this poor cooler then a couple days later when Ben was making his weekly radio appearance he threw his wideout under the bus for creating a needless distraction explaining that it's not like I intentionally didn't throw to him I was doing what my reads tell me to do I don't even want to say I made a mistake because I was reading the side I was supposed to read it's just unfortunate that it happened and it's unfortunate that he acted and reacted that way you see over the years Roethlisberger has consistently gone on the radio and aired team dirty laundry on a public platform and it's pissed off a whole bunch of his white outs after Emanuel Sanders left Pittsburgh to sign with the Broncos he went out of his way to note how much better of a leader Peyton Manning was than Ben Roethlisberger and noted his discussions with Wallace on the topic of been calling teammates out on the radio said of being called me out on a radio show the next day I would literally walk up to him a locker room is a bit like don't do that keep my name out of your mouth legendary Steelers wideout Hines Ward also voiced similar beliefs regarding Ben's leadership as it pertained to those radio segments you know I just think he has to take the initiative to kind of do more as a leader not just being able to call guys out on his radio show you don't have to air it out to the public where everyone can hear things were at least fine on the field throughout 2017 Browne notched his fifth consecutive all-pro season as the Steelers won 13 games and repeated his division champs but 2018 represented a huge fork in the road for the organization with Roethlisberger aging and star running back Le'Veon Bell on sabbatical their window to content was diminishing they kicked off the season by failing to defeat a brown squad who had lost 34 of their previous 35 games so tension was already high when they welcomed Pat mahomes in the Chiefs to the big ketchup bottle near the goal line down 12 with just a couple minutes left Brown expected and wanted that touchdown but then had other plans and was able to scramble for the TD Brown was irritated even though his team Yano scored they'd ultimately come up short in about an hour and a half following the game a tweet from a former team PR employee threw gas on the fire when he intimated that Browns massive success was simply and exclusively due to the presence of the two-time Super Bowl champ delivering him all the balls Brown responded with his first public acknowledgment to the world of his discontent in western Pennsylvania he'd delete that tweet but this is the internet where nothing is forever no putting that toothpaste back in the tube Roethlisberger tried to downplay the situation showering brown with praise and writing any antics off as a byproduct of his passion and burning desire to win they look to put this behind them and the team rebounded with a six-game winning streak providing a comfortable cushion in the AFC North leading into a week 12 game in Denver the Steelers were down a touchdown with just a minute left but this Roethlisberger scramble set them up with a first and goal on the doorstep of the goal line and what should have led to a game-tying score instead when Ben looked Browns way on this third down his toss was plucked out of the air by D lineman Shelby Harris as he's wont to do Ben took to the radio to publicly broadcast his blame of the whiteout and while he was at it voiced his belief that they should have just thrown four straight times to juju Smiths Shuster Brown shrugged it off as constructive criticism that he wasn't taking personally while Ben spoke to the media in front of his locker and dug in on his stance defending his unorthodox and antagonizing methods you have to know how to motivate different guys in different ways and I think that's part of being a leader being a captain sometimes you have to be honest with him and so I think that I've earned the right to be able to do that with as long as I've been here everything was falling apart and it showed on the field after that painful loss in Denver the Steelers dropped three of their next four putting themselves on the ropes and their playoff chances which looked like a certainty a month earlier on life support then all hell broke loose starting with the Wednesday leading up to that final game of the 2018 season former NFL wide receiver James Jones reported on NFL Network that Roethlisberger would consistently agitate Brown and it reached a boiling point when Brown allegedly ran the wrong route and a walk through practice and Ben demanded they replace him with someone else an irate Brown then Chuck the ball at Roethlisberger before storming out of Pratt hashing things out would also be tricky with the apparent lack of trust and respect brown hat for a signal collar well head coach Mike Tomlin tried to excuse Browns absence by making up a phony knee injury there was no keeping a lid on this brewing circus Brown would go completely AWOL ahead of their biggest game of the season skipping the entire week of practice including a Saturday walkthrough and their team meeting that night yet he somehow was under the impression that he'd still take the field and play the next day and when he didn't he left the stadium at halftime they wound up missing the playoffs despite losing only two of their first 10 games just the fourth time that's been done since the NFL's 1978 expansion to a 16 game regular season Ben ven did his final radio segment of the season and while he said some nice things about his whiteout he also made sure to point out that Brown wasn't returning any of his texts or calls about seven weeks later things reached DEFCON 1 see Ben Roethlisberger had been accused of committing sexual assault both in 2008 as well as in 2010 and in mid-february Brown had liked a pair of tweets that alluded to been getting away with these despicable allegations if there were ever any chance before that these two could bury the hatchet and move forward this was the match that burned any and all remaining bridges between brown and his quarterback but Brown didn't stop there the very next day he took to social media to accuse Ben of having an owners mentality that he can call out anybody he pleases with no means of recourse anyone can take their GM Kevin Kolbert was totally cool with it too even enabling that dynamic and alluded to Ben's 52 teammates as kids which only served to underscore and validate Browns point running back Le'Veon Bell fresh off signing a long-sought multi-year deal with the Jets explained that doing things Ben's way was tough and that management allowed him to become larger than the team the final straw came with the March 1st airing of an episode of the shop a talk show produced by LeBron James in which Brown executed a rapid-fire verbal assault on Ben oh yeah Guddu call me out we lose a game II like a bee should I ran a better route why would you why we been doing this how the guy hears you feel like he the owner brought you through the the very next day an interview with ESPN's Jeff Darlington aired in which he went in some moron been and their relationship I would have liked for me and be able to be cool you know I mean I thought we was cool but when I think I'd only what I've been in his house one time he'd been in my house one time and then we don't work out in the offseason it's like you know we really want to win you think that's winning that's not winning that's not winning culture for Roethlisberger the man who was never bashful about speaking his mind and sparking controversy on the radio had pretty much gone totally silent with nothing left to do but sit and wait for the end to come and he didn't have to wait long a week later Browns wish for a divorce from Ben and the Steelers was granted when they flipped him to the Raiders problems that could have seemingly been hashed out behind closed doors were instead exacerbated when taken public been perceived to star wide receiver to be too hot-tempered erratic and sloppy ground thought the two rings won by his star quarterback somehow managed to make his head even bigger and felt slighted by a lack of respect from his QB while resenting the deference the organization showed to Ben things quickly spiraled out of control when the two were forced to coexist his teammates now that's ancient history
Introduction to this free series of video tutorials on Logic Pro for beginners. By
hello welcome to my series of videos on Logic Pro for beginners in these videos I've tried to cover all the basic topics you'll need to know about to begin making music with logic just a quick word about me I'm not a certified logic trainer or anything like that I'm just someone who's used logic for about eight years I enjoy making electronic music of my own and I work part time in a commercial studio I also make and sell sound design tutorials presets and sampler instruments for logic at my website sound guru comm so please take a look if you're interested you should find everything you need to get started with logic here to get you recording audio programming software instruments and using basic mixing tools and techniques but of course there's no way for me to be totally comprehensive with these videos logics an extremely deep program and many people who have used it for years still regularly find new features and new ways of doing things myself included so for the sake of keeping these at a manageable length I've tried to stick to the really key topics that everyone needs to know about and I'll leave you to explore logics more esoteric features if and when you need to I haven't included much here in terms of being really creative with sound that's what my paid tutorials are for instead I've chosen to focus on the core tools in logic and learning how to use them quickly and efficiently and trust me it's really worth learning these well because the faster and more efficiently you do these tasks the more time you can spend thinking creatively so without any further ado let's get on with it we're going to start in the next video with a quick tour of logic so you can get a feel for its layout and the way it works you
The obscure research that predicted Donald Trump.
For more, read Amanda Taub’s feature “The rise of American authoritarianism”: and her analysis of the consequences for the Republican Party:
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“He’s a war hero because he was captured.
I like people who weren’t captured ok? I hate to tell you.” The 2016 Republican presidential nominee disregards
the norms of adult behavior. He disregards the norms of American democracy
as we know it. “It should be heartbreaking to every American
that we have a frontrunner who suggests there will be a religious test for anybody that
wishes to come to our shores.” He’s so unusual, his rhetoric at times so
extreme, that political experts and commentators were blindsided by his rise. "We better be ready for the fact that he might be leading the republican ticket." [Laughter] "I know you don't believe that" How did Donald Trump attract such broad support
within the Republican party? And what does it mean for the US, beyond this election? And it turns out that this is
a question that can be answered to a really surprising extent via this niche field of
political science. It developed a theory about what’s called authoritarianism. We’re not talking about dictatorships here.
Authoritarianism is a term political scientists use for a worldview that values order and
authority, and distrusts outsiders and social change. And when authoritarians feel threatened, they
look for strongman leaders. Leaders who are punitive, who target
out-groups and have a simple, forceful leadership style that makes them feel strong. And if
you were going to grow that candidate in a lab… "I’m going to bomb the shit out of
them." He would look a lot like Donald Trump. "When you get these terrorists, youhave to take out their families. They care about their lives. Don't kid yourself. But they say they don't care about their lives. You have to take out their families. Authoritarianism is not, in an of itself,
necessarily a partisan issue. For most of this country’s history, authoritarians
were likely divided between the two parties. But now, only one of the parties really appeals
to them. What happened was the Republican party
started to embrace what it referred to as traditional values, and it stood against a
series of major social changes in this country. After initially supporting civil rights, Republicans
began courting southern white voters who opposed racial integration. They turned against the
Equal Rights Amendment, denounced abortion, and later, fought against same-sex marriage. Our nation must enact a Constitutional
amendment to protect marriage in America. More recently, foreign threats like terrorism
have become major political issues, with Republicans taking positions that align with authoritarian
fears and preferences. 2002 headline: Republicans get a bonus from
War on Terrorism So Marc Hetherington and Jonathan Weiler,
two political scientists. They tracked data over several decades, and they found that
authoritarian voters were shifting into the Republican Party. So that means that when
authoritarians become scared, when they become activated by a particular social change or
issue, the Republican Party can’t ignore them. And they are a ready-made constituency
for a candidate like Donald Trump. Are you going to have a massive deportation force? "You’re going to have a deportation force." "’d bring back waterboarding. And I’d bring back a hell of a lot worse than waterboarding." Testing people for authoritarianism is a bit
tricky. You can’t just ask people, you know, ‘Are you really freaked out by social change?
Do racial differences unsettle you? ‘Do you support strongman leaders?’ because
those are very sensitive questions and people won't necessarily answer them honestly. So instead, political scientists ask people
about something more neutral: their parenting preferences. Please tell me which one you think is more important for a child to have: independence, or respect
for elders? Obedience or self-reliance? These questions seem like they’re about
raising children, but really what they’re asking people is how much they value order
and authority. So when political scientists tested these 4 parenting questions against the behaviors
they knew authoritarians exhibited, they found out that the correlation was very close. It was very predictive, at least for white voters. Using this 4-question test, Vox worked with
Morning Consult in February to poll a large sample of likely voters. Our results yielded a few really interesting things. The first one was that, yes, scoring
high on the authoritarianism questions was very predictive of support for Trump. A political science PhD student named Matthew
MacWilliams has found similar results. He’s done 2 polls, both of which found that authoritarianism is not only strongly
predictive of Trump support, but that it seems to do a better job of predicting it than virtually
any other factor. We also looked at what authoritarian voters
are afraid of. On things like gun violence, or car accidents, or prescription drugs, there wasn't a huge difference between authoritarians and nonauthoritarians. But
when it came to threats associated with people, and particularly foreign people, authoritarians
were much more afraid. And we identified policies that authoritarians
were more likely to support. So authoritarians were much more likely to say for instance that the United States
should use force rather than diplomacy when dealing with countries that threaten our interests
overseas. And they were much more likely to want to sacrifice civil liberties in exchange
for safety. "I want surveillance of certain mosques,
ok? If that’s ok. I want surveillance." It’s a set of priorities that doesn’t
always align with the Republican establishment. They don’t seem to have that much
interest in small government. And they definitely don’t seem particularly interested in shrinking entitlements like Social Security or Medicaid. This theory doesn’t fully explain the Trump
phenomenon — researchers will probably study this election for decades. But what it tells us is that he’s benefitted from a larger shift in this country – one that goes beyond any
one candidate. Trump isn’t just a fluke. He’s not somebody who is just doing well because he had name recognition or was a famous TV star. This is a large group of people. They want these things. And they’re going to be looking for politicians
who can give it to them. And that means that Donald Trump could be just the first of many Trumps in American politics.
The Future of Space Exploration (full documentary). Thanks for watching.
history life discovery science technology tech learning education national nature geographic earth planet channel universe space outer galaxy shuttle mars moon sun solar system black hole travel time alien world nasa milky way parallel dimension dimensions multiverse quantum physics mechanics energy mission satellite exploration mission complete documentaries pluto jupiter saturn astronomy planets astronaut astronauts
• Standards for Mathematical practice –processes and proficiencies
• Habits of mind of the mathematically proficient student
• Description of modeling; applying mathematics outside the math classroom
• Using mathematics tools in flexible, sophisticated, and relevant ways across disciplines
• Technology, structure, and generalization
the standards have content standards and they also have standards for mathematical practice those standards are meant to capture the processes and proficiencies that we want students to have not just the knowledge and skills but also how they use those knowledge and skills they they capture the habits of mind or thinking skills that are specific to mathematics one of those skills is the ability to construct arguments and to reason and to think about why what you're doing works mathematically that's a very important part of the practice standard sis's students who are going to go on to whatever career they go on to I get a need to be able to use mathematics in that career they might just be using the mathematics in their daily life when they read the newspaper and see some complicated data display that they need to understand they're understand a claim that's being made on that data they might be going into a scientific or an engineering profession where they need higher levels of mathematics it doesn't really matter they need to be able to reason mathematically so that's a very important group of practice standards at the beginning there's also a practice standard about modeling modeling means taking a problem external to mathematics thinking of a mathematical description of that problem that you can manipulate mathematically coming to a mathematical solution and then interpreting that solution back again in terms of the real problem it's really the heart of what most students when they go on will be doing with mathematics namely using it to solve problems outside of mathematics modeling in the high school standards stresses that students have to be able to apply mathematics to real-world problems and problems arising outside of the mathematics classroom this was something we heard very strongly from the business community and representatives from Career and Technical Education who gave input into the standards but it's not enough for kids to be able to do math when they're asked to do a math problem the math problems that arise in everyday life aren't like word problems in books the boss doesn't come in to you and say Johnson two trains left two cities two different times when are they going to collide what happens is that you're faced with a messy situation you have to make assumptions you have to simplify you have to bring the tools you know to bear on the problem and analyze it and gain insight into it modeling and real-world applications in the standards are an important component of college and career readiness another important standard is the standard about technology the content standards themselves don't say much about technology because they're about mathematics technology can support students doing mathematics but technology shouldn't be doing the mathematics the kids should be doing the mathematics and the technology practice standard basically says that you should learn to be strategic and wise about when it's appropriate to use technology and also when it's not appropriate to use technology and how to interpret the results when you have the technological tool when you when you do use one there's a group of standards at the end about structure and generalization those standards are really the heart and soul of mathematics in some sense in the sense that when you look at a mathematical object you want to be able to see it as having meaning let's just see it as something you have to sort of poke with a stick and hope it turns into what you want so the standards about seeing mathematical structure and about generalizing are describing the sort of skills you want students to have as they work with mathematical expressions equations functions geometric constructions you want them to be able to see hidden structures transform those objects into things that have a purpose and they use that they can be put you
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Hi Everyone 🙂
I get asked often: “Where did you get all this stuff?” My goal is to share the real magic of science and physics- and to this end I will update here (and in my store) suggestions on where to get some of these toys, kinetic art pieces, and scientific curiosities for yourself.
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👉 Photicular Book: the foremost in lenticular image technology produces these looping motion images that look like videos on a computer screen. This amazing book of 8 astonishing moving images. moving images use Kainen’s patented process where a specially processed image slides under a thin film of lenticular lenses.
👉 Gallus Lamp: The Flame slants and ROTATES in this unique Swiss design. The glass of the lamp channels the convection and three inlets in the brass base direct the inflow of air into a slow swirl. Lovely engineering and physics of thermodynamics.
👉 Fresnel Mirror Array by exploratorium : 360 mirrors arranged to reflect to a single focal point in this exhibit entitled “All Eyes on Me”. A mirror version of the Fresnel lens, where each concentric ring of mirrors is slanted toward the center, with the lager rings slanted more, such that the full assembly acts like a parabolic mirror.
👉 Transmission Hologram: vintage hologram from the early 1970s. The 3D image is only made visible by backlighting the plate with the coherent light of a laser.
👉 CineSpinner Pencil Topper: motion animation from Moiré pattern effects of constructive and deconstructive interference.
👉 Moiré Motion Card: a hummingbird springs to life in this motion animation from Moiré pattern effects of constructive and deconstructive interference. Opening and closing the top of this SmartMove card slides an image of lines printed on transparent film over a second image to produce the short loop.
👉 Thermochromic Mug: Pour up some hot coffee and watch the crew of the USS Enterprise leave the ship and rematerialize on the planet surface with this color-changing physics mug. The color change employs leuco dyes, thermochromic chemicals that have two reversible forms, one colorless.
👉 Optical Trick Portraits: Hold a flat mirror up to this painting of Charles III, Duke of Lorraine, to reveal his daughter Christina in this 1593 work by Ludovico Buti. A very early example of lenticular images, Gioco Ottico hangs in the Galileo Museum in Florence as part of the Medici Collections.
👉 Mirror Anamorphic Cup & Saucer: endangered animals series- Thomson’s Gazelle by Luycho. The reflection in the 24 linear mirrors of the cup assembles the scrambled image on the saucer. Art meets math and physics!
👉 Chaotic Pendulum: adding magnetic forces to gravity gives this pendulum chaotic motion- not random, but very different each time it’s launched.
👉 Strandbeest Mini: A fully working model of artist Theo Jansen’s Strandbeest kinetic sculpture which features Jansen’s linkage- a unique leg mechanism which converts rotary motion of a crackshaft into smooth walking motion.
👉 TV Rock: the crystals of the mineral ulexite act as natural fiber optic image conduits. This sample came from a little rock shop in Boron CA, home to one of the largest boron mines in the world. If you take the Rio Tinto Boron mine tour you get a free TV rock!
👉 Tapered Mirrors Kaleidoscope: the unique design of this teleidoscope uses three mirrors to create an image of a geodesic sphere.
👉 Designer Kaleidoscope: the beautiful symmetry of multiple reflections. Tiny glass beads and a collection of shiny objects provide the viewing material in this side-lit precision kaleidoscope by Carol Verde-Paretti.
👉 Fumed Spiral Marble: glass art intersects with the physics of optics and materials science in this gold and silver fumed marble by Colby James Boyd
👉 Vortex Marble with Gilson Opal Sphere: glass art intersects with the physics of optics in this spectacular piece from lampworking master Raven Copeland aka
👉 Min♡-3D Illusion Frame: two patterned acrylic sheets overlapping create this illusion of depth that seems a few centimeters below the surface.
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#physicsfun #physics #satisfying
All the magic that we know is in the transfer of electrons. Reduction (gaining electrons) and oxidation (the loss of electrons) combine to form Redox chemistry, which contains the majority of chemical reactions. As electrons jump from atom to atom, they carry energy with them, and that transfer of energy is what makes all life on earth possible.
**Special Thanks to Matt Young at the University of Montana (Geosciences Department, Environmental Biogeochemistry Lab) who helped with the chemical demonstrations.**
Oxidation Numbers 3:29
Redox Reactions 5:59
Oxidation Reactions 6:28
Balancing Oxidation Reactions 7:18
Also thank you to the following chemistry teachers for assistance:
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يُعد الإلكترون بالنسبة للكيمياء
كالمال بالنسبة للرأسمالية. يتمحور الأمر حول من يملكه ومن يريده
وما هو مستعد لفعله للحصول عليه. إن الإلكترونات هي ما يُمكّن الذرات
من الترابط مع بعضها لتشكيل جزئيات، وعندما يحدث ذلك،
يمكن أن يتم تبادل قدر هائل من الطاقة خلال العملية. ولكن لا تتضمن
جميع التفاعلات الكيميائية تبادل إلكترونات فقد تتذكرون أن التفاعلات الحمضية القاعدية
تتضمن تبادل hgبروتونات، لكن لأن الإلكترونات هي العملة المتداولة
في عالم الكيمياء فإن أهم التفاعلات التي تحدث على كوكب الأرض
تتضمن نقل إلكترون واحد أو أكثر من ذرة إلى أخرى. تُسمى هذه تفاعلات الأكسدة
والاختزال أو Redox بالإنجليزية، وهي كلمة مشتقة من كلمتي reduction
وهو الاختزال و oxidation وهو الأكسدة. ما قصة هاتين الكلمتين؟
تعرفون معنى الاختزال، إنه تقليل شيء ما، وربما تتعلق الأكسدة بالأكسجين بعض الشيء…
حسنًا، أحيانًا لكن ليس دائمًا. هاتان كلمتان غير مناسبتان على الإطلاق لما يحدث فعلاً في تفاعلات الأكسدة والاختزال،
لكننا عالقين معهما. الاختزال هو عندما تكسب المادة إلكترونات.
أجل، تكسبها، وهذا عكس معنى كلمة اختزال. هذا عظيم! وصحيح أنني أود في بعض الأحيان
أن ألكم الأشخاص الذين أطلقوا أسماء غير دقيقة على هذه الأشياء،
لكنهم لم يعرفوا الحقيقة وكلهم أموات الآن لذا لا يمكننا فعل شيء حيال هذا. كان الكيميائيون البدائيون يصنعون معادن خالصة
من خلال تسخين أو صهر المواد الخام. ولاحظوا خلال عملية الصهر
أن هذه المواد تصبح أخف وزنًا، لذا لم يكن أمرًا جنونيًا فعلاً أنهم قرروا
أن يقولوا عن هذه المواد بأنها كانت تُختزل. اكتشف صديقنا الفرنسي القديم أنطوان لافوازييه
أن هذا يحدث لأن غاز الأكسجين كان يترك المركب
ما يجعله أخف وزنًا. لكن ما لم يعلمه هو الكيمياء الحقيقية المعنية بالأمر.
إن الأكسجين هو المؤكسد المثالي، فهو يسحب إلكترونًا
من جزي واحد ليجعل نفسه مستقرًا، لكن إن سخنتموه إلى حرارة كافية، يصبح نشيطًا. نفهم اليوم أن الأكسدة والاختزال يتعلقان بنقل
الإلكترونات، لذا يتوقع المرء أن نعيد تسميتهما وقد حاول بعض الكيميائيين فعل ذلك، وأطلقوا
أسماءً عليها مثل الألكترنة وإزالة الألكترنة، لكن ما إن تصبح مجموعة من المصطلحات
مُقررة وتُستخدم لفترة من الزمن تصبح إزالتها صعبة جدًا. لذا نحن عالقون معها.
ولأحفظ وأفرّق بين هذين الإسمين غير المنطقيين أعتمد على كلمة "أخاك"،
وهي أن الأكسدة خسارة الإلكترونات والاختزال هو كسب الإلكترونات. يجب علينا
أن نعرف هذه الأشياء فحسب لأنها في كل مكان. عندما تحول خلاياكم
السكر إلى طاقة كي تتحركوا وتتنفسوا وتفكروا هذا تفاعل أكسدة واختزال. حين تحول النباتات
أشعة الشمس إلى طعام عبر التركيب الضوئي، هذا تفاعل أكسدة واختزال. البطارية التي تشغل
الحواسيب والنار، إنهما تفاعلا أكسدة واختزال. بما أن تبادل الإلكترونات هو الموضوع الرئيسي،
حين تدرسون تفاعلات الأكسدة والاختزال، فإن تتبع الإلكترونات
هو أمر مهم وضروري وأساسي جدًا. تخيلوها كعملات، ففي أي صفقة، سيكسبها شخص ما وسيخسرها شخص آخر.
ومن أجل أن تبقوا متحكمين في الأمور يجب أن تراقبوا من يكسب ومن يخسر. لكن الذرات مولعة بمشاركة الإلكترونات
وتشكل روابط تساهمية لذا يكون تتبع أماكنها وأين ستذهب
ليس بأمر سهل في بعض الأحيان. أحب تخيل أن كل مركب تساهمي يشبه زواجًا.
لكنه سيكون زواجًا غريبًا لأنه قد يكون فيه ستة أشخاص،
وقد يكون الشخص نفسه موجودًا عدة مرات، ولا يوجد فيه التزام ولا عواطف.
لا تفكروا فيه كثيرًا. ومثل الزواج، حيث تتم مشاركة المال فيه،
تتشارك المركبات التساهمية بالإلكترونات. والحيلة هي معرفة من سيحصل على المال عند نكث
العهود. لذا استحدثنا نظامًا مفيدًا جديدًا وهو تعيين جميع الإلكترونات للذرات
التي تتشاركها في تلك اللحظة. يُدعى عدد الإلكترونات الذي نعينه
بحالة الأكسدة أو بعدد الأكسدة للذرة. ومع أننا على دراية تامة
بالروابط التساهمية وتشارك الإلكترونات، إلا أنه من الأسهل تتبع العمليات
إن تخيلنا أن الذرات تتقاسم إلكتروناتها، وكأنها في رابطة أيونية أو رابطة غير تشاركية. إذن، عدد الأكسدة للذرة هو ما ستكون شحنتها لو كانت تملك جميع الإلكترونات بشكل حصري حقًا. إذن، لفهم حالات الأكسدة أو أعداد الأكسدة هذه لدينا قواعد بسيطة لبعض الذرات.
أولاً، عدد الأكسدة لأي عنصر لوحده، سواء كان أحادي الذرة أو ثنائي الذرة
أو متعدد الذرات مثل ذرة الكالسيوم أو جزي هيدروجين أو حتى جزيء الكبريت الثماني
الأكبر حجمًا، يكون عدد الأكسدة صفرًا. لا تملك الذرات شحنة بطبيعتها،
فإن كانت تملك شحنة ستكون أيونات، وإن كانت تتشارك مع نفسها، تتشارك بالتساوي.
وثانيًا، بالنسبة لأيون أحادي الذرة، وهو ذرة مشحونة ببساطة،
يكون عدد الأكسدة هو حجم أو رقم شحنته. إذن الحديد في أيون Fe2 الموجب
يمتلك حالة أكسدة تساوي موجب اثنين، وتساوي سالب 1 لأيون الكلوريد. ثالثًا، الأكسجين
المستفحل في كيمياء تفاعلات الأكسدة والاختزال يمتلك دائمًا تقريبًا حالة أكسدة تعادل
سالب اثنين، إلا إن كان في جزيء بيروكسيد مثل بيروكسيد الهيدروجين.
رابعًا، حالة الهيدروجين تعادل موجب واحد. وخامسًا، حالة الفلور تعادل سالب واحد
مثل جميع الهالوجينات الأخرى في معظم الأحيان، إلا إن كانت مرتبطة بالفلور أو الأكسجين،
لأن الفلور والأكسجين سيئان جدًا لدرجة أنه يمكنهما أن يجعلا عدد أكسدة
أي عنصر موجبًا إن كنتم تعلمون ما أقصده. وهذه هي القوانين، هذا كل ما يجب أن تعرفوه.
سيكون مجموع جميع أعداد الأكسدة لجميع الذرات في مركب متعادل الشحنة صفرًا.
مثل الماء الذي يحتوي على ذرة أكسجين لديها حالة أكسدة تساوي سالبة اثنين وذرتي
هيدروجين حالة كل منهما تساوي موجب واحد وهكذا، يمتلك المركب المتعادل الشحنة عدد أكسدة يساوي
صفرًا. لكن أيون متعدد الذرات من الناحية الأخرى يجب أن يمتلك حالة أكسدة تماثل
شحنته، لذا SO42 السالب، وهو أيون الكبريت، لديه أربعة ذرات أكسجين
تساوي سالب ثمانية، لكن لا توجد قاعدة للكبريت لذا أعتقد أنه علينا أن نستسلم ونرحل.
من يكترث لهذا الآن؟ كلا! نستخدم علم جبر بسيط جدًا
لأنه يجب أن نملك في النهاية عدد أكسدة يساوي سالب اثنين للمركب بأكمله،
ونحن نعلم أن الكبريت في هذا المركب المعين يمتلك حالة أكسدة تساوي موجب ستة. لكن
حالة أكسدة الكبريت لا تساوي موجب ستة دائمًا ولهذا لا توجد قاعدة للكبريت
أو للعديد من العناصر الأخرى في هذا الشأن لأن حالات الأكسدة لمعظم العناصر
تتغير بحسب العناصر المرتبطة معها. والآن بإمكاننا تطبيق
المنطق نفسه لاكتشاف ما يحدث عند تفاعل هذه المركبات في تفاعلات الأكسدة
والاختزال. محاكم طلاق الإلكترونات الجزيئية حيث تنتقل من طرف لآخر ويتم التفاوض عليها
ومقايضتها حيث يأخذ بعض المشاركين أرباحًا كبيرة بينما يخسر آخرون كل شيء تقريبًا.
هذه هي الحياة! لنبدأ بمثال بسيط: تفاعل كيميائي
قام برأيي بإنقاذ أرواح أكثر من أي تفاعل آخر في تاريخ الكيمياء، صُنع من قبل مجرم حرب
لتفجير الناس خلال الحرب العالمية الأولى، وهو طريقة هابر. تزيل طريقة هابر
عنصر النتروجين شديد الاستقرار من الهواء وتدمجه مع الهيدروجين لتكوين NH3
وهو أمونيا، ليتم استخدامه في القنابل وفي السماد أيضًا،
ما يزيد من قدرة التحمل للأرض بمقدار مليارات. يوجد النتروجين في الهواء
كنتروجين عنصري ثنائي الذرة، والهيدروجين عنصري ثنائي الذرة مثله،
لذا نعلم منذ البداية أن جميع الذرات تملك حالة أكسدة تعادل صفرًا.
نتاج التفاعل هو الأمونيا، وهو مركب متعادل الشحنة يمتلك ذرة نتروجين
وثلاث ذرات هيدروجين تملك كل منها حال أكسدة تعادل موجب واحد. تذكروا القواعد، لذا يجب أن
يمتلك النتروجين حالة أكسدة تعادل سالب ثلاثة. وبالتالي اكتسب النتروجين إلكترونات،
فانخفضت حالة أكسدته ولذا اتم اختزاله.
عندما نتحدث عما تفعله حالات الأكسدة، تكون كلمة "اختزال" منطقية. فقد الهيدروجين
إلكترونات فارتفعت حالة أكسدته وتمت أكسدته. هذه معادلة توازن بسيطة جدًا، لكن يمكن
أن تكون معادلات تفاعلات الأكسدة والاختزال عويصة جدًا في بعض الأحيان
بسبب عدد الذرات الفردية المشتركة فيها، لذا علينا أن نوازنها
في تفاعلات نصفية في الغالب. مع أنه ليس علينا أن نقوم بالتفاعلات النصفية
لأنها معادلة بسيطة جدًا، سنقوم بها على أية حال
لأنها مثال بسيط لنبدأ به. لذا نبدأ باختزال النتروجين. لدينا N2 حالة أكسدته تساوي صفرًا
ويصبح NH3 حالة أكسدته سالب ثلاثة. أولاً نعادل عدد ذرات النتروجين،
ثم نضيف إليها عدد الإلكترونات التي يجب أن تكون موجودة ليكون عدد الإلكترونات
نفسه موجودًا في كل جهة من المعادلة. قوموا بالشيء نفسه لنصف تفاعل الأكسدة
ثم اجمعوهما لتحصلوا على التفاعل بأكمله حيث تلغي الإلكترونات بعضها.
والآن تتساءلون إن كانت تلك خطوة غير ضرورية لكن اسمحوا لي أن أعرض عليكم
تفاعلاً أكثر تعقيدًا سيثبت لكم كم يمكن أن يكون ذلك مهمًا.
يوجد ديامين الفضة في هذه القارورة. سنستخدم تفاعلات أكسدة واختزال كيميائية لإخراج
عنصر الفضة منها بشكل لطيف ونظيف ولامع، ولن تكون بطريقة هابر بسيطة على الإطلاق.
سيتفاعل ديامين الفضة مع ألدهيد عضوي، أو أي ألدهيد في الحقيقة. الجانب الأساسي من الألدهيد هو CHO. والـ R
في الكيمياء العضوية هي رمز لمجموعة ذرات عضوية ولا توجد أهمية لهذه الذرات في هذا التفاعل. يتفاعل ديامين الفضة مع الألدهيد والهيدروكسيد ما ينتج حمض الكربوكسيل والأمونيا والماء.
أولاً، لنُعين بعض حالات الأكسدة. الفضة موجودة في مركب
يحتوي أيضًا على ذرتي أمونيا متعادلتي الشحنة ولن تتفاعلا طوال التفاعل،
لذا يمكننا أن نعاملهما وكأنهما نوع واحد وحالة أكسدته تساوي صفرًا.
بما أن شحنة ديامين الفضة موجب واحد ولا تؤثر الأمونيا على ذلك،
يجب أن تكون حالة أكسدة الفضة موجب واحد أيضًا. يمتلك الألدهيد ذرة هيدروجين شحنتها موجب واحد
وذرة أكسجين شحنتها سالب اثنين لكنه مركب متعادل الشحنة لذا لا بد
أن تكون شحنة الكربون موجب واحد أيضًا. شحنة أيون الهيدروكسيد بسيطة:
سالب اثنين للأكسجين وموجب واحد للهيدروجين وشحنته الإجمالية سالب واحد في حالة الأكسدة
هذه. في جانب المتفاعل، أصبحت الفضة ذرة الآن لذا إن حالة أكسدتها تساوي صفرًا. يحتوي حمض
الكربوكسيل على ذرتي أكسجين وذرة هيدروجين لذا حالة أكسدة الكربون الآن تعادل موجب ثلاثة.
تبقى شحنة NH3 صفرًا ولم يغير أكسجين وهيدروجين الماء
حالتا أكسدتهما أيضًا. لذا انخفضت حالة أكسدة الفضة،
أو تم اختزالها، من موجب واحد إلى صفر بينما تمت أكسدة الكربون من موجب واحد
إلى موجب ثلاثة. حان وقت نصف التفاعل. تم اختزال الفضة واكتسبت إلكترونًا واحدًا
فشكّلت عنصر فضة وأمونيا من ديامين الفضة. تمت أكسدة الألدهيد
وشكّل حمض كربوكسيل ويحتاج إلى إلكترونين. نعلم بمساعدة هذه الإلكترونات
أنه على أقل تقدير يجب علينا أن نضاعف كامل نصف اختزال المعادلة
من أجل أن نحصل على عدد الإلكترونات الصحيح في كلا الجهتين.
نفعل ذلك و… يا إلهي، هذا أمر جميل! ثم ندمجهما معًا لنحصل على معادلة
تفاعل أكسدة واختزال متوازنة تمامًا. والآن شاهدوني
وأنا آخذ هذه الإلكترونات وأحولها إلى مال. وها هي أمامكم أيها الناس،
هذه فضة خالصة تكسو القنينة من الداخل. شكرًا على مشاهدة هذه الحلقة. إن كنتم منتبهين، تعلمتم أن أي تفاعل
تنتقل فيه الإلكترونات من ذرة إلى أخرى هو تفاعل أكسدة واختزال،
وأن الأكسدة هو خسارة الإلكترونات وأن الاختزال هو كسب الإلكترونات،
وتعلمتم أنه يتم تعيين أعداد الأكسدة للذرات المشاركة في التفاعلات من أجل أن تقوم بتتبع
ما تنوي إلكتروناتها على فعله. تعلمتم بعض الحيل البسيطة
لتساعدكم على معرفة ما هي حالة أكسدة ذرة ما وتدربتم قليلاً
على معرفة كيفية تعيين حالات الأكسدة وموازنة تفاعلات الأكسدة من خلال مثالين، أحدهما سهل جدًا والآخر أقل سهولة. كتبت أنا وكيم كريغر هذه الحلقة،
ومحرر النص هو بلايك دي باستينو. الدكتور هايكو لاغنر هو مستشارنا الكيميائي،
وقامت مجموعة من معلمي الكيمياء بتقديم المشورة لهذه الحلقة وبتحريرها،
لذا شكرًا جزيلاً لهم. هذه الحلقة من تصوير
ومونتاج وإخراج نيكولاس جنكينز، مصمم الصوت ومستشار النص هو مايكل أراندا،
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Time to take a look at one of the masterpieces of interactive storytelling, and determine what it thinks of the philosophies it explores.
Part 1: Summary – 2:52
Part 2: Backstory and Objectivism – 13:31
Part 3: Summary (cont.) – 26:02
Part 4: The Twist – 35:00
Part 5: The Third Act – 50:44
Part 6: Bioshock and Objectivism – 1:00:32
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hello and welcome to Games's Lit 101 i gotta say i am really really excited for this one when a rational Games released Bioshock in 2007 it was met with nearly universal and very high praise the atmosphere the story the philosophical themes the setting the mind-blowing plot twists it was just brilliant it will forever have a spot in my top 10 favorite games so needless to say I've been looking forward to this one for a long long time I mean what I actually taught this class it was in high school and this game was rated M so I couldn't actually use it so I I've been itching to talk about this one for years but before we get started I do have to note a few things first I've strived to keep this show appropriate for all ages it is an educational series after all so I want it to be something that wouldn't feel out of place in a classroom setting that said Bioshock is rated M and it's rated M for a reason so some of the game footage in this analysis is going to include some adult language and some fairly graphic violence secondly since this analysis is much much longer than previous ones I actually have a number of links down in the description that will link you to different sections of the analysis so if you want to skip around for whatever reason or access a specific part of the analysis just refer to those down in the description thirdly and finally I know I have a habit on pontificating on how horrible it is to watch these analyses without previously having played the game because spoilers and I have explained my stance on spoilers in full detail in a previous episode that said for the purposes of this analysis specifically let me make this absolutely clear Bioshock is meant to be played it simply cannot be done justice and even the best summary and while there are a great many reasons the most powerful is this Bioshock has one of if not the most well executed plot twists in the entire medium of video games and much of its impact is based on your own personal experience of play additionally the backstory to this game is fairly complex and so I'm going to spend a decent amount of time in this analysis explaining a lot of things that the game itself tells with expert pacing and environmental design my summary will not and for that matter literally cannot contain all of the interesting techniques that make this story work so well even watching this game be played would be too short yourself the incredible experience of actually playing it so please do not ruin this for yourself by listening to me tell you about the story before experiencing it for yourself so that's really all the warning I can give you so let's go the game opens with our player character Jack on a plane in 1960 they told me son you're special you were born to do great things you know what they were right [Applause] and interestingly enough that's the last time we hear Jack's voice in the entire game I've talked in a previous episode about the silent protagonist as a form of the projection protagonist the whole idea is to let you easily slip into his roles so from now on he never actually talks and that makes it a little easier to believe that we are him this sense of agency is absolutely key to the game for reasons that we'll go over as we continue through the story so for now sit back and enjoy one of the greatest openings and video game history and boy you come to underwater the wreckage of the plane sinking to the ocean floor around you as you desperately swim to the surface despite being in the middle of the ocean you find safety on a small island with a lighthouse as you enter music from the 40s is playing softly and a statue looms above you with a banner reading no gods no kings only man you work your way through the lighthouse as it lights to guide your way until you reach a small pod you enter and it plunges you underwater to an unknown destination as a video begins to play I am Andrew Ryan and I'm here to ask you a question is a man not entitled to the sweat of his brow no says the man Washington it belongs to the poor no says the man in the Vatican it belongs to God no says the man in Moscow it belongs to everyone I rejected those answers instead I chose something different I chose the impossible I chose city where the artist would not be in a sense where the scientist would not be bound by petty morality where the great would not be constrained by the small with a sweat your brow grant you can become your city as well oh just get over becoming about splicing on [Applause] man I love that open it I mean it with all the visual fidelity we have in games these days it takes a lot to impress us now you know we've come a long way from just being awed at how huge Midgar is in the opening video of Final Fantasy 7 we've seen it all at this point and it takes a lot to impress but this doesn't solely rely on visual splendor though that's certainly a huge part of it Andrew Ryan's monologue here is excellent and lays forth a basic foundation for the philosophy the game will be exploring before revealing – an excellent soundtrack a sprawling underwater city founded on principles of absolute freedom and unbridled progress there's an immediate sense of wonder at this impossible city and the ideals from which it's sprung but unfortunately it quickly becomes clear that this is anything but your salvation someone you grab a radio from the bathysphere and speak with Atlas a man who explains that he moved his family to rapture when it was intended as utopia but it's not what it once was and he now must reach them in order to escape with them in a submarine wanting just as badly to get out of here you agree to help him or at least it's assumed so jack is a silent protagonist after all but in games like this your silence and compliance is considered to be consent now at first we don't actually know what happened here only the basic reasons why Andrew Ryan created it in the first place and the fact that it seems to have gone completely to hell since then the first hours of the game is riveting and disturbing discovery of raptures beauty and its ruin objects and corpses are strewn about and crazed people roam the halls with little more purpose than brutalizing others they come across a mother cries over an empty carriage flying sentry BOTS patrol the halls and water leaks in from the crushing expansive waters that surround the city this first sequence in rapture is when you're hit with the brunt of the game's atmospheric power the Art Deco styling dramatic lighting and excellent sound design all contribute to the feeling of simultaneous wonder and fear curiosity and oppression you work your way through rapture following ad Lass's directions to Neptune's bounty and fighting off some of the crazed people with nothing but a wrench until you find a vile and disturbingly large syringe naturally upon seeing a giant needle with strange glowing liquid inside of it you leave it alone and why would you do that randomly jabbing the needle into your wrist is probably the most confusing scene in the entire game if only because it seems like a completely stupid thing to do mostly because it it is that's actually really stupid but stupid though it may be it does actually make a bit of sense and I'll explain why later the thing you injected into yourself is a plasmid it alters your genetic code to basically grant you superpowers in this case you can throw lightning from your hands you get a variety of plasmas as you play through the game and can only use them based on your supply of Eve which you find throughout the game to replenish your ability to actually use your plasmids think of it like ammo for your superpowers though of course you're far from the only one who can use things like this they are all over rapture after recovering from the shock of having your genetic code rewritten you continue on and something strange careful now would you kindly lower that weapon for a minute do you think that's a child down there don't be fooled she's a little sister now somebody went toward a sweet baby girl into a monster whatever you thought about right we're all on the surface well I don't count for much down and rapture those little sisters they carry Adam the genetic material that keeps the wheels of rapture turnin everybody wants us everybody needs us Big Daddy the little sisters and Big Daddy's are the most recognizable elements of Bioshock and for good reason these little girls genetically engineered to the point where they're arguably no longer human and doomed to gather genetic material from the dead protected by deadly creatures whose wail like moans echo throughout the dying halls of rapture will go further into what's up with the little sisters as well as how they factor into the major theme of parenthood in the game later on once the Big Daddy is gone you continue following ad Lass's lead but just as you're about to enter Neptune's bounty and alarm sounds the door slams shut in your face and crazed people referred to as splicers by Atlas begin attacking and you get caught in a room where you're trying to get away Andrew Ryan appears on a screen accusing you of being sent by the CIA or KGB before leaving you to the splicers thankfully Atlas gets the door open and you escape so we have a row in utopia insane superhumans and a leader that seems to have gone mad with power and a god complex but interestingly enough the majority of Bioshock story actually takes place before the events of the game itself and it's told to us through audio Diaries that we find scattered throughout rapture these audio diaries were at the time of raptures creation a fairly novel concept and it seems that people took to recording their memories and ideas in this way rather than something more traditional like a pen and a notepad and now the little snippets we get from these audio Diaries fill in the back story of rapture from Ryan's original intent to the eventual fall of the city the audio diaries are used to space out the little tidbits of backstory we get as we progress through the game so we gain a greater and greater understanding of the history of rapture which is incredibly important to the story that we are actually experiencing in the game itself now that said my goal here is to give a clear and understandable summary of this story not necessarily to recreate the original presentation so I'm going to take this opportunity after the basic introduction of the game to give a clearer picture of the history of rapture and the four major figures involved in it Andrew Ryan was born in Russia and saw the Russian Revolution as a boy in 1917 his childhood in Russia convinced him of one major thing great men shaped the world as the result of their own work and effort and anyone who relied on others or on government was a parasite he moved to America at the age of nine having heard of the Freedom and opportunity available there and enjoyed the capitalist society for a long time he amassed a great deal of wealth and fame and he loved the country that allowed him this however over time the United States began requiring more of those with wealth and power in order to help those who didn't have it in Ryan's mind those people were weakened undetermined and it was immoral for him to give what he had rightfully earned to feed these parasites possibly the defining moment of his character pre rapture at least was when the government tried to secure a large plot of land he owned for a national park claiming it was God's country and that it belonged to the people in response rather than letting him have it he burned it to the ground the philosophy that Andrew Ryan seems to a forum for himself over the years is Iran's philosophy of Objectivism now objectivism simply cannot be explained in as many words as I have to explain it to you and full disclosure I'm personally not really a fan but I'm going to try and give you the basic ideas faithfully and objectively as possible I'm Rand author of such books as The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged believed in a pretty pure form of rationalism the only truth is that which we can see and understand and that truth is absolute what we can observe and prove exists and what we cannot does not rational thought is the only valuable method of judging anything in this world when applied to social and moral issues this philosophy led Randa to believe that the only moral good is for man to act in his own self-interest not to the direct detriment of others so for instance killing someone else to put yourself further ahead would still be considered immoral but self-sacrifice for the good of someone else would also be considered immoral so charity for instance is actually considered immoral from an Objectivist perspective everything you do must be for your own gain a trade of equal value that benefit you in the end to give of yourself without getting anything in return is actually just as wrong from this perspective as taking from someone else without giving anything in return following from that the only function of government is to ensure that the parasites thieves murderers freeloaders etc are properly punished for holding back society and doing harm to others it's a laissez-faire system of capitalism in which the government cannot actually force anyone in it to give of themselves in any way so for instance the minimum wage requirement or welfare in any form would also be considered wrong art is viewed in a similar way it's a necessary element of life and it takes rational thought and effort thus according to objective ISM non-representational art isn't actually art at all and good art objectively good art no less is actually that which strives to accurately represent reality and rational things and especially that which portrays man is a free creature in charge of his own destiny and of course it's not to be limited whatsoever by any legal or moral boundaries so in short objectivism dictate that self-interest chosen of man's free will is the basis for morality and any social structure must facilitate this by in no way limiting mankind's choice aside from ensuring that they do no harm to other free men some all right there's our little philosophy less and again it's super basic and I imagine there's some philosophy buffs and Iran fans out there who aren't particularly happy with it but look this episode is already absurdly long anyway alright so there are a ton of great resources online if you want to really look into it and fully understand what objectivism is as you may have figured out by this point Bioshock is heavily heavily based on Objectivist concepts whether it ends up supporting or opposing objectivism in the end we'll talk about as we get through this analysis but the whole concept of rapture is a society based on pure objectivism so then back to Ryan the thing that broke him completely was the use of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki at this point he reasoned the parasite could now destroy anything they could not take this world was forfeit and so he used his entire fortune to build a new one he gathered the best and the brightest thousands of brilliant accomplished people and gave them a proposition a city with no legal or moral limits where their work could achieve greater success than the parasites would ever allow those he saw worthy he took to his great city and in reference to that fact he named it rapture and for years it prospered just as he expected it experienced exceptional economic success and unprecedented scientific advancements then it began to fall apart the rise and fall of rapture has four major players Andrew Ryan obviously Frank Fontaine Brigid Tenenbaum and Yi soo Chung and it's a fairly complex series of events that I'm going to try and boil down to it the most important parts to make it a little easier to digest though I'll mostly be covering su Chun and Tenenbaum later when they both become more relevant to the story of the game itself the first thing worth noting as it will become important later is that a lot of people of the working class were brought to rapture in order to build it in the first place now since rapture was based on a philosophy that rejects the idea of supporting others there was nothing in place to help these people reintegrate back into society once their job was done the result was a fairly large population of people just kept in low quality housing and left up to their own devices since Ryan's assumption and for that matter his philosophy was that they should just fend for themselves they would have to find work themselves and work their way up to support themselves now this is going to become important later so remember that the most important thing to happen to rapture was the discovery of Adam Brigid Tenenbaum a brilliant scientist who saw rapture as a chance to do good after she regretting li participated in the infamous experiments in Nazi Germany discovered and as of yet unseen sea slug with secretions that held the secret to immense amounts of genetic alteration when she searched for funding most scoffed at her but she eventually made a deal with a ruthless businessman named Frank Fontaine in which he had the rights to all profits extending from her discoveries her experiments yield to tremendous things she could cure diseases and fundamentally change how an organism worked in various ways seen as a rebirth for Humanity this substance was dubbed at later it was discovered that the sea slugs when implanted into the stomach of a human host formed a symbiotic relationship that produced exceptionally higher amounts of Adam strangely and unfortunately enough however the only viable hosts for this process were young girls so in hopes of mass-producing Adam Fontaine opened the little sister's orphanage advertising it as a place for impoverished families to send their girls for care into education of course the orphanage was just a front for the production of Adam the girls sent there would have the slugs implanted into them in secret Tenenbaum was kind of troubled by this but really just wanted to keep them in a vegetative state at least but unfortunately it was discovered that the production of Adam only works so long as the host was awake and active this mass production made it possible for Fontaine Futuristics to make and sell a variety of products based on Adam most notably plasmids which altered the human body in such a way is to grant superhuman abilities better yet the supply of Adam was plentiful enough that these products were quite affordable at this time Ryan praised Fontaine for his success after all he had risen to power and well through his own ingenuity and effort Gregory don't come whining to me about market forces and don't expect me to punish citizens for showing a little initiative if you don't like what Fontaine is doing well I suggest you find a way to offer a better product now Ryan didn't know how Adam was produced but he began to suspect Fontaine of a number of other crimes ranging from murder to smuggling and indeed the only reason Fontaine's production of Adam was financially feasible for him was because of the money gained from the smuggling ring he began soon after arriving in rapture which would bring various items from the surface including Bibles and other items of religious significance down to the homesick denizens of rapture of course that's very much against Ryan's vision for rapture not because of Objectivism as it would dictate that he allow free trade without any restrictions but because rapture only would work if it's completely separated from the outside world Ryan wanted it to operate independently free from the corrupted processes and the parasitical philosophies of the world from which he Payne the methods of fontaine success brought him from respectful businessmen to wanted criminal and Ryan's eyes because the success he enjoined came at the expense of the well-being of the other people around him which is quite telling of one of the issues Bioshock seems to take with objectivism as we'll discuss more when we go over the game's final stance on such philosophical matters Ryan instructed his security chief to put an end to Fontaine smuggling ring and Fontaine was eventually killed in a shootout with Ryan's men Ryan took over Fontaine Futuristics after that and discovered the little sisters he was appalled and immediately shut down the orphanage and thus also the production of the little sisters but recognizing them as a necessary evil he opened the little wonders educational facility keeping them there for safety as well as the benefit of soojeong's experiments it was eventually realized that the production alone wasn't providing enough Adam to the city so sue Chong created the Big Daddies by taking convicted criminals essentially lobotomizing them and used mental conditioning to bond them to the little sisters allowing them to wander the halls of rapture and gather Adam from the dead recycling the supply yeah at this point I think it's safe to say the grap sure has gotten pretty messed up and that's not even talking about characters like dr. Steinman or sander Cohen yet we'll get to them in a bit for now the situation with Fontaine had created a good deal of civil unrest and the people of rapture were increasingly unhappy with Ryan's leadership and eventually of course someone else came up to stir up the masses a little bit more Atlas remember what I said a while ago about the working class of rapture being left to fend for themselves and low-income housing after their jobs actually building the city we're complete well as you might imagine those people were pretty easy to rile up and it did not take long for Atlas to end up inciting raptures civil war and this was really the beginning of the end for rapture chaos erupted and people spliced themselves up to the point of insanity it's easy to see how rapture got into its current state based on all this information so I'm not going to bother accounting all the details of the civil war but there is one more important thing to go over before we can continue with the story of the game itself the point where Ryan completely gave up on his vision for rapture even if he could never actually bring himself to admit when the Civil War had been raging soo Chong developed an option for Ryan to stop it lease the plasmids they produce with pheromones to put the splicers under his control dr. su Chong frankly I'm shocked by your proposal if we were to modify the structure of our commercial plasmid line as you propose to have them make the user vulnerable to mental suggestion through pheromones would we not be able to effectively control the actions of the citizens of Rapture free will is the cornerstone of this city thought of sacrificing it is a poor it however we are indeed in a time of war yep Atlas and his bandits have their way will they not turn us into slaves and what will become a free will then desperate times call for desperate measures this effectively put rapture ruin desert was back under Ryan's control and trapped Atlas and his family here until of course a nun spliced stranger happened upon raptures front door so hopefully that surprisingly long summary of the back story of rapture hoped you gain a clearer understanding of those events than when you were trying to piece them together from the scattered audio Diaries in the game itself which brings us right back to the events of the game after the narrow escape from Ryan's pheromone controlled splicers Atlas continues leading you throughout rapture along a longer route the player comes across Tenenbaum as she kills a splicer threatening a little sister note of course that though we just went through that summary and know her background this is the first time the player meets her turns out since creating the little sisters Tenenbaums guilt began to catch up with her as rapture descended into chaos she began taking in the little sisters and developing a way to cure them restoring them once again to normal little girls she now acts as their mother figure and has been working to rescue and care for as many as she can Atlas tells you to kill the little sister and take her Adam you'll need it to survive here and he reasons that the little sisters are too far gone anyway they're not little girls anymore just monsters killing them would be a mercy Grilli and would help you survive Tenenbaum begs you to show mercy and gives you a plasmid she developed it allows you to safely remove the slug from the little sisters without killing them and the choice is left up to you and man if this image of the little girl backing away from you and fear doesn't make you at least a little uncomfortable I don't know what will this scene is beautifully framed we'll talk more about the moral choice system in Bioshock when we can look back on it in the context of the whole game but it's one of the three most often criticized elements of Bioshock and rightfully so though it does have some positive things offer to the game as well for now we're going to go through this analysis assuming that you don't kill little girls because seriously don't kill little girls unfortunately the second major criticism of the game and it's not as big a thematic issue but on a basic level that's probably the most problematic is the pacing and plot development of act 2 it basically consists of a bunch of fetch quests kill this guy find that thing fix this system photograph this stuff you spend most of the game being blocked from any of your actual goals by random kind of unnecessary plot developments until you get past them and move on to the next stalling tactic the good news is that however problematic this presentation may be it's at least done fairly well it makes replays kind of arduous but honestly I didn't even notice it the first time through the game because all of these little tangents do at least develop the backstory and setting of rapture now I'm just gonna do you a favor and skip to the relevant plot points but there are actually two of these little tangents that I think are worth going over the first is that of dr. Steinman he was a plastic surgeon the best in rapture when Adam became commonplace and splicing became a regular activity Steinman was famous for fixing up the scarring that wanton splicing caused but as time went by and the potential of Adam became clearer that wasn't enough for him there was a time I was happy enough to take off of water to turn a real circus freak into something you can show in the daylight but that was then when we took what we got but with Adam the flesh becomes clay what excuse do we have not to sculpt and sculpt and sculpt until the job is done he began to see himself more as an artist and then a doctor and took inspiration by hearing the goddess aphrodite in his head when Picasso became bored of painting people he started representing them as cubes another abstract formed the world called him a genius I've spent my entire surgical career creating the same tired shapes over and over again the upturned nose the cleft chin the ample bosom wouldn't be wonderful if I could do with a knife that old Spaniard did with a brush because he basically went completely insane he began using people as his canvas if you will whether they wanted him to her not as time went on he went even deeper into his insanity and his attempts to create a new standard for beauty with the power of Adam resulted in many a gruesome death before you put an end to it this actually happens before you even encounter the first little sister Bioshock wastes no time in exploring what happens when a society eliminates morality and selflessness in favor of unbridled artistic freedom and scientific progress you eventually make your way into Neptune's bounty and the dock where ad Lass's family waits in a submarine but as you approach ryan addresses you the radio the sub destroyed and atlases family dead you pursue the only option left available to you we'll find the bastard we'll find them our hair is hard out after yet more of the runaround you run into the second side quest interesting enough for me to mention sander Cohen he blocks out the radio signal so you can't communicate with anyone that says he'll that you through his domain fort frolic if you help him finish his masterpiece annoyingly enough said masterpiece requires killing his four proteins all men who studied under him at some point and it's mildly hinted may also have been his lovers at one point or another scattered around his domain are plaster statues that are actually real people killed and plastered over because Cohen is a freaking lunatic after killing each of his targets you take a picture so he can hang it in his masterpiece Wow Cohen is not actually very good at what he does is he sheesh you well maybe he's better at poetry a wild bunny hi sander Cohen I want to take the ears off but I can't I hop and when I have I never get off the ground it's my curse my eternal curse I want to take the ears off but I can't it's my curse it's my fucking I want to take the ears off well alright then though actually Bioshock is probably trying to say something here about the way that objectivism views art I mentioned a bit ago in my absurdly brief overview of Objectivism that the philosophy views art as something that has inherent an objective value but that value is judged based on its realism and value to the society and since objectivism values things like free will and the empowerment of the individual art that portrays these things is really the only thing worth being called art in the first place which interestingly enough might actually disqualify Bioshock considering the defining scene of the game in a few moments it's noted in some of the audio Diaries that Cohen is considered a nutjob by a lot of people even before he completely lost it but Ryan always liked Cohen might not be a good artist but he appealed to Ryan's desire for art that spoke to the triumph of the human will and that of his City of course as well and it probably helped that Cohen had a distaste for the derivative to an account peppers latest musical insult worthy artisan rapture why you continue to devote column inches to this musical gremlin is beyond my imagination where she is not derivative she's boring where she's not boring she's obvious where she's not obvious she's dangerous he made art that portrayed real topics in a victorious light and did so while refusing to be the same as those who came before him he sounds like Ryan's kind of guy even if he sucked now obviously at this point Cohen much like Steinman is not actually following the tenants of Objectivism or even really his own originality he's certainly putting himself above others but he's actively and arbitrarily hurting others to get there in both cases the complete freedom granted them by raptures Objectivist principles became something twisted and horrible after getting through Cohen's twisted circus you continued through some more fetch quests that get you closer and closer to where Ryan is holed up Ryan desperate not to lose rapture to you activates a destruct sequence before outright taunting you I'll be it in a cryptic fashion even as the problem lies sometimes you fight through there's a deer season for all things now that I see but but I know I cannot raise my hand against you but know this you my greatest disappointment does your master hear me atlas you can kill me and you will never have my city just before entering Ryan's office you come across this room with the words would you kindly paint it over all these papers stuck up on the wall and you come across two audio Diaries one accounting the results of an experiment and enhanced growth rates and another notably more disturbing one on psychological conditioning you got a party she's very pretty break her neck for me what like that sweet panic make that puppy's neck after this kind of confusing discovery you move forward into the office of Andrew Ryan I'm not even going to narrate this part all right allow me to emphasize once again that if you're watching this analysis and haven't played Bioshock for yourself you are about to see one of the greatest scenes in this entire medium of video games and if you get done watching this scene and go well that didn't seem like the greatest scene of all time that's because you haven't actually played the game and aren't experiencing this in its intended context all right so even if it can't have the same impact which it certainly can't in this context I can't stand to talk over it so here you go the assassin has overcome my final defense and now he's come to murder me in the end what separates a man from a slave money power no a man chooses a sleigh you think you have a farm yeah a crush and then this place was there really a family did that airplane crash or was it hijack forced down forced down by something less than and then something bread sleepwalk through life until they are activated by a simple phrase spoken by their kindly master was a man sent to kill for a slave a man chooses a slave obeys come stop would you guide me would you kind powerful phrase familiar phrase would you kindly would you kind to get this huge acclaim fine tiny head to Ryan's office and killed the son of a bitch sit stand would you kindly Ron a man chooses a slave obeys ah juices Oh Oh hurry now Barbara genetic he feel what you clearly put it in that goddamn machine nice work by or [Applause] I'm there great rain oh I'm little kid the names of a group on that Wow okay if you've played the game before you know exactly why that's so great if you haven't played the game and you just watched that I hope you have even some little concept of the significance of what you just saw but either way let me explain to you exactly what makes this brilliant it's a good plot twist just from a narrative perspective obviously but there are many layers to what makes it work beyond just it was unexpected and deftly foreshadowed to start I'll have to explain the backstory leading up to this part it's all detailed in audio Diaries and save some of the most important pieces of this narrative puzzle for after the scene we just saw so I'll just go over it alright now Jasmine Jolene was a chorus girl and Cowen's shows on the surface before Ryan invited her to rapture upon arrival she started working in fort frolic specifically at the exotic dancing establishment Eve's garden Ryan continued his correspondence with her and she became his mistress the fact that Ryan liked her so much was even used in the advertisements for East garden at some point Jasmine ended up pregnant with Ryan's baby she hesitated to tell Ryan himself and she ended up confiding in a friend instead Fontaine having bugged her room found out about it and since dr. Tannenbaum to offer jasmine and Dean let them extract the unborn fetus for a large sum of money Ryan would never know Jasmine wouldn't have an actual pregnancy and she would be able to support herself financially without relying on Ryan's continued patronage and goodwill of course she didn't know Fontaine was behind the request unfortunately Ryan did eventually find out and in a fit of rage murdered Jasmine I find this outburst rather interesting for Ryan I mean Jasmine's actions were honestly perfectly justifiable under Ryan's own ideals she made a choice that put her ahead without directly harming anyone and obviously she had no idea there would be any negative repercussions for Ryan and Ryan's usually pretty good and acting based on his principles rather than his emotions and yet this sets him off and drives him to a crime action Ryan cracks more and more on his principles as rapture falls into ruin but not only does this take place before any of that actually begins but it's a decision made out of rage rather than out of necessity I can only guess it had to be a combination of betrayal by someone he felt close to and the stress of Fontaine's increasing power of a rapture in any case it seems that even Andrew Ryan isn't completely immune to these types of emotional decisions in any case this is where dr. Yi soo Chong comes in the baby boy that resulted from this deal was experimented on in order to make him grow stronger and faster than your average person but su Chong specialty was psychological conditioning he's the one who basically programmed the minds of the little sisters and Big Daddy's if you recall and he practiced his techniques on the boy as he grew up training him to respond obediently to the phrase would you kindly thus that disturbing puppy murder from a bit ago sometime before Fontaine faked his own death in that shootout he had the child of Ryan and Jasmine smuggled out of rapture as a sleeper agent with implanted memories of his family and life on the surface Fontaine resurfaced under the name Atlas and incited the rebellion that led to raptures civil war but when Ryan's pheromone laced plasmids had put all the mad splicers under his influence Fontaine had to activate his backup plan thus that package we saw in the opening which told Jack not to open it until specific coordinates the coordinates of raptures lighthouse at which point Jack hijacked the plane and brought it down surviving the crash due to his genetic enhancement and going down to rapture so Atlas or Fontaine rather has just been manipulating you this entire time and you know why that's brilliant because it's more than just a twist on the story Bioshock is telling us it's actually a twist on us on the player it used our active role in the story our expectations and understanding of how video games work to trick us in video games we're used to following instructions whether it's Cortana telling us where to go and what to do or subtle environmental clues directing us toward a certain path we're used to continuing on to where there's more play more story more content because that's what we're meant to do that's what we do to play more of the game and as long as it gives us even just a a bit of narrative reason to do so we don't question it better yet the open nature of Bioshock helps create an illusion of choice and free will we choose to explore beyond where we need to go we choose to save or harvest Louisville sisters we choose to work with Atlas because there's not really a better option all games are structured of course as I talked about on the show before but that bit of freedom combined with the excellent atmosphere and world building was all we needed to feel like we were exploring a world we had agency and it turns out we didn't have anything of the sort the game works hard to make jack a projection protagonist you can step into he never talks after the opening the game only takes control away from you twice in the entire game once to make sure you see Tenenbaum when you first encounter a little sister and when Ryan reveals how little you actually control not counting the plasmid at the beginning because you're the one who picked it up the automatic use of it is yet another bit of commentary on our willingness to blindly follow in games though there's also a really nice moment early in the game when atlas tells you to kindly lower your wrench and you comply automatically so when Ryan takes control the feeling of not being able to control your actions is entirely foreign to you when incredibly uncomfortable I don't think I know anyone who wasn't desperately pressing buttons during this scene trying to stop themselves from killing Ryan but to no avail so wait wait oh my gosh was was Cohen stupid rabbit poem about this like you want to take the ears offer the control but you can't and when you hop or you know you're pressing buttons trying to do stuff you can't nothing actually happens I a what even in any case this is the thing that makes this twist so incredibly well accomplished it's setup and foreshadowed and all the usual narrative ways of course and trust me there is a lot of that set up in foreshadowing but more importantly it uses the players interaction to immense effect this isn't just surprising because it's an unexpected turn in the story it's surprising because you the player genuinely feel played because you have been it's the kind of meta-commentary that not only serves its story ball but actually reaches out to hit us directly by making us think about the media we're consuming to begin with about the assumptions we make both in everyday life and in the games we play and that's amazing so then back to the narrative surrounding the twist we'll move on to the rest of the story in a second but I do want to briefly talk about Ryan's motivations here as that seems to be something that confuses a decent amount of people and it's a super interesting capstone on the life of a super interesting character let's not mince words here this is a suicide on the part of Andrew Ryan but it's also two other things firstly it's death on his own terms with his pride relatively intact but secondly and more importantly in his mind at least it's proof of everything he believes and it would have been even if Jack had managed not to kill him he said before that you are his greatest disappointment because his own son is nothing more than a slave to the parasites by having you killed him at his own command he's demonstrating his superiority over you he is a free man and you are nothing but a slave your inability to choose for yourself renders you less than human less than him and he demonstrates this with abundant clarity with his dying breath had you managed not to kill him though he would have seen the triumph of the human will over the attempts of the parasites to lock it down and control it and for that matter you would be his best bet at taking rapture back in full either way it ends year and his point is made so really grinds actions here are the actions of a man desperate for validation rapture didn't work and Ryan has already been did on almost all of his principles but in each case he explains it away and just excuses it off as the weakness of others all of his actions were necessary a reaction to the weakness of the people around him and in the end he arranges even his own death as proof of his beliefs so that he wasn't a man whose vision ultimately failed he was a martyr who was shot down by men too weak to take any agency in their own lives to add insult to injury the game gives you one last order from Atlas alright now we put it down here the game puts you directly in Jack's position you know you've been betrayed and you probably don't want to do what you're told anymore even if it will save your own life but you have no choice Jack's conditioning overrides his free will here and the game won't move forward until you do what you're told Fontaine six the security on you and you're led to safety by a little sister remember earlier I mentioned there were three major weaknesses to Bioshock the first two were the binary moral choice system and the structure of act 2 and now we're coming up on the third and final major flaw in BioShock storytelling act 3 it has some major problems but it's also not without its merits so let's dive in you wake up in Tenenbaums hideout where she keeps the Little Sisters she's saved she explains to you some of the backstory I just went over and says that she's done what she can to free you of Fontaine's influence but to free yourself fully you'll need a serum that souchong developed and so your quest begins to rid you of this curse to take the ears off if you will I still can't even believe that this scene intended bombs nursery is probably the best thing about the moral choices system in the game the little sisters who react differently to you based on your actions if you've been harvesting them they whisper about how they're supposed to stay away from you but if you've been saving them you hear them talking about how you rescued them I know for some people they went through the game treating the little sisters like any other game mechanic you get more from harvesting them so you do the thing that gets you further ahead but this is the scene that convicts those people for their decisions and it resulted in some players restarting the entire game to undo their horrible actions though now's as good a time as any to talk about the problems with the moral choice system two issues in particular the first of which being that this is quite possibly the most unsubtle choice I have ever seen in a video game I mean you can excuse the way your actions all you want but at the end of the day the entire concept of the moral choices in this game is whether or not to murder little girls there's not really a gray area there anywhere which means the choice itself says little about you as a person you're either a good person a terrible person or just a person who doesn't take videogames seriously enough to actually care about anything but trying to win which isn't evil necessarily but certainly isn't a good thing and definitely is what Bioshock is meaning to appeal to the other major issue is that theoretically doing the right thing is supposed to be the more difficult path and that makes sense often in fiction evil is represented as the easy route to power that hurts others along the way and leaves you unprepared to actually handle the power you've gained is the dark side stronger no this your motion back again but despite what the game may imply your rewards are actually far greater if you save the little sisters than harvest them because they leave you gifts every now and again that in total give you more atom plasmids and gene tonics so in the big picture there's not really good choice at all don't kill little girls and you get ahead in the game awesome that undercuts the whole point of the moral choice to begin with which is definitely a problem but you know what I'm also going to posit that it's actually thematically appropriate for this game specifically and don't get into all the reasons why in the conclusion but for now note that Bioshock rewards altruism and selflessness so you're off to gather the components necessary to free yourself fully from Fontaine's control it's another fetch quest of course but at least it's pretty relevant to the story and the bit where he orders your heart to stop is actually pretty tense and interesting you also get this great audio diary detailing soojeong's death clinical trial protector system plot amid a lotta 255 practice our own client Orion industries a very frustrating day I can't seem to get the damn Big Daddies to imprint on the little branch the protection Bondy – just enough forming a potato kick it away maybe if I modify the genetics should sure sequence to allow full turn get out man that's some satisfying irony that guy was a douche you eventually get the serum made up of course and move on to dealing with Fontaine now that you're free and coming for him he starts splicing up trying to become powerful enough to kill you when you come for him but there's one more really interesting bit before the final encounter you need a little sister like an actual still active little sister to open the way to Fontaine which means becoming a Big Daddy at least enough to make them follow you and open the door which of course means more fetch quests as we gather the necessary components followed by an escort mission by this point the runaround is kind of tedious and after the amazing scene in Andrew Ryan's office we can't really help but feel like we're kind of spinning our wheels of it for this last hour or two of gameplay but annoying is the fetch questing is I really feel like there's something pretty cool about taking on the look in the role of a Big Daddy not because it's cool to be a Big Daddy but because of what it represents essentially jack is taking on the role of these girls father figure the relationship between the Big Daddies and Little Sisters has always been a disturbingly confusingly heartwarming one and I will never not be sad at that moment when a little sister is crying over their protector and father figure when you kill a Big Daddy depending on how the player has been treating the little sisters this could be either kind of a bittersweet and heartwarming implication or actually a really disturbing one but either way it's a really nice symbol and feeds further into the game stance into the tension between selfishness and altruism that objectivism presents we'll go more into that in a minute but the time you reach Fontaine he's spliced himself into insanity and looks like a man out of Mythology interestingly enough he actually looks similar to Atlas like the man holding the world on his shoulders Atlas make of that what you will and in a frankly rather plain and uninteresting boss battle you eventually kill him then the good ending happens because you didn't kill little girls they offered you this city and you refused it and what did you do instead I've come to expect of you you saved them you gave them the one thing that was stolen from them a chance a chance to learn to find love to live and since the end what was your reward you never said but I think I know a family that ending is way too short which may just be another instance of developers putting minimal effort into narrative sequences that don't lead directly into more gameplay but you know I really like it anyway it's real sweet and it really plays into the themes of parenthood and family that I'll talk about a little more in a minute there's also an evil ending but it's basically just the type of stuff you'd expect you abused the little sisters and use your control over rapture to take over the world with an army of splicers or try at least many say that doesn't really make sense and I'm inclined to agree but mostly it's just a lackluster ending with little more meaning than if you're evil you'll do more evil things that boss fight that ends the game is just far too pedestrian for lack of a less pretentious sounding word it just feels like a major letdown after the game blew our minds in Ryan's office in no small part to how utterly typical it feels in comparison and indeed this is a problem for the third act as a whole to some say the game should have just ended after the scene in Ryan's office but honestly that just would have been a horrible ending we did need closure after that it just could have been done a lot better ultimately I think the major problem of the third act is that it fails to continue the subversion of the plot twist the scene in Ryan's office pointed the finger directly at us the player and chastised us for just going along with whatever we were told instead of thinking and choosing for ourselves but the third act doesn't really change that at all it just changes who we're listening to I honestly think even one simple choice would have improved this sequence greatly give the player the option to just leave rapture after putting the serum together I mean the whole idea of this point of the story is that we're breaking free of Fontaine's control but really even after that our choices are just being dictated by Tenenbaums guidance this isn't like the similarly subversive spec ops the line where the only right choices not to play we're supposed to play this sequence and it's supposed to be us taking control of our own lives and exerting the free will we thought we always had but without actually giving the player any will of their own in this part it just kind of falls flat in any case that's a Bioshock I've covered most of the relevant information throughout the summary but there is still one major question that deserves to be looked at what does Bioshock ultimately say about objectivism ken levine himself has said that Bioshock was meant to be an exploration of the danger of extremes rather than an indictment of Objectivism specifically and while I do value authorial intent I also think it's possible for a work to end up meaning something more or even something different from what it was intended to mean and Bioshock is pretty clearly opposed to Objectivist ideals not just because rapture failed after all Ryan himself managed to explain that away as the weakness of man and the persistence of the parasites but rather because of course rapture failed because of the weakness of man man is kind of imperfect a society based entirely on Objectivist ideals is based on the assumption that an entire community of people can operate solely on their own self-interest and still operate peacefully without doing harm to anyone else around them you can argue whether that's an inherently self-defeating concept but the simple fact is that humans aren't perfect an entire community based on that kind of self-centeredness eventually fell into ruin because it's kind of inevitable that someone like Fontaine would come along and of course you'd have conflicts of interest between people like Tenenbaum and Jasmine and Ryan or even Sophia Liam from the second game and the game showed quite clearly what complete freedom from moral and legal limitations did to people like Cohen and Steinman it's worth noting the symbolism of the fact that the substances that allow you to use plasmids are called Adam and Eve this is a clear reference to the biblical story of the fall of man in which sin is introduced into the world when the first two humans believe that they will become like God if they disobey the one rule he gave them for God knows that when you eat from it your eyes will be opened and you will be like God knowing good and evil so the genetic material that brought about raptures success as well as its failure is named after the to humans who brought about mankind's ruined by trying to play God there is no way that symbolism is unintentional but regardless of whether you believe objectivism could work as a philosophy or a social structure we're here to look at what Bioshock says about it and Bioshock has some very clear themes of sacrifice and altruistic behavior both of which run wildly contrary to Objectivist principle this is what I was talking about when I mentioned earlier that the moral choice system in Bioshock is thematically appropriate risking your life and your own well-being in order to help the little sisters is actually rewarded and you're better off for it in the long run so in bioshock choosing to help someone else at cost to yourself is actually better for you than just acting in your own self-interest this position is also shown very strongly and clearly in the game's themes of parenthood Parenthood inherently requires the giving of oneself for the benefit of the child and it's a recurring theme throughout Bioshock especially in the comparison of dr. yi su Chun and dr. Brigid Tenenbaum both of whom were instrumental in both the creation of the little sisters and Jack himself su Chong works with the children purely for his own benefit he doesn't care about them at all he simply works for the furthering of his scientific goals in his career in the end of the fact that he only cares for himself rather than the girls he's working with is what leads to his wonderfully ironic and very much deserved demise Tenenbaum on the other hand started off the same way largely due to her ability to distance herself from the moral implications of her work from back when she survived the Holocaust by helping the Nazis with their experiments but interestingly enough something eventually kicked in for her that never did for su Chong maternal instinct make no mistake Tenenbaum is portrayed as the better of these two people and she's the one who abandoned all of her attempts at scientific progress in order to help young girls she felt she had wronged yet again altruism is glorified while selfishness is met with nothing but depravity and eventually death ultimately Bioshock reveals its stance against objectivism not only in how it portrays its characters and scenarios but in how it treats the player you're rewarded for putting the needs of others above your own thus glorifying self-sacrifice and completely opposing the whole idea that acting your own self-interest is the highest moral good even though I noted some major criticisms of the game and though the game plays generally pretty great there are some problems there that I didn't even go over in this analysis Bioshock is honestly still one of the greatest video games ever made it's one of those works that accomplishes so much and does so much right and just has so much power and depth that ultimately it's pile of flaws are completely dwarfed by its towering Colossus of achievements whoo all right I think that about covers it I mean not all of it because Bioshock is large and complex and objectivism even more so but with how long this episode already is I think it's best that I return to Bioshock later if there is more to be said so I hope you learned something and can better appreciate one of the great works of our time if you enjoyed this analysis please subscribe and check out some of my other videos and of course if you would like to see more analyses of this length and complexity then please consider supporting the show on patreon more support means a lot more time and effort that I can dump into this series so the link for that is down into the description if you want to help out next week we're going to talk about how games like fatal frame and dead space and still the horror of the games into the mechanics themselves and next time on literary analysis well you know we've had some heavy stuff the last few games we've analyzed so let's try something a little more fun and fluffy next time on literary analysis we're going to take a look at the first Halo game and see how compelling presentation can overcome a relative lack of depth to still deliver a very interesting story so until next week class dismissed this child is my Savior my reason to be underneath all my crashing weight she's safe in the sea a lumbering Hulk aside a Dalek and gentle a fine of terrible power of the sea a broken man a cheater II country of the sea there's no red just for me you
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Dear friends and followers!
Welcome back to my channel, and thanks for tuning in to watch this video where I show you ten good reasons why to become a pilot.
I know this video will bring many comments, as many of you know that flight school is expensive etc. This video is more about showing you what your benefits are as a pilot and having a career in aviation.
I want to do a video very soon on how to finance your flight school costs etc.
Apart from that enjoy my top 10 reasons why the life as a pilot is so great. Sure I could make a video about the top 10 reasons not to become a pilot, and maybe I will. And maybe many pilots don´t agree with my attitude/opinion about the career as a pilot. But as many of you know me from my channel, I´m a very positive minded person, I deal with things as they present themselves, sure it can be harsh getting up at 3:30 am and get ready for your flight, but therefore I get to enjoy my breakfast with a fantastic sunrise and be done for the day at about 2:00 pm. Make the best out of your life, stop whingeing about how stressful life can be. Get your act together, cause nothing ever good came out of your comfort zone.
Please leave a comment if agree with my list, but please spare me with comments about the cost of flight school, standby duty, and jet leg problems, I have to deal with them as everyone else has and had too.
Big thank you to my Instagram and youtube colleague pilotpatric for sending me his picture of the executive jet. Go to Instagram and look for @pilotpatric or here on youtube @pilotpatrick and check out his great pictures and videos.
Also big thank you to “People of the sky” on Facebook for sharing and supporting my channel. Go to @thegoballife here on youtube to check out their videos.
Thanks for your time, see you next week,
All the best your “Captain” Joe
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Dear friends and photos welcome back to my channel today. I want to show you 10 good reasons Why she's become a pilot, [so] let's get started 33 Runway 27, cleared for take off The flight training to become a pilot is relatively short compared to a doctor for example You need approximately three years of flight training to become a first officer on an airline jet Depending on the country you live in obviously and there are pilot curious out there where you need even less than two years? Compared to at least 10 years to become a qualified doctor You constantly get to know new and interesting people your crew members change frequently so do your passengers and everyone else involved in the industry don't be mistaken there are other pilot careers out there than piloting a passenger jet you can be a Corporate pilot flying rich people around in their private planes Or do a mail run in a cessna Caravan in the outback of Australia the opportunities are endless [if] you're a technical Orientated person flying is the job for you during your type rating you're going to deal with all [sorts] of different Airplane systems which are fairly complicated but once you understand the technical background and how it works in Daily Operation can be very satisfying you stay at beautiful holiday Destinations and get paid for it you have overnights in different cities And you have a chance to get a closer look at your destination and bring your girlfriend on the trip with you Ok I admit this can vary from airline to airline but if your company flies two long-haul holiday Destinations on a weekly basis you have a good chance that you stay there for an entire Week and more or less wait until the aircraft comes back so that you can fly back home You and your girlfriend or wife and family can fly to lower prices and other passengers? varying from airline to ellen you have two to three flights per year entirely for free plus You can book standby tickets throughout the year for at least half the price or less with your company Or other partner airlines which make your holiday trip fairly cheap And I know a few [low-cost] carriers who let their pilots fly entirely for free to get to the hole? Destinations as often as they want sounds pretty good to me Flying is not a job. It's a passion Having control over a big airbus or boeing or any other plane is absolutely mind-blowing Approaching airports you have not yet flown to give you that thrilling sensation as you are flying into the unknown Or to land approaches into dense fog where you completely rely on your instruments and the autopilot give you a rush Battling with adverse weather and enjoying the freedom of visual approach and flying a big passenger jet like a little cessna Never gets old, trust me. What is the best pick-up line in the club? It doesn't really matter what you say, but if the girl asks you about your job And you tell her you're a pilot your chances are pretty high that you get the girl's attention It's no secret everyone knows that similar if you would say you're A doctor. Maybe it's the uniform or the money which attracts the women or the fact that it's a job with a high responsibility which can be very sexy Funny enough there is a joke about it. How do you know there's a pilot in the room? He will tell you soon enough and By the way true story. I went out with my friends and one of them came up to me and said oh, Joe I just met this gorgeous pilot what a great guy, and I got into talking with him and he had no clue What serve about flying he just used it as a pickup line very sad, but very true. The job still enjoys a huge acceptance within the public it represents courage and power knowledge and discipline and Pilots are respected for their skills of knowing how to control a plane and act responsibly [in] case of emergency and getting their passengers to their Destination as quickly and safely as possible and it is still ranked as one of the most favorable dream jobs and many men Everyone out front should have been a final Exactly pilots get paid pretty good compared to other jobs [for] their time They're actually at work to give an example a friend of mine works as a doctor at a clinic [kicking] off  hours per week accumulating 200 hours per [month] And I find average of 70 hours per [month] and get paid the same or even more also if you're away from home [staying] overnight in different cities, ETc. You get paid for not sleeping in your bed Fantastic and what is the number [one] reason? No doubt about it Pilots have a lot of free time this obviously varies from airline to airline if you fly for Charter airline which has most of its luggage in [this] summer season you have a lot of free time during the winter [months] Long-Haul Pilots might only have eight flight per month, so approximately 20 days off not necessarily at home But outside of the airplane and thanks to new regulations Pilots have to have more free time in between flights And I've added all [my] off dates from last year Including holiday and Standby duty size didn't get called out of and I had  days off which is more than half a year of free time, not bad if you're considering the good salary so to sum up Being a pilot is great despite the fact where many other people say you have a huge responsibility Regarding your plane and the safety of your passengers and therefore you get paid adequately And you need in a free time to rest and recuperate Pilots still enjoy a big acceptance within the public and have less trouble meeting up with girls, but all the fun aside Becoming a pilot requires a lot of discipline courage will power belief in yourself Money and a bit of luck me personally I couldn't imagine doing anything else I hope you enjoyed this short video about the top  reasons to become a pilot Make sure to perform a touch & go at my instagram account The link is in the description below and don't forget to hit the subscribe button and the notification bell so you won't miss out any upcoming videos see you next Thursday all the best your and