Screaming Eagles – Battle of the Bulge – Sabaton History 026 [Official]



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When the Germans launched their last western offensive through the Belgian Ardennes in the winter of 1944, it was up to the American 101st Airborne Division to defend the key city of Bastogne. Surrounded by camouflaged German soldiers and endless artillery bombardments, the 101st, a.k.a the Screaming Eagles, endured.

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Hosted by: Indy Neidell
Written by: Markus Linke and Indy Neidell
Directed by: Astrid Deinhard and Wieke Kapteijns
Produced by: Pär Sundström, Astrid Deinhard and Spartacus Olsson
Creative Producer: Joram Appel
Executive Producers: Pär Sundström, Joakim Broden, Tomas Sunmo, Indy Neidell, Astrid Deinhard, and Spartacus Olsson
Maps by: Eastory
Edited by: Iryna Dulka
Sound Editing by: Marek Kaminski

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Archive by: Reuters/Screenocean
Music by Sabaton.

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IWM: EA 49214

An OnLion Entertainment GmbH and Raging Beaver Publishing AB co-Production.

© Raging Beaver Publishing AB, 2019 – all rights reserved.

Jeg er Hannes fra Sabaton og jeg er Freddie Mercury og dette er Sabaton Historie! "De Skrigende Ørne" Du ved, ørne skriger faktisk ikke det er mere sådan et "Ourhhg Ourhhg" Og vores sang "Screaming Eagles" handler om enheden "101st Airborn"
og kampen ved Bulge Jeg ved godt, at folk kalder enheden 101st men af hensyn til flowet, vil jeg kalde dem One'O'First så jeg kan fortælle historien
mere flydende Humøret var højt,
blandt de almindelige tyske tropper mens de bevægede sig forbi geledder af tanks, kugler og ammunition, på Deres vej mod frontlinjen i Frankrig og Belgien i de tidlige decemberdage i 1944. Det havde været et katastrofalt år for
Værnemagten udsat for nederlag efter nederlag
på alle fronter, men pludseligt, blev der samlet
en stor hær i vest klar til at gå i offensiven
endnu en gang. Målet; intet mindre end at rive de
allieredes tropper fra hinanden i vest i et skeldsættende fremstød. Det føltes som 1940
endnu engang. Men, dette var ikke den samme tyske hær som var blevet sendt i krig i Polen, Frankrig eller Rusland 4 eller 5 år tidligere. I den tidlige vinter 1944, bestod den tyske hær delvist af kamphærdede tropper, og delvist af helt unge og gamle mænd som var tvunget ind i den nu,
så hårdt prøvede krigsmaskine Det tredje Rige
skrabede bunden af tønden med hensyn til rekruttering af
nye soldater og logistik Forsyninger havde altid været den tyske hærs svaghed men i 1944, manglede den helt tydeligt de nødvendige motorkøretøjer, brændstof og ammunition,
til at forsyne et fremstød som det nye tiltag i vesten. De pansrede mandskabsvogne,
var et sammensurium af forskellige modeller,
det samme gjorde sig gældende for artelleriet. Enkelte "Panzer" og Jagdpanzer" men mest "Panzer IV" og modificerede Halftracks.
(forhjul og larvefødder) Men "Pansergranat troperne"
kørte på tankene faldskærmstropperne var forstærket af unge mænd fra flyvevåbnet og Volksgranadiers tropper bestod af splittede enheder. Så på trods af det imponerende antal tropper så hæren ud til at mangle de egenskaber som det krævede at fuldfører Adolf Hitlers ønske
om at bekæmpe sine fjender. Så da angrebet endelig startede,
d. 16. december fejlede de ret hurtig i,
at nå deres mål. Den 6. Panzer enhed,
som skulle lede angrebet blev stoppet af ihærdigt amerikansk modstand ved St. Vith, Malmedy og Elsenborn
bjergkamme. Selvom hovedangrebet havde fejlet havde den supporternede tyske
5. enhed betydelig succes længere mod syd da den havde fundet en svaghed i de
amerikanske forsvarsværker i Arden Planerne ændrede sig på stedet. Den 5. enhed skulle presse hele vejen til floden Meuse og indtage byen Bastogne undervejs. Bastogne var ikke kun et trafikknudepunkt men også hjemsted for de allieredes brændstofdepoter og opbevarede næsten 11,4 mio liter brændstof. En værdigfuld ressource for de tyske tropper
hvis de blev erobret men selvom det blev ødelagt,
ville det sætte en stopper for en amerikansk offensiv til foråret. Hvis Bastogne blev erobret hurtigt ville der måske stadig være mulighed for at
avancere forbi Meuse og videre mod Namur Før offensiven, blev området omkring Bastogne regnet for at være, en ret stille sektor af frontlinjen
af den amerikanske officerstab. Den lå mellem de operative sektorer af "1st army" som havde kæmpet sig igennem et skovområde og "3rd army" syd for Luxemburg som kæmpede imod de tyske fæstningsværker ved
Sigfried linjen. Så Arden var anset for at være et hvilested for slagne enheder, eller et øvelsesterræn for nye enheder, som skulle bruge erfaring fra de små ildkampe, som fandt sted. For at angribe Bastogne
ville tyskerne være nødsaget til at sende et stort antal pansrede enheder, gennem den tæt bevoksede Arden, med kun et fortal veje tilgængelig. En sådan manøvre, blev anset for
usandsynlig af de Allierede især i vinteren. Jeg mener, et overraskelsesangreb
gennem Arden hvem havde kunne forudset det? Det var selvfølgelig præcis det, tyskerne gjorde i 1940,
man da ikke igen, vel? Så Arden sektoren var kun let bevogtet af 3 amerikanske divisioner da den tyske pansrede spydspids
viste sig i området. De overløb hurtigt de amerikanske enheder. Elementer af 5. panser hær,
skyndte sig at udnytte den splittede front De vidste, at de kun havde et lille vindue måske 4-5 dage, før de allierede ville sende forstærkninger. De amerikanske i Arden, havde ingen muligheder
for at stoppe den tyske fremfærd, men kunne i det mindste forsøge at tage brodden af de tyske styrker,
og stjæle kostbar tid Så i et kæmpende tilbagetog forsinkede de tyskerne med anti-tank
og bazookaer. De forårsagede trafikkøer ved at ødelægge den
forreste tank på de snævre skovveje. Generalløjtnant Omar Brandley,
med det overordnede ansvar for sektoren var blevet lovet store forstærkninger,
men det ville tage tid. De eneste tilgængelige tropper i nærheden var "82nd" og "101st airborn" enheder. P.t. i en genudrustningsface ved Reims efter deres dyre angreb,
ved Operation "Market Garden" Enheden 82nd blev sendt mod nord til St.Vith blev 101st "Screaming Eagles" sendt til Bastogne. "101st" var et hærdet kompagni, men de havde ikke tilstrækkeligt vinterudstyr og heller ikke rigtig nok tungt skyts. Efter 2 dages kamp mod
det tyske angreb ved Arden var det amerikanske tilbagetog totalt, og tropperne strømmede tilbage mod Bastogne, væk fra de tyske tanks. Vejene mod Bastogne var frie, men vejret var blevet værre. Det var skift for amerikanerne, da regn og tåge,
holdte det amerikanske luftvåben på jorden. Ved Bastogne klargjorde
mændene deres forsvar. Feltartilleri og M7 selv fremdrevne Haubits kanoner, forskansede sig i en halvcirkel, mens ingeniører gjorde byen til et fæstningsværk. D. 19. tonede tanks frem i udkanten af byen. De amerikanske tanks der var til rådighed,
kørte ud for at møde dem, og forsinkede den tyske fremrykning endnu engang. Den nat, ankom "The Screaming Eagles" endelig til Bastogne. Det samme gjorde den tyske eliteenhed
Panzerlehrdivisionen Den næste dag, var "The Screaming Eagles"
midt i kamphandlingerne. Mens de tyske tanks og anti-tank kanoner angreb og ødelagde de flygtende eller fastklemte styrker lige udenfor Bastogne, angreb "101st" de tyske infanteri enheder. Med støtte fra feltartilleri kæmpede "The Screaming Eagles"
for udkanten af byen og lokale landsbyer, og belejrede ovenikøbet et gammelt chateau og skød de tyske "Panzergranadier" som
kæmpede sig frem, for at tvinge dem ud. Denne hårde modstand, kostede tyskerne
endnu mere tid og det var ikke før d. 22.
Bastogne langt om længe var omringet. Hitler gav ordren: Bastogne skal indtages, koste hvad det vil! På den dag, blev to tyske officerer fra Panzer Lehr
med bind for øjnene, ført til hovedkvarteret for Anthony McAuliffe, som havde det overordnede ansvar
for de forskellige tropper, som var fanget i byen. De tyske officerer
bad amerikanerne om at overgive sig Konfronteret med tilbuddet,
udbrød McAuliffe: SLUDDER Korrekt; Bastogne var omringet men de seneste dage
havde tyskerne i flere forsøg prøvet at trænge ind i byen og var gang på gang blevet presset tilbage. Og lad os bare indrømme:
At være omringet var nærmest en del af jobbeskrivelsen for "101st Airborn". Af mangel på bedre ord, skrev McAuliffe også bare SLUDDER på
overgivelses dokumenterne. Til de undrende tyskere som spurgte: "Hvad skal det her betyde?" Svarede amerikanerne blot at de skulle:
Skride af H til og at alle tyskere,
som forsøgte at trænge ind i byen ville blive dræbt. Så de tyske tropper forstærkede sig endnu engang forstærket af endnu flere hærdede
"Panzergranadiers" fra Italien og flere tanks og anti-tank kanoner. Men himlen klarede op,
og det amerikanske luftvåben kunne igen sørge for forplejning
til den belejrede by. "101st" havde Juledag forskanset sig
i skovene mod nordøst for byen. At grave skyttehuller i den frosne jord var vanskeligt men hvert eneste skyttehul kunne redde liv når de tyske granater slog ned,
overalt omkring dem. I den isnende kulde, infiltrerede tyske Panzergranadier i hvid kamuflage skovene, men blev mødt af riffel og maskingeværskud og de fremadstormende tanks blev mødt
med bazookaer og Haubits. Bølge efter bølge,
angreb de tyske soldater fra forskellige retninger men gang efter gang, jog faldskærms-
og glidertropper angrebene væk, i en række grusomme kampe
gennem skove og landsbyer. Inden længe faldt specialammunitionen
"Træ smadrer" over de tyske positioner og flåede modstanderne med træ- og granatsplinter. Det tyske angreb i julen
var en katastrofe med store tab af mænd og tanks. Belejringen fortsatte,
men den største trussel var overstået d. 26. lykkedes det endelig
dele af Patons "3rd army" at etablere en korridor ind til Bastogne. Det ville dog stadig tage flere dage
at sikre den, da tyskerne forsøgte at afskære den igen. Små kampe fortsatte, men ikke engang nyligt tilkommende SS divisioner, kunne genetablere en ny belejring. I januar, af frygt for at miste grebet over frontlinjen, beordrede den tyske højkommando, et fuldt tilbagetog. Den overordnede strategiske initiativ i vesten tilhørte nu amerikanerne. På nuværende tidspunkt kunne det
amerikanske luftvåben endnu engang angribe og d. 12. januar da nyheden om en sovjetisk
vinteroffensiv kom frem brød Hitlers sidste gambling i vesten sammen. "101st Airborn" hvad er der med dem? Vi besøgte "101st Airborn" ved Fort Cambell Og først og fremmest til dem der var der, og alle dem
der er i "101st" og ved Fort Cambell, tak for at I tog jer
så godt af os. Besøgte I også Bastogne? Ja det gjorde jeg, vi så den dejlige "Sherman" tank de har i centrum
-Jeg har aldrig været der. -Har du ikke?
-Nej Det kan jeg anbefale.
Skovene udenfor Bastogne hvor alt det vilde fra nåh ja – "Kammerater i Krig", kan man se der. Fortæl os om sangen, hvordan opstod den? Faktisk, en smule anderledes med den her. Jeg sad, helt alene, i vores gamle studie og jeg skrev musikken, og jeg havde ingen anelse om hvad sangen skulle handle om på det tidspunkt For at være ærlig;
Jeg ødelægger måske nogens illusion, om sangskrivnings processen Jeg var så tosset og sur på mig selv, for jeg havde skrevet en masse til
albummet "Coat of Arms" og jeg havde endnu ikke fundet den der "spark røv adrenalin pumpende" sang endnu. Formentlig, kl. 1 eller 2 om natten sagde jeg bare "Fuck det her lort, nu
skriver jeg en sang, og går ikke hjem før den er færdig Og i det tilfælde,
blev den aggression jeg havde mod mig selv kickstarteren til den intro og som også blev til omkvædet: Et guitarriff og jeg var helt "ja sådan, der er den – Næste" – Cool
– Og jeg gav bare ikke mig selv chancen for at sætte farten ned,
og over tænke det og lavede sangen fra begyndelsen til slutningen og kl. 7 eller 8 om morgenen var den færdig. Så det er faktisk et af de hurtigst skrevne Sabaton sange, du ved, fra sangskriver synspunkt. Og naboerne ringede og sagde at de var rigtig glade – Ja, ja de nød det
– De nød hele processen, – Vi glæder os til at hører jeres nye album Fortsæt med at arbejde om natten,
det kan vi li' Men hey! Noget du sagde tidligere
som jeg gerne vil tilbage til. – Du nævnte "Kammerater i Krig"
– Ja
– Jeg elsker "Kammerater i Krig" Det samme gør jeg det virker måske oplagt for mange
som elsker historie at alle har set serien De ved måske ikke at "Kammerater i Krig"
handler om de her gutter. Ja undskyld, serien handler om "101st Airborn" og der er også en fantastisk bog
som hedder "Band of Brothers" af Stephen Ambrose hvis jeg ikke tager helt fejl. Men serien "Kammerater i Krig" Den er næsten 20 år gammel nu,
og det er noget jeg tror man måske har misset hvis man er under 25
eller måske under 30. Du bør ikke misse den. Hey folkens,
hvor fed er "Kammerater i Krig"? (Jubelråb i baggrunden) Og de jubler ikke bare fordi de skal, for vi kan altid
tilføje en masse skrig efterfølgende Vi bliver nødt til at tilføje nogle skrig, for de var ikke entusiastiske nok! Vi vil også have folk til at tro vi har et kæmpe crew! Er det ikke sandt Sergey, George, Heraldo Men helt seriøst, så er "Kammerater i Krig"
helt fantastisk hvis du vil have en ide om, ikke blot kampe,
men hvad der sker i en soldats liv på alle områder så bør du unde dig selv at se "Kammerater i Krig" Ja perfekt sammenblanding af dokumentar og Hollywood film 10 afsnit af 1 time Ja de lavede også serien om Stillehavs krigen,
som jeg ikke har set -HVAD?
-Nej ikke endnu Den er fantastisk Den første gang jeg så den, synes jeg ikke den var
ligeså god som "Kammerater i Krig" men anden gang, tror jeg faktisk jeg bedre kunne lide den. – OK, det var det for "The Screaming Eagles"
– Og det var alt for i dag! OURHHG OURHHG Jeg ender i helved Okey allesammen, husk at tjekke vores Patreon husk at tjekke disse videoer,
"Time Ghost" og WWII og også på gensyn

New Documentary Depicts History of Cancer



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Known primarily for his epic historical documentaries, Ken Burns has produced a new film for PBS that explores both personal and collective struggles against cancer.

The three-part documentary — titled “Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies” — aired this week and followed the stories of those living with cancer, as well as the doctors and scientists doing their best to fight it. Based on the best-seller by Siddhartha Mukherjee, the film was directed by Barak Goodman.

ANCIENT ASTRONAUTS: The Cygnus Mystery – FEATURE



Views:1226541|Rating:4.28|View Time:52:37Minutes|Likes:3436|Dislikes:578
Go on a voyage of discovery that leads from the oldest known temple in the world to a prehistoric cave map, to a common belief shared by key ancient cultures, all of which were aware of the star system Cygnus’ unique place in the cosmos – and it’s significance as the spirit path to heaven. Most surprising is the fact that the Ancient Advanced cultures of the past were aware of cosmic rays emanating from Cygnus, and for their being the spark which ignited evolution – the same spark which continues to alter our DNA right through to the present day.

NOW ON DVD: The Cygnus Mystery, Cat# U679, Go to

American History: The Greatest Speeches (1933-2008)



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America’s major events told through the words of its leaders, since the widespread adoption of the film camera as a communication tool.

Through the speeches of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Martin Luther King, Jr. to Barack Obama, a look at the major moments that have defined the modern history of the United States.

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Watch the full speeches:
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
March 4, 1933
“The Only Thing We Have To Fear Is Fear Itself”

FDR
December 8, 1941
Pearl Harbor, “A Date Which Will Live In Infamy”

Harry Truman
August 6, 1945
The Bombing of Hiroshima

Dwight Eisenhower
January 17, 1961
The Military Industrial Complex

John F. Kennedy
January 20, 1961
JFK’s Inaugural Address

JFK
June 26, 1963
“Ich Bin Ein Berliner”

Martin Luther King, Jr.
August 28, 1963
“I Have A Dream”
youtube.com/watch?v=n82rgdbM9G4

Lyndon Baines Johnson
March 15, 1965
LBJ’s Voting Rights Speech

LBJ
January 12, 1966
Vietnam War

MLK
April 3, 1968
“I’ve Been To The Mountaintop”

Robert F. Kennedy
April 4, 1968
RFK Announces MLK’s Passing

Richard Nixon
August 9, 1974
Nixon Resigns Amid Watergate

Ronald Reagan
January 28, 1986
Challenger Disaster

Ronald Reagan
June 12, 1987
At the Berlin Wall: “Tear Down This Wall”

George H.W. Bush
January 17, 1991
The Gulf War Against Saddam Hussein and Iraq

Bill Clinton
January 27, 2000
The 2000 State Of The Union

George W. Bush
September 14, 2001
9/11

Barack Obama
November 4, 2008
2008 Grant Park Victory Speech

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protest tyt election china fox news

[FDR]: So first of all, let me assert my firm
belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Nameless, unreasoning,
unjustified terror which paralyzes needed us to convert retreat into advance. Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the
United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
air forces of the Empire of Japan. A short time ago an American airplane
dropped one bomb on Hiroshima and destroyed its usefulness to the enemy.
That bomb has more power than 20,000 tons of TNT. The Japanese began the war
from the air at Pearl Harbor, they have been repaid many-fold. And the
end is not yet. With this bomb, we have now added a new
and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing
power of our armed forces. We have been compelled to create a permanent
armaments industry of vast proportions. In the council's of government, we must
guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence—whether sought or
unsought—by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of
misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this
combination endanger our liberties or democratic process. I do not believe that any of us would
exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the
faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will
light our country and all who serve it. And the glow from that fire can truly
light the world. And so my fellow Americans ask not what your country can
do for you, ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world, ask not what America will do for you, but
what together we can do for the freedom of man. And there are even a few who say that it's true that communism is an evil
system, but it permits us to make economic progress. Lasst sie nach Berlin kommen—let them come to Berlin. [Cheering] All free men—wherever they may live—are
citizens of Berlin and therefore, as a free man, I take pride
in the words ich bin ein Berliner. I have a dream, that my four little children will one day
live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color about skin, but by
the content in their character. I have a dream today. Let freedom ring and when it happens, we allow freedom ring, when we let it
ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will
be able to speed up that day when all of God's children—black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics—will be able to join hands and
sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "free at last, free at last, thank God Almighty, we are free at last." There is no constitutional issue here. The command of the Constitution is
plain. There is no moral issue. It is wrong, deadly wrong, to deny any of your fellow
Americans the right to vote in this country. To know war is to know that there is still madness
in this world. They are poor to be lifted up, and there
are cities to be built, and there's a world to be helped. Yet, we do what we must. I'm hopeful—and I will try, best I
can, with everything I've got—to end this battle and to return our sons to their
desires. Yet as long as others will challenge America's
security, and test the dearness of our beliefs with fire and steel, then we must
stand or see the promise of two centuries tremble. All we say to America is be true to what you
said on paper. But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of
the freedom of speech. Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right
to protest for rights. [Cheering] And so, just as I say we aren't going to let any dogs
or water hoses turn us around, we aren't going let any injunction turn us around. I don't know what will happen now. We've
got some difficult days ahead. but it really doesn't matter with me now
because I've been to the mountaintop. [Cheering] And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long
life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's
allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over, and I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you, but I want
you to know tonight, that we as a people will get to the promised land. [Cheering.] So I'm happy tonight, I'm not worried about anything, I'm
not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. [Cheering] I have some very sad news for all of you,
and I think sad news for all of our fellow citizens and people who love
peace all over the world, and that is that Martin Luther King was shot and was
killed tonight in Memphis, Tennessee. Martin Luther King dedicated his life to
love and to justice between fellow human beings, he died in the cause of that effort. For
those of you who are black and are tempted to be filled with hatred and mistrust of the injustice of such an act against all white people, I would only say that I can also feel in
my own heart the same kind of feeling. I had a member
of my family killed, but he was killed by a white man. But we
have to make an effort in the United States. We have to make an effort to
understand, to get beyond—or go beyond— these rather difficult times. My favorite poem—my favorite poet was
Aeschylus—he once wrote 'Even in our sleep, pain which cannot
forget, falls drop by drop upon the heart until in our own despair, against our
will, comes wisdom through the awful grace of God.' What we need in the United
States is not division, what we need in the United States is not
hatred, what we need in the United States is not
violence and lawlessness, but is love and wisdom and compassion
toward one another, a feeling of justice toward those who
still suffer within our country, whether they be white, or whether they be black. Throughout the long and difficult period
of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to persevere. To make every possible
effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me. In the past few
days however, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough
political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort. Therefore, I shall resign the presidency
effective at noon tomorrow. Vice President Ford will be sworn in as
president at that hour, in this office. Today is a day for mourning and
remembering. Nancy and I are pained to the core over the tragedy of the shuttle Challenger. We know we share this pain with all of
the people of our country. This is truly a national loss. We've
never had a tragedy like this and perhaps we've forgotten the courage it
took for the crew of the shuttle. But they, the Challenger Seven were aware of the
dangers and overcame them and did their jobs brilliantly. We mourn seven heroes. And I want to say
something to the schoolchildren of America who were watching the live
coverage of the shuttle's take off. I know it's hard to understand, but
sometimes painful things like this happen It's all part of the process of
exploration and discovery. It's all part of taking a chance and
expanding man's horizons. The future doesn't belong to the
faint-hearted. It belongs to the brave. The Challenger crew was pulling us into the
future and we'll continue to follow. There is one sign the Soviets can make
that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of
freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek
peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you
seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall. Just two hours ago, allied air forces began an attack on
military targets in Iraq and Kuwait these attacks continue as I speak ground forces are not engaged this
conflict started August second when the dictator of Iraq invaded a small and
helpless neighbor Kuwait a member of the Arab Lee and a member of the United
Nations was crushed its people brutalized five months ago sediment
saying started this cruel war against Kuwait tonight that battle has been
joined this speaker mr. vice president members of Congress honored guests my
fellow Americans we are fortunate to be alive at this moment in history never before has our nation enjoyed at
once so much prosperity and social progress with so little internal crisis
and so few external threats never before have we had such a blessing
opportunity and therefore such a profound obligation to build a more
perfect union of our founders dreams we begin the new century with over 20
million new jobs the fastest economic growth in more than
30 years the lowest unemployment rates in 30
years the lowest poverty rates in 20 years the lowest african-american and Hispanic
unemployment rates on record the first back-to-back surpluses and 42 years and
next month America will achieve the longest period of economic growth in our
entire history good evening just moments ago I spoke with George W
Bush and congratulated him on becoming the 43rd President of the United States
and I promised them that I wouldn't calling back this time now the US Supreme Court has spoken let
there be no doubt while I strongly disagree with the court's decision I
accept it I accept the finality of this outcome
which will be ratified next monday in the electoral college and tonight for
the sake of our unity of the people and strength of our democracy I offer my concession this nation stands with the good people
of new york and the jersey and connecticut as we mourn the loss of
thousands of vs I can the rest of the world hears you and the
people and the people who knocked these
buildings down will hear all of us yeah yeah yeah and all those watching tonight from
beyond our shores from Parliament sand palaces to those who are huddled around
radios in the forgotten corners of the world are stories are singular but our
destiny is shared and a new dawn of American leadership is at hand to those to those who would tear the
world down we will defeat you to those who seek peace and security we
support you and to all those who have wondered if America's beacon still burns
as bright tonight we proved once more that the true strength of our nation
comes not from the might of our arms or the scale of our wealth but from the
enduring power of our ideals democracy Liberty opportunity and
unyielding hope yeah that's the true genius of America that
America can change our union can be perfect what we've already achieved gives us
hope for what we can and must achieve tomorrow this election had many firsts and many
stories will be told for generations but one that's on my mind tonight's about a
woman who cast her ballot in Atlanta she's a lot like the millions of others
who stood in line to make their voice heard in this election except for one thing and Nixon Cooper is
a hundred and six years old she was born just a generation passed slavery a time
when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky when someone like her
could vote for two reasons because she was a woman and because of the color of
her skin and tonight I think about all that she's seen
throughout her century in America the Harding and the hope the struggle and
the progress the times we were told that we can't and the people who pressed on with that
American creed yes we can at a time when women's voices
were silenced and their hopes dismissed she lived to see them stand up and speak
out and reach for the bailout yes we can when there was this fair and
the Dust Bowl and depression across the lamb she saw a nation conquer fear itself
with a new deal new jobs a new sense of common purpose yes we can when the bombs fell on our
Harbor and tyranny threaten the world she was there to witness a generation
rise to greatness and a democracy was saved yes we can she was there for the buses
in Montgomery the hoses in birmingham a bridge in Selma and a preacher from
Atlanta who told the people that we shall overcome yes we can a man touch down on the moon a wall came down in Berlin a world was
connected by our own science and imagination and this year in this
election she touched her finger to a screen and
cast her vote because after a hundred and six years in America through the
best of times and the darkest of hours she knows how America can change yes we
can America we have come so far we have seen
so much but there's so much more to do so tonight let us ask ourselves if our
children should live to see the next century if my daughter should be so lucky to
live as long as an mix and Cooper what change will they see what progress what we have made this is our chance to
answer that call this is our moment this is our time to
put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids to
restore prosperity and promote the cause of peace to reclaim the American Dream
and reaffirm that fundamental truth that out of many we are one that while we
breathe we hope and where we are met with cynicism and doubt and those who
tell us that we can't we will respond with that timeless creed that sums up
the spirit of a people yes we can thank you God bless you and
may God bless the United States of America yeah

History of Kenworth Trucks | Truck History Episode 7



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You may have seen our first episode of Truck History where we talk all about the legendary W900L model… well today we are here with the full history of Kenworth Trucks, starting all the way back in 1912! Take a deep dive with us back in time with one of the best-known truck brands to date. Enjoy!

If you liked this video give it a thumbs up and check out our other videos by subscribing to our channel and be sure to follow us on social media and remember… “If your rig don’t shine, you don’t know Jack!”

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BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg American Civil | History Documentaries 2017 – The Best D



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BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil | History Documentaries 2017 BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War .

BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War | History War Documentaries 2017 The Battle of Gettysburg was fought 1–3, 1863, in and .

This American Civil War Full Documentary Film categorized as History Documentaries and it is Full Length Non-Stop for over 8 hours This Documentary Film .

American Civil War – The Complete History (Historical Documentary) The American Civil War, widely known as simply the Civil War in the United States as well .

twenty-four-year-old Lieutenant Colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they faced down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on their luck the retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad car the rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country burr Dawes retreat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William Dawes rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just a hundred and seventy-five yards to the railroad cut who will cost Dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward DAWs loses ten men carrying the colors in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron brigade your role Eggleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private and is sent furious at the killing of his brave young comrade with a terrific blow split the skull of the rebel who had shot young Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das loses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong is streaming towards Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert Eagle II we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the North threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going out in all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up at Gettysburg was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more troops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south Lee's army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is Lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg human troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits Humiston was like so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man I hate the idea of dying here like a hawk the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle you'll replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll have the Union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. is units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go Yul's Confederate troops are spreading out for the town and it's a route for the rebels gameis Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life the Army of Northern Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat the nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that we fight every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the 270 men and Humiston regiment all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and covered them all with care by Frankie Valli and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank fault others flee as the rebels swarmed through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing has always been a male profession but during the Civil War 20,000 women sign on to care for the casualties one Union nurse Clara Barton will go on to found the Red Cross rebel soldiers go door to door looking for Union soldiers they're hiding all over town Lee has nowhere to put prisoners during the war so many are captured the North and South follow an honor system paroled prisoners taken oath not to rejoin the fight until formally exchanged Paul is simply I'm going to give you a piece of paper that says don't fight anymore and if I catch you fighting then bad things are gonna happen to you then what we're gonna do later is we're going to have men from our army and men from your army meet it at a neutral place and we're gonna trade soldiers just like kids sitting around trading playing cards you know I'll trade you three generals for four Colonels and nine lieutenants for 50 privates the punishment for breaking parole is death Amos hummus – wounded and alone in a yard in the middle of town he grasps an ambrotype a photographic image of his three children fixed in glass a present from his wife on his way to war the Amos Humiston story is going to resonate with any soldier if you go to any unit in the United States military today obviously you're going to find servicemembers with pictures of their children their wives their sweethearts because that is a tangible link to your normal life your condition in combat is not normal you're there in the service of your country to do what the nation asks you to do but the stakes are rising for both north and south on the high ground outside town Rufus Dawes and the Union Army dig in it's here that the Battle of Gettysburg will be won or lost suffering heavy losses Union troops pull out of Gettysburg leaving the town in Confederate control it might appear that the fighting on the first day for the Union was a huge weight loss really bad on the first day but the intense struggle they put up north and west of town the intense struggle that some of them put up through the streets of Gettysburg allow them to fall back to their chosen position they retreat to a nearby series of hills than peak at eight hundred feet high ground that gives the Union a critical military advantage on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes and what's left of his iron Brigade unit digging they have a new weapon to shovel they're building breastworks form of fortification dating back to the Romans some officers think defensive walls create cowards not dogs after losing half his men he wants all the protection he can get down below you'll has orders from robert e lee to take cemetery and copse hills but with the qualifier if practicable you will decides to wait for reinforcements it's a decision with critical consequences if you're looking up in your scene this great amount of work going on up there and your men are tired from the March they've just made it from the battle they've just fought something in him triggered I'm not gonna do this or I can't do this now but certainly at the end of the day he's gonna disappoint his commander I'm sure he's gonna disappoint himself the Confederacy will pay for that for the next three days this is one of the great what-ifs of the battle had you will occupied and controlled Culp's Hill in the land around it the Union Army would have simply had to leave when the battle would have been fought somewhere else maybe not so much to the Yankees advantage in the fields around Gettysburg the grim new harvest the dead and wounded from day one tending to the injured on both sides doctor Legrand Wilson Confederate deeply religious hometown Jackson Mississippi educated in the north his family owns forty slaves in Mississippi this was my first experience on the battlefield after the fighting and it was horrible beyond description if every human being could have witnessed the result of the mad passions of men I saw that night war would cease there would never be another battle the staggering level of death in the civil war is difficult to wrap your brain around the commonly use numbers for how many soldiers died during the civil wars between six hundred and twenty and six hundred and thirty thousand today that would mean that we would lose six million American lives one innovation making this war so deadly the minie ball 90% of the soldiers Wilson treats have miniball wounds hollow base and grooves stabilize its flight for better range and accuracy unhhhh in fact it flattens out causing much larger wounds than traditional musket balls the Warped bullet shatters bones that splinter tear through the body and the grooves in the bullet carried deadly bacteria leading to gangrene the only way to stop it amputation african-americans serve has stretcher-bearers some slaves use the invasion as a chance to escape by the end of the war half a million slaves flee to the north a hundred and fifty thousand will enlist in the Union armed dr. Wilson loses a family member on the first day of battle among the dead was my own nephew lieutenant George Adrian house must have been shot in the advance upon the enemy in the Bois his faithful servant Stephen came out on the battlefield and sought for and found his body and carried it back to the hospital for burial family members often serve side by side it's one reason why they fight so hard in some states a quarter or more of the military aged men were dead as a result of the war with hundreds of thousands more wounded in some cases all the young men of a town were wiped out during the Civil War the hills outside in the last year President Abraham Lincoln has fired five commandments commander number six George Meade's proud explosive West Point they're like robert e lee just three days on the job but a messenger brought the news of his promotion who thought he was being arrested but me arrives with advantage the high ground as a topographical engineer he knows how to use it he positions his troops to take advantage of the terrain placing them on Little Round Top Cemetery Ridge Cemetery Hill and calls him the defensive line in the shape of a fishhook as Confederate troops flood into Gettysburg me can move his men to answer attacks from any direction Union forces had interior lines in this defensive position that is their right flank was very close to the left flank and they could move reinforcements from one flank to another made it a perfect defensive position rebel troops in town don't notice Amos Humiston mortally wounded he prepares to die alone except for the photograph of his children how I want to see them and their mother is more than I can tell I hope that we may all see each other again the first time that I see you I will tell you more than I can think of now be a good girl so goodbye Amos Humiston bleeds to death no identification the fear of dying anonymously haunts troops on both sides some so their names into their uniforms dog tags are still 40 years away by the war's end 400,000 soldiers will be missing in action we really cannot imagine the scale of death a scale of suffering no one could have imagined carnage on that scale and Gettysburg brings more devastation and dari all-out rebel assaults at stake victory at Gettysburg and maybe the civil Gettysburg day to 12 p.m. the rebels are on the move they're planning a surprise attack by 14,500 troops their mission break the Union stranglehold on the high ground by outflanking needs fishery the goal of the Confederates on July 2nd is to find the Union left damaged destroy it and roll up it and unhinge the entire Union position and win the Battle of Gettysburg leading one rubble unit Brigadier General William Barksdale pro-slavery procession southern Patriot hometown Columbus Mississippi Barksdale was a man who took the ideas of the Confederacy and pursued them with raw aggressiveness with unfettered hatred for the Yankees but there's a problem the land ahead of him was not scouted because Lee's cavalry is missing there are 12 miles to the south raiding supplies the Calvary the eyes and ears of an army is no longer in communication with Lee Lee is blind on the battlefield and that means that he doesn't know what the Union is up to and that course is going to cripple any army without cavalry to guide them the rebel troops nearly march into plain sight of a Union position Barksdale and the entire attack have to find another route a costly delay adding two hours to their March time that lets meet reinforce his defenses people often ask me what if they had machine guns in the Civil War I always say forget all that one set of walkie-talkies could have changed the outcome of the Civil War three miles away George Meade also has a problem just three days on the job he's lost Telegraph contact with Washington DC invented 25 years earlier The Telegraph is changing the way the Civil War battles are fought President Abraham Lincoln a hands-on commander-in-chief likes rapid news from the field the Signal Corps usually runs temporary lines to his generals at the front but at Gettysburg the field equipment has it aligned and rebel forces have cut the lines during the whole thing he's got to be thinking Lee has beaten us time and time and time again and if he doesn't hear there's no one standing between him in the capital we're it he can't lose to issue orders to the front Meade uses a new innovation based on Morris code wig wag signal waving the flags forms letters like the dots and dashes of code it works made tracks the rebels movements and responds with his own meanwhile on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes waits with what's left of his iron Brigade unit yesterday they routed the rebels at the railroad cut today there with eleven thousand five hundred men defending the fishhooks right flank stretching over three miles Meade's fishhook is formidable heavy defenses along the high ground make the Union line almost impenetrable as long as troops stay in position but one Union commander isn't following needs orders Major General Dan sickles wealthy devious a row recently acquitted of murdering his wife's lover using the first plea of temporary insanity in US history believe Gettysburg even more in the toys Dan sickles was all about dan sickles if it didn't benefit or a dam sickles he wasn't very interested in it he didn't go to West Point he didn't have any military experience but he was able to use his money influence and power to raise his own regiment against Meade's orders sickles moves his third core to far forward fracturing the fishhook and leaving the flanks exposed a blunder that could cost the Union the battle and maybe the war after hours of delay the rebel force finally arrives in position but Lee's lost the element of surprise the Union knows what's coming cops Hill Dawes here's the assault begin at this hour the storm of battle suddenly broke out artillery in musketry thundered and crashed together wave after wave rebel troops launched one of the epic assaults of the civil Barksdale is about to get the fight he's always wanted but in order to hold his ground William Barksdale is ready to go he's chopping up that he has to wait a little walk the plan is to take ten Confederate brigades and attack with them two at a time one Brigade striking the enemy then fifteen or thirty minutes later the next one strikes the enemy and then the next and the next fights that are now burned into the pages of American history Devil's Den Little Round Top the wheat field the peach orchard and Cemetery Ridge Barksdale can see that sickles mistake has left the union vulnerable creating the South's best chance for victory but he is still under orders to hold his men back sixty minutes pass but Barksdale's regiments still waits the rebel yell fills the air each unit has a unique sound fierce savage tariffs [Applause] this Barksdale private Joseph lore 21 years old labor hometown big oak Mississippi [Applause] carrying the colors makes in the prize target the union sharpshooter ninety minutes after the start of the initial attacks Barksdale and his men are finally unleashed they storm into enemy fire racing towards sickles position what happens next could change the course of the war Pumped with adrenaline sure of their car when Barksdale and his Mississippi Brigade are finally attacked is 1600 men are part of a massive offensive 21,000 troops attacking Meade's line from Little Round Top to Cemetery Ridge and all-out assault to win the Civil War now Barksdale's mission break through Union defenses on Cemetery Ridge opportunity lies right in his path his daughter's Union general Dan sickles moved his 3rd Corps out of position now boner perfect targets for Barksdale if Barksdale as well as other Confederate brigades nearby are able to exploit the gap in Union line it would be calamitous for the Union Army the army would be cut into their defenses start to collapse needs entire line could be next William Barksdale his troops hit the Yankees like a hammer he rolls over those Union troops captures several hundred if not more than that of the Union troops and continues on in several directions towards Cemetery Ridge watching from Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes knows the Army of the Potomac in trouble we could plainly see that our troops were giving ground thousands were streaming to the rear our suspense and anxiety were intense the rebel mine is advancing the rebel yell was predominant Lee's offensive is working if it succeeds he could win the knockout victory he seeks mede has no choice he pulls 8,000 reinforcements from Culp's Hill to repel the rebels charging towards Cemetery Ridge Barksdale and Lloyd advance six hundred yards through a barrage of enemy fire Union commander Dan sickles isn't so lucky the direct cannonball it severs his leg one Yankee officer jokes it's bad news for sickles but good news for the Union takes barksdale's Mississippi Brigade nearly an hour but they finally break through sickles live on the run Barksdale's men approached Cemetery Ridge sensing victory but they're charging straight into more than 20 unique cards away each capable of firing two rounds an exploding bag of gunpowder rockets the 12 pound all of solid iron at 1,400 feet per second at this range Barksdale employed pieces Barksdale he's been grievously wounded during the attack he's hit in the left thigh and a very dangerous wound bleeding profusely he's asked to leave the feel refuses continuing to lead the attack he has part of his left foot shot away stays in the south continuing to lead the attack he knows the stakes enter the Mississippi Brigade comes close to cutting through Union lines and Meade's reinforcements slam into Barksdale and Lord I turn again to the front see the enemy bursting through the bushes and fires they had come out from the top of the hill and fresh and did our gallant Barksdale ride into our midst and still say forward through the bushes Barksdale's exhausted men finally break formation using their combined fire the rebel flag makes Lloyd a magnet for boats shock as if I had a rail in my left hand and one in head struck the ground the union line marches over one of them fixes a sling for my arm leaving with a wish well 50% of Barksdale's brigade are dead wounded or captured loyd almost overlooks their fallen command I hero we Cal to my right and turning to it find general Barksdale what a disappointment when I hold my canteen to his mouth for a drink of water found a ball had gone through and let it all out I took his last message to his brigade and left him with the promise to send the litter bears barksdale's battle is over his last thoughts are of his family and never have regretted the steps I have taken and although dying I do not regret those steps now God ever watch over and care for my dear wife and my boys tell them all that I died like a brave man you have to wonder if he was thinking I'm going to end the war I'm going to be the great instrument that is going to break that Union line in half and destroy the Army of the Potomac and remove it from my Army's opposition for once and forever and his troops performance there was unbelievable and very nearly succeeded these fishhook has helped this offensive is over Confederate general Longstreet will call it the best three hours fighting ever done by any troops on any battlefield sixteen thousand are dead wounded or missing on both sides but day two isn't over stave off the rebels Meade pull troops from Culp's Hill as night falls only 1400 Union defenders are left there it's an opportunity that Confederates won't miss this on Culp's Hill robert e lee spies a new chance for victory meade pulled eight thousand troops from the hill to counter the rebel assault just fourteen hundred Union soldiers remain now 4,500 rebels are moving in for the kill charging up Culp's Hill with the rebels is private Ridgely Howard 33 years old slave boy from a prominent Maryland fan hometown Bolton his grandfather fought with Washington and revolution now he's fighting to divide the nation that created the Howards discussed Maryland sided with the north Maryland was badly divided the eastern part of the state slavery was entrenched embedded rigidly Howard came from that plantation economy from the slave holding class powered in the Maryland rebels attack Union defenses dug into the hill the first test works on 400 yards it's chaos bullets and shells fly in all directions Federal's earthworks made of logs and rocks in dirt you've got to be thinking to yourself this is my last fight I'm not coming back from this how do you function like that this is this is what makes a true hero up the sides of the hill we went our line being continuously broken by the immense rocks which had to be flanked powered faces fighting so fierce one rebel calls it a slaughter pen there was not a passive position to be there were continual cries that we were firing into our own man rebel troops claw their way up lower Culp's Hill at a terrible cost surprise is worthless the on Culp's Hill aligns the Baltimore Pike the union's main supply route in line retreat if the Confederates capture Culp's Hill and control that point the Union Army has to leave after two days of battle wounded from both sides pour into makeshift field hospitals at one private Joseph Floyd is about to lose his arm Barksdale's color guard is 23 during the Civil War two soldiers will die of disease after medical care for everyone killed in battle the quickest solution to most serious limb injuries is amputation medicine is in its infancy but anesthesia is available chloroform was recently discovered and morphine administered liberally one thousand gallons of whiskey are also on hand Confederate Surgeon Legrand Wilson has been treating casualties continuously since last night the patient may either sit on a chair or lie near the edge of a bed the tourniquet is to be applied while one assistant holds the hand another is to take hold of the forearm the average amputation takes 12 minutes no antibiotics no knowledge of infection they don't even stop to wash their hands or instruments surgeons work round the clock it's the source of the term old Sawbones Lloyd will be one of the lucky ones the odds of surviving an arm amputation 77 percent [Applause] Rufus Dawes and his men are among the few Union defenders left on Culp's Hill they move down to counter-attack as we neared the breastworks the class only must get spritz out right the darkness and the suddenness of our arrival cause the enemy to fire loudly Dawes and his men win their skirmish but like day one they're the exception nearby Ridgely Howard's unit captures a cheese section of restrooms they keep advancing against heavy the Federals OPM is from front left flag and rear and the firing was terrible increasing with each step we took but still we pressed on they're just 500 yards from the Baltimore pike and the position that would threaten the entire Union line but at night an unfamiliar ground a great opportunity is lost they would be in the rear of the Union Army they could be on the flank of the Union Army but because of something so simple darkness they don't even know how close they are unable to tell friend from foe they cease firing if the Confederates had managed to carry Culp's Hill on the evening of July 2nd and breakthrough they would have captured the Union communications line on Baltimore pike all of the supply wagons were their reserve artillery was there that would have forced me to retreat and it could have been a major turning point in favor of Confederate victory as the fight on Culp's Hill dies down the Union wins a different kind they're newly formed intelligence agency the Bureau of military information is trying to discover Lee's battle plans VMI agents are interrogating Confederate prisoners and realize they have captives from every rebel infantry division but one George Pickett's he has Lee's only fresh troops Meade expects the rebels to attack tomorrow with everything they've got it's a good bet George Pickett will lead the attack tomorrow Ridgely howard will face his Maryland neighbors in a fight to the death robert e lee launched one final all-out assault tickets charge Gettysburg day 3 5 a.m. the stakes have never been higher yesterday Robert Ely is on the verge of all-out victories Confederate troops assaulted the union's left flank and nearly broke robert e lee knows he came very close but no cigar general Meade's actually a little shaken he knows it was a very close one thing barely escapes disaster now rebel troops are gaining ground a lower Culp's Hill and our position to threaten the union's rear lines Meade sends in reinforcements one Union Brigade is led by Colonel James Wallace educated wealthy also from Maryland the only Union colonel who owned slaves during the revolution his grandfather and Ridgeley Howard's fought in the same regiment today the two Marylanders will battle each other Maryland like other border states torn apart so many divided loyalties Maryland they had to decide which side they were on Maryland is one of five border states loyal to the Union but slavery is legal passions for and against slavery run haughty federal troops occupy Baltimore throughout the war to prevent the Confederate uprising on Culp's Hill Ridge Lee Howard's unit prepares to attack their target defenses held by Union troops from their home state [Applause] the men seem to feel the solemnity of the occasion and to understand the desperate nature of the charge to be made I prayed for strength to do my duty last night the rebels outnumbered Union defenders three to one now those odds are reversed it appeared to me as if the whole of my company was being swept away by the awful shower of shot and shell flying around us a demon seemed to take possession of me I had what one thought to avenge my comrades Howard takes a bullet fired by the union's first Maryland regiment I felt a burning in my thigh as if all the blood in my body was rushing to one spot it is a hard thing to say but I am convinced the Federals deliberately shot at us while we lay there helpless on the field a soldier at my left was shocked I was also struck in a hip hip wounds are almost always fatal every moment I expected would be my last so I straightened myself out folded my arms over my breast and waited for my time to come time slows as richly Howard prepares to die James Wallace won't let a fellow Marylander suffer no matter which side he's on the first Maryland Confederate met us and were cut to pieces sorrowfully gathered up many of our old friends acquaintances add them carefully and tenderly cared for I don't know how long I'll a seconds would seem to be minutes and minutes hours coming to Howard's aid the soldiers he'd least expect to help the same Union troops who shot him they asked what regiment I belong to I replied the Maryland battalion to which they made answer do you know you are fighting your own men I answered yes and we intend to fight them with a rebel assault on Culp's Hill stalled robert e lee readies one more massive attack it will be one of the iconic battles of the Civil War 12,000 Confederate troops hundreds of candidates the largest artillery barrage ever in North America is about to begin [Applause] after two days of attack and counter-attack robert e lee is about to launch the offensive that will decide the Battle of Gettysburg and the course of the war he's sending in 12,000 soldiers anchored by George Pickett's division his only fresh troops their mission attacked the Union Center and cut the Army of the Potomac me too at least pushing all of the chips to the middle of the table because he knows it's this last chance he's going to have this was a calculated decision it was well thought out it had a reasonable chance of success creating one of the rebel brigades general Joe Davis aristocratic slave owner his uncle Confederate President Jefferson Davis his hometown of Vicksburg Mississippi is under union siege to weaken Union defenses 160 Confederate cannons move into position a line of artillery two miles long against them a hundred Union candidates it's 87 degrees brutally humid it's the largest artillery barrage ever in the Western Hemisphere percussion would shake the internals the organs would actually in some cases rip apart the membranes within the ear would tear this would create blood streaming down the sides of these artillery units faces can be heard in Harrisburg Pennsylvania 40 miles Tolu early into thinking he's crippled the unions artillery Union commanders silenced their guns by 3:00 p.m. Confederate artillery also stops firing an eerie quiet reigned over the battlefield all the smoke from that bombardment still sat on the winless day the Yankees expected a huge attack from the southerners the southerners knew what they were about to do and what they went up against and it must have been an intense moment as they stared each other across the fields the Confederate command believes it's safe to send in their troops time to set in motion one of the iconic battles of the Civil War Joe Davis and his men move out part of a rebel assault that stretches a mile to reach union lines they must cross 1700 yards of open meadow that race up a hill but unknown to the Confederate leaders the Union artillery still has plenty of fire they're just waiting for the rebels to come into range Joe Davis and his men are marching into a barrage of artillery hell of course the ordinates rifle cannon made with four and a half inch strips of wrought iron invented just two years earlier they're tough and reliable designed with a 3-inch grooved bore for greater range deadly accuracy the ordinance delivers shells that explode on impact in time shells in shrapnel that burst in the air the enemy's heads can take out a 10-man being on the receiving end of one of these projectiles from the rifled ordnance would be completely devastating you don't know what's coming at you can you can only imagine and then all of a sudden the guys that you are standing next to are gone vaporize stopping to return fire an open field suicide and there's no point their muskets don't have the range Davis knows his men have to keep moving we were growing dinner at every step under this destructive fire which commanded our front and left with fatal effect the troops displayed great coolness we're welding moves steadily forward regularly closing up the gaps made in their ranks about halfway to Cemetery Ridge the rebels come into range of the older-style smooth barrel and Napoleon can the most popular artillery in the Civil War kinds men can keep going in the face of such opposition the level of courage is intense and large until Davis and his men can return fire they're just target practice for Union artillery the attack that will come to be known as Pickett's Charge is being blown to hell Lee's offensive is advancing toward enemy troops on Cemetery Ridge Union artillery is mowing them down it's the moment of truth at Gettysburg for both armies Joe Davis and his men are now 400 yards canister range canister is the most devastating weapon of the day basically tin cans packed with 28 earned balls the casing explode spring the iron balls into advancing troops at hundreds of guards per second mr. shott just made that cannon a gigantic shotgun but it would mow down up to 20 guys at a time if not more would be completely tore apart limbs heads arms legs and was so demoralizing for the other soldiers to witness such an event Davis regroups the Emmitsburg were 200 yards from the union law they're now within range of enemy muskets [Applause] one fence they're using for cover takes 836 right the brigade to the left of Davis hasn't caught up exposing his flank and opening a hole in the rebel line two men under Davis make it to the Union line and plant their flag on a stone wall a brave but futile gesture the rest of the unit under Davis cracks and retreats and a bend in the Union line rebel troops under George Pickett managed to break through and surged over the wall Union Gunners fire point-blank now it's to the point of hand-to-hand combat this is as brutal as it gets it is literally with musket butts and using fighting knives using the bayonets by themselves as rusting weapons the rebels overrun three canons but they're soon overwhelmed its Lee's last chance for victory at Gettysburg but it's not enough they almost cut the Union Army in two they almost didn't robert e lee's great moment of promise quickly turned into his greatest defeat by far the entire rebel line retreats they are compelled forced to retire across that dairy ground in which they had made this brave Galit charge more than half of the force that began Pickett's charge is dead wounded captured or missing we loses a third of his army at Gettysburg it's the bloodiest battle ever fought on American soil more than 50,000 casualties robert e lee's bold invasion of the north has failed Independence Day Rufus Dawes of the iron Brigade turns 25 what a solemn birthday my little band now only 200 men have all been out bearing the bloody corpses of friend and foe no fighting today the civil war will last another two years Gettysburg wasn't Lee's last chance to win but it was his best they'll never come this close again it gave northern people that belief that Union military High Command could in fact match robert e lee on the battlefield nobody believed that the war was near an end but many in the north they took from gettysburg solace hope that in fact this the tide could possibly turn in their favor for so many reasons this battle stands out as a pivotal and significant american event Rufus Dawes leaves the army in 1864 with symptoms resembling post-traumatic stress disorder his son Charles will become the 30th vice-president of the United States of America under Calvin Coolidge Joe Davis wakes up to learn that Vicksburg his hometown has fallen to lyses s grant he falls gravely ill but keeps his command he'll accompany lead to Appomattox for the South's formal surrender Union troops destroy Legrand Wilson's farm from the sale of his last bale of cotton he starts his own medical practice Risley Howard recovers from his wounds and returns to the war losing a leg at Cold Harbor in 1864 legend has it his ghost still haunts his Baltimore home it falls to Fanny Bueller and the people of Gettysburg to help the army care for the casualties and pick up the pieces the town of Gettysburg was overwhelmed for months by the wounded the smell of death lingered there for four weeks for months so the horrors of the aftermath of that battle were unmatched in the war a young girl finds a fallen soldier in a yard he has no identification but grasps a photograph of three children fixed in glass the picture becomes famous widely printed in newspapers the mystery of the Unknown Soldier captures the country's imagination four months later the woman in upstate New York recognizes the children and solves the mystery the soldier is Amos hummus twenty-four-year-old Lieutenant Colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they face down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on the luck retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country / dawes the treat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William dogs rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just a hundred and seventy-five yards to the railroad cut lacoste Dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward Dawes loses 10 men carrying the colors in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron brigade your role Eggleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private and is sent furious at the killing of his brave young comrade where the terrific blows split the skull of the rebel who had shot Jung Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das losses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong is streaming towards the Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert Eagle II we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the north threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going out in all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up a get his burger was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more troops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south Lee's Army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg Union troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man the idea of dying almost impenetrable as long as troops stay in position but one Union commander isn't following these orders Major General Dan sickles wealthy devious a row recently acquitted of murdering his wife's lover using the first plea of temporary insanity in US history believe Gettysburg even more notorious Dan sickles was all about Dan sickles if it didn't benefit or a Dan sickles he wasn't very interested in it he didn't go to West Point he didn't have any military experience but he was able to use his money influence and power to raise his own regiment against Meade's orders sickles moves his third core to far forward fracturing the fishhook leaving the flanks exposed a blunder that could cost the Union the battle and maybe the war after hours of delay the rebel force finally arrives in position that leaves lost the element of surprise the union knows what's coming cops Hill Dawes here's the assault begin at this hour the storm of battle suddenly broke out artillery and musketry thundered and crashed together wave after wave rebel troops launched one of the epic assaults of the civil boom Barksdale is about to get the fight he's always want but in order to hold his ground William Barksdale is ready to go he's choppin competitive but he has to wait a little walk the plan is to take ten Confederate brigades and attack with them two at a time one Brigade striking the enemy then fifteen or thirty minutes later the next one strikes the enemy and then the next and the next fights that are now burned into the pages of American history Devil's Den Little Round Top the wheat field the peach orchard and Cemetery Ridge Barksdale can see that sickles mistake has left the union vulnerable creating the South's best chance for victory but he is still under orders to hold his men back sixty minutes pass but Barksdale's regiment still votes the rebel yell fills the air each unit has a unique sound fierce savage terrified [Applause] with Barksdale private Joseph Lord 21 years old labor hometown big oak Mississippi [Applause] carrying the colors makes in the prize target the union sharpshooter ninety minutes after the start of the initial attacks Barksdale and his men are finally unleashed they storm into enemy fire racing towards sickles position what happens next could change the course of the war Pumped with adrenaline sure of their car will Barksdale and his Mississippi Brigade are finally attacked 1600 men are part of a massive offensive 21,000 troops attacking Meade's line from Little Round Top to Cemetery Ridge an all-out assault to win the Civil War battle Barksdale's mission break through Union defenses on Cemetery Ridge opportunity lies right in his path against orders Union general Dan sickles moved his third core out of position perfect targets for Barksdale if Barksdale as well as other Confederate brigades nearby are able to exploit the gap in Union line it would be calamitous for the Union Army the army would be cut into their defenses start to collapse needs entire line could be next William Barksdale his troops hit the Yankees like a hammer he rolls over those Union troops captures several hundred if not more than that of the Union troops and continues on in several directions towards Cemetery Ridge watching from Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes knows the Army of the Potomac in trouble we could plainly see that our troops were giving ground thousands were streaming to the rear our suspense and anxiety were intense the rebel line is advancing the rebel yell was predominant Lee's offensive is working if it succeeds he could win the knockout victory he seeks mede has no choice he pulls 8,000 reinforcements from Culp's Hill to repel the rebels Sarge found his body and carried it back to the hospital for burial family members often serve side by side it's one reason why they fight so hard in some states a quarter or more of the military aged men were dead as a result of the war with hundreds of thousands more wounded in some cases all the young men of a town were wiped out during the Civil War last year President Abraham Lincoln has fired five commanders Commander number six George Meade's proud explosive West Point are like Robert Lee just three days on the job but a messenger brought the news of his promotion he thought he was being arrested but me arrives with advantage the high ground as a topographical engineer he knows how to use it he positions his troops to take advantage of the terrain placing them on Little Round Top Cemetery Ridge Cemetery Hill and calls him the defensive line in the shape of a fishhook as Confederate troops flood into Gettysburg me can move his men to answer attacks from any direction Union forces had interior lines in this defensive position that is their right flank was very close to the left flank and they could move reinforcements from one flank to another made it a perfect defensive position rebel troops in town don't notice Amos Humiston mortally wounded he prepares to die alone except for the photograph of his children how I want to see them and their mother is more than I can tell I hope that we may all see each other again the first time that I see you I will tell you more than I can think of now be a good girl so goodbye Amos Humiston bleeds to death no identification the fear of dying anonymously haunts troops on both sides some so their names into their uniforms dog tags are still 40 years away by the war's end 400,000 soldiers will be missing in action we really cannot imagine the scale of death a scale of suffering no one could have imagined carnage on that scale and Gettysburg brings more devastation and a dairy all-out rebel assault at stake victory at Gettysburg and maybe the civil get eaten day to 12:00 p.m. the rebels are on the move they're planning a surprise attack by 14,500 troops their mission break the Union stranglehold on the high ground by outflanking needs fishery the goal of the Confederates on July 2nd is to find the Union left damaged destroy it and roll up it and unhinge the entire Union position and win the Battle of Gettysburg leading one rubble unit Brigadier General William Barksdale pro-slavery procession southern Patriot hometown Columbus Mississippi Barksdale was a man who to the ideas of the Confederacy and pursued them with raw aggressiveness with unfettered hatred for the Yankees but there's a problem the land ahead of him was not scouted because Lee's cavalry is missing there are 12 miles to the south rating supplies the Calvary the eyes and ears of an army is no longer in communication with Lee Lee is blind on the battlefield and that means that he doesn't know what the Union is up to and that course is going to cripple any army without cavalry to guide them the rebel troops nearly march into plain sight of a Union position Barksdale and the entire attack have to find another route a costly delay adding two hours to their march time that lets meet reinforce his defenses people often ask me what if they had machine guns in the Civil War I always say forget all that one set of walkie-talkies could have changed the outcome in the Civil War three miles away George Meade also has a problem just three days on the job he's lost Telegraph contact with Washington DC invented 25 years earlier The Telegraph is changing the way the Civil War battles are fought President Abraham Lincoln a hands-on commander-in-chief likes rapid news from the field the Signal Corps usually runs temporary lines to his generals at the front but at Gettysburg the field equipment hasn't learned and rebel forces have cut the lines during the whole thing he's got to be thinking Lee has beaten us time and time and time again and if he doesn't hear there's no one standing between him in the capital we're it he can't lose to issue orders to the front Meade uses a new innovation based on Morris coat wig wag signal waving the flags forms letters like the dots and dashes of code it works made tracks the rebels movements and responds with his own meanwhile on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes waits with what's left of his iron Brigade unit yesterday they routed the rebels at the railroad cut today there with the 11,500 men defending the Fish Hooks right flank stretching over three miles Meade's fishhook is formidable heavy defenses along the high ground make the Union line up here like a halt the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle Ewell replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll as the Union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. is units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go mewls Confederate troops are spreading out for the town it's a route for the rebels Amos Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that we fight every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the two men and Humiston x' regiment all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and cover them or with care by Frankie Valli and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank vault others flee as the rebels swarmed through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing has always been a male profession but during the Civil War 20,000 women sign on to care for the casualties one Union nurse Clara Barton will go on to found the Red Cross rebel soldiers go door to door looking for Union soldiers they're hiding all over town Lee has nowhere to put prisoners during the war so many are captured that North and South follow an honor system paroled prisoners taken oath not to rejoin the fight until formally exchanged coral is simply I'm going to give you a piece of paper that says don't fight anymore and if I catch you fighting then bad things are gonna happen to you then what we're gonna do later is we're going to have men from our army and men from your army meet it at a neutral place and we're gonna trade soldiers just like kids sitting around trading playing cards you know I'll trade you three generals for four Colonels and nine lieutenants for 50 privates the punishment for breaking parole is death Amos hummus – wounded and alone in a yard in the middle of town he grasps an ambrotype a photographic image of his three children fixed in glass a present from his wife on his way to war the Amos Humiston story is going to resonate with any soldier if you go to any unit in the United States military today obviously you're gonna find servicemembers with pictures of their children their wives their sweethearts because that is a tangible link to your normal life your condition and combat is not normal you're there in the service of your country to do what the nation asks you to do but the stakes are rising for both north and south on the high ground outside town Rufus Dawes and the Union Army dig it it's here at the Battle of Gettysburg will be won or lost suffering heavy losses Union troops pull out of Gettysburg leaving the town in Confederate control it might appear that the fighting on the first day for the Union was a huge waste they lost really bad on the first day but the intense trouble they put up north and west of town the intense struggle that some of them put up through the streets of Gettysburg allow them to fall back to their chosen position they retreat to a nearby series of hills than peak at 800 feet high ground that gives the Union a critical military advantage [Applause] on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes and what's left of his iron Brigade unit digging they have a new weapon to shovel their building breastworks form a fortification dating back to the Romans some officers think defensive walls create cowards not dogs after losing half his men he wants all the protection he can get down below you'll has orders from robert e lee to take cemetery and copse hills but with the qualifier if practicable you will decides to wait for reinforcements it's a decision with critical consequences if you're looking up in you're seen this great amount of walk going on up there and your men are tired from the March they've just made it from the battle they've just fought something in him triggered I'm not gonna do this or I can't do this now but certainly at the end of the day he's going to disappoint his commander I'm sure he's gonna disappoint himself the Confederacy will pay for that for the next three days this is one of the great what-ifs of the battle had you will occupied and controlled Culp's Hill in the land around it the Union Army would have simply had to leave when the battle would have been fought somewhere else maybe not so much to the Yankees advantage in the fields around Gettysburg a grim new harvest the dead and wounded from day one tending to the injured on both sides dr. LeGrande Wilson Confederate deeply religious hometown Jackson Mississippi educated in the north his family owns 40 slaves in Mississippi this was my first experience on the battlefield after the fighting and it was horrible beyond description if every human being could have witnessed the result of the mad passions of men I saw that night war would cease there would never be another battle the staggering level of death in the civil war is difficult to wrap your brain around the commonly use numbers for how many soldiers died during the civil wars between six hundred and twenty and six hundred thirty thousand today that would mean that we would lose six million American lives one innovation making this war so deadly the mini-mall 90% of the soldiers Wilson treats have miniball wounds hollow base and grooves stabilize its flight for better range and accuracy unhhhh in fact it flattens out causing much larger wounds that traditional musket balls the Warped bullet shatters bones that splinter tear through the body and the grooves in the bullet carried deadly bacteria leading to gangrene the only way to stop it amputation african-americans serve has stretcher-bearers some slaves use the invasion as a chance to escape by the end of the war half a million slaves flee to the north a hundred and fifty thousand will enlist in the Union or dr. Wilson loses a family member on the first day of battle among the dead was my own nephew lieutenant George Adrian house must have been shot in the advance upon the enemy in the morning his faithful servant Steven came out on the battlefield and sought force in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron Brigade men your parole Egleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private andersen furious at the killing of his brave young comrade with a terrific blow split the skull of the rebel who had shot young Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das losses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong and streaming towards Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert evilly we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the North threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going on to all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up a get his burger was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more 24 year old lieutenant colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they faced down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on the run retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad car the rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country / dawes retreat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William dogs rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just 175 yards to the railroad cut it will cost dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward Dawes loses 10 men carrying the color hoops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south these army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg Union troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits Humiston was like so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man I hate the idea of dying here like a hawk the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle you'll replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll as the union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. his units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go mewls Confederate troops are spreading out for the town it's a route for the rebels Amos Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that Lee fights every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant Amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the 2007 man and hummus tins regimen all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and cover them or with care my Frankie Ali and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank vault others flee as the rebels swarm through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing

Old Chinese city. | Ancient food street VLOG.| China



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Old Chinese city. | Ancient food street.| China
I visited a food street which was so old. Before in old times it was a town.. A king lived here with his people. All the common people houses are still here . Now in order make it a heritage site those houses are converted into food and shopping shops. It feels good to stroll among ancient chinese houses , you will feel more Chinese culture in old Chinese places..

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AK'S Crazy Days Vlogs / Historical Down Town Ft. Pierce, Belly Dancers, Trains and just us 🦄



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Hanging out in Down Town Ft. Pierce on a slow night. Walk around with us and see a belly dance show.💃 AND SOME OTHER COOL STUFF😁

Kevin and Apryl Grace are so excited to share all of there crazy adventures with everyone. We are exploring and documenting Abandoned, Historical, Haunted, Nature, Festivals and just our regular crazy life sometimes.

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[ REACTION ] Steven Spielberg vs Alfred Hitchcock Epic Rap Battles of History & Behind the Scenes



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what's good TMG baby she'll boy Elle I'm back with another reaction video man how y'all feel welcome back to the channel master Luke to the whole TMZ family back with another bottle pest right listen we got Steven Spielberg Steven Spielberg vs. mr. Alfred Hitchcock and then we got jaws vs. psycho jaws vs. psycho man – out of most iconic movies – the most like these movies has to stood the test of time I think recently they even came out with like a series of I was what was the guy named Norman Bates like it was a it's a series out that me and my son got a chance to watch man it reminded me the old school movie of psycho so man this is about to go down it's bout to be epic and nothing short of hilarious I already know it bro so before we get into it man please take the time if you're new to the channel go ahead and hit that subscribe button man enjoin the TMZ family as we continued this tour of epic Rap Battles of History man you see the social media links up there in the corner man gay boy or follow anything ever happened to channel you know where to find me and with that being said let's get to the battle there we go picture a child sitting next to a project learning from your films to become a much better the right now picture a three billion dollar dream machine who can bustle over your crop do with me out for your bus came out cuz this is like like Spielberg word flag I think one of his highest grossing box-office nays was like ten bit like it's something crazy he's like the highest-grossing something that ten billion it's astronomical whatever the stat is the number is just overall for your earnest to go to John Williams like he's a dude that created like the jaws infinite jaws done and the music that you love to hear in Jurassic park's and different things like that right like that's crazy bro half for your money should go to him which I think about that man I hope they talk about that deadline you know we're gonna be checking out the behind the scenes at the end so when we get to the behind the scenes that's crazy you got no style dog I'm the king of dialogue there's only one movie I know you from and I've seen more blood in the shower I had to fight over one but couldn't do that the British Army look it's a true fact we're competing of that now allow me to attack Stephen a hack who the were the worlds of failures when I played we would look like some sellout bullshit my crate would do anybody what's your favorite Sam Jackson part no one's gonna say what's-his-name from Jurassic herbs that I write Tarantino is a genius Quinn Tarantino mr. pulp fiction himself had a jump in genius is a powerful word but there's no reason to use it less you're talking about the kubrik then there's really nothing every single frame of another word crap from all of you when I come down there and show you what a real stock can do with [Laughter] right was that BAE was that BAE man some of these names yeah I gotta make shy guy right use it less you're talking about the kubrik then there's really nothing to everything I do is visionary every single frame up Amy made exactly how I wanna make it you another take get it right hundred 27th I'll make you learn to love me on the bottom thank you all means meal birds are color purple I don't know why said Spielberg that's why I had to go back I'm still trying to figure out who this is I said Spielberg earlier but that ain't what I meant to say who is this we gotta figure out who this is dude items and we had Spielberg we had Hitchcock we had Quentin Tarantino and the end I think who is this I don't know y'all have to give me under watch that Spielberg earlier but how about them looking at in this agency who we got man they kind of threw me out throwing people in they gotta announce this stuff man they gotta announce this stuff let's see who we got alright I just feel very Hitchcock Quentin Tarantino Stanley Kubrick was the was the last no it wasn't it wasn't a Michael Bay I thought one of them what would have been Michael Bay I was throwing the references off but one was Stanley Kubrick and the other one was Quentin Tarantino so I caught Quentin Tarantino and when I was Michael Bay so okay so when I was Michael Bay alright so I got one of them man let it do me I'm throwing them people in there like that they gotta let you know man when they come in they gotta let you know who they are you know I said cuz I don't be knowing these producers and and everybody by face like that cuz I'm pretty sure if I knew the face I could pick up the similarities you know what I'm saying so but shoutouts to them man crazy crazy battle Steven Spielberg versus Alfred Hitchcock along with the others that jump then along the way man let's go to the actual behind the scenes here we go this is Michael bass yeah sometimes people in Hollywood try to put me down [Laughter] part of the directors which is the midseason finale it's gonna be a long process today this is Heather we just met hi I think she's from New Jersey I don't know yet I am you can always tell the other day they did a cast of my face and they went over my whole hat so now they have this well that's based on my face and my neck is not like that I don't have a gobble neck yet and probably will I come from a long line of gobble the net people add all that stuff on and then I'm gonna be Alfred Hitchcock make sure a child's name check turning from your films to become a much better – right now picture a three billion dollar dream machine who can black muscle over your crop disease try to do with me Alfred you must be psycho I'll bring back because I want to be like get like an old man body done and just walk around and do the stuff just does you know how you see like anger your grandpa something like that the movie just to be able to do stuff like that man I would have a blast with that face off bullshit I've been working on this for years to get the character correct so I still think that I could take up Rob about five more years and practice to get it right but deadlines are deadlines [Laughter] I didn't know so we're testing the stain the Cougar intro shot we're trying minica they will see from the shining shining man do you think I learned the guy who invented the steady camera was the guy who filmed the Steadicam stuff right hey don't kill me too bad man I tried to get as much as I could offer just offer the top of the dome starting with this one I'm crash and then just having a bigger one nine hours advil and Rockstar most likely a more horrific combination than any film I've ever doing that scream Angela Kleist Indiana Deseret on season four first half we'll see you in 2015 bitches been going central for 2015 bro that's dope man I don't know y'all let me know in the comment section how 400 like how long ago did this thing start like we're in 2019 now so like that's insane but it's incredible at the same time how long that run has been man successful to edit shoutouts to them man they got me man they confused me a little bit having me thrown off but I got a few of them right man y'all don't kill me too bad that me in the comment section let me know what y'all think man and let me know what y'all want to see next to the next reaction video man I'm out peace y'all stay solid hey what we do here just go back back back

Science & The Swastika: The Wrong Stuff | History Documentary | Reel Truth History



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Looks at how after the Second World War the American military recruited dozens of German scientists. Amongst them was Professor Hubertus Strughold whose subsequent development of space medicine made a large contribution in the ability to send astronauts to the Moon. However, as a Nazi doctor he was involved in inhuman experiments at Dachau concentration camp, using inmates in experiments on the effects of high altitude and extreme cold. Looks at how far the Apollo moon programme may have been tainted by Nazi war crimes and criminals.

Germans are known for their high standards and attention to detail. From early progress in the link between smoking and cancer, to triumphs in aviation – their scientists have been among the greatest in the world. This four-part series examines the effect Hitler’s Nazi regime had on the scientific progress in the country – from world leaders to crumbled ruins.Science And The Swastika investigates how biology, medicine, physics and aviation fared during the Thousand Year Reich. An uncomfortable truth emerges – while some scientific work was carried out to morally repugnant ends, many German scientists actually did ‘good science’, rigorously conducted in a dispassionate and rational way. This troubling legacy demands that we continue to question our understanding of science and the moral responsibilities of scientists.
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How Can We Know What Language Used to Look Like? Historical Reconstruction



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What did our languages sound like before we had written records? How can we work that out? In this week’s episode, we talk about historical reconstruction of languages: what methods we can use to rebuild long-dead systems, what groupings of languages we can put together using these techniques, and if there’s a limit to how far back we can go.

This is Topic #56!

This week’s tag language: Latin!

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Writing It Down – Writing Systems:
Sense and Shiftability – Semantic Shift:

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We’re going on hiatus for the rest of the year, but we’ll be back on January 6. Looking forward to it! We hope everyone has a great holiday season. ^_^

So let’s talk about pie. Not the delicious
flaky kind, or the transcendental number kind, but P.I.E., or the Proto-Indo-European language.
We didn’t always sound remotely the same as we do now. But a lot of languages – more
than you may think – actually come from the same historical tongue. But how can we know
that, when there’s no one around to ask? Please, check these methods and results with us today.
I’m Moti Lieberman, and this is the Ling Space. Languages are amazing. They change and evolve
over time, adapting to suit the needs and whims of their speakers. And everything changes –
word usage, pronunciation, phonology, syntax, the whole system. You can see language change
at work all around you right now, but it's even clearer when you look backwards. Books
written a hundred years ago don't sound the same as those written today; they sound like
Sherlock Holmes, the last novel of which came out in 1915. And if you go further back, Shakespeare's
English was a very different idiom than the one I'm speaking to you in today. But what about…
further back? Like we're talking WAY back. People have been trying to piece together
the way their ancestors spoke for centuries. By looking at how a given language has been
written over time, you can reconstruct the shape it used to take in the distant past.
But at some point, you run out of written records to search for changes. So then what
do you do? Well, the more you observe your language and
the ones around you, the more you might notice certain similarities. Like, say I speak French,
and I notice that my word for wing, "aile", looks like "ala" in Spanish and Italian, and
even kind of like “asa” in Portuguese. Hmm! Intriguing. Could it be that these languages
are somehow related? The answer, in this case, is yes: they're
all Romance languages, and they share a common ancestor. You can look at the words and grammatical
systems of French and Spanish and Italian and see some real parallels, and wouldn't
you know it, all roads lead to Rome. If you want to find the closest linguistic ancestor
of these languages, you don't need to look any further than Latin. When we look for parallels between languages
like this to build their phonology, we use what’s called the comparative method, and
there’s a really systematic way to go about it. The first thing you need to do is find
cognates. These are words in different languages that have similar sounds and similar meanings,
like our “wing” example from before, or the English “hound” and German “Hund”,
for dog. Once you have a list of cognates, then you
look at the way they’re different from each other. Let’s say you want to rebuild the
Proto-Polynesian language, which is what people would have been speaking in the central Pacific
a few centuries BCE, so, before the Polynesian people spread further across the islands and
the languages began to diversify. You’d look at a few languages in the family,
like, say, Hawaiian, Maori, and Tongan, and then you'd line up your cognates. If all these languages
are related, you’ll probably find a bunch of words that sound basically the same. Like, if the word for “bird” in all three
languages is “manu”, you can assume that was probably the word in Proto-Polynesian,
too. And on top of that, you can assume that the language had all the sounds that make
that word up: *m, *a, *n, and *u. But of course, not everything is going to be the same – otherwise,
all your languages would still be the same language. So take a word like “bat”: in
Hawaiian, it’s [peʔa], but in Maori and Tongan, it’s [peka]. Well, this gives us
*p and *e as additional likely phonemes of Proto-Polynesian, but what about that second
consonant in the word? Would the ancestor word have a [ʔ] or a [k]? Well… we can’t really tell, just looking
at that example. It could be either. So we need to look elsewhere in the language, for
more data. So let’s add a word to our data set: the one for “current”. This is [au]
in Hawaiian and Maori, but [ʔau] in Tongan, with that glottal stop on the front. Aha!
Since there’s no reason to assume a language would just throw in a new random sound, in
this particular word, it’s likely that the *ʔ was originally there in *ʔau in Proto-Polynesian,
and then got lost over time in Hawaiian and Maori. Okay, so now we know that the Proto-Polynesian
glottal stop just up and vanished in the phonology of its daughter language, Hawaiian. So let’s
look at the word for ‘bat’ again, and try to get an answer. If it had been *peʔa
underlyingly, you’d expect it to have turned into [pea] in Hawaiian. Historical change
happens across the board in the same phonological environments – it doesn’t pick and choose
which words to apply to. But we don’t get that, we get [peʔa]. So it looks like the underlying
phoneme was *k in the original – and that Hawaiian had that *k transform into a glottal
stop over time. By using these comparisons, and looking between
languages, we can build a whole sound system up. Give a quick check to make sure that what
you came up with makes sense with how phonology works overall, and you’re set! You’ve
reached your proto-goal. By looking for cognates, we can find what
languages should be grouped together. And we’ve puzzled out a few of these family
trees. If we look at the over 6000 languages in the world today, along with the ones that
have disappeared over time, we can collect them into a few major groups, and a whole
lot of smaller ones. There’s actually over a hundred language families out there, but
the ten biggest ones capture about 75% of the languages in the world. The Niger-Congo
and Austronesian families have over a thousand languages in them each! But if each family tree consists of a whole
lot of branches, that makes you wonder: what’s at the trunk? Well, let’s take the example
of the language family spoken in Europe and the Indian subcontinent. The ancestor here is called
PIE, or Proto-Indo-European. Although we have no way of knowing for sure what Proto-Indo-European
sounded like, or if it even existed, a ton of research has been done on it, and most
linguists agree that the theory is solid. After all, scholars have been puzzling out
PIE since the 18th century! Different versions and approaches have battled it out in the
200 years since, but there's a few things we have a pretty good grasp on. The best guess that most people have today
is that it was spoken in about 3500 BCE, and started out in the steppes of Eastern Europe.
Over time, the language spread out and changed and evolved into over 400 different languages
in Europe and the Indian subcontinent: Germanic languages like English or Dutch; Romance languages
like Spanish and Italian; Slavic languages like Polish or Russian; Indo-Iranian languages
like Hindi and Urdu, and more. Let’s look at some examples of cognates
from across these. The word for “house” was probably *dom in PIE, and is /domus/ in
Latin, /domos/ in Greek, ‎/dama/ in Sanskrit, and /tsɪmə/ Zimmer in
German. And “snow” has been reconstructed in PIE
as *snejgʷʰ-, like in Polish /ɕɲɛk/, Old Norse /snjor/, Sanskrit
/sneha/, and Irish /ʃnʲaxtə/. And we could list off a lot more examples for each of these. So by analyzing connections between related
languages, and using the comparative method, linguists have figured out a lot about the
likely phonology of PIE. For example, English has the alveolar plosives /t/ and /d/, but
PIE probably had *t, *d, and *dʱ, a voiced aspirated sound. Now, some bits of the reconstruction
seem to be a little weird: like, it had *p and *bʱ, but probably no /b/, which is something that
you’d expect to be there. And having those voiced aspirated sounds, and not voiceless
aspirated ones, is at best super rare. But that’s where our method leads us, and it
seems like it checks out. So like we said, there are a whole lot of
language families, of which PIE is just the most widely studied one. But…why stop there?
Is there a way to link together all the families, and get some kind of “proto-human” language?
Well, people have tried, but unfortunately, even if something like that existed at some point,
we almost certainly can’t rebuild it. It’s already really challenging to go back even
a few thousand years without records to work from. Going back even more is just an insurmountable
problem. After all, we want to rule out any similarities
due to chance. And it’s too easy to make mistakes when we start operating as abstractly
as we have to if we want to make Proto-Human a thing. Trying to match hypothesized Proto-Human
roots to actual languages, doesn’t always line up well. Like, there’s no match for
the proposed ancient root for “woman” anywhere in Spanish – all the possible cognates
that it could match up with actually came from other sources. And if we try working
out what the syntax looked like, we just end up guessing. We can’t skate by these issues
with any confidence. What we know about the speech of early humans
isn’t a whole lot, but here’s what we can say. If we’re holding to the position
that Universal Grammar is hardwired in our brains, then it’s probably been around for
as long as our noggins have been the way that they are. So maybe although we can’t figure out
the specifics of its phonology and syntax, we can assume that early human speech would
have had recursion and binding and movement, and allophones, and assimilation, and all
the universals we see today that make up the whole UG apparatus. Looking back into the past of language, things
can get pretty misty. But our knowledge about where our speech comes from isn’t all bitty
and small. Using our techniques and working carefully, we can learn a lot about where
we came from. And all that research definitely merits a piece of PIE. So we’ve reached the end of the Ling Space
for this week. If you reconstructed my phonemic inventory, you learned that we’ve established
over a hundred language families by finding cognates and then using the comparative method
on them; that we can reconstruct ancient languages, like Proto-Indo-European, by working back
from these cognates; and that we probably can’t rebuild any languages further back
than that with any real accuracy. The Ling Space is produced by me, Moti Lieberman.
It’s directed by Adèle-Elise Prévost, and it’s written by both of us. Our editor
is Georges Coulombe, our production assistant is Stephan Hurtubise, our music is by Shane
Turner, and our graphics team is atelierMUSE. We’re down in the comments below, or you
can bring the discussion back over to our website, where we'll have some extra material
on this topic. And while you’re there, check out our store – we’ve got some really cool
linguistics stuff! Check us out on Tumblr, Twitter and Facebook, and if you want to keep
expanding your own personal Ling Space, please subscribe. And we’ll see you next Wednesday.
Ualete!

The History of Clash of Clans (2012 -2019) 7 Year Anniversary Special!



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Clash of Clans History Timeline From 2012 to 2019 – Every Update Since The Game Was Released! Major Updates Like Heroes, Clan Wars, Builders Base, Water Fall Removed, Sell buildings, Town Hall 12, Builder Hall 9! You Name it!

Used In Video : Party Wizard Party Time (Clash of Clans 7th Anniversary)

Full History Wiki

#clashofclans #coc #clashofclansanniversary

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7 Ways To Get Banned in Clash Royale

what's going on guys havoc you know back with a video and today we were to be taking a look at the history of clash of clans over the past seven years what I thought I'd stop at five years but here we are back at it again clash of clans is a well aged game and it's crazy to think we're only three years away from a full decade to celebrate its seventh birthday though we're going to be going down memory lane seven years of clash of clans history now to keep this video short we're going to be skimming through every single update but only mentioning the key changes that made up the game we know today it is seven years so uh you know going over every detail will probably make a seven hour video so no thanks don't worry though everything you need to know is in this video so with that being said let's get right into it on August 2nd 2012 clash of clans was go believe released on iOS you heard that right no soft lunch just dove right in anyways the game was different we had a waterfall the max Tahoe was eight and the graphics were 2012 standard nothing crazy you know people were playing on their iPhone 3G so it couldn't get crazy anyways few weeks later on the 30th of August the first ever update was made this introduced some new cool goodies like the Tesla new decorations and graphic improvements to make the game look more tanked September 18 spells were finally added to the game but only three slowdown this was the lightning heal and rage along with spells replays were added to battles so you could now watch them over magic huh a new building there was a tower and the time to build walls was finally removed yeah before this walls took time to build like any other building well what a time to be alive a october 15 the kick message and clan children requirement were added to clans two weeks later on October 27th the first seasonal update came out Halloween but that wasn't everything townhall 9 was now here and it was the highest tell hall there was along with this was the expo a jump spell unfortunately though this was also the update in which supercell removed the ability to sell your buildings it was nice having that feature but it didn't last long plus it wasn't exactly useful if you wanted to progress anyways so trust me you aren't missing out on any they November 19 the first we're update the village was covered in snow for the first time nutria obstacles and the Santa spell clan castle troops were now able to jump walls instead of just being in one small spots because before this update clan castle troops didn't have the ability to jump walls the ability to boost buildings such as he spell factory and collectors was finally added as well as a Christmas update special that later became permanent on January 10 this was one of the biggest updates in history Wow feels weird to be talking about 2013 so long ago anyways where was I oh yeah big update you know heroes were added which at the time was a big big deal but it was just the key in Queen along with all this we also had the introduction to dark elixir obviously because it kinda need it for the heroes you know so we got a storage and a drill the 5th of February we got two new traps the air bomb any seeking air mine of course there was many other small changes and improvements but we're going over seven years of history so let's keep it short shall we March 12th 2013 dark glittered troops were introduced the minions hog rider and Valkyrie and of course the barracks to train those troops about a month later on April 17 leaves were added to separate players from being in one massive leak which by the way was none you literally had no League the Golem was also added in this update back in the day the Golem was seen as a glorified unbeatable troop moving on to May 23rd Town Hall 10 was introduced we got to see new stuff like the inferno tower this update was huge there was a lot of balance changes as well and spoiler alert Town Hall 10 will be in a last Touhou for the next two years well kind of feel bad for 14-year old me 17th of June a new spell was added called the freeze this update wasn't as huge but that's because it was more of a balanced update rather than an actual updates we had a ton of these down the road so if I skip an update you know why just about a week later after that as well an extra mine and pump was added to tell all ten that's about it yeah literally July 28th if we got a new dark electric troop the which we got the chance to now share replays to the clan chats and the ability to mute players in global because people can be annoying you know on august 2 this day was the day where clash of clans became available for Android kidney wood playing an Android phone until now so yeah this day was pretty big the 27th of August the player profile got a rework September 30 was a very important part of the history of clash of clans you know why because I started making videos now just kidding village edit mode was added meaning now you didn't have to move everything around the entire map to make a base this is also the reason why I started making videos because it was now easier to showcase bases October 10 we got the first ever optional bug fixed update nothing special but I just wanted to mention that this was the first of its kind because it was optional November 6 we could now upgrade traps previously traps were just traps no level 1 2 or 3 now the button was also added to rearm all of them at the same time also spells were updated to cost elixir instead of gold ever remember when this happened and it was kind of weird at first but I'm glad it did that because Academy Sense afterwards December 5 the last update of 2013 bought back the Christmas theme a new multi target ability was added to your furrow tower so we can now target a few troops at the same time instead of one also level 3 was added to that same tower so 2013 ended off pretty good January 29 2014 heroes were given abilities awesome co-leaders were added to clients yes before this go leaders didn't exist so now we had members elders co-leaders and the leader on April knife this was a day that may clash of clans live up to its name yep you guessed it right clown wars okay now that was a joke by supercell they actually pulled that not even getting I don't know if you remember or not but uh yeah they finally revealed like a day later that it was actually client wars who woulda guessed this was a massive update and to this day it's about 50% of what the game is about competition May 16th they added the ability to save war bases and edit along with other clan war improvements and fixes they also made village edit mode available for town 3 on July 3rd this was a huge balanced update stat changes graphic improvements hero AI every work and finally live battle spectating was added to clan wars to watch players as the attack back in a Southie this was like magic oh you can watch people as the attack that's crazy finally the 16th of September and new dark electric troop was introduced the lava hound October 22 we got a new track called the skeleton trap you could also now upgrade walls with elixir any level of walls literally it doesn't matter if it was level 3 5 or 10 this didn't last long though so you better take advantage of it well sorry too late because now on the level of December the walls needed to be a minimum of level 9 yeah that went by pretty quick anyways multiple layouts were added to village edit mode the ability to also watch live replays of your base getting attacked was also added before this update you could not watch what was going on why your base was getting attacked that was kind of lame but now it was fixed enough complaining 2015 came along and on February 24 clans now had levels this make clans able to level up and earn perks that all clan members can benefit from April 30 a new defense was added the leafblower July 1st 2015 the dark spell factory was added this meant dark spells were also introduced the poison spell earthquake and haste spell and finally more leagues were added TYIN and legend league moving on to September 9 the main part of this update was a war tiebreaker the war tiebreaker was pretty much a way to calculate who really won the war aside from that though tell 10 got 25 new walls October 22 the usual Halloween decorations but the next update on December 10 was bigger and this update changed the game in many ways forever first off tell hall 11 we have Touhou 11 we got to see the new ego artillery grand warden and extra defenses this was also the update that made shield a big part of the game beforehand you could leave your talha outside and it wouldn't matter now if you left retal outside the walls it wouldn't be a smart idea so now guarding your Town Hall was your only choice they also added 30 seconds to the battle time since Tahoe 11 was such a huge base you obviously needed more time to three-star it's 2016 was finally here and the loot cart was added Treasury in the clan castle and star bonuses even though the loot cart kinda didn't work but yeah other than that the ego artillery was giving the ability to deal three times more damage to golems March 21st we got a new troop the bowler there was also a ton of war changes new troop levels and a lots of new defense levels may 24 friendly challenges were added we also got two new troops of the miner any baby dragon and two new spells the clone and scallops of spell moving on to October 12th we got a new defense from class Rico once again add it over to clash of clans this was the bomb tower Town Hall 11 got 25 more walls and friendly Wars were added finally though were already at the end of 2016 and on the 19th of December we got the Christmas update which had deduced a new temporary troop the ice wizard we now had the freeze trap as well and he sounded surprised May 22nd we got the biggest update in a while the Builder base was introduced with new defenses and also a lot of cool stuff for the main village as well like multi mortar and the archer towers fast or long-range toggle June 27th builder Hall 6 was introduced new troops like the knight which came and new defenses were all locked in the shop on September 27 2017 builder Hall 7 came along we got the new giant cannon and the new dropship more levels for troops in the home village and builder Hall clan war improvements and many more balance changes heading on to the 11th of October though you could now stock who was online which was pretty cool friendly battles for the builder Hall was added previously this was just for the home village and finally a ton of rework for clan wars more levels clan restrictions and more all the way over to December 18 the last update of 2017 we got a new feature called clan games basically a new feature that would allow players in the clan to earn rewards other than that we got the usual seasonal changes and balance changes now in 2018 on the 1st of February fireworks and fortune trees were also added as an obstacle a new loading screen and true support for the new iPhone X the 5th of March this update was huge along with the new builder Hall eights we got the mega Tesla super Pekka extra buildings traps and the batter machine got five more levels and for the whole village more new cool features like this loader guy on the 11th of June this update blew everyone at other socks where do we start talhah 12 yeah let's start there with till 12 we got siege machines and the siege workshop the wall wrecker the Blin we got the electro dragon you can now change your name multiple times with gems clan improvements and much much more this update was pretty big but of course like I mentioned we're going over nearly a decade of history if you want to check it out for yourself links will be down below for this entire article June 26 we got a lot of upgrade times reduced and that was pretty much it just to make the game a little faster they've returned in October 23rd with some more huge tank content clan war leaks we'll get into the in just a second but this time the game was made even more faster new tornado trap potions magic items and more to sum up clan war leaks though it was one week of the month where clans would battle to prove they're the best along with that there were now League medals fifty years later on the 10th of December supercell released the last updated 2018 new troop the ice golem new bat spell new stone hammer steed machine a couple of new magic items tons of new levels for buildings the rest of the update was builder Homme pace and main village quality of life changes and balance changes oh yeah I forgot there was a maintenance break two days after this update but hey that doesn't really count as an update and then finally the first massive updates of 2019 arrived on February 20 seconds no way nevermind that was another balanced update this is awkward April 2nd 2019 we got the real deal seasoned challenges clang were leaked changes new levels and tons of balance changes now this update may not seem like it was a big deal but all of these small parts is what really made it massive so many new levels economic changes quality of life improvements and yet just in case you thought it was over though it ain't because on the 18th of June 2019 the most recent update so far we got town hall 37 you know I'm aunt Bella tonight along with Boulder Hall 9 was Neil elsword of course new buildings new troops and a new defense as for the main home village though we got some new hero levels magic items practice bill was introduced new allegedly matchmaking patterns and a ton of bug fixes but Jeff after the hats were literally right where we are right now so there hasn't been in the update so far there's probably gonna be one right after I upload this but yeah so far that is the entire history of clash of clans after reading a whole essay back pain and nearly losing my voice I can finally say that should be it like I've mentioned throughout the video every single bit of information will be down below in the description all information was obtained from this website right here so I want to give them a huge shout out anyways though I hope you guys enjoy hope you guys learned a lesson or two today what was classic labs like seven years ago all that stuff really hope you guys enjoyed please like comment and subscribe and as always thanks for watching have it get me out peace

Heritage History Ancient Greece Classical Curriculum



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This video shows some of the great books and resources found in Heritage History’s Ancient Greece Classical Curriculum.

have you ever wanted to learn more about how a small group of Greek cities prevailed in a great war over the much larger and richer Persian Empire or how Alexander the Great conquered most of the East before he was thirty years old the ancient Greece classical curriculum includes more than 50 books written for children and young adults that answer these questions and many more the ancient Greece curriculum follows the story of the Greeks from the earliest days of myth and legend to the foundation of Sparta and Athens and 800 BC and the devastating Peloponnesian War that divided these cities against each other to the gradual decline of Greece until it fell under the Macedonian yoke and finally to the conquests of Alexander the Great delightful mythological tales will introduce your children to the Cyclops and sinks while adapted versions of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey allow them to learn the famous stories without struggling through complicated texts for older students there are simplified versions of Homer Herodotus and the great playwrights perfect for a high-school-aged introduction the study guide included in the ancient Greece curriculum contains summaries of the era's covered maps of important now marks and lists of characters battles and recommended reading while they're learning from well-known philosophers are following the famous war heroes into battle you and your children will love the books available on the ancient Greece CD library

The First Professional Army in History, The Ancient Assyrian Army



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The First Professional Army in History, The Ancient Assyrian Army

Sources:
The Ancient Assyrians by Mark Healy
Warfare in the Ancient World by John Hackett
A History of the Ancient Near East by Marc Van Der Mieroop

Video on History of the Assyrian Empire From the Old Empire to the Neo-Assyrian Empire

This video is sponsored by my Patrons over on Patreon

the ancient Assyrian Empire of the 8th century BC created the world's first professional national standing army in history first let's define what that means professional means that the soldiers were hired and compensated preparing for and waging war became their sole career most armies of that day relied on conscripted levies of peasants in times of war which were supported by a small warrior aristocracy national means that the army was beholdin to the nation-state which was commanded by the king this is in contrast to mercenary units and armies whose loyalties are typically sold to whoever pays the most and tribal warrior societies where every able-bodied man was a warrior such tribal societies lacked a nation state to defend and often sold their services as mercenaries a standing army is a permanent army which is not disbanded during times of peace and recalled out of reserve in times of war and an army is a large number of military units capable of independent action sometimes these armies could be active in the field for several or many years but were always disbanded when no longer needed the organization of most late bronze and early Iron Age armies in the Near East were pretty similar to one another the monarch was commander-in-chief of the nation's military forces he was advised by generals who are also capable of commanding an army independently the chariotry was the most prestigious part of the army which was the most expensive to maintain and required the most skill to operate effectively in battle and were usually manned by the nobility the next most respected an important part of the army was the king's personal bodyguard depending on the time period and size of the state these units can number anywhere from a few dozen a couple hundred or even several thousand men strong and in contrast to the regular territory the ranks of the Kingsguard would have been filled with a men of typically humble origin who had demonstrated exceptional military prowess and or loyalty to the king the bulk of the army was made up from the rural peasantry most of whom would have been farmers the summer months in between the planting and the harvest seasons was the time for war and while the crops occur men died ancient armies of the Near East almost always included units of mercenaries as well before the ancient Assyrian army turned pro they followed a very similar military model to other nations in the ancient Near East with a couple major differences most significantly in Assyria every man was considered a soldier the king the entire nobility every priests peasant scribe and merchant were all soldiers they were not full-time soldiers but they were called to fight far more frequently than any of their contemporaries sometimes on a yearly basis this was because of geography the Fertile heartland of Assyria which was able to support a large population had no natural defenses such as oceans inhospitable desert marshes or being at a high elevation making it vulnerable to attack from the north south east and west consequently a serious defense was achieved by its ability to mobilize a large number of troops of a high quality on a regular basis by the time of the neo-assyrian empire Assyria had existed for over a thousand years with only one significant period of foreign domination which only made them more warlike by the time they regained their independence the same qualities that made the Assyrians great at defending their homeland made them great at attacking others a serious history has several periods of expansion over extension and then contraction they had the ability to conquer an empire but lack the manpower to hold on to conquered territories defend the homeland and keep the economy running at home another major difference between the Assyrians and their contemporaries was how they viewed war – the ancient Assyrian waging war was his religious duty just as many today might consider caring for the poor sick and needy as their religious duty consequently the Assyrians didn't even have to come up with a bad excuse to go to war they always had the same excuse the god asher wants us to go to war so we go to war most other countries in history have at least had to deal with coming up with a bad excuse to convince and motivate their people to fight another country or maybe even a former ally with the syrians this excuse thing was on this sorry they were motivated already let me know in the comments of when you think a really lame excuse was used in history for going to war early Assyrian armies he's very little to no mercenaries but their use did increase over time the king that reformed a serious army and Empire was taketh the lesser the third he was born with the name Pulu and served as a general in the syrian army and then as governor of the capital city of kowloon this was all during a period of extreme assyrian weakness the kingdoms of Urartu in babylon were at war with Assyria and had to cut off the trade routes bringing the metals needed for the production of weapons and farming equipment a serious reaction was inept for a few generations as they were plagued by internal in fighting Civil War and a crashing economy this chaotic period was brought to an end when the governor Pulu usurped the throne slaughtered the royal family and then took the name taketh police' the third as a former governor the first thing he did was drastically reduced the power of the governors the small number of large provinces with powerful governors were split up into many smaller ones most of the new positions were filled with eunuchs who had no descendants and were personally loyal to the king take left-police of the third reform nearly every part of the syrian government structure and bureaucracy most importantly the military he introduced a professional national standing army which was available for service at any part of the empire during any time of the year previous armies were predominantly composed of seasonally conscripted levies of native Assyrians from the area of the Empire closest to the campaign in contrast the kassir show rooty the professional army was drawn from the best men from every region of the Empire even if they weren't a Syrian a path to citizenship was offered for those willing to swear loyalty to the king worship the God of War asher and served in the army on campaign the army was frequently commanded by the king in person but when he was absent one of two field marshals the Tartans of the left and the right could also command the army with the Tartan of the left being the senior of the Jews and was the second most powerful man in Assyria after the king after rapidly reuniting and restructuring Assyria taketh Palazzo the third went on the offensive throughout his 18-year reign he successfully campaigned in just about every direction he conquered Babylon first making it a vassal state and then later fully incorporating it into the Syrian Empire he then defeated Urartu and made it a vassal state as he did with many other small states in Syria and the Levant by the time of his death taketh Palazzo the third had taken a Syria from the verge of collapse and left it more powerful than it ever had been over the next 100 years Assyria was ruled over by a series of capable monarchs who used the professional army to expand the Empire which was larger than any other empire in human history that had come before it the Assyrians were also great innovators in warfare they were the first state in history to use cavalry on the battlefield as combat participants for many centuries cavalry man had been used as messengers and reconnaissance by armies but the Syrians are the first people we know of to make use of large numbers of men and horses on the battlefield when first used in the 9th century BC they were deployed in teams of two where the second man held the archers reins while he fired this system was only used for a short while and the Syrians quickly became expert horseman using increasingly large numbers of horse archers and Lancers which gradually replaced most of the chariotry the Syrians were also great innovators in siege warfare and are the earliest people we know of to have invented siege engines used to breach and destroy the walls of an enemy city when the Syrians besieged a city they first gave it an opportunity to surrender with very minor repercussions if the city did not surrender the Syrians would gather captives from the surrounding countryside they would be brutally eviscerated within eyesight of the city's defenders if the city still did not surrender and forced a siege the Syrians would have no mercy on them and would frequently slaughter or enslave the city's entire population another tactic the Syrians used to great effect was a mass deportation of a rebellious population to another area of the Empire in the fifty years after telleth blazer the third took more than 400,000 people were deported from their homelands the Syrians were not only masters of destruction but building as well like the later Romans the Syrians built a network of roads across their empire and while long campaign the army built a fortified camp each night another hallmark of the Syrian Empire was fortified supply depots where extra food weapons horses and many other war materials were stockpiled this allowed for a great flexibility of movement knowing that the army could be replenished at many locations throughout the empire all of this enabled the Syrian army to move very fast with Assyrian Kings boasting that their armies were able to march 30 miles a day like the later Roman legions the professional Assyrian standing army was often joined by provincial axillary troops or vassal units who were given to the Syrian Empire as tribute from areas as far away as Greek settlements in Asia Minor the most common tribute demanded by the Assyrian Empire was either precious metals horses or trained military units the Syrian army had a wide variety of troop types light infantry was often provided by aramean vassal states in what is now Syria and city-states in southern Mesopotamia the Syrians used slingers in conjunction with archers making it extremely difficult for the enemy to block fire from multiple angles during sieges and often during battles as well archers were accompanied by shield bearers behind which they could fire at the enemy in relative safety a wide variety of infantry shields were used and this likely reflected specialized battlefield roles in addition McAlary and the small agile two-man chariot the Syrians also used a much heavier four-man chariot which carried two Shield bears an archer and a driver and could be extremely effective at breaking up enemy infantry formations if you enjoyed this video I believe you'll love the earlier video I made on the entire history of the Syrian Empire big thanks to my patrons over on patreon this has been Epimetheus thank you so much for watching

Battle of Berlin (ft. Potential History) | Animated Mini-Documentary



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Get World of Warships Blitz and the battleship USS South Carolina for free! Download now for your iOS and Android device: A big thank you to Wargaming for sponsoring this episode!

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Potential History:

Sources:
Glantz, David M. “The Soviet-German War 1941-1945: Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay.” Distinguished Lecture at the Strom Thurmond Institute of Government and Public Affairs, Clemson University 22 (2001): 2001.
Beevor, Antony. Berlin: the downfall 1945. Penguin Uk, 2007.
Кривошеев, Григорий Федотович. “Россия и СССР в войнах ХХ века. Потери вооруженных сил.” (2005).
The Historical Atlas of World War II by Alexander Swanston & Malcolm Swanston
Great Battles of World War II by Chris Mann

Music:
Decisions by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
Source:
Artist:

9th Symphony, Finale by Beethoven

The New Order by Aaron Kenny

Long Note Three by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (
Source:
Artist:

we want to give a massive thanks to world of warships blitz this video would not be possible without their backing world of warships blitz is a free-to-play naval action game that puts you at the helm of your very own warship available for free for your iOS and Android devices you can play more than 140 highly detailed and authentic ships of all types and sizes including quick and stealthy destroyers versatile cruisers imposing fleet carriers and our personal favorite massive battleships try your skills as a naval tactician in epic 7 vs 7 real-time battles against other players all in the palm of your hands the game looks fantastic and is super easy to get into join us and 12 million other players today by downloading the game and using our link in the description below you'll help support this channel and also get the powerful battleship USS south carolina as a free bonus after completing the tutorial hi i'm griffin johnson the armchair historian today's video the battle of berlin it is April 30th 1945 the Third Reich has fallen and the Red Army has occupied most of Berlin Adolf Hitler's plans of nzg or ultimate victory completely unravel as the din of artillery fire and tank shells begins to rupture the Fuehrer bunker to him the German people were at fault if only they had fought harder by glia cowards he exclaims on the other side of the room is Lieutenant General Hans Bauer an accomplished pilot and trusted member of Hitler's staff in resignation he tells him power smash to me funny interruption Titus become an again a real army farad answer that environment when he's gonna fight about the voice that was once renowned for its bombastic fury reduced to a soft murmur the pilot tries to convince the Fuhrer to escape volunteering to transport him to Japan Argentina or the Middle East where he could live out the rest of his days in obscurity however Hitler has made his decision that cake we had with him five weddings and the battle for the city was among the final major offensives of the Second World War and it marked the climactic end of the Nazi Empire which had contracted just as fast as it expanded in 1945 Berlin had a population of about three million down from 4.3 million before the outbreak of war just six years ago as early as the Christmas of 1944 morale among Berliners had reached a critical low point with only the most staunch and fanatic of the Nazi regime clinging to any hope British and American air raids only continued to intensify prompting many residents to spend more time in shelters than not but it was not the British nor the Americans that they truly feared it was that lingering threat from the east the successor state to the nation that had nearly humbled Frederick the Great the state whose people had suffered so much the USSR the symbols etched into the walls of the air-raid shelters were said to mean Lance schnell foolish learn Russian quickly every Berliner knew the Soviets were coming thanks to the Reich minister of propaganda Joseph Goebbels and his efforts morale in Berlin did improve after the initial stages of the Ardenne counter-offensive also known as the Battle of the Bulge which delayed the Allied advance by 5 to 6 weeks however the more perceptive members of the German High Command were still fretful knowing that the Reich was not in a state to protect its eastern border properly most notably general Heinz Guderian chief of the General Staff and general Reinhard Galen head of the military intelligence department for the Eastern Front were fully aware of the impending Red Army advance which severely outnumbered and outgunned its German counterpart intelligence even knew about the general timeframe of the invasion three weeks and where it would happen the line along the river miss Jula and thus it was argued that since the Ardenne offensive wasn't bearing fruit despite what propaganda said much of their strength should be diverted to the east however Hitler remained unconvinced believing that the odds could not be so stacked against these superior Germans and she was validated by his right-hand man Heinrich Himmler who claimed the notion of a Soviet offensive little more than a bluff with his delusions reinforced by his advisers Hitler diverted troops from the Vistula specifically Panzer troops not to set up a defensive line against the Soviets but to launch an ill-advised counter-attack Riis oilfields predicting that German forces would be able to break through to Budapest despite the fact that the city had been surrounded by the Red Army since Christmas this relief attempt promptly failed and the Soviets took the city on February 13th then the Germans launched operation Northland in the West which belonged to the Allied advance but defamed the already battered Luftwaffe the Germans lacked any capability to launch a thrust into Allied or Soviet territory its enemy in the East had 6.7 million men spread on a front ranging from the Baltic to the Adriatic coast well over twice the size of the German army during their invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 which up until then had been the largest invading force in history of those 2.5 million men 40 1600 guns and mortars and 6250 tanks and assault guns constituted the invading force against Berlin which faced approximately 1 million Germans with 10400 guns and mortars and 1,500 tanks and assault guns in the air Germany didn't fare any better the Soviet military deployed 7,500 aircraft against 3,300 German aircraft but these numbers didn't faze Hitler or his top advisors Hermann Goering the supreme commander of the Luftwaffe in a stunning display of cognitive dissonance dismissed Soviet air superiority claiming they were not real planes the Germans did get some things right though joining me today is my friend potential history to talk about just that and give you a general overview of the state of the Red Army at this point the Germans understood that Soviet troops in some cases exhibited a lack of discipline and this was especially evident among young officers eager to prove themselves to their troops despite that though the reigning belief that the Soviets were effective mainly due to their overwhelming numerical advantage while looking like the obvious conclusion on the surface doesn't the full story the soviets outmaneuvered and out planned the germans early on is 1942 and capitalized on their successes by taking huge swathe of land in their offensives in 1943 44 and 45 on top of all of these factors with the end of the war feeling so close at hand the Red Army's morale was at an all-time high knowing the Soviets were coming for retribution yosef gurbles readied a force of 60,000 untrained individuals comprising the lame elderly and women many of these soldiers that I hesitate to even call them soldiers had up to just five rounds of ammunition on them at any time fighting alongside these troops were members of the Hitler Youth some of which were as young as 15 as well as the fanatic remnants of the veteran SS at this point the Fuhrer remained determined proclaiming with his usual gusto the enemy will be greeted by massive artillery fire gaps in our infantry will have been made good by countless new units the Bolshevik must and shall bleed to death before the capital of the German Reich the eve of the offensive had come and the red army sappers began clearing minefields laying the preparation for tanks to cross the bridgehead on the Vistula and to further worsen Germany's situation Hitler ordered the Panzer reserves located in the region to move forward putting them right in the range of Soviet artillery the Soviet assault began at 5:00 a.m. Moscow time On January 12th under a snowy sky it was a sweeping offensive with the Russians easily dispatching the Panzer divisions sent against them and heading straight into syla as well as East Prussia over the next few days the Red Army conquered everything in its path it was not long before the Vistula line collapsed completely but instead of resting on their laurels the Soviets continued to move at breakneck speed over the course of a two-week period of the Red Army captured essentially all of Poland and were only 69 kilometers were 43 miles from Berlin despite this auspicious and speedy star Soviet general Georgy Zhukov renowned commander of the 1st Belarusian front decided to wait until April to march on Berlin itself as a counter-attack from the Germans in Pomerania had to be repelled Hitler may have survived the Ides of March but the Ides of April would spell his doom the three Soviet fronts from the offensives that had taken place up to that point the first Belarusian front the second Belarusian front and the 1st Ukrainian front had an estimated 2.5 million men the Soviets were preparing to completely encircle Berlin not for a strategic purpose per se but in order to keep the Western Allies out on April 16th the Battle of Zelo Heights began as part of the larger battle of order nyjah nearly 1 million soviet soldiers and over 20,000 tanks and guns were sent to the gates of Berlin against a hundred thousand Germans and 1,200 guns tanks the battle only lasted four days before Zhukov's men breached through taking 30,000 losses compared to only 12,000 German losses Zhukov was eager to be the first one in Berlin in order to beat out the commanders of the other two fronts at any cost necessary Stalin wanted the three commanders to race to the German capital and Stalin as we all know was not a man you wanted to displease the next day April 20th was Hitler's birthday and the Soviets gift to him was a complete encirclement of his capital along with heavy shelling two days later the shelling continued uninterrupted and Hitler ordered his 9th and 12th armies to link up who had been occupied on the Western Front and engaged the Soviets this culminated in a number of different engagements one of which the Battle of bouncing was actually a German victory but it was too little too late the Red Army would not be dislodged by April 25th the Soviets were in Berlin itself but the Germans weren't done yet just as in Stalingrad urban warfare commenced the Germans fought Street to Street mounting machine guns snipers and anti-tank weaponry on apartment rooftops where Soviet tanks couldn't reach them in response Soviet tanks stuck to the shoulder of the roads and machine guns were mounted to their sides anti-aircraft guns were used to target Germans on rooftops and flamethrowers and grenades were used to flush out the city's most defiant defenders unlike in Stalingrad there were fewer instances of house-to-house fighting and a greater number of buildings being leveled by self-propelled artillery me having encircled Berlin before entering it from all sides fighting raged on all over the city coursing through the suburbs as well the Germans were pushed back heavily near the Reichstag that proud historic seat of parliament that the Nazis had gutted in their ascent to power while the 1st and 2nd Belarusian armies remained in the city Konev commander of the 1st Ukrainian front ordered a portion of his force to disengage in order to stop the German 9th army from rendezvous in with the German 12th army and relieving Berlin thereafter on April 30th the Soviets were advancing toward the right stag itself a network of trenches tunnels moats and guns surrounded the area and many Red Army troops were gunned down as they tried to close in but gradually the perimeter became tighter and tighter and the defenders numbers began to dwindle when the Soviets finally breached the Reichstag fierce room-to-room fighting commenced on the following day May 2nd the red army finally neutralized the Reichstag and iconically raised the Soviet flag over it modeling's surrendered thereafter and the war in Europe was at an end on the same day as Berlin caved in around him Hitler committed suicide some 10,000 germans remained of the 300,000 that had been drummed up general Hummel divided Lange who took over as the last commander of the Berlin defense area realized the hopelessness of the situation and made it clear that favored surrender only Yosef gurbles opposed him but his resistance was short-lived as the next day gurbles took his own life alongside his family

Special News Report 8 | Superbus, last king of Ancient Rome | Trial and removal of Rome's 7th King



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This is a special news report from WiN’R [What is News in Ancient Rome]. Our 4 reporters are witnessing the removal of Ancient Rome’s 7th King, Lucius Tarquinius SUPERBUS. Why are the Roman people removing their King? What are the crimes or wrongdoings he is accused of? Watch and see as we bring to you live this phenomenal episode in Ancient Rome’s history – the end of the rule of Kings!

Images Credits:

– ¨Brutus Listening to the Ambassadors from the Tarquins¨ by Louis Lafitte, France, circa 1815, now in Los Angeles County Museum of Art [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– The Evil Conscience of Tarquin from The Comic History of Rome by Gilbert Abbott A Beckett and illustrated by John Leech, circa 1850 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– The death of Lucretia by Jörg Breu the Elder, circa 1528 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– Tullia by Jean Bardin, 1765 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– Tarquinius the Superb by Lieven Meus, between 1560 and 1569 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– Painting modified entitled “Appius Claudius Caecus in senate” by Cesare Maccari, between 1881 and 1888 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– Landscape with a Fortress and a Beggar by Jean-Victor Bertin, first half of 19th century [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– Tarquinius Superbus makes himself King from The Comic History of Rome by Gilbert Abbott A Beckett and illustrated by John Leech, circa 1850 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– Tullie faisant passer son char sur le corps de son père, par François-Guillaume Ménageot, 1765, Nancy, musée des Beaux-Arts, [domaine public], par Wikimedia Commons;
– The Beggars (herein modified) by Sébastien Bourdon, between 1635 and 1640 [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– The Construction of the Tower of Babel by Unknown Artist, about 1400 – 1410 with addition in 1487, from Google Art Project [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;
– Tarquin and Lucretia by Jan Sanders van Hemessen, from Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lille, 16th century [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons;

08/20/19 Planning, Zoning & Historical Committee



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Description

we are ready to start the Tuesday August 20 Planning and Zoning a historical committee meeting our last committee meeting of this turn it's been an honor to serve you as your chair for the last two years I also appreciate the co-chairs the vice chairs that have helped us move the committee forward and each one of you appreciate making an effort to attend the meetings so we can engage in conversations about what type of city we want to build so I'm going to start with the consent agenda and some of the items were already pulled by councilmember minute jumps on and if any of you want to pull any other items just let me know and I'm happy to do the councilmember sledge Thank You chair if you could can we just pull every bill off consent that had a disapproval from the Planning Commission if that's okay with the committee we usually do that Thanks thank you very good request any other questions comments before we start all right so they started concent agenda rs.20 19 – 1897 by Syracuse Bednarik oh no it approves an intergovernmental agreement between the Tennessee Department of Transportation and Metro public Metro public works for a traffic signal improvement in connection with the donors on pike interchange RS 2019 – 1898 by Hager Berkshire and others it approves an intergovernmental have agreement between the Tennessee Department of Transportation and the Metro Department of Public Works for the reimbursement of railroads crossing safety improvements at all Hickory Boulevard BL 2019 does 1623 by councilmember hey with it changes twenty point forty nine acres from rs.20 to a are twenty I'm sorry but we don't have a letter I'm going to move this to the to the hill and we'll need a letter or we need a council member here Bo twenty nineteen seventeen eighteen again we don't have a letter for this one I don't think let me check have a letter and cancer member Scott Davis is now here so I'm going to pull it as well the same with 1719 Loomis 1720 we need a letter or we need the councilmember to be here also 1721 by canceled member pads17 22 I'm reading the ones that we are not going to be able to including the consent agenda for the lack of a letter or the sponsor here 17:24 1725 1727 19:41 sorry no it's not we have another identities and the consent agenda is 7 BL 2019 does 17 42 by consumer reporter field we do have a letter to approve it changes 40 3.21 acres from r22 iw the zoning for property located at 25 8125 91 2601 and 26/11 couch will Pike BL 2019 – 17 43 by councilmember sledge it changes 0.83 acres from IWD to MU L a zoning for property located at 22 14 2012 16 22 18 and 22 2010 Avenue another one done we don't have a letter is 1744 and by council member lee we don't have a little either and that will be 1745 so we are also going to move that one BL 2019 1746 by councilmember sledge it changes one point 31 acres from cs2 muga zoning for property located at 11:07 8th Avenue South BL 2019 – 17 47 by councilmember sledge it cancels one point 31 acres of a commercial plan you need development overlay district for a property located at 11:07 8th Avenue South Maryland to move is 1748 we don't have a letter BL 2019 does 1749 by councilmember Syracuse it amends 233 point eighty three acres of the downtown Donaldson urban design overlay district for various properties located on Lebanon Pike from Riley Parkway to Monroe and all Lebanon Pike gbes style Drive Donaldson Pike Fairway Drive mcgavock pike Crump dry part Drive Galen Drive cliff Dale Drive on Benson Road we have an item by consumer member Elrod that needs the letter as well and that will be 1751 VL 2019 the 1752 by councilmember sledge it changes 1.23 acres from CS and CN 2 mu L a zoning for property located at 19 9 12 and 9 26 13th Avenue South and 13th Avenue South and number 17 53 by Scott Davis needs a letter PL 2019 – 1754 by councilmember withers it changes 0.13 acres from CN 2 mu L a zoning for property located at 307 South 11th Street there is an item by councilmember boundaries 1755 an insulator 17:56 by scott davis needs a letter 1757 by councilmember hall needs a letter 1750 a by councilmember scott davis needs a letter BL 2019 17:59 by councilmember Kendall and Glover he changes 0.4 acres from rs5 to our six a zoning for a property located at 2301 Alameda Street the next Island and it's a letter is 1760 1762 needs a letter P L 2019 does 1763 by councilmember Murphy it amends 1.2 91.9 a 2 acres of a specific plan zoning district for a property located at 405 40th Avenue North to permit a mixed-use development 1764 as an amendment but it has a letter to approve so technically we yep all right BL 20 19.7 councilmember lower just very quickly all right so if there is the amendment and there's a letter to approve does the amendment still need to be moved okay all right thank you thank you consumer clock so this one will be included on the consent agenda is BL 2019 1764 by councilmember Roberts it changes three-point 82 acres from CS to SP zoning for various properties located east of 51st Street Avenue north to permit 400 multi-family residential units and 26,000 square feet of non-residential uses like a is the lawyer to approve we have won by councilmember primal bill 2019 1765 it changes 1.96 acres from our s 7.5 to SP zoning for property located at Shannon Avenue and number to permit 28 multi-family residential units we have won by councilmember swoop that needs a letter that is 1768 66 was Paul thank you cheer that one got pulled that's why I specifically because it just has an amendment to it so that's why I was asking if you're not here and there is a you know a letter or what but I'm here now so it was pulled for what reason if a man councilmember may now Johnson request it to people oh okay very good thank you thanks for asking and just for the viewing audience when we pull an item from the consent agenda is because some of the committee members have requested that we remove it from the consent agenda story can be discussed on the committee BL 2019 – 1770 by councilmember O'Connor he changes 0.72 acres from our six a to SP zoning for property located at 1304 and 1306 Hawkins Street to permit nine multi-family residential units BL 2019 – 1771 by councilmembers Kendall on Glover the it changes 0.44 acres from RS 5 – r 6 a zoning for property located at 24 11 and 24 13 Booker Street BL 2019 – 1772 why cancel member O'Connell it cancels a Planning development located a nine Carroll Street 72 and 78 Charles E Davis Boulevard 78 92 and 128 Lafayette Street yeah I said Lafayette okay yes I'm trying be BL 2019 does 1773 by O'Connell it changes from CS and rm20 to SP zoning for a property located at nine Carroll Street 72 and 78 Chelsea Davis Boulevard 78 92 and 128 Lafayette Street at the corner of Lewis Street and Lafayette Street to permit a mixed-use development BL 2019 – 1774 by Porter field is the letter to approve it changes 3.06 acres from CS to SP zoning for property located at 25 40 Murfreesboro Pike and Lake bill drive and number to permit 50 multi-family residential units and a maximum of 10,000 square feet of commercial use be it as an amendment there is a letter to approve requesting let me read it to you I mean I'm the sponsor co-sponsor of the above reference legislation that is on the planet zoning historical committee the agenda scheduled for today I was 20 I'm unable to attend this meeting and requesting for approval and it's signed by the councilmember committee can approve so as Mike was saying before she can move the amendment in the in the floor and then we'll just can choose to put it on the consent agenda do you want to move it out of the consent agenda okay so it's still on the consent agenda next item is BL 2019 1776 as amended by councilmember Glover it changes 21.73 acres from rs.15 to SP zoning for property located at 41 39 41 6140 169 4179 41 85 41 93 and 42 11 central pike and central pike and number to permit a mixed-use development BL 2019 to 1778 by councilmember O'Connell he changes 0.6 acres from r6 a to SP for property located 15 14 15 16 15 18 H Hill Avenue to permit 10 multi-family residential units there's another one by councilmember Scott Davis I'm going to move and there is 1779 needs a letter we have one by councilmembers hope that doesn't have a letter and there is 1780 BL 2019 1782 by councilmember O'Connell it changes one point eighteen acres from our six a to SP zoning for on property located at 1825 1827 1829 1831 1833 and 1835 third Avenue north to permit 29 multi-family residential units BL 2019 1784 by councilmember Anthony Davis we don't have a letter and that is 1784 I'm moving it the next you sayonara can he sign now we don't have that hard copy but we can go get it to the clerk's office if you want to go run and get it it's 1784 are we losing quorum if he works on them okay VL 2019 1785 Arkansas americano didn't he demands 0.85 acres on a specific plan for various properties located west of Jenkins Street to permit owner occupied short-term rental properties BL 2019 1787 by councilmember Kendall and Glover it changes 3.89 acres from CS and I are to MU H mu G a zoning for property located at 2200 Charlotte Avenue BL 2019 to 1788 by council member orko no it changes 0.32 acres from ir to SP zoning for property located at 14 1814 23rd Avenue north to permit a mixed-use development BL 2019 – 1789 by councilmember scandal and Glover it changes 2.52 acres from IR to CS a zoning for property located at 627 19th Avenue north and the last item on the consent agenda is BL 2019 – 1790 by Kendall and Glover he changes 0.20 a KERS from rs5 to ours 6 a zoning for property located at 15 25 31st Avenue North councilmembers lower it's very quickly how our wait until mr. Jameson's ready did you sign up on that one so I'm going to bring that up as well if that's okay with you consumer oh sure okay another item we are adding to the consent agenda is BL 2019 1784 by Anthony Davis he remains zero point seven acres of the Porter Road specific plan for property located at 1505 15:09 Porter Road to remove all commercial space and replace with a maximum of 24 multi-family residential units I think council member already have one just the one from Anthony Davis councilmember Elrod is here now so we can read his one and that is BL 2019 17:51 he changes 0.28 0.28 a KERS from rs10 to our 10 zoning for property located at 49 20 Chester Drive those are all the items on the consent agenda and councilmember global wants to ask you a personal question okay so mr. Jameson so we well actually I want to ask you two questions if I may because council member Davis is not here and because it will be deferred by rule he will have to suspend the rule on every so my question is chair would you mind holding some of his that that have not been asked to be pulled I will go sign on with those in order to hopefully keep us moving tonight in the meeting otherwise we're gonna be asked for you know defer but you know for suspension of rules on multiple multiple bills councilmember globe our that is very nice of you I think you should well I'm just asking I mean if I do that then he doesn't have to suspend the rules yeah all right so mr. Jamison can you just very quickly tell me that the numbers and I'll go back here and I will make sure I go do that right now sorry chair it's okay so that would be items council member Murphy I'm sorry I was distracted because I was talking to the planning director about planning things I want to make sure that we're treating everybody fairly so what we're doing for councilman Davis are we doing that for other councilmembers who also didn't do what they needed to do to apply letters and things like that yeah just happened make sure any of you that wants to go and sign on on the legislation of anybody who's not here are welcome to do a world-wide this is the last meeting let's finish this right so you're I'll tell you who wasn't here we have a learner you can go and sign if you want I just want to make sure that we're applying the rules to everyone fairly I hope I am but Thank You councilmember withers Thank You mr. chair and to address the question from councilmember Murphy Casper move in that particular case I do respect the the drive toward continuity and how we handle these cases but for the the Porter Road case that is in the Rose Bank neighborhood which lies in both district six and seven and so I'm very familiar with that particular project and that's why I'm comfortable signing on to it some of some of my colleagues bills I would not necessarily be comfortable standing on to but appreciate that point thank you if well that's fine councilmember Gloria had another question all right no I mean I'm fine if you guys don't want me to sign on and we want to spend the night here I'm okay with that no I'm just trying to cut through the timeline I don't think okay well no all right so mr. Jamison if I may I'll get the number sorry you do have one that is none concerned so I will yeah okay all right yep so we could go through the numbers or we could go start back at the top of the agenda and just as we come to one that has a Scott Davis bill bump it to the heel whichever the whatever the whatever the pleasure of the chair is I'm fine with that that's a lot of power for me I'll think of her last day enjoy it man relish it all right thank you well I hope he's not on my last day okay so so do I have a motion to pass to approve the consent agenda there is a motion is there a second a point of order if we if we pass the consent agenda have we not just I mean maybe I misunderstood you we can add items to the consent agenda later you can group those that come after this okay all right however you want to do it that's right yeah yeah I promise you I give you my word I will no I'm not worried about that I'm just trying to make sure we try to operate efficiently thank you thank you so the consent agenda we just came up with and we have a motion by councilmember withers do I have a second we have a motion and a second all in favor say aye opposed all right so now I'm going to start going over the items that are not on consent which are quite up quite a bit and then I would like you guys to stay after that because council member Berkeley Alan would like to engage in a conversation about her legislation so I'm going to start with the islands that were not on consent the first one is BL 2018 is this is interbreeding BL 2018 the six 1363 by council members were so uncovered it changes five 5.15 acres from RS 10 to SP zoning for property located at 949 44 career road and Quarry Road and number to permit 24 multi-family residential units councilmember glowered let me deal with thank you so cheer I'm gonna withdrawal this I've spoken to the developer and you know I really don't want to use this opportunity to preach too much however I feel like I have to because unfortunately when we all get involved in each other's districts these are the kind of things that occur and the developer has said that that he's not gonna withdraw it I mean excuse me he's gonna withdraw it he's not gonna bring it back for the SP and so I just want to make sure people understand that when he does the straight zoning with it then they'll have no more input they will do straight zoning and that's what's gonna occur and I regret that the timeline ran out as well I assure you and I will remind everybody in the chamber and especially you chair I signed on this to help just like I'm trying to do with some of these tonight as many of us have done throughout the the course of the term I think it's very dangerous when we're crossing over into each other's territories and in our districts because there are a lot of moving parts and this one I I couldn't say you know how who was right and who was wrong I know there were a lot of blunders and so therefore you know I just hope that in the next term that people you know I realized that a lot of folks say council minded courtesy is not a good thing however if it's not a good thing then the whole room should be at-large members we're elected by the people in our district to represent us on this one I get the fact of this one but I hope that we will be cautious going forward so with that I will be withdrawing this bill thank you all right so there's no vote right all right Thank You councilmember okay the other item that this was an item that wasn't on consent but the sponsor is not here that Scott Davis that's BL 2019 does 1464 all right so we can wait till the end but if the sponsor is not here and there's no letter so let me ask you all just just for the rest of the meeting to get your sense of on how we should do things like this should we bump this to the hill or just both to the phurba rule I mean all right so I needed somebody to make a motion I have a motion to the FIR BL 2019 1464 let me read it change it changes 0.20 a KERS from SP R to RM 15 days owning for the property located at 1218 Montgomery Avenue so I have a motion to defer by rule and then do I have a second I have a second all in favor say aye you want to talk about this yes councilmember wagers Thank You mr. chair if council member Davis were to appear in the chamber during our meeting would he be able to put it back on an agenda for discussion or does this in a different rule control so you could suspend the rules he'll have to suspend this is a bill that required three rule suspensions this had to be reinstated at the last meeting did not get that rule suspended it's been placed on this agenda with a timely request but now it's been more than 90 days so we asked us to spend rule 23 and then they'll have to suspend the rule that requires committee consideration since the committee is deferring by rule thank you for that explanation but just within the course of this actual committee meeting if he were to appear and to request to have a deliberation on it sure would he still be able to do that within this committee if he should appear in time he could ask the committee to rescind and then ask for consideration okay thank you all right all in favor of the first say aye opposed it's the third next item again it was by councilmember Scott Davis and councilmen were lowered this is 1516 councilmember glower okay I'll move to them all right 15 16 yes it was just pulled by councilmember Mina Johnson okay now now we're going into one that was disapproved by the Planning Commission well I was going to wait till he did oh yes so I apologize tell me which way you would prefer for me to handle is the disapproved I'm you know I'm fine with with deferral by rule because it is disapproved and if he's not here then at that part I'm not willing to take that I just has the committee okay what they told me is if he's not here and is disapprove then they are going to one okay then I'm gonna scratch where I've signed in in the event of accidentally signed one disapprove Thank You Jer all the ones you're signing now when we are done we're going to do a new consent agenda of the ones that were not pulled and then I'm going to ask the committee to consider keeping them on the consent agenda okay you tell me when you're ready I've got a stack oh yeah as possible thanks let's go to the one that is disapprove this is my consumer Hastings he's not here so that's BL 2019 does sixteen eleven we don't have a letter it changes approximately 5.30 one acres from our a to SP zoning for property located at 10:14 B and 1018 West Trinity Lane and portions of property located at 9:48 B Young's Lane Young's line and number and 1014 C and 1014 the West Trinity line to permit a mixed-use development with 117 multi-family residential units and 24,000 square feet of non-residential units so we need a motion we have a move to the FIR we have a second all in favor say aye opposed this is the FIR all right the next item is by councilmember O'Connell is not on consent it was disapproved by the Planning Commission is BL 2019 16 14 by councilmember O'Connell amends the Metro code pertaining to prohibited science councilmember O'Connell Thank You mr. chair I'd like to do I have an amendment on this one to use a proposal okay I'm one of them I'm pretty sure the housekeeping amendment right yeah I'm gonna I'm gonna move the amendment please so we have him the councilmember is moving the amendment to his legislation there is a second all in favor say aye opposed all right so let's have a discussion I think you just wanted to vote no I'm not sure there's much discussion here I uh I guess I'm ready that so we've got the bill as amended now okay let's raise hands all in favor of the amendment raise your hand opposed the amendment passes Councilmember birthday Ellen would you like to talk about the amendment or the legislation there were there was another amendment that is not my amendment that I do not intend to move okay so are you he's that amendment years no no no I don't like that I'm it I don't want to come I just wanted a quick explanation of what this bill does and why we think it's good yeah why do you think is good that's that's a harder question to answer I suppose they the the reason it is good is in my basically what this does is it tries to move a non-conforming digital billboard into conformance by changing the underlying zoning it is right on the edge of the interstate I've worked carefully with the council office to basically create a very narrow text amendment we did a considerable amount of community outreach none of the area residential community has particular concerns about it and so at this point the Billboard has already been operating as a digital display for quite some time so this is from the standpoint the Billboard operator this is basically a fix-it bill and that is it any more questions one final quote is this within 100 feet of any residential areas or any of those distances that may be nervous it is and I well it is in it's within that distance but with mdh a and a community member we did a considerable amount of direct outreach and I don't think I have it on my desk anymore but at the meeting when this was originally to be in front of the committee we had a sheet of a bunch of folks who basically signed off on saying this was not dude this this doning bill in particular was not a concern okay okay council lady customer member mina Johnson Thank You chair so if I understand correctly so councilmember IKONOS amendment originally this was one location was attached so as I exhibit so amendment it will remove that exhibit sword no that is not my amendment I don't believe it is yes that's what it says all right okay there was another amendment that I thought did that as well but this one okay that's fine so this amendment so I'm kind of utterly confused if you are removing that exhibit so what this exactly this bill do still just giving the special exception to one existing a digital billboard or what's the intent that is still the intent of the bill but I think mr. Jamison can speak to the cleanup that is correct there is only one billboard that this was applied to if you read the description along this combined interstate segment of i-40 and i-65 near downtown along the west side the exhibit was not referenced in the text of the language it simply was a map of where that billboard is but it was not referenced and because it's not referenced it was not proper to include as a reference to exhibit by approving this are we in a subject to open up all the area within that alongside with the section or just to apply to this one specific billboard because then the area that would be approved is so narrowly tailored and because of the distancing requirements that have to be imposed between billboards you're only approving one location I'm looking behind you at the attorney that I know is represented that party and he's nodding so I'm gonna assume that that is that I'm correct I understand so if even though if this one is applied to this one specific Bureau Gord I think it was when our board zoning appeal was so happy to change every single Bilbo to LED and there was that kind of time so for that specific reason I am not comfortable supporting this one so please mark myself no and it's all other else's for whichever the committee's will about I I would like to be marked as opposed Thank You councilmember council member cobi / sledge thank you sir quick question for the planning staff with the amendment does this bill still is this bill still disapproved by the Commission it is the amendment does not change the recommendation of planning from planning's perspective Bill's such as zoning ordinances or amendments to the text should be applicable kind of countywide and not specifically to certain areas it needs to be a more holistic approach to the approval of digital signs and so it's kind of a fundamental issue with a text amendment that's so narrowly focused thank you for consistency's sake I'm gonna move to defer this disapproval okay we have a motion to deferred the bill is there a second we have a motion and a second all in favor say aye please raise your hand opposed raise your hand or defer row all right five four three against mr. chair was the final vote there five four three against the first the motion was to the first its we're done with this one all right and and there was another amendment by councilmember saw but he's no here so there's there is no moving of the legislation so 16-14 was defer next item by consumer Hastings BL 2019 1682 it was disapproved by the Planning Commission he changes 1.96 acres from our a to MU L a zoning for property located at 1012 1014 West Trinity Lane consumer here do you want to talk about this one no only one before well it was the first so okay so council members Sledge look to the firm we have a motion to defer the the sponsor is not here we have a motion motion and second all in favor say aye opposed 1792 was the FIR we're going to do some Scott Davis legislations that are not going to be sponsor co-sponsor by councilmember Glover and so you guys can take a stab at it BL 2019 does 1728 by councilmember Scott Davis it was disapproved by the Planning Commission it changes to point 66 acres acres from RM 28 to MU L Arizona for property located at 818 I 2022 a 24 26 and 820 a Cherokee Avenue councilmember sledge will to defer there is councilmember Scott Davis what are you mad at why are you looking at me like that okay so would you like to speak about your legit we just have a motion to the fur by canceled members sledge so I'm going to get the sponsor on the mic and you want to speak about the deferral let's discuss the bill I'm here we are at DL 2019 this – 1728 does the one on Cherokee Avenue and councilmember slate just made a motion to the first I assume time they withdraw the motion please what I ask from Kylie to withdraw the motion please councilmember sledge I really mimosa so we have him he renews his motion so you want to make an argument against the defer like please don't defer I want to talk about it um let's not defer because I want to talk about okay thank you so we have a motion is there a second there's a motion and a second any other discussion got a member Gloria you had requested to talk no all right yes sir the the other bills prior to 228 here you're gonna move the all the approve to the end I'm just trying to make sure I'm keeping up with where we are in this okay all right thank you okay so this is where we are we have a motion to defer by councilmember sledge councilmember Scott Davis is asking you not to defer and now I'm going to ask you to vote on that request of a deferral all in favor of the deferral raise your hand point of order I was in the room when he said that the cameras were their father today so doesn't the FERPA rule if I'm he in in chambers it's not the photo boy rule he's just asking to the FIR oh well he's asking to the further legislation I thought I heard him say the Ferber rule okay sorry the point is it's not because you're not here it's because well I don't want to speak for you council members sorry yeah I'm under no obligation to explain my motion everything my motion all right so all in favor raise your hand okay against raise your hand it was the fur by the committee all right next item it was disapproved by the Planning Commission this is BL 2019 the 1729 it changes 0.36 acres from rs5 to are six a zoning for property located at 329 Edwin Street Council member Scott Davis this is yours well let's see I notice you have any I'd like to second he's not at the committee so I'm asking you to make a case for your legislation so somebody else can choose to move it councilmember globe is making a motion to approve is there a second there's no second so that's it all right next item if you guys can bear with me for a minute okay so what I'm going to do now is do a second consent agenda okay and I have some letters that were added now so I'm going to go through the ones that are now have alerted to approve okay so okay actually there is one consumer Davis that Mina Johnson had requested that we pull so we can do that before the consent agenda cats that is 1516 BL 2019 does 1516 he changes 0.18 acres from rs5 to SP zoning for property located 25 725 Hart Avenue to permit up to three residential units we have a motion to approve substitute do we have a second or we have a motion and a second go ahead Thank You chair now I've called my breath a little bit I was prepared to move a substitute on this but maybe about an hour ago I received a petition and at first I thought it was kind of fake so I called some of the neighbors had signed like Calvin that lives at 7:26 across the street and the neighbors right next door they're fine with how it is and so I want to not substitute the bill and move it forward and if I had time you know it'll be placed on their desk especially when I have a 50 year old resident on Hart that lives right next door to it saying they're okay with it you know because they were told that this was going to be Airbnb which you can't they were told it was going to be a four-story Hotel or it's gonna be five units and it's not and we had a meeting at the Maxwell Heights neighborhood association a week ago and majority of people there were in favor of this which at first I'm like this can't be I've been hearing you know for a couple of people that no one wants it no one wants it but seeing the evidence of the neighbors and speaking to the neighbor that's directly affected Calvin on Hart Avenue he's fine with him you know he didn't like it when he heard when he was told it was gonna be a hotel but it's not a hotel you know it's just three regular you know single family units I want to move approval it's a pro by the Planning Commission well there was a motion already and a second you don't want to move the substitute council lady Mina Johnson you you are on the floor Thank You chair yes I wanted to give a clarification because we all received email from councilmember elect for this district and then on this particular bill it says please consider voting YES on the substitute bill not original it says neither applicant know our neighbors are especially happy about the substitute but it's something everyone can live with so neighbors are strongly opposed to the original proposal to build three small homes on the small lot and I think the substitute is one a detached two duplex so I'm ugly confused I'm comfortable approving substitute about under the circumstances I'm not comfortable approving the original will Thank You councilmember councilmember withers Thank You mr. chair I made a comment on the floor that the Maxwell Heights neighborhood leader came to us and expressed confusion about the bill that there had been discussions for over a year and yet the bill that was brought before us did not reflect those discussions I stated on the floor that unless I heard from the neighborhood leader or the Neighborhood Association leader that her and that groups concerns have been resolved that I would not be supporting the bills so I will not be supporting this bill unless I hear that from from that neighbor glitter I won't be supporting either version of this bill thank you guys so member councilmember glowered I mean I'm just gonna simply say again it's an approved bill we keep climbing into each other's districts ah and that's what we've done I just hope in the next term this is not done because I think it gets very dangerous I'm gonna go with it because I mean I just again it's an approved bill he's done the meetings etc so anyway Thank You councilmember Murphy so and just for clarification mr. Jameson if if a so if this bill does not move for tonight and the next council person who we have heard from for this district would like to move it forward in October it would not have to go back through planning right they could bring it back with a substitute or they could bring it back and we would have a public hearing and hear from these neighbors that had supposedly changed their mind is that right so procedurally the process and the council does start over any bill that's not resolved tonight essentially is withdrawn and we'd begin again but the planning recommendations for each of these bills persists for two years and so that would apply to this bill as well as to others that aren't resolved okay so since we do have conflicting information I feel totally comfortable with with letting the new council member or handle this so we can just get that clarification because it is a rush tonight and I know that we have a lot of bills and well we do have a motion on the floor I guess I'll just go ahead and call the question or that or I've been talking so I guess I can't know you just make any emotion okay so I'll make the motion to just go ahead and call the question let's let's vote move on i you you make a motion to the fer we have a motion on the floor all right so we have a motion for the previous question all in favor say aye he said about the previous question okay you know the meeting that is pre-recorded sir is to say the council leg disagree got some of our glory yeah just very quickly mr. Jamison do it I'm really kind of confused I don't remember us calling questions in committee I thought we talked it all the way through and then we're on when we're on the floor if it gets called we vote otherwise we talk it through here in committee that really is the purpose of committee am i incorrect in that no that's the traditionally been that the previous question is a rule that is called on the floor but each committee operates by its own rules so if there's a previous motion previous question motion it's in the deference of the committee chair to recognize that and call it vote should he wish well then chair I will leave it up to you I just think that I mean we seem to be inventing ourselves again in the last meeting of this term thank you yeah but it's calling the question I mean this we are not you're the chair if that's what you want to do I think she called a question you guys bought all in favor were calling the question raise your hand just call the question it fails it takes two-thirds okay so it failed so we continue the conversation council member of corner Thank You mr. chair I guess I would ask planning am I correct that the bill is originally filed was approved by the Commission that's correct the Planning Commission made a recommendation of approval with conditions and disapproval without the application is originally filed included not owner-occupied short-term rentals but those were removed by the Planning Commission and so they're not included and that's how the bill was filed okay perfect would the substitute can you speak to whether it would be approved by I guess the Commissioner or would it get a staff recommendation would it be consistent with policy having not seen any plan associated with the substitute it would be difficult to determine what would be considered I think it makes it two units a principal unit and a subservient unit as opposed to three units orienting to the primary street that's going through and so the orientation would change and so I think we'd have to see a plan but the orientation was one of the reasons for the approval of the original with the three units thank you I'm comfortable with the Bill's originally filed all right so there is nobody else on the queue there is a motion to approve without the substitute it was it was second so all in favor raise your hand all abuzz raise your hand it's a tie okay what I'm going to do now is if it's okay with the rest of you is I'm going to go through all the scott davis legislations that he's here now the word on the consent agenda and the ones that i have letters for and make a new consent agenda is there any opposition to that all right so I'm going to start reading the ones that what they don't have any opposition or the words supposed to be and consent to begin with all right if you guys give me a minute I want to make sure I check all these letters and then I'll start council member Scott Davis yes okay when I've read them you can tell me that you wanna withdraw it okay is that okay thank you sir it'll take me a couple of minutes so talk among yourselves all right so I'm going to start going through the the second consent agenda I guess at any time you all want me to pull anything out or you want to withdraw like councilmember Scott David said just make sure I I see you all right okay the first item on the new consent agenda is BL 2019 the 1718 by councilmember Scott Davis he changes 15 for 14 acres from CSCL or are 20 and are six to emulate owning for various properties located along each Trinity Lane between the CSX railroad and Gallatin Pike that was approved by the Commission BL 2019 – 1719 by consumer Scott Davis approved by the wid conditions he changes 0.34 acres from r6 a to SP zoning for property located at 314 and 316 Duke Street to permit five multi-family residential units BL 2019 – 1720 by consumer Scott Davis approved by the planning commission he changes 0.29 acres from SPR to our 6a zoning for property located at 10:26 North 7th Street BL 2019 – 1721 by councilmember pods we have a learner to approve it consoles 4.27 sorry it cancels 4.77 acres of a planning development for a property located at Wallace Road BL 2019 17:22 by councilmember Scott Davis approved by the Commission it changes to point 87 acres from IR to mu and a zoning for property located at 747 Douglas Avenue BL 2019 the 1724 by councilmember Scott Davis he changes 0.51 acres from rs5 to RM to any a zoning for property located at 1519 Meridian Street a changes from rs5 to RM 15 eyes owning for property located at 15:23 Meridian Street BL 2019 – 1725 I consumer Scott Davis it changes 0.4 from rs5 to our six a zoning for property located at a 32 lishi Avenue which one do you want to withdraw okay so make sure I see you know this is 17 25 years fine BL 2019 – 17 27 by consumer Scott Davis approve with conditions immense 3.23 acres of a specific plan district for property located at 206 Bond Street and 900 900 and 103 900 million street and 307 309 Cleveland Street to permit an additional restaurant in a mixed-use development BL 2019 the 1741 by councilmember Scott Davis it changes 0.14 acres from SP to our 6a zoning for property located at 10:29 North 6th Street BL 2019 does 1744 I cancel member Scott Davis he changes it was approve of the Commission it changes 0.25 acres from SP to rm20 a is oniy for property located at 12:20 North fifth Street BL 2019 to 1745 I can sue member Lee we have a learner to approve it was approved by the planning commission he changes three acres from AR to a 2 mu L a zoning for property located at Murfreesboro Pike BL 2019 the 1740 a by councilmember Scott Davis it I was approved by the Commission he changes 0.16 acres from rs5 to are six a zoning for property located at 1120 a McFerrin Avenue now the next okay BL 2019 the 1753 by councilmember Scott Davis he changes 0.55 acres from CN to mu and a zoning for property located at 722 and 720 seen McFerrin Avenue I skip 1 because consumer marina Johnson asked that we pull that one hour and I was 1750 BL 2019 the 1756 by councilmember Scott Davis it was approved by the Commission he changes 0.19 acres from SP to r6 a zoning for a property located at 8:11 Leisha Avenue PL 2019 does 1750 a by councilmember Scott Davis it changes 0.18 acres from r6 a to rm20 a zoning for properties located at 147 a 147 B and 147 C Amherst Avenue BL 2019 – 1760 by consumers scott davis he changes 0.55 acres from rs5 to RM 20 oz owning for property located at 7:38 douglas avenue BL 2019 – 1762 by councilmember scott davis he changes 0.32 acres from rs10 to RM 15 a zoning for property located at 511 East Trinity Lane bill 2019 – 1779 by councilmember Scott Davis it was a provider Commission will conditions it changes 0.20 a KERS from rs5 to SP zoning for property located at 1005 Mansfield Street to permit early touch accessory dwelling dwelling units all right so all those are the items I'm checking 1798 1798 all right well we look for it in the meantime do I have a motion to okay we have a motion is there a second there's a motion and a second all in favor of the second consent agenda say aye opposed all right we have other items that were not on consent the council member Johnson had requested that we pull out and then I'm going I'm going to us my to tell me which ones I missed because this has been like a hot car hopscotch okay give me a second okay BL 2019 does 1750 by councilmember Scott Davis it changes one point 46 acres from RS 5 2 r m9 a zoning for property located at 10:13 10:15 10:17 1019 1021 10 23 10 25 and 10 27 McClurkin Avenue we have a motion is there a second we have a motion a second councilmember Davis was approved by the planning commission I went from the Renoir Neighborhood Association based they approved of it and so look for problem all right councilmember marina Johnson thank you just wanted to making sure the caption is right so it's not address 5 to our 20 a originally requested but recommended rs5 to RM 9a that correct okay then I'm in the support thank you all right only favor say aye opposed okay so now I ask you to bear with me for a minute while we do this thing in the meantime I'm going to invite council lady consume member Berkley Alan to give her the floor if I hope nobody has a problem I think this she has some important conversation to have Thank You mr. chair I appreciate that opportunity I just AM aware that there are a number of substitutes and amendments to BL 2019 1633 and that it actually hadn't been referred back to this committee and thought it might be useful to have some of the conversation about those options before we got to the full council floor so I would just maybe suggest that we run through those in whatever order they are are they do we ever turn them into a B C and D at this point or do we have reference points for him I would I just would would like for people to be aware of what those options are rather than sort of hearing about them the first time on the council floor there is amendment a which was one that I threw out there just as another option if people feel like we're not trying to resolve this issue of stopping when are in permits can be offered to change the effective date from May 31 2020 to January 1 2020 and mr. Jamison you can you can clarify whether that actually does anything or is just just a cumbersome een if that really changes what permits can be issued is that what's the question so I'm talking about the four amendments that are that are offered tonight that are going to be on the floor the first one is a simple one that may or may not be offered that would change the effective date from May of 2020 to January of twenty and my question to you is does that actually change anything or is that I had I had just done it to shorten that time period of wind permits could be issued so people would feel like we were making a substance the effective date from May – right but in terms of wind permits had to be wind coats has to be notified that someone wants a permit that's still January of 2012 stones in place correct so the milestones are in place okay so that that one's an easy one second one was councilmember O'Connell's if you want to speak to that very briefly which would change the number of new subsequent owners that that could apply for a short-term rental permit from two to one oh sorry mr. chair this is just a simple amendment I think most people heard me after public hearings saying I'd prefer zero after continuing to talk to you both neighborhoods and some stakeholders within the industry just looking for sort of the best iteration of this bill that could pass this is a simple one that reduces the number of transfers from two to one thank you and I'm open to discussion if people want to jump in and talk about these okay thank you a question for mr. Jamison with the transferability piece which I know I struggled with as did councilmember O'Connor but I'm really interested in this discussion that he's had with numerous parties if we do reduce it from two to one that still does create a property right that runs with the land is that correct creates the allowance for the property to remain eligible it is not necessarily it's never going to be anything more than an annual permit that's issued but if you have a property that has transferred more than once then it is no longer eligible for that permit but the annual permit is not deemed to be a vested property right any of these even if you do the one transfer eligibility you have to comply with all the other provisions all the other STRP regulations but you do not lose eligibility with that one transfer and these are all being done in the guise of our end Zoning eventually essentially being phased out at various dates right okay so there wouldn't be any vested rights or anything like that that I know we've had some emails about this potentially causing problems throughout the county of other types of permits such as this work we're sought also to have a vesting or a transfer ability pieces there is there a way to prevent that or mitigate against that possible expansion beyond a set number of actual permits we've done in the recitals clauses to spell out that this is a unique scenario where permit holders or anticipated permit holders were acting under appropriate governing code that this body had in part enacted and that through no fault of their own during that period of time would be caught up in eventual elimination to address that subset of individual property owners and anticipated permit holders that's the intent of this bill and hopefully that scenario is not recreated in any other zoning context okay thank you and then I guess one final question for me when the state did pass alleged there legislation with regard to short-term rentals my impression of it is is that the way that that worked is that permits that were issued when a certain piece of distillation was before the council they are those permits are treated according to whatever that legislation was at that time they are grandfathered in and so would that similarly already be the case with these with with permits that have STR not own or about STRs in an REM zone would they also be grandfathered already about it by virtue of that state legislation right if you have an RM zone property and you have a short-term rental permit today that cannot be deprived of you by state legislation if you do not have that permit this body is entitled under the auspices of the state legislation to eventually phase them out or prohibit them at some date certain without violating the state law without my link state law and so what this particular measure hopes to do or our aims to do is to provide for folks that are sort of in the works of a permit like for a property that they're acquiring or working on redeveloping is that accurate so the original the the version of the 1633 that is currently pending before you the current substitute does try to address those people that were caught so to speak in the middle during a period of time when this was perfectly legal and they made investments assuming that that would be the case tomorrow and this is an attempt to accommodate that subset of people but eventually phase out other RM zone properties in the future okay thank you so much for those answers Thank You councilmember glower so mr. Jamison I want to ask a question if I may so here we are with about 36 hours worth of information trying to figure this out we've been battling this thing for how many years now six maybe somewhere in that range and we rushed into it before and this is where we've gotten and the state has stepped in various things have occurred that we're trying to fix however on the very last meeting of this term we're taking a very complex issue and we're looking to put a bandaid on what may be a hemorrhage in fact with that considering that you get a two-year window correct me if I'm wrong on what I'm about to say you get a two-year window to do a transfer you put it into an LLC the property is placed into an LLC much like a trust and so therefore you sell the LLC which has that asset inside of it and perhaps one or two other assets inside of it and so it becomes perpetual so if it becomes perpetual then are we in fact solving anything or are we in fact putting the smaller businesses out of business because we've opened up a loophole because again unintended consequences if I didn't ask the question well I'll try and clarify it thank you I think there are two that I will do my best to unpack with respect to the fact that the transfer in ownership won't have as much of an effect on an LLC or a corporate entity because while the personnel underlying that entity could change the shell remains intact and so it's therefore not a real transfer that is true that is not changed by this legislation that isn't in fact the case today all non-owner occupied entities that are owned by a corporate entity have no transfer implications by virtue of the sale of the LLC the personnel can change I'm sorry if the LLC changes in sells to another one that's a transfer but if the personnel in the LLC change that's the case today that is not endemic to this current substitute with respect to the the notion that we were here on the last meeting the last day I would I would defer to the sponsor but what I have observed is after six oh eight passed quickly the state legislation came into play and essentially required grandfathering of anybody that had their permit today but did allow various other provisions which are in the current substitute that you have before you multiple provisions that are consistent with state law the council office then invited all council members let us know what other changes you want that are consistent with this new state law and will eventually file an omnibus bill to correct it and update as to state law that was about a year because we were waiting on the fee study to take place we wanted to file it in conjunction with a fee study that took about a year and additional months the fee study ordinance came out this ordinance was introduced and it was sent to everybody that had ever requested anything with respect to short-term rental properties council lady allen was the first to sign off on it and his lead sponsor I think she would probably recite to you the number of community meetings she's been to but I would I would simply note all of those changes to anybody that thinks this was just brought up six weeks ago no I don't think it was I'm simply saying we're down to this piece of it and we're in the 11:30 at the hour so does this open up a window for a 24 month window to transfer things into an LLC because I can tell you businesses will be smarter than we're gonna be right now if we rush into it they'll figure it out is what I figure they're gonna do but any limitation we had on transfers before had the same exception to it okay well I'm not gonna support it because I think they were opening up again Pandora's box even further and I think it's dangerous so thank you cheer mr. Jamison can you clarify whether this bill quote opens a window or simply doesn't deal with the window that is currently there I think that's a okay I mean so right now that those transfers can happen and and if we do nothing those can happen every day and continue every day to an unlimited number of RM properties which is why we think it's appropriate for us to be looking at various options here and I appreciate the fact that there are multiple options to look at and if we can make our peace with one today so be it if not we have an option to to continue into the next term which may or may not be a good idea that's why I would appreciate some back-and-forth with this group so I appreciate your input on that the next one I'm not sure what its name is is I believe Council Mina Mina Johnson's is that correct or is it the okay you can see some member Henderson's council member would you like to talk about your amendment yes please it's a second substitute so I think mr. Jameson has something on your desk colleagues that really explains the difference of all these different substitutes and various amendments so I would point you to that for your reference this essentially returns the bill to the form that council lady allen had when it passed the Planning Commission unanimously so it eliminates the various milestones and the the transfers but it does afford a longer window for those folks who are you know current investors to address what they're hoping to address so it also has all the same provisions as to the four th BR owners all all the other provisions that council lady allen had in that original bill prior to the first substitution and so I think colleagues the the intent with this bill was to achieve the the same ends that council lady allen is is working towards as it relates to our m but this is frankly just a more simple approach respectfully I feel like council lady Allen's is is somewhat an over over-engineered to the advantage of the you know the speculative investors and so this really just I think achieves the same goals in a simple and more clear way and I think the investment community and real estate community is asking for clarity and I feel as though to mr. Jameson's point we have discussed this so much in in this term and so I do not want all that good work of council lady allen other colleagues on 608 those of my colleagues for whom you know there are two council lady Allen's map many many many of these are ends and properties in their district for that work and effort not to be or not so I would ask us perhaps to discount some what I appreciate councilman Glover's concerns but I really don't feel like it is an eleventh-hour approach I feel like you know this is something that I shared with council ad Allen that I was asked mr. Jameson to share with her intending to file it's kind of a middle path a compromise forward that addresses the concerns about the transfers because while I appreciate councilman withers comments as it relates to an annual permit not being a vested property right I agree an annual permit is not a vested property right but if we look at the way that the state has addressed or responded to 608 it's it's effectively becoming that and so there is no other place in our code colleagues where we allow the transference of an annual permit with with the property and I would assert to you that is a very bad precedent to set and it frankly plays into the hands of the argument the pre-emptive argument at the state whereas this is a much more simple clear no transfers bigger window and I think it is just a clearer and more simple bill and I would welcome any questions you might have about it I'm going to do a small intermission at this point and tell you that and consumer behavior you're next on the queue but there are some some legislations here that if any of you wants to co-sponsor so we can discuss them we have six that didn't get bought a round before so I wanted to let you know which ones they are just in case any of you wants to go and co-sponsor okay one is my council member boundaries 1755 the other one is by councilmember hall 1757 next one 55 so I wanted to give you a time to walk over there and sign it council member global we're going to discuss your 1766 shortly 1768 I can't remember Swope means a co-sponsor yes and 1780 by councilmember swap needs a co-sponsor and so I just wanted to give you guys an opportunity to to do what comes remember Glover had requested okay councilmember haire you are on your own as to the substitute bill that I've long with anti innocent and Mina Johnson I've said it the last time we were at this meeting that you can't have no transfer that goes into land as such I'm not going to support any type of bill that allows a transfer of that permit with the property it has to be was the owner only the person that's applying for the permit and that's it and that's why we've got this substitute bill and I ask everybody to support it same thing we did with 608 it goes in line with 608 I worked hard on that for over a year to get it passed and that's what the legislature came back and said you know that I've already got the permit or grandfathered in there's no transfer they do they renew their permit every year they sell the property they lose it that's it permit goes with the person not the property thank you Thank You councilmember council lady Mina Johnson Thank You chair I am supporting this substitute I think this one is a great compromise because it will bring council lady Allen's original intent to eliminate our limbs owning investment type of short-term rental from our RM zoning and while if you are owner-occupied they can still continuously obtain a permit in RM zoning that has nothing you know that will not change the danger councilmember Hager said you know we have been working so hard to protect residential zoning from investment type of short-term rental so six or eight successfully achieve that and by but this substitute offered by councilmember Allen councilmember corner have transfer rights that will adversely tide permit to the property not to the property owner although intent is to only apply this RM zoning but we have no guarantee you know that may somebody may try to open up the permit transfer rights into are an RS zoning if that happens all six years our effort will go into out of the window so there will be no short-term regulation in this city so for that I believe this substitute will be very simple and give plenty of time for the investment community to continuously develop continuously transfer the permit so if you are gonna have good intent or original intent of Buckley Island I would recommend to support this second substitute Thank You councilmember councilmember and Brooke Danny would you like to thank you and then I would just refer to the final one which is also councillor marina Johnston's which was sort of our keeping our options open bill if you want to talk about that one as well Thank You chair my another substitute is simply bring the language to compliance with a state regulation short-term rental apps because many people Express at this short-term rental unit regulation is so complex so what I'm offering it by my substitute is simply do nothing change no change just leave existing short-term regulation as it's so next council can take time and decide which way they want to go but at the same time we don't want to hang our regulation non-compliance with the state of Tennessee language so my this substitute will simply bring the language compliance with the state with Tennessee as well as including erroneously owner permit in HPR so we can prevent further lawsuits for that portion Thank You councilmember I'm going to end the debate now the conversation thank you for that opportunity I just wanted people didn't for this committee at least be able to run it through I appreciate that no I think it's great we appreciate your efforts on this and unfortunately I want to make sure we get the other ones voted on before people have to leave to the committees so I'm going to read the ones that we needed people to co-sponsor and I'm going to put them together as a consent agenda if people had actually signed on on them councilmember Haywood that would be the first one and its own consent don't worry about it thank you BL 2019 16:23 consumer he who is here he changes twenty four twenty point forty nine acres from rs.20 to a are to a zoning for the property located at thirty eight oh one night drive and it was approved by the Commission the next one is by councilmember boundaries did you call sponsor mr. withers I mean consumer wishes that will be Bill 2019 17:55 I cancel member boundaries and councilmember withers it changes one point of five acres from og to him muga zoning for a property located at 624 624 West due west anybody co-sponsor consumer halt legislation yes thank you sir so this one is BL 2019 does 1757 by Hall and lower heat changes 23 point 34 acres from SP – rs.15 to SP zoning for property located at forty to sixty nine Ashland City Highway an Ashland C Highway and number two permit up to a hundred residential units the next one on the consent agenda will be by council members of the a did you sign on that one too all right BL 2019 does six seventeen sixty a by council members hope on Glover it cancels 7.17 acres of a Planning development overlay district for a property located at 491 King hot drive and the next item on consent will be BL 2019 1780 by consumer swap on Glover the changes 8.19 acres from our 42 SP zoning for property located at 5th 2017 seven all Hickory Boulevard and all Hickory Boulevard number to permit up to 32 multi-family residential units do I have a motion there is a motion to approve is there a second all in favor say aye Bo's alright and we have two items that are not on consent that I'm going to read real fast and then we'll be done you guys can't go on your merry way oh yeah thank you what will I do without council member eilen so only in favor of the consent agenda say aye opposed thank you all right trying to move this thing along Council member glawler you have 1776 BL 2019 – 1766 he changes 14.6 acres from rs.15 to SP zoning for property located at 55 8150 585 55 87 South New Hope Road to permit 29 to formally Lots and it was pull yes let me put you on the microphone so handsome yeah I'd like to move the amendment please so we have a motion to for the amendment is there a second it's a motion and a second what this simply does is it does everything that I promised after the public hearing we've removed that SD RPS cannot go into any of this the HOA also will say no rental however that gets into various laws that was a little more difficult but the SDR piece will be built into the DSP and therefore they cannot do SDR pees on any of this property Thank You councilmember Mina Johnson thank you just a question I think at a community meeting there was some concern about the density the rural character and and I think this council member said he's gonna follow up with the community meeting so I'm just curious are any consensus or anything made yeah we went back I mean the people still they still say it's duplexes it's not it's villas it is exactly the same density that matches everything that several of the builders have done back in my district it is villas it is not duplexes they are connected but I mean these are 1,800 square foot at minimum on each side and they go up to like 2,600 square feet these are 350 to 450 $500,000 homes each it is set up for more of the 55 Plus market and the reason I was okay with that is because it did not put an additional strain on the schools and frankly the traffic really because you don't have the same work patterns and so therefore the majority of the community was fine there were some that I will never get them happy because they're just not gonna be happy but it was approved we did multiple community meetings on it and so therefore I renew approval please all right any more comments questions all right we have a motion will you move the amendment yes I mean did we pass the amendment no I'm sorry okay yeah move the amendment I'm sorry yep all in favor of the amendment say aye opposed now you may move the bill as amended please so we have a motion is there a second there's a second all in favor say aye aye opposed okay now we have and we have an abstention by councillor imagens the next item I okay two abstentions I have I need your help on the next one this is BL 2019 does 1783 by councilmember spots and Blalock we have a letter to approve neither one of them is here constantly Mina Jensen has to be pulled so I'm going to read it it changes 4.50 a acres from RS 10 to SP zoning for property located at 509 5009 Raywood Lane and 4930 Nolan's will Pike to permit 180 multi-family residential units anyway I wants to make a motion is a motion to approve is there a second and and mr. Jameson do I need to sign on this because if people are unhappy with it I'm sorry we have a no you have a letter okay I'm sorry I didn't hear you say letter there's no such case in the past when there was no other here to answer questions I just want to make sure all right thank you all right so we have a motion is there a second okay so council lady Mina Jensen you pulled this one out yes I just wanted to ask a question to the planning table I think it was stuff originally recommended for disapproval did I read it right no this was recommended for approval by staff there was an Associated plan amendment and so the recommendation so there was a plan amendment that went with this and so the recommendation in your staff report would have said approve if the Associated plan amendment is approved and disapprove if not so the plan amendment was approved so then what you end up with is an approval recommendation and so the the Planning Commission approved both the plan amendment to neighborhood evolving as well as this so staff recommendation was to approve thank you and also this was said senior living quarters so that's the SP specified such use not only just multi-housing but specifically senior living I believe that the applicant intends to enter into a private agreement however that will not be enforceable by Metro so age restriction such as that would not be enforceable Thank You councilmember Berkley Annan thank you I read in the staff report that at one point they were waiting for a traffic impact study to be done and that may be what council member Johnson was referring to that it wasn't approved until all that information was in has that traffic impact study been done yes yes the traffic impact study was done well I'm sorry they actually got a waiver request because of the agreement that it would be senior living and so they may have to do a more detailed study with final but that was one of the conditions that was added so how what's what's the enforce I mean what's the mechanism for y'all to know whether they actually do that piece of it to ensure that that traffic impact study it's done if they don't do that piece of it they would have to well it's a bit convoluted because they're saying essentially that there's going to be less traffic because of the a restrictions and so they can tell public works that they have agreed to those age restrictions and show that private agreement and then they'll do their traffic study and the numbers would be the generation numbers would be based on a senior living type of facility and so Public Works has included a condition that either planning or Public Works can require a comprehensive traffic study with the final site so there is someone who is watching for that information so it won't slide slide past is that correct a final site plan there's condition with the finals and so at the at the final site plan phase then if they go back and do the traffic impact study is there an opportunity for some entity to say based on this study you have to do these things if there's a traffic in mixed uh D required and it has certain improvements that are tied to the traffic study then it would be conditions that those be met and so it could be the point it will become part of the SP okay thank you councilmember withers I thank you mister chair could staff remind me I was present at this happen to be present at this meeting there you know was some contention I think it's safe to say at that meeting and one of the points that's been raised in some of the letters that I wanted to seek clarification on is the extent to which our lupa or you know religious land use exemptions apply to this property particularly with a policy change in particular and do you do those religiously and use exemptions are they limited to in other words are you allowed to do whatever is considered appropriate within the base zoning or how does that work with the with the policy change from neighborhood maintenance to evolving if I could get a technical answer on that it's a question for you I can I can say that I think that the policy question is is irrelevant as regards to a religious land use or institutionalized persons claim that is not the route that they've gone they chose to do a rezoning to put it into an SP if they were to say and claim reloop then that's a different process one that we would not be involved in and might may be able to speak a little bit better to the legalities of that but they chose to go the route of the SP but there are still if this were to not pass there are still some potential paths forward that they could have given both that religiously the relita and the state Religious Freedom Restoration Act all right council members sledge Thank You chair I think I got a good bit of questions answered regarding kind of the site I will point out I mean regardless of the regardless of the religious exemption act I think it's actually a pretty good use of land when it comes to being creative with types of housing on institutional land holders and I'd like to encourage more institutions that I'll be supporting all right so we have a motion for approval I think we did right well let's just make it again just in case I need a motion and a second all in favor raise your hand opposed and one abstention well that's it thank you very much for your patient meeting is adjourned oh thank you very much for serving with us I mean this has been great the whole thing I really enjoy being honored by it councilmember Meena Johnson so we are not taking any recommendation on the 1633 substitute just a discussion correct yes okay thank you okay manager so am I gonna try sorry this has been a service of the Metro national network if you would like to see this presentation again or for more information about this and other programs visit nashville dot you

Forged in Fire: Rough Rider Bowie Knife Tests (Season 6) | History



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The bladesmiths see which of their forged bowie knives will make the cut in this test from Season 6, “Washington’s Colichemarde”. #ForgedInFire
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“Forged in Fire” features world-class bladesmiths competing against each other to create some of history’s most iconic edged weapons.

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Bladesmiths, welcome
to the strength test. The moose antler chop– remember, this test is all
about what the antler does to your bowies and not
what the Rough Rider bowies do to these moose antlers. Dan, you're up first. You ready? Yes, sir. [pounding] Edge held up perfectly. There's no splinting,
rolling, chipping. One small issue–
there's a little piece of the handle that comes up
right here, and it's sharp. In general, really well done. Thank you. John, you're up. You ready? Yes, sir. [pounding] Your guard is quite loose. In the testing, your edge took
a roll that you can hear here. In all, I mean, it's one knife
instead of two, which is great. And it's got a great
look to it, so well done. Thanks, sir. Josh, you're up. You ready? Does it matter? No. [music playing] [pounding] [sighs] Good job, man. Thanks. There's some serious
gaps on both sides between the handle
material and the guard. Aside from those issues,
the blade held up perfectly. Well done. Thank you. Bladesmiths, welcome to the
sharpest test, the fish slice. To find out if there's any
edge left to your weapon, I want to take your
Rough Rider bowies and try to get some salmon
steaks out of this fish. Dan, you're up first. You ready? Yes, sir. Let's do this. [pounding] Well, we got four
steaks out of it– beautiful job. It is sharp. There was a spot
here in the guard. It could have been
smoothened out. But it did not affect
the use of your blade. The balance of
your blade is good. And most importantly,
it will cut. Good job, sir. Thank you. John, you ready? Yes, sir. [pounding] On the first cut, did
cut all the way through. I just ran out of blade. But under subsequent
cuts, it is sharp. And overall, sir, your blade– it will cut. Thanks, sir. All right, Josh.
Your turn. You ready?
– Go to it. Let's do it. [slicing] Good job. Thanks, man. All right, Josh, let's
talk about your blade here. First up is the handle. It feels like it should be held
this way because it's off-line. And in one of the
cuts, it did affect the way I was indexing my
hip with the guard and then into the blade. But this is a sharp
blade, and it will cut. That's awesome. That's all I wanted to hear. Bladesmiths, we asked you
to make Rough Rider bowies to honor President Theodore
Roosevelt. The judges' deliberation is complete. They've made a final decision. Only two of you can move
forward into the finale. One of you bladesmiths
has to leave the forge. And that bladesmith is John. Your blade didn't make the cut. David Baker's going
to tell you why. John, this decision came down
to the strength test in which your blade picked up a rolled
edge and a loose guard, making it the only blade
that took any damage. John, please
surrender your bowie. My only real regret is that
the handle just didn't hold up. The guard didn't hold up. I would have worked
better on the handle. I came here to prove
to myself that I am working down the right
path of my craftsmanship. And I believe I've
proved that to myself under these conditions.

History of Internet Documentary



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Learn origins and evolution of internet and how it has grown to become one of the foremost tools for almost everything that surround people. In short, a brief, interesting history of the internet, and its evolution.

Internet is perhaps one of the most
prestigious indispensable tools of modern times where people simply
cannot imagine a life without it, or even the world without it. It makes planet earth go round
and helps to move it forward. It is one of the primary essence
of technological evolution. Every era has had its own
indispensable tool – for us in these modern times, it is none other
than the world-wide web. Having such humble
beginnings in the university campuses of American
institutes in the 1960s, internet would soon become
a global phenomenon, a concept and a
medium on its own. Universities now teach the
origins of internet and how it has shaped mankind
in the last 60 years. It has its own nuances and the little
nuts and bolts that need to be known and be aware of if one aspires to
become a professional web designer. It is indeed a field of study and involves
continuous scrutiny and observation if one needs to understand how this
global phenomenon really became global in technical sense and how it governs
almost everything we see around us. A brief understanding of
the origins and evolution of internet will be
discussed and how it has grown to become one
of the foremost tools for almost everything
that surround people. In short, a brief, interesting history
of the internet, and its evolution. Internet, or in more technical words,
the world-wide-web (denoted as WWW in short), is a medium through which
the world connects and communicates. Yes, it is primarily just a mode
of connection and communication, similar (or in some sense, even
exactly the same) to mediums and inventions that have shaped our
world for the last five millennia. As the world became larger and
bigger, so did its communication needs and the mode through
which it communicated. No longer was it possible to simply
communicate everything on the telephone that once revolutionised the world in
the 19th and early 20th centuries. Now, the need of the hour was to develop
something even more revolutionary as letters became more complex and academia wanted
quick and efficient mode of communication. The revolutionary character of the internet
lies in its true nature and purpose. It is, as already said
above, just a mode of communication, but the
scale and the method through which it communicates
has what made it revolutionary, forever
changing human life. So much so, that the internet has
become an ideology in itself and governments across the globe decide
on the aspects they need to use on, whether it be finance or monetary
policies, law enforcement or even anti-terrorism
and general governance. Internet is a phenomenon
that even rulers depend on. Thus, in light of such
circumstances, it becomes important that people
understand what internet really is and how it has evolved
to become such a widely understood as well as a
misunderstood concept. As starters, we first describe
internet’s beginnings starting from the 1950s
when computing itself was a rarely heard concept and
most ‘computers’ existed only in laboratories and
government research. After becoming widely
popular in the academic and political circles,
internet started becoming popular in military affairs
and several western military organisations
started adopting it. Internet was never really
known as ‘internet’ as it's known now, but through
special denotations. Lastly, internet started becoming more
accessible to the general public as computing itself was made available for
the local masses and people in general. Starting from 1980s, a new
technology was being allowed to the public under certain
licenses and regulations. Although during this time, internet
was still out of reach for most because of its unimaginable price
tag, starting from the 1990s, the revolution in internet
technology an availability took place that left a
legacy we see now today. The Beginnings As simple and straightforward it may seem, internet actually has one of the most
complex launches with its history of evolution being filled with
technological advancements and inventions not easy for the layman to
comprehend too quickly. What started out as a draft
paper to connect several computers in a workplace
only got bigger and bigger, so much so that the whole world-wide-web can
now be imagined as a single workstation with millions and billions of computers
loosely connected to each other. In fact, we might as well
raise an uncanny analogy here when the internet
was just being invented. Many of you might actually
be aware of several animated cartoons that showed
futuristic infrastructure. Cartoons like The
Flintstones or even Richie Rich that originated
during the 1960s. Several episodes of these popular TV programs
showed people connecting to each other, talking and observing on a display screen
and chatting with another character. Might have seemed very out of
place but several technocrats and inventors of those times predicted
that there actually will come a time when people will connect
directly through electronic devices and do
lots of stuff with them. One of these individuals was
the late Dr J.C.R Licklider. The very first beginnings of our
modern internet can be traced back to the 1960s when he was the head of
computer research program at MIT. Several research papers by notable
scientists and technicians suggested new technologies in
computing and interconnectivity. These ideas were primarily based on existing
inventions like the telephone and the much earlier telegram services, which was the
‘electronic’ mail service of the 19th century. Since a lot of stuff was
going on in the world of science just after
the great war ended, the community that filled it
wanted innovative methods by which they could connect and communicate
instantly as and when required. In light of this, one of the first
known internet services was the DARPA, designed and implemented in 1962 upon
the recommendations suggested by J.C.R Licklider himself, in his paper
‘On-Line Man-Computer Communication’, published in the same year. Dr Licklider also published
several books on the same topic. Licklider was the first head
of the computer research program at DARPA that started
in the October of 1962. The innovative concept and the pace through
which DARPA functioned as one of the first known networks resulted in his program
receiving much acclamation and popularity and perhaps laid the foundation
stone for the next four decades where the internet would become
the latest wonder of technology. Dr Licklider had several
colleagues and fellow technicians and innovators
working alongside him. DARPA was primarily meant to connect
all its staff through a network but Licklider took one step
forward by developing it further. One of these individuals who filled up
the DARPA staff was Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and he published his first paper
on packet switching in July of 1961. This was another major step forward
for the evolution of the internet and perhaps one of the first known documents
to explain packet networking, which is still the primary mode
of internet transmission today. Kleinrock would also go on publishing books
on networking related topics, one of them becoming a popular read among researchers
and inventors and released in 1964. This packet switching
concept would soon become an applied reality in
the DARPA program. Packet connectivity was indeed a very
innovative addition to networking but it still needed time and
implementation to actually work. Kleinrock convinced Lawrence
Roberts, another member of the DARPA program to
think on switching to packet connectivity rather
than the traditional circuitry if long range
networking was to exist. Roberts agreed to the concept. Another need of the hour was the
requirement of ‘talking’ between two computers, borrowed from the
concept that made telephones work. For this, in 1965, Roberts
connected two computers, the TX-32 and the Q-32 in California
with a single telephone line and made history by developing the first ever
dial-up connected wide area network. The experiment became a success and Roberts
was able to ‘talk’ between these computers. However, the realization that
two computers could connect to each other and work in coordination
was in direct conflict with the circuit method owing
to circuits’ inability to process millions of data
in a matter of seconds. The traditional circuit method
was thus totally incapable of allowing two or more computers
to fully connect to each other and it also stood as a total
hindrance towards further development of networking
and DARPA in general. On the other hand, packets allowed for swift
movement of data and made it possible for computers to smoothly transmit
communication without much loss and noise. Packet switching was also more
desirable considering that circuits were more prone to
industrial hazards like overheating and high maintenance and needed
regular replacement of electronic components like cables and
boards for it function fully. Kleinrock’s suggestion to switch
to packets was really the need of the hour and the next
big step towards networking. DARPA and ARPANET After DARPA’s founder, Dr
Licklider, the next big member of the MIT program was
Lawrence Roberts himself. He would become the pioneer of the
ARPANET, the second stepping stone on the history of internet, and perhaps
one of the biggest stepping stones, given its wide implementation and
several technological advancements added to it starting from late
1960s till the middle of 1980s. In fact, the predecessor of our modern
day world-wide-web was ARPANET itself. In late 1966, Roberts went to develop
DARPA further by making it ‘wider’ and providing it more speed for the members
to connect with more swift and less lag. In 1967, he published his
paper describing the idea behind ARPANET and how
it would be implemented. DARPA was now becoming ARPANET. The latter would also incorporate for the
first time and for its full potential, the packet switching concept
that was the primary need of the hour for successful
and efficient networking. It also so happened that during
a conference that Roberts was attending, where
networking was the hot topic, several other researchers
from notable universities of UK also presented their
versions of networking. Donald Davies and Roger
Scantlebury of the NPL also presented their papers
on packet connectivity. That networking was solely being invented
by Americans was not true at all. One of the members of the NPL communicated
Roberts about the packet connectivity concept that was developed in 1964
independently by the British military. It appeared as a coincident,
but the work at MIT, at NPL and the
RAND group, which was a group headed by Paul
Baran and his colleagues pretty much coincided
in the same timeframe. Roberts was inspired by others too researching
on this ground-breaking concept and borrowed a few of their ideas that were
presented by them during the conference. He would go back and since
full fledged networking was being developed only at
select American universities, much of the credit during this
evolving timeline went to campuses of MIT and later on, the
University of California (UCLA). Roberts tested these
‘packets’ by increasing the speed of ARPANET from a
mere 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps. This small step was successful
prompting Roberts of the importance of packet connectivity
and further developing it (which would lead to such components like the
TCP/IP, first invented in 1980s and still the primary mode of identification through
which computers are assigned IP numbers). Since ARPANET was going through several
developments and refinements, new individuals and technicians started
replacing the existing and the old. Members like Bob Kahn, Frank
Heart and Newman would soon start developing ARPANET in
coordination with Roberts. At MIT, a new component of the
ARPANET was being designed and this was the Interface
Message Processor (IMP). The IMP was first coined by Frank
Heart and Newman and this was now being incorporated in the
overall structure of the ARPANET. Roberts was now working with a lot
of small groups and independent people on further developing
the technical core of ARPANET. Bob Kahn helped him with
designing ARPANET’s new architectural design and
economic efficiency while existing members like Kleinrock took
control over developing the measurement system that according to him would support
the packet concept he devised earlier. In 1969, Kleinrock’s
campus at UCLA was first selected as the Network
Measurement Centre, to be functioned as a node through
which Roberts would connect his computer at MIT and that
of Kleinrock’s system at UCLA. In September of 1969, the
finalisation of ARPANET came into play when
this node in the UCLA campus was made operational and a second node
at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Elizabeth Feinler and
team made it possible for the second node and
funded its establishment. The first ever host computer was
thus connected at the UCLA campus. Several other such institutes followed. A month later after connecting
SRI with Kleinrock’s system, the first host-to-host
message was transmitted. Several other such nodes were
added to the ARPANET network, the third being the campus of UC Santa
Barbara and University of Utah. Professors and researchers in these
last two campuses also added their own small contribution that would
matter big in the coming decades. Glen Culler and Burton Fried of the
UCSB researched methods on displaying mathematical functions by adding
display storages to their systems while Robert Taylor at the
Utah campus investigated methods of refreshing the
net on 3-D representations. At the start of 1970, there
were thus four major universities and their campuses
connected over the ARPANET. The groundwork was complete and the rocket
was now ready to launch from its site. With the four campuses successfully connected
without any errors, it was now fully possible for ARPANET’s founders to transmit
simple email messages and notifications. 1970 onwards, several systems
and computers outside these four campuses were added
in the ARPANET coverage. Work proceeded further
to make ARPANET a fully functional host-to-host
connecting system. In 1970, the Network Working
Group (NWG) working under the guidance of S. Crocker developed
the first ever protocol that would allow computers
to fully communicate and allow individuals to develop
software over ARPANET. This protocol was called the
Network Control Protocol (NCP) and could be considered as the first
complete host-to-host protocol. The project came into full play in 1972
when Lawrence Roberts held a major networking conference at the International
Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). There, he and his team would showcase the
first ever email message and was also the first ever public demonstration of the
networking concept and the potential it held. Roberts simply sent a simple message
through email that was received by one of his team member,
resulting in an instant applause. The first ever email application
included read, forward and send functions and
was an instant success. What would follow in the coming decades
starting from 1972, would be the first era when internet really evolved
from ARPANET to the prototype of the
world-wide-web we know it now. The Birth of Internet The next big player and pioneer of the
ARPANET technology was Bob Kahn himself. Lawrence Roberts and others
remained in the team for much of the 1970s but it was
Kahn who was now designing and developing further the
ARPANET technology that gave way to full fledged wide area
networks as we know them today. In 1972, after the successful
conference was held and for the first time, the
public saw how email worked, Kahn taking with him his knowledge and idea
for further developing the packet system, started to refurbish the whole
technology at its core with new protocols being designed
by him and for the first time, algorithms inserted in
the networking pipeline for ‘automatic
networking’ technology. Since ARPANET was primarily designed for
a select few individuals to connect, most of them belonging to the academia
of select universities of America, Kahn now decided to take this a level
further by reinforcing the existing technology that could allow more
individuals to connect at the same time without any error or
disturbance to the overall flow of packets
and thus the network. But ARPANET still had its
own limitations when it came to connecting
wide area networks. One of these limitations was the existence
of packet loss and uncontrolled noise that resulted in slow connectivity and even no
connectivity at all at some instances. So the next big job was to ask
the question on how to redesign or develop the existing protocols
and hardware technologies that would allow for a smoother
experience and connect people with more ease
and less complications. Kahn thus set himself to work again. Recall that Kahn was also the pioneer
of the packet switch system that forever replaced the circuit system
in the early days of the DARPA. Kahn was now again convinced that
it is only the packet receiving and transmitting mechanisms that
required some major overhauls for the internet to become
simpler and smoother and without the requirement for
major hardware requirements. One of these key areas was to develop what
is known as Open Architecture Networking. Recall that ARPANET and its
predecessor were designed with open contribution
and development in mind. Since these were experimental
developments, technicians and engineers designing his
technology required contribution not just from their teams but anyone who
could contribute his/her part in it. Open Architecture
Networking is still one of the core areas of 21st
century networking. If technicality were to be ignored,
it would be very sufficing to say that internet with its database of
millions and billions of websites, are designed in a customised manner
and there are no rules and set codes to define how things over the
internet need to be developed, except of course security
measures and standards that everybody has to
rely upon and maintain. Kahn in 1972 already had
open-architecture networking in mind and he was probably one of the first
to introduce it to the ARPANET. The key to this architecture
was maintaining an open end-to-end protocol and developing
a packet radio program. The packet radio program was in
existence during the final days of DARPA and Kahn only developed
and advocated it further. This system required new protocols that
could allow packets to transmit easily and smoothly between two computers and allow
users to have a smooth internet experience. Back then, this was
also initially called ‘internetting’ because
of the concept that the network was like a spider’s
net, with each node connected to a host
computer for transmission. As the radio program developed,
new protocols were designed as well that were to function with
the refurbished radio systems. The Network Control protocol
(NCP) which was earlier used by all the members and all
the four nodes of ARPANET, was incapable of smooth transmission
of these packets and had no algorithms to deal with the noise and disturbance
caused in its packet flow. After several tests and experiments,
it was concluded that the NCP needed to be designed further
to allow for more computers than just the ARPANET members for the
internet to actually start existing. Also recall that ARPANET
was not the internet as we know today, but only the
beginning of it, a part of it, since the evolution of internet after
ARPANET involves altogether new technologies and advancements
unrelated to the former technology. Since the purpose of networking
was itself evolving to include a vast community of
academia and technicians, the technology upon which
RPANET functioned was found to be incapable for
further ‘expansion’. Technically, ARPANET required
additions to the protocol system (through which it
communicated among its users), in addition to requiring
additional hardware and systems for the new protocols
to work efficiently. Why the NCP was unable to
transmit vast numbers of packets over wide areas and
long ranges was quite clear. The ARPANET was designed with
a single purpose in mind, and it was designed very robustly
to satisfy that purpose. However, as needs of it grew
and as networking’s purpose also evolved, so did ARPANET’s
demands for an overhaul. The NCP was never really designed to handle
a vast number of packet transmission. And since every node was connected,
the NCP’s job was clear and simple. However, as the concept of networking grew
outside the corridors of ARPANET, its protocols that controlled the transmission
and reception of digital packets started to see terminal
limitations that posed a hindrance to the overall
growth of ARPANET itself. Kahn observed that when a
computer tried connecting to ARPANET that was outside
the preregistered node, the NCP failed to provide
packet transmission and the whole system collapsed for
the connecting computer. In this manner, the ARPANET could
only be functioned for the registered members that were
running ARPANET’s protocol. This was too rigid for everyone to adopt
and thus required some major changes. NCP also lacked the
capability to handle packet errors, that is, anytime
during a minor packet loss, the NCP would collapse altogether
and immediately and the connection to the host computer
would come to a forever halt. The NCP thus had no end-to-end
error control mechanism. To sum up the requirements that were
needed to actually introduce the internet to the world, then could
be done so in the following manner: Redesigning the protocol system
that could handle a larger network of computers and allow for
packet control and efficiency. Devising new hardware and
algorithms that would allow these computers to connect
with the host computer. Making communication with the host computer
not only feasible but efficient and simple. New techniques for
host-to-host flow control and requirements for
network pipelines that would allow multiple
packets to transmit to and from the host
simultaneously and at the same time reducing any
chances of major packet flow errors in this
‘multiple lane’ pipeline. New technologies like gateways
and hardware that would allow to provide an identification
to a connecting computer. These would later become
things like the routers and IP addresses that
everyone uses by default. Introducing new protocols and
replacing existing ones that could govern these newly thought
about ideas and implement it in a manner that would allow the
least control over global networking while still keeping computers
connected at the very best possible. Last but the not the least, the capability
for networking with several other operating systems since at least
during the 1980s, several operating systems were
already coming up. Thus, Kahn was facing major challenges
for developing ARPANET further to include several other computers
used by scientists and innovators who wanted quick access to communication
with the academia community. Because of the nature of the
challenges as well, Kahn also accepted them as part of
developing networking further since ARPANET was definitely
not the end of the story of internet as some
might have once thought. Kahn thus proposed a totally
new protocol that was to be designed from scratch
and this he would call it the Transfer Control Protocol or
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) that would altogether change how internet services
communicated with each other and worked. However, Kahn had no immediate knowledge
in interfacing and protocol design. He was aware of how NCP worked but designing
a new protocol and incorporating it in ARPANET demanded an all new technique that
required additional knowledge and skill. Accepting this, Kahn set out to call
technicians from leading universities to design new protocols that would
allow for efficient communications regardless of the operating
system a user is operating in. That is, this certain protocol had to
be operating system efficient as well. In 1973, he thus teamed up
with Vint Cerf of Stanford to initiate and think on the newly
arrived topic of TCP/IP. Vint had immense knowledge
of interfacing in several operating systems and skills
to develop new protocols. This knowledge teamed up with
Kahn’s know-how on implementation and architectural design resulted
in a very productive solution. The TCP/IP was finally
at place and was ready to start functioning
with several computers. The initial protocol
allowed for some 256 connections and worked
at 32-bit transfer rate. The TCP/IP was unveiled at another
conference where Cerf was also invited. The International Network Working
Group (INWG) was set up at a conference a Sussex University
in 1973 and Cerf was invited to head this group with
his all new protocol that would power up
ARPANET further. Upon meeting up with several
key players and innovators in the field of networking
design and implementation, the following points emerged
as to how TCP/IP would work and replace the
existing NCP of the ARPANET: TCP/IP would allow for packet
control at the host computer through acknowledgements
and packet flow control. This internet protocol would function
through a series of long streams of bytes. TCP/IP would remain open when deciding
upon the parameters that would allow the protocol windowing, which was required
to control the flow of these packets. TCP/IP would function through a 32-bit
assigned IP address of which the first 8 bits designated the network
while the remaining 24 bits signified the host
computer’s network. These features had a major
motivation behind them. The creators and ARPANET and of
course TCP/IP wanted much more than just sharing small sized
emails and simple voice transfers. Kahn and Cerf intended to
design the new protocol for various new topics that
networking could handle. These included techniques to share files,
folders, accessing the time sharing resources on the ARPANET and further
in time, even bigger tasks like sharing
printers and devices. The very first release of
this new protocol was put to test and it did not include
the IP section to it. Thus, in its initial beginning,
it was only TCP that worked. Kahn and team put the TCP to test
and observed different behaviours and algorithms by which two connected
computers now shared packets. It should be noted however,
that this was only the initial release of TCP and it was tested
out through a virtual circuit. This initial release was good
for file transfers and sharing between two computers but certain
roadblocks still lay open. There was certain amount of packet loss
observed and was concluded that a certain amount of packet loss correction be
left out for the computer to deal with. This led the team to develop its
integrated section – the IP address. This address was to remain
as an ‘identification number’ for the computer to
be connected to the host. This led to a final
reorganisation of the TCP to include the IP address
and thus became TCP/IP. The protocol was innovative
and revolutionary in handling packets from the
host to the node computer. It also incorporated the IP
address now that the problem of certain packet loss by
TCP was now also solved. The problem of packet radio system
seemed to have finally rested. An alternative for those
machines that were either not compatible with TCP or did not
want to use the TCP was the UDP, designed and implemented by Kahn and
team and was not very different from the original TCP in that UDP was more
preferable for ‘physical’ packet check instead of checksums that were being
provided and implemented by TCP/IP. The introduction of the
new packet handling protocol totally changed
the game of networking. Several challenges that lay prior to
TCP/IP were now resolved and perhaps the only thing left for networking
was its efficient commercialisation and further designing and
modification that could suit the requirements of
not just 256 connections but probably thousands
or even more than that as conceived by the
developers of networking. As simple as it might have seemed,
this was no easy job either. The new protocol that
was introduced still functioned for ARPANET’s
registered members, and since those had increased
over the years since the network’s inception, TCP/IP
functioned robustly well. However, how were the designers
planning on introducing and finally releasing this
technology for general purpose? This was still a question that had
its answer only during the 1980s when several technological changes
further led the idea of networking to become an even more ‘loosely
connected’ array of computers, all sharing certain characters and the
contents stored in those computers. The main idea behind networking that
was proposed in the 1960s was now becoming a reality, after consistent
effort laid down by its founders. Finally, in late 1970s, the real
face of networking started to emerge as more and more users started
using it for sending emails, small attachments, files and folders,
send voice communication similar to memos and an idea borrowed from telephony
but implemented in digital format. Thus, the idea of open
architecture networking was now truly making itself emerged
to the rest of the world. However, the story never ended there again. The newly introduced TCP/IP
was operable for a number of operating systems and
machines of those times but how was it to cope up with
time and increasing number of computing machines both
at the workplace and home? With the start of the new
decade, a plethora of operating systems and
business enterprises emerged. Firms like Microsoft and Apple,
among others were now increasingly competing against themselves to
capture computer market share. Each one of those empires needed
networking as one of their core areas of operations and the designers of
ARPANET had to face a new challenge – to make TCP/IP even simpler
and more flexible for it to exist for the several
coming decades to come. Contracts were handed to Stanford,
BBN and UCL California. Headed by Cerf himself, their
task now was different from their purely technical
background and work experience. The task now was whether TCP/IP
required major changes to its design or was it satisfactory enough for
several machines to operate upon it. Several experimentations provided
the conclusion that the ‘final’ release of TCP/IP was still too complex
and big for domestic machines, other than the workstations for which
it was specifically designed for. Cerf and his team thus set out again
to simplify the infrastructure of TCP/IP for upcoming major machines
to become compatible with it. Changes were introduced and were tested out
on machines like the IBM PC and Xerox Alto. New changes were successful
and both computers were able to operate with
TCP/IP with 100% results. The only task left, and which
required much time was how will the new and universally flexible
TCP/IP test the passage of time. This was a question that
required patience and gradual developments to the
protocol’s implementation and algorithm as computing
itself was evolving rapidly. Transition to World Wide Web In its final years of ARPANET,
the designers, both old and new were very excited and proud
on how their simple inception of connecting just a handful of computers
was now becoming a global reality. As if the whole concept had
changed altogether and become an integrated part of human life in
just a matter of years and months. In its early years of transition
to a globalised network, the transition phase could
be divided into two stages – technical transition and implementation
by networking agencies, scientific forums and academic community side-by-side
domestic computers and finally, the full scale commercialisation
of internet that had to have rules and regulations for its proper
functioning and smooth experience. The technical side of TCP/IP’s prior bugs
and hindrances were now fully resolved. Computing itself was evolving on an
unimaginable scale and these machines were not just now limited to university
campuses and academia personnel. Computing in general was undergoing a total
change in its purpose of existence and its overall objective to serve the general
public without any global restriction. The 1980s saw the very first
computer giants emerged. Microsoft and Apple were one of
those and still exist today as the dominant computer hardware and
software catering enterprises. Microsoft, under the guidance
and leadership of Bill Gates were fast becoming a
commercial empire of its own, and with the failure of Apple to
capture subsequent market share owing to its failure of its
revolutionary Macintosh computer, was now also making decisions
to making networking a default, in-built operation
in all of its machines. The emergence of TCP/IP simply
changed the wave of networking. The newly designed protocol was so innovative
that federal agencies and organisations were recommending its implementation
in all of its machines and computers. The once secretive and limited
protocol that was used only by a select individuals
and academic professors had gained global popularity and
computer producers were consulting, holding meetings and conferences with
the original designers of ARPANET and its revolutionary protocol
on how to implement networking as the default option in all
of its operating systems. UNIX was now a very widely
used operating system now and its developers came
up with quick solutions. TCP/IP was now included as the default
networking protocol to connect to anywhere it wanted; the rest
of the world simply followed. Microsoft released its very
first GUI interface and later on, the Windows operating
system that included all aspects of networking
right from networking software preinstalled on
every Windows machines. Apple never lagged behind
and incorporated the default version of TCP/IP
to its Macintosh system. Thus, in a span of just
five years, starting from 1985 till early
1990s, networking became an inbuilt feature of all operating systems
and machines that were fully operating. Thanks to the efforts laid by
its founding fathers, TCP/IP, teamed up with the ever evolving
infrastructure of ARPANET, gave way to our modern day world wide web. Several commercialisation
activities and networking firms started to appear
during the mid 1990s, when the DOS and newly introduced Windows
operating system was the dominant norm. Firms like Cisco, Asus,
Intel and AMD were one of the first computer
hardware start-ups. These were setup to
cater to all of the professional and domestic
computer community and thus came forward with several
hardware innovations and inventions that were to include nearly every
feature in just one motherboard rather setting up several
chipsets to make one computer. Intel and AMD were the first
ones to set up their processor units, and these were to process
TCP/IP calls on a default basis. The rest of the evolution
of the internet was now more of like making
networking a universal truth. Till the late 1990s,
LANs had become a common thing and no longer did
‘small networks’ exist. Network was now undergoing
physical change rather than in its technical infrastructure
or design modification (although those are
things that continuously keep expanding and evolving,
even to this day). Several new technologies
like satellite transmission and fibre cables were defining
networks on new levels. Users for the first time
witnessed increase in speeds up to ten times with the
introduction of satellite imagery and communication with fibre cables
providing speeds into megabytes per second rather than the
traditional kilobytes per second. Dial-ups that used to be the norm
in the 1990s were fast getting replaced by satellite connections
and hi-speed fibre connections. At the start of the new millennium,
internet had become a necessity. The world revolved with
the help of the internet. What started as a small, rudimentary
network of a handful of computers at an American institute
now was a global phenomenon, a medium through which the whole
world connected and communicated. Anybody who would never use it would
simply get disconnected from it. Internet has thus been the
most innovative and ground breaking medium of communication
in the history of mankind. It replaced telephony and telegram that
were the primary modes of communication for most of the decades even during
the time when internet was nascent. It is thus one of the most important
inventions in the history of mankind. You must have understood the importance
of internet and the impact it has had on normal lives of normal human beings and how
it has grown to be the thing we see today. And this is not the end of the story. Internet still evolves
and will keep evolving just like technology
has been for the past five millennia when
humans first started designing handcrafted
machines and simple tools. Like the nut-cracking stone that
first required sharpening and which ultimately led to its evolved
variants in the coming millennia, internet evolved just like every other tool
has done for the past thousands of years. New technologies and techniques
are being added every day before our very eyes as internet becomes
even bigger and more organised. Techniques like HTML, CSS and
Flash are just some of the most commonly taught subjects at technical
institutes and software design. Internet is the result
of complex computing and the technological evolution
we’ve reached so far. It is unlike telephony or
telegram simply because those never required computing or
even a computer to operate. With that in mind, internet will
forever keep evolving and will never halt ceasing if computing
itself has to remain relevant. With every new addition to
the world of internet, new challenges are recognised and
new results are dug out. We now have technologies
that were once thought to be purely imaginary and even
plain philosophical by many. A lot of these ‘prophecies’ turned out
to be true in the following decades. In fact, modern day networking has resulted
in a whole new concept of nomadic computing where an individual simply
does not require a physical connection to a router to
connect to the internet; rather that happens with technologies
like Wi-Fi or even Bluetooth. In the end however, as internet
still keep on evolving, the question will remain as to
how people will manage this gigantic invention that has
changed everything around them, rather than how it would evolve further.

92 Historical Photos of 19th Century Ending (Between 1896-1900)



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92 Historical Photos of 19th Century Ending (Between 1896-1900) | Support –
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**** The content of this videos is intend for educational purpose. Content Credit – All Right Reserve to Original Content Holder.

[ REACTION ] Jim Henson vs Stan Lee Epic Rap Battles of History & ERB Behind The Scenes



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#JimHensonVsStanLee
#EpicRapBattlesOfHistory

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what's good Tim shieff and Michel boy L I'm back with another reaction video man how y'all feel welcome back to the channel and get right let me get right listen we back with another but bottles I'm pressed right listen we back man and we got Jim Henson versus Stan Lee we got the creator of the muffets versus the comic book creator probably one of the greatest comic book creators of all time man by the square off and go at each other in the rap battle man are y'all ready for this i'm hype for it so real quick before we get into this battle that I'm salivating over listen if you new city China please take the time and go ahead and hit the subscribe button man let's get the lights up give your boy a light man shoutouts to y'all for that give me the life all right you see the social media links up there in the corner please get your boy and follow alright with that being said let's get to the battle man I'm height ready bottles up s tray let's go word washer yeah see he had all the condoms behind them right yeah look all the comics and anything back there behind [Applause] with a secret identity of a super EXTREME super he's doing that with the muppet like I can't wait to yard and know we gonna get to be behind the scenes right after that so make sure y'all stay – but I want to see how he liked his voice how is he doing everything like that leg I already know this was pre-recorded – what I'm saying like his voice that he's using it is definitely dope and brings an extra you know what I'm saying – his verse so this is pretty blow he did his own thing and now you've made it clobberin time you taught children to count then smell then you tie your own kids out of your white doing a research man maybe doing the research to give blows down dead smell and you tie your own kids how to drop your white powder then you slap that ass then I'm telling you ensign you wouldn't like me when I'm angry mmm I love a body boomba turtleneck like a Doozer stick and put you out to pasture like mr. Hooper I'm sorry Jim sometimes I can't control my rage honestly there's a lot of things you can't control it my age ya just gotta let it flow or you get old I guess I don't know we got something to look forward to they say I miss you you were gone DUSU you were like watching a beautiful sunset between us we're two mine's the same time there is no man with what we left behind I shoulda known it was leading into somebody else the way they were saying it setting it up doing the building up in anything oh now you want to talk about somebody who has an empire he'll probably controls everything but you know Disney hands in everything bro let's not even talk about tell get back to work ah yeah I was probably leaning towards Jim Henson but uh Disney coming in right now I'm just taking over Mardis with only three holiday oh hey not only is he stunting on him I burned man a little ways they starting like my daddy he's stuntin like my daddy right now just that like Big Daddy like they daddy look he said with only three one circles I dominate the planet I mean can you argue with him you know he came in like Floyd Mayweather you know how flowy like the stunt he came in life Floyd how long do we got more with it oh no it's just another two minutes of bed but I like blowing sterno you know how flowy like money Mayweather like the skillet you know he came in just like that and told him to get back to work I'm ready to see behind the scenes how about y'all y'all ready to get to it let's do it man that was that was a dope battle [Applause] you recorded Jim Henson over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over again Wow all those pieces are a different take and there's that set of takes and then this set of takes it happens because I'm not trying to sound like me and like get a performance I'm trying to sound like somebody else I get a performance out of them or sometimes you'll nail it rhythmically or musically but it's like that was some other dude snuck in there it doesn't even have to be the exact impression of the domain do I do i dude who isn't that performance bro so that had to take a lot you could go on a senior cruise oh yeah I'm gonna senior cruise like cruise right up to the ladies and be like let's pull this ship at a point you know [Applause] so puppets I had to learn how to at least fake my way through it I just don't think Jim ensign would show up to a battle without Kermit you know for a few weeks the studio was just full puppets I wanted to have that sort of thing around me while we were writing it and while I was trying to figure out how would you Manson rap so I just surrounded myself with puppets I figured that was a decent place to start he definitely had a lot of puppets one time when I was young man do what a door television salesman came to the house we buried him in the we thought it would be cool for Stanley to use Jim Henson's strength against him a little bit so we found a puppeteer in Los Angeles his name is Jess McKay and he made this awesome Stanley puppet it was also a little bit of a tip of the hat to Stanley because Stanley always makes cameos in his Marvel movies children to count and smell and you tie your own kids how to drop your wife hotter than you you just call me checking out epic Lloyd's new website which was designed using Squarespace and Squarespace helps millions of people build their own professional-looking websites including epiclloyd himself hello dude I thought you were gonna come onto the ship why would I come out of the shadows so we could tell people Squarespace which has intuitive and easy to use tools that let you design professional looking websites regardless of your skill level yeah but we already told them that in the last two video did we tell them that they have state of the art technology and make sure the website is secure yep did we tell them they're trusted by millions of people and some of the most respected brands in the world yeah we told them all that well did we tell them that they should go to the squarespace.com slash ARB and start a free trial today with no credit card required and receive 10% off the first purchase yep you should just go do that didn't treat the Muppets like they were living things when they weren't being used you know put them in boxes and stuff so in keeping with a house trying to treat this casually this Kermit puppet and I couldn't I get like Agron you sitting uncomfortably I'd be like oh it looks uncomfortable you go fix it but apparently is not it was not treated Jim Henson Jim Henson died in 1990 and I think I was in eighth grade and I remember really clearly that he was the first person from TV or movies or Hollywood or celebrity when he died that like really broke my heart we felt like that had to be touched upon in the song because I feel like a whole generation of kids felt the same way he'll be sadder than positive right on top of it getting a little teary at some of this most most yeah he nailed that part with Kermit on his butt yeah he nailed that where that ball was fired to be though the internet thought that you died 12 years ago so we wanted to make a shot to show just the vastness of all the things that Disney makes we spent a whole day just filming Mary in different wigs different costumes what we wanted to do is make it look like an old-timey you know wah Walt Disney was alive animation studio is this kind of a bird's-eye view of what all the layers of video are and this is the camera moving through it so you get this oh that goes on forever feeling and that's the basic idea so I just took a nap in the makeup chair and I woke up in my hair straight this is great no I want this all the time Wow oh this is where everything's been going wrong all the years by you four billion so you can play around right well history support by man they got a seems like a close-knit staff of people that they work with man that that makes everything probably flows so effortlessly man so they they got that whole setup man salute to them they continue to put out that great content that we know and love man this was fiery I could have me the conversation let me know what y'all think make sure you leave your boy a like man let's get the lights up and stick around and stay tuned until the next reaction video I'm out peace y'all stay solid hey what we do here just go back back back

Women in History Documentary



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History can hardly be complete without talking about the role women played in forming the history of the world. They changed societies and beliefs, being the reason why empires toppled and rose to glory.

Björk – Nature is Ancient



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From “Greatest Hits: Volumen” comes Bjork’s beautiful ‘Nature is Ancient’

‘Nature is Ancient’ was created in conjunction with directing trio Lynn Fox
and features intricate Adam and Eve creatures living in a fluid environment alive with microscopic life clinging on to stalks in the dark atmosphere. Both characters are made up of many translucent layers, skins and jelly-like membranes with the the internal organs still faintly visible inside. The promotion portrays the reproduction of life with the Adam character navigating the black abyss to impregnate Eve, culminating in the growth of a human foetus inside Eve. The whole scene is like looking through a microscope at life as it forms.

Historical Warfare: The Mycenaean Warrior



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The Mycenaean warrior

The Mycenaeans were an Ancient Greek Civilizations during the time of the Bronze Age. Being made up of several kingdoms, the most prominent being Mycenae, the Mycenaeans invest heavily into warfare, and as a result would later inspire the military traditions of the Classical Era Ancient Greece, as well as the epic poems of Homer.

In terms of armour, the most notable example of Mycenaean armour would be the dendra panoply. This armour consisted of a cuirass made up of several layers of bronze. This armour was flexible enough to be comfortable when fighting on foot and provided good protection. Various other types of armour included shoulder guards and additional plates protecting the upper arms. Eventually, scale armour came into use in the later Mycenaean period.

The most common type of helmet worn by the Mycenaeans was a conical one reinforced with rows of boar tusks. This helmet was widely used and was present from the beginning to the collapse of the Mycenaean culture. The helmet was made up of a felt-lined leather cap, with several rows of boar tusks sewn onto it. Bronze helmets were also used, with some having large cheek guards. The cheek guards and the helmets lower edge often had padding to make the helmet both more comfortable and to also help absorb blows from enemy weapons.

An early Mycenaean warrior would utilize a tower shield, which was a large shield that covered almost the entire body. However, as bronze armour became introduced, this shield was less utilized, however, did not completely go out of use. The so-called “figure-of-eight” shields became the most common type of Mycenaean shields. These shields were made of several layers of bull hide and in some cases were reinforced with bronze plates. Later on, smaller, circular shields/almost circular with a cutout part from their low edge were adopted. These shields were again made up of several layers of leather, with a bronze boss and reinforcements, and occasionally were made entirely of bronze.

In terms of weaponry, Spears was the most used. These were initially long, more than 3m and possibly used with both hands. During later Mycenaean times, shorter versions were adopted to accompany the smaller types of shields. These short spears may have been used for both thrusting and throwing.

From the 16ths century BC, swords with rounded tips appeared, having a grip which was an extension of the blade. These swords were 130 cms long. Another type of sword was a single-edged sword made from a solid piece of bronze. This sword was shorter and was probably used for close-quarters combat. These swords were progressively modified with stronger grips and shorter blades.

Sources:

Cartwright, M. and Cartwright, M. (2018). Trojan War. [online] Ancient History Encyclopedia. Available at: [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018].

En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Military of Mycenaean Greece. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018].

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2018). Ajax | Myth, Significance, & Trojan War. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018].

Ancient Greece, Trojan War, Achilles, Ajax the Greater, Hector, Troy, Paris, Agamemnon, Helen of Troy, Troy (movie), Homer, Iliad, Mycenaean, Mycenaean Warrior, Bronze Age, Bronze Age Collapse, History Animated, Historical Warfare, Animated History of, Ancient History Guy, Ancient History,

#AncientGreece #TheMycenaeanWarrior #AncientHistoryGuy

the Mycenaean warrior Mycenaeans were an
ancient Greek civilization during the time of the Bronze Age being made up of
several kingdoms most prominent being Mycenae the Mycenaeans invested heavily
into warfare and as a result would go on to inspire the military traditions of
classical era ancient Greece as well as the epic poems of Homer in terms of
armor the most notable example Mycenaean armor
would be the Dendera panoply this armor consisted of a cuirass made up of
several layers of bronze this armour is also flexible enough to be comfortable
when fighting on foot and provided good protection various other types of armor
including shoulder guards and additional plate protecting the upper arms existed
eventually scale armor came into use in the later Mycenaean period the most
common type of helmet worn by the Mycenaeans was a conical one reinforced
by of rows of boar tusks this helmet was widely used and was present from the
beginning to the collapse of the Mycenaean culture the helmet was made up
of a felt lined lever cap with several rows of boar tusks sewn into it bronze
helmets were also used with some having large cheek guards the cheek guards and
helmets lower edges were often padded to make the helmet more comfortable and to
help absorb blows from enemy weapons an early Mycenaean warrior would utilize a
tower shield which was a large shield that covered almost the entire body
however as the bronze armor became introduced this shield was less utilized
however did not go completely out of use the so called figure-of-eight shields
became the most common type of Mycenaean shields these shields were made up a several
layers of bull hide and in some cases with reinforced bronze plates later on
smaller circular shields saw almost circular with a cut out part from the
lower were adopted in terms of weaponry spears
were the most used these were initially long more than three meters and probably
used with both hands during later Mycenaean times shorter that versions
were adopted to accompany the smaller types of shields these short Spears may
have been used for both thrusting and throwing from the 16th century BC
onwards sort of rounded tips appeared having a grip with an extension of the
blade these swords were 130 centimeters long another type of sword was a single
edged sword made from a solid piece of bronze this sword was shorter and was
probably used for close quarters combat these swords were progressively modified
with stronger grips and shorter blades thank you for watching and listening be
sure to comment down below what types of historical warfare you would like to see
next be sure to LIKE comment and subscribe
I've been ancient history guy and as always I'll b.cing you later you

Weszliśmy do Białoruskiej Strefy Wykluczenia cz.1 – Urbex History



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⭐️Pierwszy film z serii po Białoruskiej Strefie Wykluczenia, dopiero od 2019 roku można tam wjechać i eksplorować⭐️
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🎬 Powstało wiele filmów, publikacji i seriali o Czarnobylu. Sami zresztą pięć lat temu nagraliśmy serię materiałów ze strefy. Wszystko to co znamy i widzieliśmy znajduje się po ukraińskiej stronie Zony ale zapomina się o jednym ważnym szczególe. To na białoruską strefę spadło najwięcej radioaktywnego opadu, powodując skażenie ¼ terytorium kraju. Dlatego w tej serii pięciu filmów jako jedni z pierwszych w historii zajmiemy się białoruską strefą wykluczenia.

W zonie spędzimy 3 pełne dni, eksplorując opuszczone miasta, wioski, kołchozy, porzucone maszyny rolnicze i statki na terenie radiacyjnego rezerwatu. Przejdziemy prawie 400 kilometrów po skażonym terenie znajdując liczne ostrzeżenia przed radiacją i pokonamy niezliczoną ilość razy punkty kontroli dozymetrycznej. Swoją podróż zaczynamy w hotelu na granicy strefy w miejscowości Chojniki znajdującej się pod okresową kontrolą dozymetryczną.

26 kwietnia 1986 roku po awarii reaktora w czwartym bloku czarnobylskiej elektrowni atomowej zapada decyzja wydana przez władze radzieckie o wytyczeniu 30 kilometrowej ochronnej strefy zamkniętej wokół elektrowni atomowej. Dwa lata później w lipcu na mocy Komunistycznej Partii Białorusi oraz Rady Ministrów, na terenie 849 km2 skażonej strefy powstaje Poleski Państwowy Rezerwat Radiacyjno – Ekologiczny. Na podstawie późniejszych badań promieniowania, obszar rezerwatu zostaje powiększony do 2166 km2.

96 miejscowości zamieszkanych przez 22 tysiące osób zostaje wysiedlonych krótko po awarii a przez najbliższe 32 lata nikt oprócz pracowników nie ma wstępu na skażone terytorium. Jedynym wyjątkiem jest święto Radunicy, kiedy to wysiedleńcy mogą odwiedzić cmentarze. Sytuacja zmieniła się dopiero w ostatnim roku, kiedy to obecny prezydent Białorusi udostępnił strefę dla zwiedzających, oczywiście po uzyskaniu odpowiednich zezwoleń.

Powstanie Poleskiego Państwowego Rezerwatu Radiacyjno-Ekologiczne ma na celu obserwowanie jak przyroda radzi sobie ze skarżeniem a następnie prowadzenie licznych badań na tym unikalnym biotopie. Znaczną część terenu zapowiednika bo i tak określa się tę strefę pokrywają lasy.
Dzisiejszy odcinek był pierwszym z serii pięciu filmów z podróży po skażonej białoruskiej strefie wykluczenia. Jeżeli nie chcesz przegapić kolejnych odcinków zasubskrybuj nasz kanał i kliknij w dzwoneczek. Do zobaczenia na kolejnej wyprawie.🎬

Co to #Urbex i czym jest Urbex i UrbexHistory ? Jesteśmy grupą eksploratorów z pasją do #historia. Zwiedzamy i filmujemy #opuszczonemiejsca, często tajne lub niedostępne dla wszystkich. W każdym z naszych materiałów o Urbex jest motyw historyczny, co nas wyróżnia na tle innych ekip. Zwiedziliśmy już wiele miejsc w Polsce jak chociażby Tajne radzieckie miasto w Polsce – Pstrąże – , ale też i poza granicami naszego kraju np. Czarnobyl, Radioaktywną Zone i Prypeć. Udało się tez w styczniu 2019 roku wylecieć do Japonii i nagrać 10 odcinków z Fukushimy !

Do zobaczenia na następnej wyprawie !

A lot of films, publications and series have been made about Chernobyl five years ago, we also recorded a series of films about Chernobyl all the best known places are located in the Ukrainian Zone But everyone forgets about one, the most radioactive dust has fallen on the Belarusian zone causing contamination of 1/4 of the country that's why in this series of films, we will take care of Belarus's Exclusion zone as a primer in history we spent three full days in Zone We will explore abandoned farm machines, villages, cities and ships We will travel almost four hundred kilometers from the contaminated area, finding numerous warnings against radiation we will overcome the dosimetry checkpoint several times We start our journey on the border of the zone, in the town "Chojniki" this place is under periodic dosimetry control behind us is a hotel where we will sleep for the next three days, and we are in the village of "Chojniki" All this is on the border of the Belarusian Exclusion Zone to which we will go in a moment but let's go first for breakfast The Belarusian Exclusion Zone is divided into 5 zones we will discuss them later We are currently in the batch area of dosimetry control food and water are tested here you are probably interested about level of radiation At the moment, there is 0.15 microsievert, the same as in Warsaw in today's episode we will travel such a vehicle it is UAZ 452, commonly known as Puchanka the most important, however, is this sticker it is the emblem of the Poleski Park of Radiation and Ecology Roe deer, fish and stamp during our stay in the zone we will have a dosimeter turned on all the time at the very end we will check what dose of radiation we have actually taken we will sleep with him and eat but we calculate the total radiation dose We slowly set off towards the "Babczyn" checkpoint this is one of several entries to Zone but how was the reserve established on the contaminated area? April 26, 1986 after a failure at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant Soviet authorities decide to set a thirty-kilometer long protection zone two years later, under the resolution of the Belarus Party and the Council of Ministers, the Poleski Radiation National Park is established in later years, the reserve area was increased to 2666 square kilometers 96 cities inhabited by 22 thousand people are displaced shortly after the accident For the next 32 years, no one but employees have access to contaminated territory the only exception is the "Radunica" festival during which the displaced people visit cemeteries The situation changed a year ago when the President of Belarus made the reserve available to visitors of course, after obtaining the appropriate permits, and we reach the checkpoint Checkpoint "Babczyn" there is a museum in this hut, but look here In 1986, 728 people lived here, and after the accident the entire village was displaced I can not read Cyrillic, I've read it on the internet before on the next array of radiation dose, measured daily lower radiation on the dosimeter, it results from the fact that it is the average of the entire zone and we are counting the counter-exact place where we are here a valuable remark, someone did not know that from his house they would make a checkpoint It looks like an ordinary Polish village, a gentleman rides a bike, someone drives a tractor – nothing terrible we are on the border, later it will be different what you see will be one of the first videos on this subject on Polish YouTube and we will discover things that no one has seen before it's hard to get ready for a place with very little information after checking permits and signing up for a checklist it turned out that we are one of the first 500 people who got permission to enter the zone This confirmed us in the belief that the Belarusian zone is virgin and right not recognized at all on the internet there are just a few information about the reservation it's hard to get ready for such a trip moving more and more deep into the zone and passing vehicles helping in the fight against fires we have reached the first point of our exploration, which is the animal feed factory this is the first point adequate to what we will do someone's dosimeter going crazy 0,47 microsievert -all normal On the Ukrainian part of the zone, the radiation is spot on in this part, elevated background radiation is normal Animal feed was produced on this farm and flour, if I associate it well with such devices, you can pour flour Nothing here I am surprised I do not know what to call it, but at the top there was grain or fodder here was probably the ramp to which the truck was approaching and collected all the feed there was a stalker here because a screw lies if there are fanatics of "Stalker" here, you should associate this place, and somewhere here was one of the artifacts I wonder why all this is so bad condition, since there are no looters here it can be said that this reserve is under protection at all times all the time patrols of militia appear here, who make sure there are no poachers or vandals here all machines remain which is a very good sign some of them were deported during the evacuation the question is whether it is destroyed by the passage of time or by human activity I do not know if it can be seen on the camera, but the rust has done its job this piece rusted and slipped so it's more a matter of time passing Look how tall this elevator is here is a truss that you can not see but you have to trust me I will start the lamp in the next place some engine I went around and it was enough to go this way after the accident in Chernobyl, 23% of the areas were contaminated 1/4 of Belarus was contaminated by this failure it is a country that suffered the most Unfortunately, not many people know about it and say it 0,42 microsievert in the air let's put dosimeter into the ground the result has not changed if any of you had the idea to eat such a mushroom or an apple nearby because the worst thing can be is the absorption of radioactive elements but the mere stay is ok, 0.46 microsievert and soon mutant mosquitoes will eat me since the entire region was agricultural, it's great to start with the place that affected it the reserve area has been divided into five zones, and we just cross the most famous thirty-kilometer even before the failure, the reserve area was filled mainly with collective farms and arable lands in some places cattle were bred, therefore the next point is the abandoned village "Kazuszki" our guides are in this zone for the third time our guide is here for the third time what we discover, you certainly have not seen it anywhere else let's break up, but let's keep in touch with the radio Konrad went in the middle Łukasz went that way and I'm going in that direction because there are supposedly farm machines Do not associate the Kolchoz with something terrible, they were organized farms they also dealt with cattle grazing, and my dosimeter stirred a little However, no next to me are old destroyed machines machines or crops collected by these machines were kept in this building this place is quite specific this place is undiscovered and is a completely different experience we are on the so-called wild east this place really is wild and has not been visited for many many years I have another association with the computer game, this time with Fallout earlier I told you about the stalker, but I will add one more thing in the Ukrainian part of the wife visiting her illegally is not popular, but people do it whereas nobody here does this because here you face very high punishments in addition to the legal approximation of 2000 euros in mandate as to the legal consequences it is difficult to give me specific examples the deplorable with the ban on admission to Belarus seems to be the mildest punishment I know that a different scale and completely different disasters but this place reminds me of something specifically, Ukedo in Fukushima, more or less the same hangars in a similar state of decay at least this one here here they had to keep their fodder or fertilizers, judging by the shape of the room let's get inside Look at the old eternit boards old military-like chests in a technical channel let's see what's on the other side remember that there are few people here so we can find such artifacts from the past looks like prehistoric Pepsi jars on the floor, leaking roof and silence.. here is the checkpoint, the reactor is below and we are somewhere here here is the intersection, the river prypte and the marked points I know you can not see much here the vials lie everywhere this one is even filled with something here is another one here are ampoules with different ingredients in the middle there is a lot of this here, I will check one thing out of curiosity note that the radiation level in the building is lower than outside 0.46 microsievert decreased to 0.19 Cattle are grazed here, pastures are next to you some old artifact here is so much dust that it certainly lies for 30 years I managed to find a notebook with old notes a small thing, and enjoys I suspect that these are prescriptions and veterinary records in a sense, we set the path for future tourists visiting this place going to the Ukrainian part of the zone we could see everything on google maps, as if we lived there at this point in the internet you will not find the place where we are from 2019, you can enter here typically tourist another dream fulfilled if you want to see the films from the Chernobyl, they are displayed at the top and in a moment films from Fukushima will be screened establishment of the Poleski State Radiological and Ecological Reserve aimed to observe how nature deals with contamination additionally, research is carried out on a unique biotope a large part of this area is covered by forests the largest enemy of the reserve is not radiation, but forest fires several towers with cameras at the top were erected to monitor the site they enable quick response to fires and tracking potential stalkers but there are also those that are devoid of cameras from which apparently you can see side number 4 and its new sarcophagus wood from KGB nice it's just great fun where is reactor? there it is it is and it can be seen very well -I do not see "Duga" -to the left of the reactor (picture from Adam Bojanowski) It's at ten o'clock just wonderfull view.. man enjoys such a moments… I did not expect that I would see a reactor in the Belarusian zone the whole zone is in four regions (someone noticed that we have other shirts?) We drove through the Chojnice area, we are currently in the Brachnicki area and we are going to school and the place is called Wygrybnaje Sloboda Look at the old gas masks here must have been a technical workshop Look at these sizes, these are masks for children in the end, we're at school -here are the absorbents, filters and these masks are quite a lot -I found a lot of absorbers yesterday they can lie in one of the chests there are changing rooms here "We were here, not them" it's from school times or modern times mathematic… physics sooner it is certainly physics -we checked the school and administrative building so we have to go… -we're going further into the city yeah we're going to the city 🙂 relaxed atmosphere, we go sightseeing the villages You can go anywhere, no one controls it we are visiting one of Belarusian single-family houses there were a lot of ampoules with medicines and jars At this point, I greet all who have threatened me before going to the Belarusian zone that mutants will kill me, radiation will get thyroid cancer and that too much radiation I'm in the middle of an abandoned house in the middle of the zone where the most radioactive dust fell after the reactor's failure Dosimeter shows 0.18 microsievert, which is exactly the same as in my home in Warsaw, during reading coments ad YouTube I raised the post card from the floor for the new year There are a lot of such letters here, and all are addressed to one person I took photos and translate them later newspaper from 1986 a memorable year May 26, 1986 It is a pity that this picture is so poorly legible a wash mark at the place where the decontamination was carried out on the bank of the pripyat (Russian) 26 may 1986 look at this washing up radioactive materials very nice find interesting.. such ships sailed along the Pripyat river you can still find one of them on the Baltic sea -dool without head -tell me about your nightmare hug meee and here your soul lands like this doll will get you through the night all the souls of bad people end up here (Konrad Try to speak russian) Greek mythology in total, you can disassemble the pictures The first day in the Belarusian exclusion zone came to an end but it was not the end of our journey yet every vehicle leaving the zone must undergo mandatory dosimetry control in order to have an overview of the results, we asked for additional control before entering only one number appeared on the display – 0 However, look at the indications at the exit I will try to break the record -0,8 -3.6 roentgen 😀 -0,9 microsievert -hands to wash? 🙂 -Łukasz and I had more -but I am right-handed one hand cleaner than the other (in Russian) -1,09 everything fine I have to wash my right hand only this dosimeter is always carried with him dosimeter constantly measures the dose that our guide consumed in the zone today's trip is best compared to other contaminated zones in which we were The Ukrainian part of the zone was drawn as if from the bottom of the bottle tourists are allowed in and dismantled the roof of the power plant under a new sarcophagus despite the fact that the state has plans to adapt the zone, they will rather never enter into force Fukushima, on the other hand, is focused on decontamination and an attempt to give people what was theirs With huge effort of work and finances, areas are cleared to reside in them again The Belarusian exclusion zone has become the only reserve of its kind in the world in the reserve, the influence of radiation on nature is examined, and I observe how nature receives what is its own after the evacuation of people, many species previously considered extinct returned to the reserve each zone is different, but they have one thing in common – radiation You are wondering what dose of radiation we have been taking We have absorbed 2 thousandths of millisiveria more than in our home the first episode was the first of a series of five films in the Belarusian exclusion zone if you do not want to miss more movies, subscribe to our channel and click on the bell See You on the next exploration! 🙂

The Space Shuttle's Last Flight (Atlantis) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History



Views:26165|Rating:4.60|View Time:1:11:22Minutes|Likes:268|Dislikes:23
As Atlantis completes its 135th and final mission, this definitive documentary charts the rise and fall of the most ambitious space programme ever undertaken, the space shuttle. For the past three decades since it first launch in 1981, the shuttle has become an iconic symbol of America’s technological dominance while at the same time rewriting the rules of space travel. Here is reusable vehicle that could lift off like a rocket, carry people and cargo into Earth’s orbit, then land on a runway like a plane and do it time after time. But two disasters, in 1986 and 2003, and the tragic loss of 14 astronauts shocked the World, and signalled the end of the programme, and the end of an era. However, its legacy has been extraordinary. In 30 years of service, the shuttle has flown more miles, completed more missions and put more men and women in orbit than any other spacecraft in history. It has transformed our understanding of the universe, aided technological advancement, and enabled us to study the environmental consequences we have had on our planet. After this July, when the shuttle takes its last flight, the USA will no longer be able to put a man in space for the first time in over half a century.

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Welcome to Reel Truth History, the home of gripping and powerful documentaries. Here you can watch both full length documentaries and series that explore some of the most comprehensive pieces of world history.

Dogo Onsen | Ancient Bath House Secrets Revealed ★ ONLY in JAPAN



Views:439350|Rating:4.94|View Time:13:20Minutes|Likes:7463|Dislikes:89
Don’t be frightened! In Japan, bath houses are everywhere, but none are as mystical as Dogo Onsen. Sure, it’s a place where you get naked with a bunch of strangers to clean yourself and relax in therapeutic waters, but what makes this public onsen special is that it’s also open to everyone including those with tattoos, a rarity in Japan. You can’t stay the night here, but you can take in the magical environment that places you in what seems like a totally different world.

Dogo Onsen is famous for not only being Japan’s oldest onsen (3,000 years) but for it’s special rejuvenating waters that heal the body and make you young again.
The myth of the onsen’s origins comes from a white heron or egret who was injured. It bathed in the waters at this spot every day until healthy enough to fly away.
You’ll find a lot of people in the 80s, 90s and even 100 years old bathing to stay healthy and fix health problems. After 15 minutes in the waters, you may feel the power too!

The main building called the HONKAN was built in the 19th century. It also houses a special bathing area for the Imperial family on the east side called the YUSHINDEN. The Emperor hasn’t visited since 1950, but when he does come again, the staff said they’ll be ready just like they’re ready for every person who wants a bath in all of their luxurious tubs.

Dogo Onsen’s Baths:
Lower Floor
KAMI NO YU
The woman’s Kami no Yu is quite large with a fountain in the middle. The men’s has two smaller baths of equal size.
2nd Floor
TAMA NO YU
A VIP bath the used to be for the imperial family and their attendants. Requires a special ticket. Less crowded and quieter.

Dogo Onsen Hours:
6:00AM to 10:00PM

TICKET PRICES / ADMISSION:
★ 410 Yen / General “Kami No Yu” Bath Only
★ 820 Yen / General Bath + Tatami Floor lounge, Yukata and snack
★ 1250 Yen / SPECIAL “Tama No Yu” BATH + Tatami Floor lounge, Yukata and snack
★ 1550 Yen / SPECIAL BATH + 3rd Floor Tatami Room, Special Yukata and Snack
* Maximum Stay is 1 hour

URL:
Mikan Beer:
Matcha & Tart Set:
Dogo Brewery Restaurant:

Google Map to Dogo Onsen:

This show has been created and produced by John Daub ジョン・ドーブ. He’s been living and working in Japan for over 18 years and regularly reports on TV for Japan’s International Channel.

The History of Sweden



Views:7706|Rating:4.70|View Time:11:21Minutes|Likes:109|Dislikes:7
This is the history of Sweden please enjoy.

All material should be licensed under Creative Commons or as fair use.

Images: Pixabay and Wikimedia

Music:
Clair De Lune (Orchestral Arr.) & Clair De Lune (Wurly, Drum Machine and Bucket Arr.) by Podington Bear

Seeing the Future by Dexter Britain
www.dexterbritain.com

Sweden home to beautiful cityscape frozen wastelands flat-pack furniture and rose most famous meme generator this is the history of Sweden when the ice covering scan may be retracted the first migrators moved in they lived off hunting gathering and fishing and use simple stone tools during the early Iron Age the population of Sweden settled and agriculture set the foundation for economy and society between year 550 and 800 Sweden entered the Vandal period they established trade to the east laying the foundation for the extensive trade Sweden saw during their next period the working age this was a period of significant increase in Scandinavian activity for Sweden it was also a period of both economic and political flourish Sweden's main focus was towards the east using the long ships that both plundered and traded along the Baltic coasts they also sail up rivers deep into modern day Russia where there established colonies they travel as far as the black and the Caspian Sea and establish trade with both Arab kingdoms and a Byzantine Empire in the latter the Varangian guard was an elite unit for several Swedish Vikings served on Skaar arriving from the Frankish Empire was the first to introduce Sweden to Christianity but it would take several decades for the country to be converted in the late working age Eric's a gazelle might have been the first King to rule over both the so they are and us thought tribes with his son who loved working continuing the process in that sense they are relieved to set the foundations for a unified Sweden there's following the waiking age show that the unification of Sweden would be a long process and a long lasting conflict between the eric and Sewer clans ensued the conflict eventually got resolved by creating a new dynasty the hives of Bilbo beginning in a 1200 s b'dar and his successor consolidated the unification of Sweden and acquired fiddlin through several Crusades bTW all is also credited for owning Stockholm the modern-day capital Swede the city became an important trade hub for distribution of the minerals mined in Sweden's inland in the late 1200 s the nobility got their first privileges and society could organized into feudal model but it was somewhat different compared to the rest of Europe the farmers being to a large extent free in the early 1300s Sweden and Norway were joining a union under king Magnus Eriksson in the beginning of his rule Denmark was in a state of distress he used his opportunity to buy scania from the Danes however Denmark with only decades later take the area back as well as the island of Gotland the lusts of these rich areas made Sweden weaker the Black Death reached Sweden in 1350 and led to economic and population decline but all things considered Sweden quickly arose again late thirteen hundreds so internal conflict as the nobility was dissatisfied with Magnus and wanted Albert of Mecklenburg on the throne Albert eventually succeeded after eight years of civil war however he gradually lost much of his support and with the help of the Danish ruler Margaret he was dethroned and Sweden joined the cavalry union Margaret was a brilliant diplomat but the rulers following her could not pose to be equal thus following Margaret's death the union soon ran into problems Masha dutour dissatisfied nobility the first major conflict was the anger breath rebellion which set a precedent for Sweden's claim to serenity the latest are essentially Sweden's Parliament was also founded during this time the discontent toward Danish rule climaxed when 80 Swedish nobles were executed by the order of the Danish King in an event known as the Stockholm bloodbath Gustav Vasa who had lost his father in a bloodbath rose to lead a rebellion against Denmark he was successful in a 1523 he became king over now free Sweden wall so I introduced a Protestant Reformation confiscating all estates belonging to the church he focused on strengthening the economy the army the fleet and Unruh gaining control of the trade which was dominated by the hamsa for many Vasa is considered the father of the modern Swedish state following us as rule Sweden's foreign meddling became more active with a focus on gaining dominion over a Baltic Sea the Swedes expanded into the Baltics through several successful Wars and the following years would see Sweden in an almost constant state of war with Sweden becoming more and more powerful in the early 1600 Gustavus Adolphus became King and he knew that if Sweden to become a major power he had to restructure and modernize the army so he did just that he also bettered the in taxation system drastically improving in the state finances auto fuse was also a brilliant military strategist based by many considered the father of modern warfare the 30 Years War was a devastating religious conflict that started in the Holy Roman Empire bottled in Germany but soon spread to the other European powers Auto first perhaps saw this as an opportunity to further strengthen Sweden so he joined the game playing on a Protestant side he won a significant battle against the Emperor's army but in a later battle all of us was killed this did not stop Sweden which now had several brilliant generals under a wing leading Sweden to victory in the 30 Years War as you can see here this result in history and gaining land in the Baltics in northern Germany as well as gaining back Coughlin from the dance Sweden was also rhetoric in a second northern war very much new land including scorner at Trondheim flem this made Sweden stronger than our a longtime Danish rival as Sweden was know one of the great powers of Europe Sweden even founded a short-lived colony in what is no Delaware in North America however the years following Otto first who soon proved to be a challenge for Sweden through several more or less successful Wars Sweden consolidated their power in the Baltics but starting in a year 1700 Sweden found itself in war against most of their neighbors in a conflict known as the great northern war this war so Sweden pitted against a large coalition with Russia as the main threat Sweden experienced initial success but King call the 12th leading Sweden into some of history's most impressive victories hello there I am Charles but why Scott Kings win McGuffin wins glam Vince Penman to Cassini estonia livonia and kalla-nohra English cucumber in Verdun and millennia trees a vegan know the reason of the compile time by the right to cover Apple area account of cyber cable for a Duke of Jewish play and echo the villains from high hums like a lot of cops time but you can call me Carl but when he attempted to march on to Moscow his army was severely weakened and the war shifted in favor of Russia when Karl returned to Sweden after his losses in Russia he raised a new army to conquer Norway this campaign failed when Carl was shot and killed during the siege of Frederick Stan fortress the northern war ended was feeding defeated and they lost much of the baltic lands in the years following Carl's thethe the Swedish parliament was strong enough to introduce a new constitution that abolished royal absolutism the following years would see more wars with more loss of land as well as economic decline on the bright side it was also a period of scientific advancement which squeezed such as column Linehan under celsius reaching fame across europe the following year so little military success but when Sweden found itself forced to join the Napoleonic Wars they joined England side as very important for Sweden siren trade during the wars a French marshal Karl Johan selected as future king of Sweden he soon realized that it would be impossible to conquer back Finland from Russia instead he saw an opportunity to acquire Norway he signed a treaty with Great Britain promising to join in the coalition against Napoleon in trade of Norway the Swedish army marched to victory in Denmark and Sweden acquired norway in 1814 in a Treaty of Kiel the time after Napoleonic Wars saw a shift in politics with several liberal reforms being implemented throughout the 1800s Sweden move towards industrialism and Parliament tourism direct democracy was introduced but amount of workers was very limited industrialization of Sweden was slow and in a late 19th century 90% of the people still earn their livelihood from agriculture even though the 19th century saw a dramatic increase in population in addition more than a million Swedes emigrated to America Sweden's perhaps most famous person also lived during this period Alfred Nobel inventor of dynamite and much more with his will laying the foundation for the Nobel prizes in science and peace in the early 1900's industrialization gained serious traction and in just a few decades Sweden became one of Europe's leading industrial nations 1905 the UNAM in Norway came to an end in the following years all men gained the right to vote and Social Democratic Party experienced growth Sweden declares of neutral during first world war during the interwar period screen tried to acquire the oil and Islands through diplomacy but he was rejected in the League of Nations plans for a well first aid for drone up during the 1930s after the Social Democrats rose to power and were put into effect after World War two where Sweden again was neutral unlike most of Europe Sweden was not ravished by the war and they experienced an ever-expanding industry and economy with a doubling of rigid EP from 1950 to 1970 Sweden's welfare system went through several improvements perhaps being the best in the world however like several other countries the 1973 oil crisis had a big impact in Sweden and many became unemployed with other Scandinavian countries join NATO after the Second World War Sweden maintained the path of neutrality relying on a strong defensive force in 1976 a coalition put an end to the Social Democratic hegemony but the following year some political turmoil must due to a heated discussion concerning nuclear power in 1982 the Social Democrats once again won the election but a few years later in prime minister rule of palma was murdered openly in the streets they never caught the killer and the murder had a great impact all across Scandinavia some asking if Sweden now had lost its innocence the early 90s saw a financial crisis in Sweden in part caused by a real-estate bubble to get out of the crisis Sweden had to reduce developer benefits and private Desai's parts of the public sector in 1994 the worst accident in modern Swedish history occurred as the car ferry MS Estonia sank in a Baltic Sea claiming 852 lives a year later Sweden joined the EU but they refrained from using the Euro in the year 2000 the older soon British Open combining Sweden with down work today Sweden still maintained their path of neutrality and is one of the world's richest and most developed countries from humble beginnings to worse on Nordic empire amassing too many rivals to a path of neutrality and once again prosperity that was the history of Sweden thank you so much for watching and as always carry on or as a Swedish person a guy called Bowie sin you

Mongols: Invasions of Japan 1274 and 1281 DOCUMENTARY



Views:261098|Rating:4.95|View Time:16:47Minutes|Likes:11213|Dislikes:123
Sponsored by MagellanTV – a new streaming service with 2,000+ documentaries worth watching. The first 100 people can get a one month free trial here: History playlist –

The second season of our animated historical documentary series on the Mongol Invasions is here! Previously we have covered the Rise of the Mongol empire under Chinggis and his successors. This second season will deal with the Fall of the Mongol domain and the first episode will describe the the peak of the Mongol power under Kublai and the invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281.

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We are grateful to our patrons and sponsors, who made this video possible:

The script for this video was developed by Jack Wilson – The Jackmeister. Check out his channel dedicated to the history of the Mongols:

This video was narrated by Officially Devin (

Machinimas were made on Total War: Attila engine by MalayArcher (

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#Documentary #MongolInvasions #Kublai

بعد أن أصبح قوبلاي خان خان الأكبر
الإمبراطورية المغولية في عام 1264 ، كان الأمر متروكًا له مواصلة إرث جده ، Chinggis
خان ، واستكمال غزو الصين. كان المغول يعتقدون أن الجنة قد أمرت جميعًا
العالم ليكون مجالهم ، وفي هذا تحول الاعتقاد انتباههم إلى اليابان. في
الحلقة الأولى من الموسم الثاني نحن سوف تدرس ربما الأكثر شهرة ، و
على ما يبدو لا يمكن تفسيره ، غزو القيام بها من قبل الإمبراطورية المغولية. شكراً جزيلاً لرعاة هذا الفيديو ،
MagellanTV! ماجلان نوع جديد من الأفلام الوثائقية تدفق العضوية التي أسسها صناع السينما ،
فريقهم من المنتجين والقيمين الجمع بين المحتوى المتميز مع أعمق
يغوص. مع الاشتراك في MagellanTV ، أنت الحصول على أنواع مميزة من التاريخ ،
الفضاء ، والعلوم ، والطبيعة ، وكذلك الفرد أفلام ومسلسلات وثائقية. ماجلان حتى
لديها قوائم تشغيل مختلفة محددة التاريخ ، مثل التاريخ القديم. تحتوي قائمة التشغيل هذه على أفلام وثائقية
التي تغطي موضوعات من يوليوس قيصر ، إلى المصريين ، إلى العثمانيين. لدينا المفضل الجديد
من قائمة التشغيل التاريخ القديم يسمى "قبر جنكيز خان" ويستكشف اللغز
قبر جنكيز خان الخفي. يمكنك دفق ماجلان من أي مكان على أي جهاز دون
أي إعلانات وليس الوصول المحدود. العديد من البرامج الجديدة تضاف على أساس أسبوعي ، ومجموعة واسعة
متوفرة في 4K. نحن نوصي بشدة لك تحقق من MagellanTV ، وأول 100 زائر
يمكن أن تذهب إلى magellantv.com/KingsAndGenerals للحصول على نسخة تجريبية مجانية لمدة شهر واحد. جاءت اليابان لأول مرة إلى اهتمام كوبلاي
للقرصنة اليابانية على ساحل كوريا من 1220s حتى 1260s. الفوضى السياسية
وغزوات المغول تركت كوريا غير مستقرة وغير قادر على الدفاع عن نفسه ، ولكن هذه العمليات
توقفت مرة واحدة غزا كوريا أخيرا من قبل المغول في 1259. وفي الوقت نفسه ، فإن اليابانيين
واصلت التداول مع العدو الرئيسي لكوبلاي ، أسرة سونغ ، ودعم اقتصاديا
تم طرد عدو كوبلاي لسحقه. حتى القرن التاسع ، كانت اليابان والصين
مرتبطة من خلال التجارة والسياسية والثقافية العلاقات ، حتى اضطهاد البوذية من قبل
أدت أسرة تانغ اليابان إلى عزل نفسها. وهكذا ، لجعل اليابان تحت سيطرته سوف
إضفاء الشرعية على كوبلاي على أنصاره المنغوليين من خلال الفتح ، وإلى رعاياه الصينيين
من خلال إعادته إلى حظيرة. هذه رمزية يهم لتأمين والحفاظ عليها
ولاية السماء ، والتي منحت السلالات الحق في حكم الصين.
في عام 1266 أرسل كوبلاي أول مبعوثين له إلى اليابان ، دعوتهم لتقديم الجزية. بينما هذا
الرسالة لم تبرز تهديدات علنية بالتدمير ، لا يزال يشير إلى Kublai باسم "سيد
الكون "، وكان التضمين بالكاد مخبأة في استنتاج الرسالة: "دع
نشارك في علاقات ودية. من يرغب اللجوء إلى السلاح؟ "
بينما كانت رسالة كوبلاي موجهة إلى الامبراطور ، منذ أواخر القرن 12th الإمبراطور
كان شخصية رئيسية لشوغون ، و بعد وفاة الشوغون الأول ، حقيقي
عقدت السلطة من قبل حاكم له ، و Shikken ، موقع يسيطر عليه عشيرة هوجو. وقوبلاي
تم تجاهل المبعوثين في عام 1266 ، حفل استقبال هائل لم يأخذ الخان بخفة ، مع ما شابه ذلك
ردود على المبعوثين في السنوات التالية. بدا الصمت على نحو متزايد مثل الوقاحة ،
إهانة صاحب السيادة الأقوى على الأرض لا يمكن تجاهلها.
الاستعدادات Kublai لهذا غير مسبوق بدأ الغزو المغولي المنقول بحرا في عام 1268. كما
وكان المغول خبرة قليلة في البحرية الحرب ، جانبا من العمليات على الأنهار
الصين ، اعتمدوا على خبرة البحارة الكوريون وسفنهم. بالاضافة،
الكوريين أيضا توفير أحكام ل الغزو ، وهو عبء أدى إلى فترة قصيرة
تمرد. أعطت هذه الانتفاضة كلمة لليابانيين الاستعدادات المغولية ، و shikken الجديد ،
Hojo Tokimune ، بدأ الاستعدادات الخاصة به ؛ تم إرسال المحاربين إلى كيوشو ، على الأرجح
موقع للهبوط. سقوط معقل الأغنية الرئيسية في شيانغيانغ
في 1273 ، حرر الرجال والموارد ليتم إرسالها في مكان آخر. اليابان أيضا ، يمكن أن تتلقى في النهاية
العقاب لمقاومة مطالب Kublai ل. الأرقام الدقيقة للقوات المغولية متنازع عليها ،
مع إعطاء تقديرات 15000 منغولية ، الشمالية الجنود الصينيون وخيتان وجورتشن ، 6-8000
جنود كوريون و 7000 كوري آخر البحارة ، تنتشر بين حوالي 300 سفينة حربية و
4-500 سفينة أصغر – وحدة كبيرة ، ولكن لا يكفي لاحتلال بلد.
في حين أن قوات Kublai لم تقم أبدا عملية في الخارج من قبل ، وآخر 60
سنوات قدمت بعض الأعداء الذين يمكن أن المباراة المغول في المعركة. إذا كانت الإمبراطوريات الأقوياء
من جين والأغنية عازمة على المغول ، كيف يمكن لأمة اليابان الصغيرة أن تجرؤ على الوقوف
قبله؟ إلى كوبلاي ، أي شيء آخر غير كان النصر السريع مستحيلاً.
غادر الأسطول من كوريا في خريف 1274 ، السقوط أولاً على جزر تسوشيما الصغيرة
و Iki. المستوطنات قليلة الدفاع عرضت مقاومة صغيرة للمنغول من ذوي الخبرة
المحاربين ، لأنه في عزلتهم عن البر الرئيسى ، وقد وضعت الساموراي بهم
العلامة التجارية الخاصة للحرب ، والاعتماد على الفرد مبارزة ، بدلا من تشكيلات معقدة من
المغول. غادر المغول تسوشيما وإيكي مع السجناء
مسمر إلى جحافل سفنهم ، قادمة في هاكاتا خليج كيوشو في نوفمبر تشرين الثاني. هم
لم يكن الهبوط دون معارضة: جدار بحري قديم ركض على طول جزء من الخليج ، وكان وراءه
المتمركزة المحاربين من Hojo Tokimune. أعداد للقوة اليابانية المتنازع عليها ، مع
بعض الأرقام منخفضة تصل إلى 3600 ، وهذا واضح أن عدد المدافعين فاق عددهم
لا خبرة في قتال القوات الأجنبية و تفتقر إلى القدرة التكتيكية والاستراتيجية
المغول. مع هبوط اليوان أسطول ، وكانت المعركة الأولى في خليج هاكاتا
بدأت. كان الساموراي ، مثل المغول ، ماهرين
الرماة على حد سواء مشيا على الأقدام وعلى ظهور الخيل توقيعهم غير متناظرة يومي. اليابانيون
افتتح القتال مع صفير السهام ، مصممة لإزعاج وتخويف أعدائهم. اليابانية
مصادر تصف المغول بالضحك السهام ، ثم يقود الخيول
الساموراي غاضب من الخوف على أصوات طبول الحرب والصنوج تستخدم لتوجيه المغول
قوات في المعركة. غير مستخدمة لمثل هذه الضوضاء ، و أصيبت الخيول اليابانية بالذعر قبل ذلك
قابل العدو. الدفاع عن منازلهم والمحاربين المهرة
ومع ذلك ، قاتل اليابانيون بشدة على طول جدار البحر. المغول ، القتال
شاقة من الشواطئ ، لم تكن قادرة على تحقيق الفرسان المخيف لتحمل ، ولكن ، كما هو مبين
من الأدلة الأثرية والتصويرية ، استخدم المغول قنابل ضد اليابانيين.
في عدد قليل من الأماكن اندلعت المغول ، حرق مدينة هاكاتا القريبة.
أثبتت المنطقة الواقعة وراء الاختراق أنها غير مواتية إلى المغول ومع ذلك: الموقع المختار ل
معسكرهم ، أكاساكا ، أثبت أنه لا يمكن الدفاع عنه ، وأثبتت الرماية اليابانية ماهرا حتى
حسب المعايير المغولية. ليو قائد ليو ضرب فو شانغ في وجهه بسهم ،
وكان حصانه استولت عليها السامرائي. مع قائدهم عاجز ، غير قادر على الضغط
الداخلية والجري منخفضة على الذخائر ، على الرغم من إلحاق خسائر فادحة باليابانيين ،
تم طلب الانسحاب. ما تلا ذلك هو مسألة بعض النقاش ،
لكنه أصبح لحظة حاسمة للحملة. المصادر اليابانية لهذا الغزو تصف
الرياح العكسية التي دفعت الأسطول المغولي مرة أخرى ، الشواطئ بضع سفن. مصادر يوان على
من ناحية أخرى ، تحدث عن إعصار عظيم نهض ، وسحق الكثير من الأسطول تحتها
الأمواج وإجبار الباقي على التراجع. أسباب هذا التأكيد واضحة ،
لأنه من خلال إلقاء اللوم على حادث طقس غريب المغول يمكن الحفاظ على سمعتها العسكرية ،
بدلا من الاعتراف بأن اليابانيين قد عرضوا مقاومة أشد من المتوقع. لا هذا ولا ذاك
رأى الجانب هذا الخطبة الأولى حاسمة ، وعندما تم إعدام مبعوثي كوبلاي في عام 1275 ،
تم ضمان عودته. في 1279 سقطت أسرة سونغ أخيرا إلى
المغول ، واستكمال غزو الصين بدأت من قبل Chinggis خان في 1211. الآن Kublai
يمكن أن تثير الرجال والموارد والسفن من جنوب الصين لاستخدامها ضد اليابان. مع
كوريا دمرت اقتصاديا من قبل الأول الغزو ، وكانت هذه القوات غزا حديثا
لأخذ دور قيادي. في اليابان Hojo Tokimune لم يجلس الخمول ، وإصلاح وتمديد
جدار البحر حول خليج هاكاتا لمدة 20 كم ، وكذلك إعداد دفاع أكبر.
بحلول عام 1281 ، كان كوبلاي مستعدًا للرد ، جمع ربما أكبر غزو المنقولة بحرا
قبل هبوط نورماندي عام 1944. بينما ومن المتوقع أن مصادر القرون الوسطى
تضخيم الأرقام ، فمن الواضح بأي مقياس أن هذا كان عملا عظيما. المصادر
الدولة التي تم تقسيم أكثر من 100،000 رجل بين أسطولان: الأسطول الشمالي تقريبا
40،000 المغول ، Jurchen ، شمال الصين والقوات الكورية على متن 900 سفينة ، وآخر
من حوالي 60،000 رجل من الفتح حديثا أراضي جنوب الصين ، على متن 3500
أوعية. قليل من هؤلاء كانوا على المحيط الصحيح سفن حربية أو وسائل نقل ، إلى حد ما
السفن الساحلية أو النهرية لم يسبق لها مثيل هذه الحملات الطويلة.
على الفور كانت الحملة قبالة إلى مشؤومة بداية. تنوي المغادرة في الربيع لتجنب
مواسم الإعصار ، عانى الأسطول الجنوبي التأخير ، جنرال سقطت مرض والغذاء مدلل
في الطقس الدافئ في جنوب الصين. الخطة كان للأسطول الشمالي ، المغادرة
مرة أخرى من كوريا ، للقاء على Iki مع الأسطول الجنوبي المغادرة من تشيوانتشو ،
ولكن في النهاية انطلق الأسطول الشمالي وحده ، احتلال ايكي بحلول يونيو 1281.
بعد أسبوعين ، كان الأسطول قبالة الساحل من كيوشو ، ولكن وجدت مواقع الهبوط دافع
من قبل الساموراي أعدت جيدا على جدار البحر. المقاومة شجاع بالقرب من Munakata أبقى
الأسطول الشمالي من الهبوط الكامل أو صنع التقدم الداخلي.
وصل الأسطول الجنوبي أخيرًا في يوليو ، نحو الطرف الجنوبي من الجدار ، و
تهدف إلى القتال طريقهم شمالا للقاء مع الأسطول الأول. لكن هذا الأسطول الجنوبي ،
تتألف بالكامل تقريبا من الصينية من غزا مؤخرا سلالة سونغ ، تفتقر إلى
المهارة والانضباط وتجربة المغول القوات ، وكان حصة ضئيلة أو مصلحة في
المخاطرة بحياتهم للسادة الأجانب في أرض أجنبية. حاجز اللغة بين
المغول والكوريين والصينيين وغيرهم ، والتوترات بين المغول والجنرالات الصينيين
والقائد الأدميرال الكوري ضعيف وقدرتهم على التصرف. من أواخر يونيو إلى
أوائل أغسطس ، تشارك يوان واليابانية إلى حد كبير غير حاسم ، واليوان غير قادر على التقدم
ضد اليابانيين ، لكن اليابانيين غير قادرين للتغلب على الأسطول الكبير.
في الليل ، اتخذ اليابانيون أصغر ، ذكيا الحرفية خارج بين الأساطيل ، والتسلق
على متنها وقتل الرجال في نومهم أو إرسالها اطلاق النار على السفن لإشعال النار في السفن. خسائر يوان
كانت تتصاعد ، مع انخفاض الإمدادات ، غير قادر على استعباد رجالهم على أي شيء ولكن
ما أحضروا معهم. ليال على متن ضيقة ، ثبت السفن الهزاز لا راحة ل
المحاربين المغولي تستخدم لفتح السهوب ، مع العلم الساموراي قد يأتي الزحف من الظلام.
في الخامس عشر من أغسطس عام 1281 ، جاء الانقلاب دي نعمة. البحر قبالة ساحل كيوشو
مضطرب كما ارتفع الإعصار في وقت مبكر بشكل غير معقول ، أساطيل يوان اشتعلت الآن بين العاصفة
والساحل. السفن الكورية أكثر ثباتا مصنوعة للمياه المفتوحة تمكنت من تجنب التعرض
سحقت ضد الصخور ، ولكن أكثر مؤقتة كان الأسطول الجنوبي عاجزًا ضد المحيط
غيظ. ربما خلال 15 و 16 أغسطس ثلث الأسطول الشمالي وأكثر من النصف
من الجنوب دمرت ، والثانية كانت محاولة المغول للاستيلاء على اليابان قد انتهت. أولئك
وكان الجنود يوان الذين غسلها إلى الشاطئ بسرعة وجدت من قبل اليابانيين وقتلوا ، في حين أن
تعثر الباقي إلى الصين. كان كوبلاي غاضبًا. هالة المغول لا تقهر
تراكمت على مدى القرن لم يدمر ، ولكن كان ملوثا بالتأكيد ، والاقتصادية
كان ضربة كبيرة. الغزو الثاني كان إنفاق هائل من الرجال والموارد ،
الكثير منها جلس الآن في الجزء السفلي من محيط. كوريا على وجه الخصوص دمرت ،
بعد أن قدمت الكثير من الحبوب والسفن ، المواد والشباب من كل الغزوات.
لتغطية التكاليف ، كان على كوبلاي اللجوء إلى المستشارين الماليين مثل أحمد فناكاتي
ولي شيه يونغ ، الذي أصبح سيئ السمعة ل الفساد والمحسوبية والإفراط في فرض الضرائب ، والدخول
عصر من سوء الإدارة المالية وزيادة عدم الكفاءة.
في 1281 صوت كبح رئيسي على Kublai ، زوجته الشابي ، مات ، تلاه
وريث Jingim في 1286. مع وفاتهم ، Kublai أصبح سحب متزايد من الحكم ،
العثور على العزاء في الطعام والشراب ، والمعاناة من الاكتئاب والسمنة والنقرس.
نمت مطالبه العسكرية أكثر وحشية: هو أمر الغزو الثالث لليابان ، والتي أبدا
تتحقق ، غزت بورما ، فيتنام وحتى الغزو المنقول بحرا لجافا ،
كل ذلك انتهى بشكل غير حاسم أو بشكل مباشر كارثة، الحرارة المدارية ومرض
جنوب آسيا والغابة الكثيفة مما يجعل المنغولية سلاح الفرسان عديمة الفائدة.
واجه تمردا من التبت ومن أبناء عمومته كايدو ونايان ، الذين تحدوا كوبيلاي
الشرعية من آسيا الوسطى ومنشوريا ، كل حين تأثيره على الغرب
نمت خانات الإمبراطورية أضعف من أي وقت مضى. على الرغم من بعد الانتهاء من غزو الصين ، كوبلاي
أشرف على تجزئة الإمبراطورية المغولية. توفي Kublai خان في فبراير من عام 1294 ، نجحت
من قبل حفيده تيمور Oljeitu. النجاح عقد يوان خان في السلطة الاسمية فقط
الخانات الأخرى ، كل الذهاب منفصلة خاصة بهم مسارات وانهيار على مدى القرن التالي.
هذا هو انهيار الإمبراطورية المغولية سنبحث في مقاطع الفيديو التالية ،
تأكد من أنك مشترك في قناتنا وضغط زر الجرس. نحن نريد أو نحب
للتعبير عن امتناننا لأنصار باتريون وأعضاء القناة ، الذين يصنعون الخلق
من أشرطة الفيديو لدينا ممكن. الآن ، يمكنك أيضا دعم لنا عن طريق شراء البضائع لدينا عبر
ربط الوصف. هذا هو الملوك والجنرالات

Cambodia | A Historical and Cultural Mecca



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I’ve been to many places in the world but this country is beyond words. Cambodia also known as The Golden Land is so rich in culture from the famous Angkor Wat to the unique Khmer lifestyle and much more.

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Music: PLS&TY – Feeling Forever

History Memes 10



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nobody the Mongols Italians in World War two Italians in New York City vite cow and bullsh Americans Americans retreat vidcon you can run but I'll still be in your nightmares let's storm the gates of Rome they can't crucify all of us Rome war's end in Europe wars this time for Africa USA talking about freedom and democracy USA spreading freedom and democracy random US citizen maybe we shouldn't have unclear we the government in the 50s i diagnose you with communism I'll have a um I'll have a world war two mean how original and Oh Vietnam trees mean daring to they aren't we American sniper French sniper Australian sniper finished sniper I require a virgin sacrifice if I was in charge of Germany I would have one perfect Isaac Newton announces he discovered gravity the guy floating 100 feet in the air you'll never heard of Jesus no but he sounds like a great addiction to our pantheon Ottoman Empire in 1683 Ottoman Empire in 1914 when you laugh at France for surrendering but realized they once conquered Vietnam galilea the Earth revolves around the Sun the church well new ideas are fine but they are also illegal what the Austrian flag stands for number of world wars started by an Austrian number of world wars 1 the snow yeah probably the snow wery why can't I find a guy like but hey weary no but I'm literally the guy on the pig Mexico watching the USA have the California Gold Rush after losing California less than five months before does your dog bite no button can hurt you in other ways only 1% of ancient literature has survived jeremy bettin publicity defending women's rights gay rights and animal rights in 1815 I guess you guys aren't ready for that yet but your kids are gonna love it when you are just a farmer watching how they elect a new pope but it of purchase on you so now they say that you are the new pope in 1967 polish masonry raffle Gann Alex was asked what it felt like to take human life I wouldn't know I've only ever killed communists people Hitler and Stalin killed the most people in history no we're not letting anyone on the ark Britain hey colony so we are gonna raise your taxes by a bit you okay America how about you lick these American nuts submarines basically fly underwater put a flat panzer on the seafloor and simply shoot them down historical problems require historical solutions Henry the eighth yes oh I need you to execute my wife executioner so no head Lincoln we are not going to allow slavery in our new territories in the West the South what in the hot crispy Kentucky Fried fuck News CNN Australia is at war with feral cats the biggest threat to its native species the government wants to kill 2 million of them great Erie War veterans Jesus Table four twenty six please waiter but there are only 13 of you Jesus yes but we are all going to sit on the same side when someone asks you how naval combat worked in 480 BC WOM United States NYX Japan finally the war is over Soviet Union hey those were some pretty cool bombs the world we did it with time travels but to watch here let me ask that guy over there where are we Hiroshi when I hear the phrase men don't start drama world history America when Germany sinks a ship full of innocent British and American people America when Germany sends a text to Mexico girls we aren't that confusing also girls time traveler hey what year is it French man its 13:37 we've been at war with the British hopefully it's over soon time traveller oh you mean the 100 Years War French man say psych right now me is in the same room as Stalin Stalin makes joke me something I've never expected Japanese ex German offender chant to attend while you obviously never heard of the Second World War when the Sun never set in your empire as well but everyone remembers the British instead sad desperate own noises Europe isn't has always been all about culture art poetry peace and freedom literally every historian France fuck you Germany Germany fuck you to Belgium my time has come when my son died Sark asks why I'm taking him to the mountain with a knife I am the cool dad that's my thing when you were once the most powerful country in Europe able to fight Russia and win but everyone remembers you for selling iron to the Nazis giving support to the US Revolution so they defeat the British France your own people start a revolution because you are now in crippling financial debt France senator hey we killed Caesar you're free from tyranny people of Rome you are America you are going to be a democracy third world country no we are going to tried communism America sorry but I wasn't asking who would win an advanced space shuttle that cost one hundred and ninety six billion dollars to operate a piece of plastic used to seal joints on tubes when you plan to kill Julius Caesar but the squad doesn't show up Trotsky I don't know if this economic policy is really what Marx intended Stalin French monarchy exists French revolutionaries you have lost head privilege 13-year old Nazi sympathizers talking about Waldron or two in their history class we were on the verge of greatness we were this close the British were good to Ireland penal laws Oliver Cromwell Black and Tans collusion and Northern Ireland internment the famine they are not loot boxes they are surprised mechanics it's not an Italian tank it's a surprise malfunction how Italians see Italy and other countries see Italy British troops arriving in Africa for the first time get back you savages horrible things the USA has done to Japan Dragonball Evolution Death Note when them happy trees start speaking Vietnamese me is incapable of lighting a fire in the summer with paper fire lighters dried wood and a magic stick of flames my ancestors who made fire in five minutes without shelter in the snow with wet grass and Flint shane robert e lee trench warfare at the siege of Petersburg I guess you guys aren't ready for that yet but your kids are gonna love it study history to pass exam study history to understand culture study history to understand memes we understanding a more complex meme than France surrendering World War two or area 51 time traveler which Reich are you guys 1st 2nd or 3rd Otto von Bismarck the Third Ward Tito slaps map of Yugoslavia this bad boy can fit so many ethnic conflicts in it that doesn't want dog family gets dog anyway dead and dog the us bombs Hiroshima Japan doesn't surrender the US will be right back with double jeopardy Germans the Allies are moving up don't worry the Italians we Italians charging towards Germans Germans say psych right now listening to Sabatini because it's awesome music listening to sabaton to learn about history mongol empire join us nation no mongol empire shame USA we are gonna punish you for war crimes nazy's how about we send us a to the moon before usher it can't be that easy it's that easy I require a virgin sacrifice Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas perfect teacher today we learn about Asian imperialism bills wait what Asia had an imperialist cow boys when an anarchist assassinate an Archduke and Bosnia random farmer in Wisconsin guess I'll die Austrian 1940 Hitler is ours Austria raft in 1945 I've never met this man in my life when you go to war with 80 men but come back with 81 Starks Europe we just banished Napoleon to an island time traveler the first time or second time Europe say psyche right now normal person you can't be a victim and commit war crimes Japan now this looks like a job for me Stalin has political opponents also Stalin wow that's so weird they just disappeared Mongols storm the Great Wall of China they can't stop us all if you enjoyed the video be sure to leave a like and subscribe if you haven't already feel free to check out my other videos as well thank you for watching

Royal Deaths & Diseases: Living By The Sword | History Documentary | Reel Truth History



Views:123824|Rating:4.80|View Time:49:24Minutes|Likes:1371|Dislikes:57
Extraordinary royal war injuries, including Richard the Lionheart, hit by a crossbow bolt, and Henry V, critically wounded by an arrow to his skull.

Series investigating how royal doctors and medicine have changed the course of British history – from madness to war wounds, decadence to the struggles to conceive an heir. The series recounts the fates of Richard the Lionheart and Henry V on the battlefield; examines Britain’s most famously mad king, George III, and investigates the stories of Queen Victoria’s clinical depression and Henry VI’s acute schizophrenia. The film also examines how Royal misbehaviour changed the image of the monarchy – from Henry VIII’s overeating and lack of exercise to Charles II’s death at the hands of his own doctors and George IV’s opium-fuelled reign.

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Welcome to Reel Truth History, the home of gripping and powerful documentaries. Here you can watch both full length documentaries and series that explore some of the most comprehensive pieces of world history.

Ancient and medieval philosophy and classical philology, Master's Programme



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Shadrack from Ghana tells you about the programme and what it is like to study in Gothenburg.

The philosophy of language and mind in ancient and medieval traditions is largely understood to include logic and semantics, theories of communication and argumentation, theories of knowledge, cognitive psychology, as well as their metaphysical foundations.

In addition to philosophical competence, linguistic skills in Greek and Latin and palaeography and textual criticism are essential tools for any student or researcher who wants to access the most influential texts in the development of Western thought directly and independently. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy requires essential skills that are increasingly rare on a global scale.

Ancient and Medieval Philosophy and Classical Philology, Master’s Programme offers students the possibility to acquire these skills in a leading research environment. It prepares for postgraduate education and an international research career in the interdisciplinary field. The programme has close interaction with the research group Representation and Reality and its international network of leading scholars and partner institutions.

More information about the programme:

The programme is a study of the history of philosophy, focusing on medieval and ancient philosophy. Now, since all the ancient and medieval philosophers wrote in either Latin or Greek palaeography of Latin and Greek is taught as part of the programme. One thing I really like about this programme is its affiliation with a research group at the department known as Representation and Reality. We as students have the opportunity not only to attend and listen to presentations by lecturers from all around the world, but also to be taught by them. The last seminar I visited a professor gave a presentation about Aristotle's interpretation of dreams. I got the opportunity to watch him present as well as his paper being analysed, examined, and criticised by his colleagues. It was an interesting thing to witness. After this I believe I’m equipped to pursue a PhD in philosophy to enable me to achieve my long time dream to become a teacher and researcher in the academic field of philosophy.

Gibson Girl Hair Tutorial | Historical Hairstyling



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In this video I’m going to show you how to recreate a basic, iconic Gibson Girl hairstyle. Enjoy!

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hey guys today I'm going to show you how to do this basic classic Gibson curl up do um it is actually quite simple there's a little bit of technique involved it shouldn't take you too much time as soon as you kind of get the hang of it it is in fact quite simple to do so if you want to know how to do this we classic Gibson girl hair then keep on watching I am going to start by separating out a piece at the front of my hair on both sides this is going to create my poof's so I'm going to leave that for now and create the same thickness of hair in the back as well so that it's going all around my head and then I'm going to tile the top of my hair into a ponytail separate that into two sections and then I'm going to twist those into a loose bun that is going to be the center of my hairstyle so I'm just twisting this hair around the base and then I'm going to pin it down with a couple boy pins to make sure it stays in place alright time to work on the pouf so I'm going to work in sections and I'm going to start near my forehead I'm going to take all this hair and then I'm going to backcomb this to create some volume we want these proves to be quite big I'm not going to back home too much just enough to give this a little bit of volume and firmness okay then I'm going to take this section and I'm going to start rolling it from the tips making sure the ends of my hair are tucked inside the roll and I'm going to roll this all the way back to create the this kind of barrel and that I'm going to sprout a little bit and then pin down to my head I'm going to stick my bobby pins into the center of the roll so they're going to be hidden in there and then this is pretty much we're going to do all around your head so moving on to the side section going to the exact same thing back home all this hair and then roll it up into this nice big barrel and now the trickiest part is to try and make these two rolls kind of integrate and blend into each other so you're just going to have to play with this a little bit yeah fold them over each other just play around with it until it looks good all right so like I mentioned just do this to all sections of hair just take manageable strips of hair every time and then back home and roll them up and then when you're done you should be left with something like this and there is your belly book Gibson air all done I really hope you enjoyed this video guys if you did not forget to give a thumbs up and subscribe to my channel for more historical hair tutorials and thank you so much for watching and I will see you very soon in my next video bye

Pawn Stars: How Chumlee Got His Name (Season 6) | History



Views:215976|Rating:4.90|View Time:4:46Minutes|Likes:3453|Dislikes:71
Chumlee reveals the origin of his nickname when a vintage animation cell is brought into the shop in this scene from Season 6, “Hot and Colt”. #PawnStars
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COREY: What do we got? BRAD: I'm selling a
limited edition animation cel of "Tennessee
Tuxedo," featuring Stanley, the zookeeper,
Tennessee Tuxedo, and– COREY: –Chumley the walrus. Well, I can definitely see now
how you got the name, Chumlee. CHUMLEE: Spitting image. BRAD: I came to
the pawn shop today to sell a limited
edition "Tennessee Tuxedo" animation cel. I'm hoping to get $350 for it. I want to sell it because I
just bought an engagement ring. I'm hoping she says
yes, but we'll see. COREY: So how'd you get it? I bought it online from
a dealer a few years ago. COREY: All right. Well, "Tennessee
Tuxedo" has always been pretty popular around here. Tennessee was a penguin
that lived in the zoo and was always coming up with
ways to try to break out, and Chumley would
inevitably screw it up. BRAD: Exactly. COREY: It's just
like our pawn shop. I'm Tennessee Tuxedo,
trying to run a business, and a guy named Chumlee
is screwing it up. And the zookeeper
always reminded me a little bit of my grandfather. Just always kind of angry
and yelling at Chumley. Well, I could definitely
see the resemblance. Tennessee Tuxedo came
out the early 1960s and only ran for
like three seasons. But it kind of
became a sleeper hit. There was reruns on
TV up until the 1980s. Can I see this cel? BRAD: Sure. You got anything with it. BRAD: There's a
seal right there. All right, now, is
this a reproduction? Because it says 1993 on it. The cartoons were made
in the early '60s. BRAD: It's a reproduction,
but it's a limited edition. It's signed by executive
producer Peter Piech. CHUMLEE: No one ever cares
about the executive producer. [chuckling] COREY: In 1993, they
probably went around, and who's still alive that we
could tie to "Tennessee Tuxedo" and had him sign
a bunch of them. Right. I mean, the only reason I'm
going to buy it is because I'm going to hang it above
my desk because my best friend's Chumlee. Corey acts like I
get on his nerves, but I knew he had
a soft spot for me. So what do you
want to do with it? I'd like to sell it. Any idea what you're
looking to get out of it? I was hoping to
get $350 for it. $350? I deal with thousands of
production cels a year. And in my experience, I'd
say it'd be worth about $300. So that being said, man,
I'll give you around $200. Could you do $275? It's limited edition, so there
aren't that many out there. COREY: I'll split it
with you and go $250. Don't ask for any more because
I'm not going to pay it. I can do $250. All right, man, deal. $250 is fine. It doesn't pay for
the engagement ring, but it definitely pays
for the taxes of it. [cash register ding] COREY: Check this out, Pops. It's pretty cool. What's the cartoon? What is it? COREY: Chumley the
walrus, Tennessee Tuxedo, and Stanley Livingston. I like it because it
reminds me of Chum, myself, and The Old Man. RICK: I think it's
stupid, and it's never going to be worth anything. Don't be mad because you don't
have a cartoon of yourself. Why would I want
a cartoon of myself? COREY: Because
you're the most vain, egotistical person I know. And we all have a cartoon
that represents us, and you're not in it. I don't think Rick likes
it too much when he's not the center of attention. RICK: It was bad animation
when it was made. Corey, he's jealous. Figures my dad would get
jealous over a cartoon, but I think I found a
way of including him that will make him feel better. RICHARD: Go hang it
in Rick's office. [cash register ding] COREY: Here, Pops. Look what I got for you. Noticed you were a little
hurt about not being included in the whole cartoon
thing, so I went ahead and found Professor
Whoopie here, you know, the bald, know-it-all
professor that Tennessee would always ask for advice. I added it into the
picture for you. In a Pawn Shop shirt? Yeah, I customized it for you. RICK: How in the
world is that me? Well, he's got
short, stubby legs. He's bald. He's got kind of a potbelly. He's a know-it-all,
puffy cheeks. If his head was a
little bit bigger, he'd be a perfect
match for you, son. [chuckling] Why are you doing this to me? COREY: Doing what? You're finally a
cartoon character. All I know is if you guys
start calling me Whoopie, I will fire you. Get that thing out of my
face and get back to work. Whatever you say,
Professor Whoopie. RICHARD: You have to admit,
Rick, they got you good. RICK: They didn't
get me on anything. RICHARD: They got you.

Cleopatra's Lost Tomb – Full History Documentary (Ancient Egypt)



Views:39516|Rating:4.74|View Time:45:48Minutes|Likes:398|Dislikes:22
Amateur archaeological sleuth Kathleen Martinez’s quest to find Cleopatra’s tomb took her to a temple complex known as Taposiris Magna, which is located 25 miles west of Alexandria, Egypt. Could it be the site of Cleopatra’s lost tomb?

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A 3D tour of Ancient Rome



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Discover ancient Rome through a 360° virtual-reality walk through history at Assicurazioni Generali’s Roots of the Present Museum.
Making your way through the museum, you’ll discover the area between the Trajan Forum and the slopes of the Campidoglio, the evolution of Piazza Venezia, Trajan’s Column, the worship of household gods and Romans’ relationship with the afterlife. The museum features 300 ancient Roman artefacts dating from the 1st to the 5th centuries AD, as well as a Greek relief sculpture from the 4th century BC. The exhibition is specifically designed to stimulate the younger generation’s interest in culture and history, with leaflets and informational videos also provided alongside the 3D images.

The museum is located at the headquarters of Assicurazioni Generali in Piazza Venezia, Rome.

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IMF's Mati On Nigeria Historical FX Rates



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The Warsaw Uprising – The Unstoppable Spirit of the Polish Resistance – Extra History



Views:435295|Rating:4.83|View Time:10:53Minutes|Likes:26697|Dislikes:955
Thanks to the Polish National Foundation for sponsoring this video.
The Polish are determined to make Poland matter on the world stage, and they will not wait for whatever mercies may come from the Russians. So the Home Army stages their own uprising to liberate Warsaw, and for some 60-odd days, their strongest members, the Grey Ranks, tragically held steadfast.
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*Music by Demetori:

♪ Outro music: “Broad Street Pump” by Sean and Dean Kiner

For five years, execution, torture, and vicious oppression has been the fate of the Poles. But resistance, the will to fight the Nazis who occupy their homeland, has been kept alive. In the face of unspeakable brutality, The Polish Home Army, the volunteer force of resistance fighters secretly living in Poland, has continued to grow. For these fighters, discovery meant instant death. But with sabotage, indirection, and a message of hope for the people, they kept the Germans from ever feeling secure in occupied Poland. And now it was time. Russian shelling could be heard in the streets of Warsaw. Liberation was at hand. But the Home Army wasn't going to wait for the Russians to march into their capital and return to them, whatever portion of their country they felt generous enough to give. The Warsaw Uprising was about to begin. A few months ago, James was invited to Poland to attend one of their massive game jams and observe what they're doing to help grow the games industry there. With any luck, he'll get back there for their game jam in September and I'll be hiding in his luggage to go visit my homeland. Because while in Warsaw, he fell in love with the city and its history. So much so that he worked with the folks running the game jam to help sponsor this special episode so he could talk about one of the greatest tragedies of the 20th century. So, let's begin. August 1st, 1944. The Allies have landed in Normandy. Rome has fallen. And the Soviets have pushed the German war machine off Russian soil. And in Warsaw, a people oppressed for five long years are about to rise up against their oppressors. But what precipitates this is the approach of the Soviet Army. Because the history between the Soviets and Poland is a fraught one. In 1939, as allies of Hitler, Soviet forces stormed over the Polish border, taking Poland by surprise and collapsing Polish defenses. Up to that point, while not winning the war against Germany, the Polish Army was taking their toll. Slowing down German forces and making them pay for every inch of ground. But to do this, almost all of their forces were sent to the West, never expecting an attack from the supposedly neutral Soviet Union. When Soviet forces poured over the eastern border, it spelt the end for the Polish Army. Two weeks later, Poland would surrender and more than half would be annexed by the Soviet Union until they in turn lost it to the Nazis double-crossing them. And while not as systematically brutal as Nazi occupation, the Soviet domination of Poland was still horrific. They rounded up and shot 22.000 Poles in the Katyn forest. And even when they joined the Allies, they refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Polish government-in-exile. All of which means that many in the Polish resistance believed that the only way they'd have a seat at the table after the war is if they liberated their own country. Which leads us back to the 1st of August. The Russians are a few dozen kilometers away. As their advance continues, The Germans are guaranteed to fall. It's now or never, it's time to rise up. The previous night, a tense meeting had occurred and "W hour", the start of the Polish uprising was declared. The troops had trained for a surprise attack at dawn. But at the last minute, plans changed. The uprising was now set for 5:00 P.M. But it's hard to hide that many people spoiling for a fight and by 5:00 P.M., sporadic engagements had already broken out across the city. The Polish troops were barely armed many without weapons at all. Charging in with homemade submachine guns or captured German rifles. They took the gasworks, the power and water plants, and some vital production facilities, but they were repulsed in key locations as well. The bridges, the airport, the rail line, and the main police station all remained in German hands. Most crucially though, they failed to link up. By night, groups were erecting barricades. The city was now divided and though there would be some coordination and reinforcements, many pockets were now fighting in their own small wars. Then the bombs begin to fall. The Luftwaffe is laying waste to the city. Not differentiating between civilian areas and those controlled by the resistance. The Polish Home Army doesn't have a single anti-aircraft gun and all eyes look for signs of the Soviet air force. But no planes sporting the Red Star of Russia are anywhere to be seen. Four days into the uprising, the true atrocities start. On orders of Heinrich Himmler, German troops begin going house-to-house, shooting every inhabitant they find. The old, the infirm, women, children, all were gunned down. Over the course of a week, tens of thousands of civilians are murdered as they huddled in their homes. But the Polish resistance didn't break. The Home Army ground the Germans to a halt. Though it's strongest battalions were also its most tragic, "The Grey Ranks". They were made up of the boy scouts. Older scouts were frontline troops, better organized, better trained, better disciplined, than most of the volunteers. The younger members ran courier duty while the girl scouts served as combat medics, nurses, and munition haulers. And they all swore an oath. "I pledge to you that I shall serve the grey ranks, safeguard the secrets of the organization, obey orders, and not hesitate to sacrifice my life." And they would hold this oath, all the way, unto their death. They fought house-to-house, door-to-door, in the chaotic melee of city fighting. Classmates died side by side, first loves torn apart by machine-gun fire. They referred to each other as bees, because they were a hive. A collective and they would sting the Germans. They fought with the fury only possessed by the young and the righteous and they pushed the Nazis from the burnt-out remains of the Warsaw ghetto. They cut into the German line far enough to liberate one of the concentration camps. 384 Jews who had survived the extermination of the ghetto were still in prison there. And they took up arms to fight against those who had enslaved them, who had murdered everyone they knew. But then, the young fighters of the grey ranks were faced with the unthinkable. Something I don't know as a human being you could face. German tanks rolled forward, but it wasn't the hundred tons of steel and death that stopped the scouts. They had faced tanks before, armed only with rifles and hand grenades. No. It was what was in front of the tanks, because in front of those tanks, were women. Some burned or beaten, all Polish. The Nazis were using them as human shields It was this the scouts couldn't face. So the advance turned to a stalemate and still aid did not come. By the end of August, the undersupplied Polish forces had to withdraw from Warsaw as old town, making their way through the sewers to more easily held points. For nearly a month, the soldiers and many of the civilians had been living off barley from a brewery the grey ranks had captured early in the fighting. Soon even water was scarce, with waterways clogged with corpses and the Germans cutting off remaining water mains as they advanced. At last, on the 15th of September Soviet forces appeared on the far banks of the Vistula. A crossing attempt is made, but Soviet command only sent the lightly armored division of Polish volunteers who had joined them after the fall of Poland to try to relieve Warsaw. Of the 1.600 men, who went more than a thousand fell to German guns. The Soviets decide that a crossing was impractical and no further attempt would be made to aid the Polish partisans. Meanwhile, America finally attempts an airdrop of supplies, but 80% of it is accidentally dropped behind German lines. American forces will not try again. The resistance is shelled day and night, great mortars with shells 2 feet in diameter, rained down on them. Rockets slam into the few remaining upright buildings and tanks hammer away at foxholes for scouts armed with no more than rifles. The Germans advance on the Mokka Tube district. The resistance is pushed back. They enter one of the major hospitals under Polish control and they execute every wounded soldier and all of the hospital's personnel. Again, the resistance flees through the sewers but a 150 of them exit too early and are killed by German troops. The Poles now control only a few square blocks right against the river They were surrounded, starving, outgunned, and outnumbered, and yet they fought not like bees but like wasps. Every house was a stronghold, every doorway a bunker, and they fought within sight of the Soviet Army across the river yet no aid came. They fought with the determination of the damned. They fought and fell. The outcome was inevitable. Surrender had to come. Germans weary of fighting and interested in concentrating on the Soviet threat offered terms. The entire population of Warsaw was to be expelled but no one was to be executed. The terms were accepted. The resistance fighters spent their last days forging documents for the Jewish members among them. 15,000 of the Home Army were taken away as POWs and 500.000 civilians were shipped out of the city. The lucky ones were simply let go with no homes, no food, no jobs. But 60,000 ended up in the death camps and 90.000 more found themselves unloaded at forced labor yards. And after the surrender, Himmler said, "The city must completely disappear from the surface of the earth and serve only as a transport station for the fair mocked." "No stone can remain standing, every building must be raised to its foundation" And in one of the last great acts of senseless destruction, perpetrated by the Nazi regime, German engineers took flamethrowers and dynamite and systematically, building by building, block by block, wiped Warsaw off the map. By the time 3 months later, when the Russians finally crossed the Vistula, 85% of the buildings in Warsaw had been leveled. Monuments, schools, libraries, historical sites all reduced to rubble and ash. If you go to the historic district of Warsaw today what you're actually seeing is a reconstruction. An attempt to rebuild based on old photographs and paintings. If you walk the halls of the Royal Castle, you're not seeing a building that's been standing for 400 years. Instead you walk through a palace completed in 1984 and in the rubble of that city, lay 70% of the young people of the grey ranks. But their sacrifice was not forgotten for their nation still stands, long after the thousand-year Reich was wiped from the earth.

A Historical Look at The Azusa Street Revival (1906-1909)



Views:50092|Rating:4.76|View Time:1:45:32Minutes|Likes:661|Dislikes:34
A historical look at the Modern Pentecostal Movement that took place in Los Angeles, CA from 1906 to 1909: The Azusa Street Mission & Revival.

All revivals usually begin with fervent prayer. There is usually a hunger for a move of God.

In the Azusa Revival God used William J. Seymour as the revival’s spiritual leader.

William Seymour was a very humble man, who prayed at times five to seven hours a day.

Eyewitnesses often referred to Seymour as having almost a helpless dependence on God, almost childlike.

The Azusa Revival touched many people, in Los Angeles, and around the world. Many were filled with the Holy Ghost, with the evidence of tongues, at the revival. Many were healed. Many were anointed for the ministry. All who came in contact with God were humbled in His presence.

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Jeanita’s blog:
Jeanita’s website:

Jeanita’s book: An Open Letter to the Church: On Faith, Holiness, and Being Full of the Holy Ghost (Get this book!)

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Recommended Reading: (Books about the Azusa Revival)

The Azusa Street Mission and Revival

(This is the first book I read about the Azusa Street Revival. The book is insightful, and spiritually enlightening. And the testimonies are powerful and spine-tingling!)

The Azusa Street Revival: An Eyewitness Account

(Frank Bartleman was a penniless preacher who hungered for God and had almost a helpless dependence on God, and an unwavering faith in God’s power.

Barleman’s accounts of him laboring in prayer for hours, and expecting God to answer those prayers for revival, healing, miracles, and a fresh outpouring of His Spirit, makes the Christian hunger and thirst for such sweet communion with the Father.)

Azusa Street was the most worldwide it represented all the races in peoples of the world like no other revival that I know I've been history since the day of Pentecost even when I've been in Africa I said to Africans it's not a white man's religion have you ever heard William Seymour in Azusa Street yeah most of them have not heard right and I think that's a I think the Lord knew what he was doing when he chose Seymour in Azusa Street mainly among blacks to bring one of the greatest revivals in history now there are about 400 million Pentecostals and Kara's makes in the world and like I say you can trace it back to Azusa Street Azusa Street was like a mother giving birth once she's given birth my mother eventually will die but she's done her historic sure art and the zoo zoos we played this dark part of birthing Pentecostalism to the whole world know I've been to German I've been to just Russia recently all of the European all over the world in the literature of the early days they always would trace it back to Azusa Street you'll find that everywhere so that's what identified the movement worldwide is a Pentecostal movement and whether they knew that Seymour was black or not I don't know but certainly I think you could make a point like Sydney ahlstrom did for me al that Seymour is the most important black religious leader in the history of America I think you could make a good case of that absolute and as OU's the street is the most important address you know the Lutheran's the Reformation has Wittenberg door right and the methods have all this great street I think Azusa Street will take its place in in church history as one of the most important addresses of all Christian history fifteen years out of a man's life is a lot for anything why is it that you happen to pick a zoos the street and wait him see more all right well there are a couple of reasons I think one is that I've been reared in the Pentecostal movement all of my life I've grown up with the story of Azusa Street I've heard many many of the things about it I've met a number of people that went there at one time or another but I have never seen written anywhere the whole story this is recorded history for all of God's people for the next hour we employ you let's put aside our denominational beliefs traditions and barriers God the Father doesn't look at one as Catholic the others Methodists or say that one's Baptist and she's Full Gospel he simply sees the blood of his beloved Jesus and looks into your heart so let our hearts cry out for another mighty outpouring of this holy spirit as he did for those that cried out to him in the early 1900s you see it as OU's a mission all races sexes classes and nations gathered in a miracle on Azusa Street to offer the church an opportunity ever for restoring its loss fullness Seymour called for all Christians who honored Christ to come together saying we recognize every man that honors the blood of Jesus to be our brother regardless of denomination creed or doctor within the first month of its opening vast crowds of people from almost every class nationality and race gathered at a zoo submissions these were the days of the strictest Jim Crow segregation laws however what God was offering was so vital that racist or proud whites laid aside their prejudice to worship besides agents Hispanics to humbly receive Seymour's leadership produced the embodiment of the Apostle Paul's vision for the church there's neither Jew nor Greek there is neither bond nor free there is neither male nor female for ye are all one in Christ Jesus and deed Seymour carried the Christian community beyond what was possible in the Apostolic days because Los Angeles in 1906 was a vast melting pot for varied races and nationalities within two years a small black prayer meeting exploded to a momentum of being established in over 50 nations across the world Seymour's newspaper began in 1906 with 5000 copies and grew to a global acceptance of 50,000 missionaries were both coming and going faster than Seymour could properly tabulate not only had lost dope addicts and drunkards wandered in to receive salvation but veteran clergy and seasoned missionaries came with open hearts to receive more of God some came from as far away as China and India Seymour said this is meant to spread over the entire earth we are on the verge of the greatest miracle the world has ever seen barliman wrote the opportunity of a lifetime of centuries is at our door in acts 2 it declares when the day of Pentecost came they were all together in one place suddenly there came a sound like the blowing of a rushing wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting they saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them all of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the spirit enabled in eighteen hundreds of mighty outpouring of the Holy Ghost fell in Russia a quarter of a century later the outpouring fell in Armenia and uneducated you with under the power of the Holy Ghost wrote a prophecy warning that many Christians would be martyred unless they escaped to America their God would prosper them at the end of 1900 as Parham was departing for field ministry he left an assignment for his Bible students who were studying the book of Acts that they determined what should be the New Testament evidence of the baptism in the Holy Ghost one of these students agnes osmond gives her account on watch night we had a blessed service praying that God's blessings you know might rest upon us because the new year came in during the first day of 1901 the presence of the Lord was with us in a marked way healing hearts to wait upon him for greater things the spirit of prayer was upon us in the evening it was nearly eleven o'clock on the 1st of January when it came to my heart to ask that hands might be laid upon me that I might receive the gift of the Holy Ghost as hands were laid upon my head the Holy Spirit fell on me and I began to speak in tongues glorify God I had to added joy that my heart longed for they have a death of the presence of the Lord within that I never knew before she was as if rivers of living water were Pristina for my innermost being contrary to popular belief the first year the 20th century was not 1900 but 1901 the year ending in zero is the last year the preceding century so on the first day of the new year of this new century the Holy Spirit fell on agnes osmond as she was filled and horrified God other students wanted to speak in tongues but I told them not to see for time but to seek for the Holy Ghost it was so much later that I was fully persuaded in my own heart about the evidence of the baptism I watched some nine nine different ones receive the Holy Spirit saying to myself and before God I will see if everyone talks in tongues and one by one everyone received the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues because the Spirit gave them utterance forum received the fillion of the Holy Spirit soon after his return to properly understand the Azusa outpoint that then rippled throughout the United States and indeed spread around the globe one must first visit the Welsh revival of 1904 through 1906 this major revival began its prayer meetings with less than 20 intercessors but when it flowed forth the churches of Wales were crowded for more than two years more than 20% of the population was converted and then added to the church's grayed-out points do not just change people but indeed they change even the society and environment drunkenness was immediately cut in half and many taverns went bankrupt crime was so diminished that judges were presented with white gloves signifying there were no cases of murder assault rape or robbery to consider police became unemployed in many districts it was even said that work in the coal mines grounded to a halt not due to strikes between laborers and employers but because so many foul-mouthed miners became converted and stopped using their habitual foul language that the horses which hauled the code trucks and the mines now could no longer understand what was being said to them transportation does grounded to a halt Evan Roberts became the most publicized preacher in the world his slogan remove human resistance to God's will and change the world by 1905 several of the Armenian families heeding the prophecy of the late 1800s had indeed fled Armenia and migrated to Los Angeles California the Armenians established a Pentecostal church at 9:19 Boston Street in the large home of Danish Aquarian who was father of Isaac grandfather of day mmus now president of the Full Gospel Business men's fellowship International the city of Los Angeles in 1905 had a population of less than 300 thousand less than 6000 were black compared to today's LA County population of 8 million 800,000 with over 900,000 blacks throughout Los Angeles there was an undercurrent of Prayer a crying out for more of God the religious setting in America that time also was really a time of great religious ferment you can't say people were apathetic the holiness movement had just recently separated from the Methodist Church there were hundreds of small hole in these groups all over the country in which Sousa Street started as part of the holiness movement and a lot of people in the mainline Protestant churches at that time were interested in the baptism the Holy Spirit Scofield said more books have been written about the Holy Spirit in the 1890s then in all previous history the place was fertile also for what has later become known as new religious movements the the Christian Science was moving into Southern California through a highly touted suit that Mary Baker Eddy's son was suing her over certain things what became known as the job Jehovah's Witnesses at that time was known as millennial Don that was being brought to Southern California at that time the Mormons were making major inroads so it was an area where these more sectarian and cultic type groups were meeting the local newspaper had a regular one the local newspaper had a regular column for the spiritualist Church in which it taught people how to give seances and use the Ouija board and all of those kinds of things he began to hold water known as protracted meetings that would mean that they would meet at the church every single night of the week and they met that way for 16 weeks and sometimes those services would go on until 1:00 and 2:00 o'clock in the morning sometimes they could go around the clock but they were an extended period of time where people prayed they sought God for revival and one of the interesting things about him was that he was preaching that many of the gifts of the Spirit including speaking in tongues and prophecy and healing and miracles would be brought back into the church as a result of a latter-day revival that they hoped that they were praying in so he had been preaching from first Corinthians chapter 12 and telling his congregation to expect these kinds of phenomena to take place it strikes me it's very interesting that revivals almost inevitably take place among the lower classes and not among the upper classes that it it goes from the bottom up if you would through the class system and I think the reason is because these people are powerless they're alienated from culture and from the structures of power and they actually for a day-to-day sustenance they must turn to God because that's the only hope that they have they are desperate people and when that desperation turns to a quest after God then suddenly God moves in on their behalf and begins to do things that they hadn't anticipated and that's precisely the way it went about in the holiness movement of the nineteenth century and on up into the Pentecostal revival of the 20th century it began at the bottom it began in the storefronts it began at the brush arbors it began in the homes and it began among the poor the black the alienated the uneducated and it moved its way up through the class system as a result of them telling their story to the next to their neighbor in and it moving around others didn't know how to handle the hunger during this time in Angeles Julie Hutchins a black woman and eight other families are expelled from their church for stating and believing holiness teachings eventually they started their own mission at ninth in Santa Fe and joined the Southern California holiness Association in the interim Seymour in Rose and Charles Parham Bible class due to strong segregation laws seymour cannot sit inside with the other white students but sits outside in the hallway listening to par hams teachings they are varying reports as to the length of time that seymour sat outside of par hems class some cite a few days others say weeks all agree it could not have been over a month seymour then informs Parham he has accepted position as pastor and departs for los angeles seymour preaches on many Christian themes and although he himself has not received the baptism of the Holy Spirit he states it should be part of every believers experience including speaking in tongues as the Spirit gives utterance Julia Hutchins who was expelled by her church for believing differently or going too far now padlock see more out of her church his beliefs apparently going too far but what he believed having been with parem that she had not yet accepted was this third step namely this baptism in the Holy Spirit which was evidenced by the Bible evidence were speaking in tongues that went one step farther than she was prepared to go at that particular point in hundred now with no church no money and no place to live seymour becomes the fourth guest of mr. and mrs. edward lee most of his time spent in prayer and fasting Richard and Ruth Asbury beckoned Seymour to hold prayer meetings at their home to 14 Bonnie Brae note in 1910 according to the Los Angeles City Directory the address was changed to 216 for several months a small prayer group gathered at Bonnie Brae to seek a deeper experience from God this group is mostly black with a sprinkling of white visitors which included Frank Bart Ehrman and mrs. Osterberg God definitely called my to reduce the street there was an opposition that my father had a part I fasted prayed he would fast for days tough some people thought he was going to die there was a effort against that services some way the enemy what was out to destroy my father had a gift of travail he would pray for hours and hours would go by and he would ever be conscious of the prayer that he'd that they're praying that he'd gone through that his life accomplished a lot of deliverances that the enemy was trying to destroy you might say that he often referred himself to a colleague like Martin Luther had to braid something Seymour's nightly prayer meetings continued as the spirit would rise and then seemingly ebb Seymour then sent train fare to Lucy Farrow who already had the baptism and Jay a worn both residing in Houston April 1906 Evan Roberts suffering from exhaustion retires from public ministry April 6 1906 Seymour and his group enter into a 10 day fast determined to get more of God April 8th was Palm Sunday 1906 Monday April 9 Seymour visits Lee at home about 6:00 in the evening to pray for his recovery from illness Lee feels much better at once and requests prayer for receiving the Holy Spirit with the expected sign in response to Seymour's prayer Lee bursts forth in glossolalia both men are ecstatic seemingly walked the short distance to Bonnie brave for the prayer meeting Seymour opens the service was song and then is best remembered with prayer from the congregation and several testimonies he rises to begin and never-to-be-forgotten sermon announcing his Texas acts 2:4 and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost and began to speak with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance he lifts his hands opens his mouth and electrifies everyone with the torrent of glossolalia cuts the entire company is swept to its knees in an out point of glossolalia and sudden joy such as brother Hughes and sister trainer her son bud and daughter sis all praising God in the spirit as the young daughter rushed into the living room young bud was on the front porch prophesy Jenny Evans Moore who owned the house across the street began speaking in tongues Jenny did not know how to play the piano but now being filled with the spirit she plays beautifully in with a beautiful voice incredibly sings in six foreign languages with interpretations these gifts of tongues singing and plain stayed throughout her life and now fame piano still sits in the Bonnie Brae home even now there are conflicting reports as how and who was filled first by the spirit that night some reports claim Lucy Farrell from Houston prayed and laid hands on people others say a young boy was first to be filled but all reports agree that it happened this night Monday April 9th 1906 ironically Seymour did not receive that night but continued to preach the message the next three days were filled with spiritual all and joy the initial group of black cooks Ross women janitors and Porter's are joined by large crowds of blacks and whites within the next three nights Seymour – is filled by the Spirit of God describing the experience he states as I sank slowly to the floor it was like fiery hot rain falling upon me melting my heart with divine love the news spread rapidly throughout families homes and neighborhoods the house now was too small to accommodate so the front porch became the pulpit the front lawn and street became the pews I'm sitting in the house in Los Angeles California on 2:16 North Bonnie Brae street in this particular house something great took place that really touched church history I'm with dr. art glass and we're gonna talk a little bit about this event now I'm understanding dead there was a great outpouring of the Holy Spirit that took place right in this living room is that correct that's correct it was a two sixteen at this house in April of April the 9th 1906 and God moved in a mysterious way he blessed and filled those that were situated here around the table with the Holy Ghost my goodness so they're famous Azusa Street revival our outpouring – some call it literally took place before the Azusa Street mission in this living room is that correct almost certainly it started here and the reason that they moved was because the house became too small to accommodate the audience the house as it sits today is it similar as it was in 1906 it's basically the same same house the same layout now in this house they actually have services or was this a Bible study or a prayer meeting or what used to take place in this house in 1906 brother Asbury and his wife suggested that they come here and pray and fast which they did and that they were seated here they begin praying and fasting then that's about when it occurred so it's just really a prayer meeting it was a premie in a regular person's home so it was not a church or a cathedral was not so once again we see God using ordinary situations to do extraordinary things now how did you get involved I'm understanding the story that they almost took this house from us and then you helped get involved and helped to save this historic kind of place learning that was an escrow we were and I sure as to what they the new owners have planned to do and we discovered that they had planned to tear down and build a complex of apartments that's amazing to me because when we talk about history church history you would think that more Christians would have an understanding of what actually took place here and this is part of our heritage where you know you can go somewhere like in Memphis Tennessee and they have a memorial there to Elvis Presley but we're talking about thousands of people have been changed through what took place in this living room that's true that's tremendous now are there a lot of people that come and even visit this site today and to find out what took place oh yeah there are thousands of people still come to this building and buses and cars and vans on a monthly basis this yearly even be perfect even before we purchased the building this was in diamond course we didn't mat know that that house was so recognized about so many people but there are a number of schools in the area that bring their students special especially be religious schools they bring their students out here to see the building and they come out and some just come out on the sidewalk and pray why did you get involved in preserving this house for church history tell us why dr. glass got involved in this I became involved because I thought that was a very necessary thing for us to preserve one of the last relics of the church this is the only physical relic that we know how of the early revival of 1906 revival and this was of course the latter-day rain not boring what so happened that people begin to hear about this all over Los Angeles and they would come to this little house and they would meet in the living room well after a while deliveryman got too small and they had to come out into the porch and William steamer would stand up on this porch and teach the word of God and they would pray and they would fast and one particular night the took places that people got so excited up on the porch and the courts actually collapsed well with all the people coming coming night after night as Seymour was preaching and they were out here on the porch it was obvious that they needed a new place for me 3:12 Azusa Street one of the most famous addresses in the world is no more near downtown Los Angeles this is the area that surrounds where those emissions once stood Leon 3:12 Azusa Street has been a very famous address which took place right here in the spot well initially in 1888 the African Methodist churches arrested yet there was one of the first black churches in Los Angeles California then they moved to the porters gym and the building basically became deserted it was later rented out it became a warehouse upstairs and basically which used to the horse stables down there as you know the Bonnie Brae just became so crowded that William Seymore started looking for another location they were reminded of this particular location they came to 312 they named it elusive commissions Nelson reported that the first mention of Azusa was made by father Juan Crespi in 1769 a name derived from the Shoshone Indian language one of the initial Azusa women was a student of Indian folklore and received her story from an old Indian woman now baptized and living in the Mission of San Juan Capistrano she remembers legend has it that in a small Indian village there lived a simple Indian maiden highly spiritual she always fasted and prayed and at a young age she was bestowed with a divine gift the people said that when she laid hands upon the sick the suffering lifted and they were healed so for many territories the hurt and suffering came to be healed legend continues that a powerful chief was dying his own medicine men could work no cure so they carried him to the region of the young maiden used to here the maiden ministered to him and after falling into a deep sleep the powerful chief awakened healed proclaiming she shall be called Azusa the blessed miracle so whenever there was pain and suffering people said go to a zoo go to a zoo and be here the legend spread throughout the California even after the Indian made his work was done the place where she lived and worked in her memory continued to be called a zoo zoo in place of the countless healings the blessed miracle a young pastor Arthur Astor Berg who later became superintendent for the Assemblies of God Church was at that time straw boss for the McNeil construction company Osterberg personally paid a crew of co-workers to come and help clear debris Osterberg stated this is what made a Sousa different even as we went to initially do a cleanup we were met by several black ladies who began praying for the men one of the workers a Roman Catholic fell to his knees amid the clutter and burst into tears this is remembered as the first manifestation of the Spirit at Azusa missions and services had yet to begin junk was hauled out the place was washed down sawdust was put on the floors large nail kegs were brought in and wooden planks were placed across them for benches JV McNeil himself a Catholic provided lumber for the altar two large wooden shoe boxes were placed one atop the other this would be Seymour's token they used the large shoebox I used to wonder what these shoeboxes were but Seymour's always depicted as having his head in a shoebox it I've seen one they must be about four feet long or three and a half feet long about two feet wide and about two and two feet high Austen Berg described the mission the Azusa Street mission measured 60 feet by 40 feet 2,400 square feet austere Berg's figure of eight hundred persons inside before the days of fire regulations allowed three square feet per person a not unreasonable estimate since the people crowded into every available bit of space and the sparse furniture was set close together many stood throughout the services the windows and doors were knocked out single their electric bulbs coming from the ceilings behind the building stood a small cottage and outhouse a few large trees on the east side provided shade a wooden sidewalk around the base gave some protection from the dirt yard and unpaved street one long room upstairs the upper room was furnished with chairs and a red wood planks supported by abacus chairs used for prayer a sign caution no talking above a whisper Azusa missions took no routine offerings during service instead large tin mailboxes were nailed along the walls a sign above them read settled with the Lord people deposited offerings as they were moved money was as quickly drawn out for those in need it was said say more gave money to whomever was in need when Barbara Minh left for his global tour only Azusa of all the Los Angeles mission gave him an office there were numerous rooms upstairs see more and more than 12 full-time workers made their home on this upper level there were hard wooden planks to sit on if you were fortunate enough to get a seat at all 600 to 800 persons squeezed inside with at times another 400 pressing in from outside around every doorway and window leadless to mention there was no air conditioning and most didn't wear deodorant the summer of 1906 was unusually hot inside as OOOs emissions that temperature was stifling and then there were flies fly deposited in the previous debris were still hatching on the bottom floor they had had horses and a lot of junk in there there was a pretty dirty place in fact one of the newspapers reporters who visited the Azusa Street mission early on said that the horses had hardly been separated from the Flies the Azusa Street mission was notorious for its flies in the middle of this summer of 1906 he was a likeable kind of fellow and I remember hearing stories from from people at least two people that talked about the fact that they might be lying on the floor praising the Lord and one of the things I remember is brother Seymour coming off over and shooing the Flies away so so is that they could have a little piece without being crawled all over by these flies in this very hot atmosphere there in the zoo so street it was a low ceiling place and one reporter said that you had to stick your head under the seats in order to get a breath of fresh air you can imagine 1906 summertime with no deodorants and and so forth that you really probably had a problem there Seymour designed an unusual seating arrangement he placed the pulpit in the center of the room with the altar in front of it serving as a bench for persons to use following the invitation the fuse formed a circle surrounding the pulpit an altar all on one level this depicted Seymour's vision of oneness in equality Nelson reported worshippers gathered in a new way completely equal in the house of God the body of Christ not a collection of individuals looking over the back of many heads simply to the clergy or choir but an intimate whole serving one another one of the significant things about the Pentecostal renewal at the turn of the century was that every person was a potential participant there are stories about services at the Azusa Street mission for instance in which the newspaper reporter would say if you had a verse of scripture to give you stood up and you gave you had a testimony of what God had done in your life that day you stood up and you told what God had done in your life so there was an opportunity for every single person to participate in it and they were encouraged not only to participate as they gather together but to participate by telling the story over the fence to the neighbor who was hanging up clothes in the backyard or or whatever to talk to the street car attendant or to talk to people at work so it became really as a grassroots of people's movement this unconventional CD plan revealed Seymour's conviction that events transpiring at Azusa Mission were different unique and revolutionary Jesus was too large for the synagogue he preached outside because there was not room for him inside this Pentecostal movement is too large to be confined in any denomination or sect it works outside drawing all together in one bond of love one church one body of Christ Harper sighted Azusa missions Seine it was in this simple building that a few ignited an international movement which was to circle the globe and fifty years later penetrate even the sophisticated circles of the Episcopal and other churches the Bonnie Brae location was in a safe nice middle-class neighborhood however the Azusa location was in a part of town deemed undesirable regardless of what race you happen to be however people flooded in people described the phenomenon as such news has spread far and wide that Los Angeles is being visited with a rushing mighty wind from heaven the how and why of it is to be found and the very opposite of those conditions that are usually thought necessary for big no choir but bands of angels have been heard by some in the spirit and there is a heavenly singing that is inspired no collections are taken there no bills have been posted to advertise the meeting no church organization is in the back of it you find a two-story whitewashed old building you would hardly expect heavenly visitations there unless you remember the stable of Bethlehem man would have chosen palaces or multi-million dollar cathedrals but it was here and with these that God chose to display his awesomeness the Los Angeles Times in a reporter to Azusa on Tuesday night April 17th the next morning the paper carried a sensational account saying even for Los Angeles home of numerous creeds the new sect made startling claims a prominent rabbi present professed to have been miraculously healed and welcomed into the group the article closed citing a speaker who prophesied all for destruction to this city unless its citizens turned to God the article appeared on page one of section two Wednesday April 18 1906 the day of the great San Francisco earthquake one of the worst in world history 300,000 of the city's 400,000 population became homeless 10,000 estimated dead as gas and water mains ruptured causing fires throughout the city tremors continue for an hour buildings collapse in surrounding towns as far away as 60 miles firefighters were forced to dynamite many more buildings in an effort to control sweeping fires tremendous tremors shook Los Angeles forcing people out of their buildings in his diary barliman reports how he felt the shocks during noon prayer at Vanille Hall sensing the divine purpose at work and purposely distributed 10,000 tracts entitled the last call followed by 75,000 more now there are spiritual tremors rippling through Los Angeles zoo's emissions is operating daily with three services morning afternoon and evening often running continuously in an interview with dr. Leonard Lovett maxi Jonas remembered I originally went by this gift testified Jonas then went to the altar and dedicated his life later becoming a bishop in the Church of God in Christ we're so honored to have Fred greasing her with us today you know he may be one of the only eye witnesses of people who were actually there at the Azusa Street revival fred is 90 years young and he's gonna tell us some interesting things about what took place but what were some interesting stories that you can tell us today about what took place at Azusa Street well a biggest story of course was the fact that that the word got out that the holy spirit was being given that's the first thing my father at the time was it was a choir leader at the German Baptist Church within not too far from where Azusa Street as sembly was and when he heard that there was an outpouring of the Holy Spirit he would he would lead his choir and go out the back door and Ryan down the mezuzah Street there's the street was on Sampson right off of san pedro street and there was a streetcar line went down san pedro street there was there were no automobiles lavinia none as far as going services are concerned same thing went for the the upper room mission everyone walked or took streetcar and then walked at that time I was seven years old we presumed so because my brother and I have talked about this for years what what ages we were because both of us started at ninth in San Pedro and both of us started when the San Francisco earthquake in 1906 people were seeking the Lord they come in there and go right down to the altar start praying the upstairs was the Tyrian back then both believed you had to tear it for the spear but many were filled by the spirit just as a set in the lower room as many as nine services were held in one day Lord immerses the meetin's continued day and night in Azusa was open 24 hours a day for three straight years it was said that people's will come in they kneel down and they pray then with their eyes closed they quietly wait for God to do his work and in the beginning there was no punana not even know him book they would sing on impulse two favorite songs was the company has come and under the blood yes yes yes a spontaneous singing in the spirit as if suddenly singing with the heavenly choir would send shim runs of God's presence throughout the whole room usually Seymour sat with his head bowed inside his shoe box punky allowing God's Spirit to run to me only those that knew that they was anointed with the message for that night retreat it was said that interpretations messages and prophecies were given with such power it was as if God Himself were speaking one evening has damage to carrion and several Armenian friends were walking down the street they heard familiar sounds the worshippers at Azusa shouting singing and praying as in their old Armenian services the Armenians joyfully spread the news God was now moving in America as he had in Armenia Russia and of course in and through the early church fathers within 30 days of moving completely to Azusa Street a surge of interest brings throngs of virtually every race nationality and social class on earth to Seymour's congregation largest crowds came on Sundays with services running from 7:00 a.m. until midnight or later Nelson reports the Azusa miracle appears as the racial color line disappears whites begin to far outnumber blacks and their pride is laid aside most of Joseph's smells New Testament church leaves for Azusa both AG Garn and Arthur Osterberg bring their entire congregations to Azusa to many the old barn like mission building serves as a reminder of the manger of Bethlehem it was probably the most significantly integrated Church in the whole of Los Angeles that blacks and whites mingled together freely there especially between 1906 and 1909 and then in another move that took place in 1911 or 1912 it began to attract large numbers of whites there were some whites at Bonnie Brae though in the house meetings but soon after it became noised abroad and became famous worldwide at one point there were more whites and blacks in Azusa Street there was a long time maybe a couple of years where the majority were white it seems to me that the first ones in Azusa Street that spoke with tongues that caused the sensation were blacks when I read LA Times and read the reports it's always black women black men who are speaking with tongues but white people were extremely interested in it and and they weren't just the poor there were theologians who came and many were turned off but there was some pretty well-educated people who accepted Pentecost there and the big thing was that they would ask this black man to lay hands on them which was unthinkable at the time Los Angeles was called the American Jerusalem because every religion in the world was there even non-christian religion every culture in every culture and when you look at the zoo the street there were Mexicans there there were Russians there Chinese blacks whites you have just about every kind of person Jews were there two years of Glorieta zoos emissions Reverend 8ji car leads a party of five is the first missionaries to depart for India and China Seymour's congregation raises $1,200 within 15 minutes to provide their transportation expenses $1,200 was a lot of money in 1906 one worship service of Holy Communion and foot washing is composed of over 20 nationalities lasting until dawn Seymour begins publishing the Apostolic Faith newspaper which immediately circulates around the world with 50,000 copies per issue papers often passing from hand to hand until worn out reports and newspapers reach India ahead of the gars arousing keen interest and starting the movement their interested persons began arriving at Azusa Street from all over the USA and as far away as China volunteers meet incoming trains veteran pastors and missionaries tell of finding their heart's desire Thomas ball Barrett Methodist pastor from Norway joins the movement in New York City at a meeting held by Azusa missionaries in route to Africa Barrett returns to Europe to begin an influential Pentecostal ministry Anglican vicar a a body in England welcomes Barrett's new message describes the movement as surpassing the Welsh revival and begins an outreach that affects the far-flung British Empire from January to November the panic of 1907 brings economic hardship to the u.s. a new york stock exchange prices collapsed Dow Industrials plunge 45% however work under seymour expands and flourishes the mission incorporates elects trustees and buys the property for fifteen thousand in gold coin pain $4,000 cash as down payment william h durham of chicago visits the mission he calls seymour the leader of the movement under god amicus man I ever met he walks and talks with God his power is in his weakness he seems to maintain a helpless dependence on God and is as simple hearted as a little child and at the same time is so filled with God that you feel the love and power every time you get near him and I've heard that people came from literally all over the world who come to this was mad that take people criss cross around the world as people were leaving a zoo the missions to go to China and Africa and Russia and other parts as missionaries people were coming from all parts of the world to see what God was doing attitudes emissions as a matter of fact the mission had people posted at the train station to bring in the visitors and take them directly to his OU's emissions because people were coming from all around the world to Los Angeles not recite see but to see this mighty move of God and I've heard that day and night from 1906 to 1909 that they had services at the Azusa Street place services mom stopped him there was always something going on the move of God was going on and people were invited to come whenever they were led to come people were upstairs carrying waiting for the baptism of the Holy Spirit downstairs there were people praying there are people singing there were people studying the Word of God it was a non-stop meeting as a matter of fact there were several instances with a fire department caught in because people said that there were flames on the roof that the building was on fire the fire department came but nothing was burning down it was just the glory of God on the building what moved it beyond this kind of a regional mentality that apparently really overwhelmed the movement as it as it focused around Charles Parham in the South there South Central us is the fact that this really had a centrifugal kind of an understanding of this message it was to go everywhere so that within a year you can trace missionaries to the Middle East or to Europe or to Africa or to Latin America or to the Far East in a variety of places and on up into Canada so it really had a major impact this was faith missions at its best you know Vincent cynon talks about the missionaries in their one-way tickets they had no source of support once they were there it was totally on faith and they picked up their families and they went as missionaries to Liberia and within three months virtually all of them had died from Blackwater fever kind of a side effect from having overdosed on on quinine too as a result of malaria problems so it was a sad story but at the same time they founded a church which a year and a half later when when the first really white missionaries went to Africa in West Liberia and so forth they found a church of about two hundred and fifty people going very strongly there in Monrovia Africa Liberia so it carried both good and negative kinds of things and it was the tightest tightest paper said a bad a real it tells you bad to see what was all about and as he set in the meetings there were little children that dance did the Spirit and prophesied and the prophecy that they gave at the language they used was not for little children it was for it thought of intelligent people and that's what changed his mind he said how could little chiller like this this must be real then the children can't act like this said talk like this one time at the Upper Room mission mother got up during the Sorek service I began speaking in tongues and it was seemingly under the Holy Spirit there wasn't it no one to interpret it but at the close of the service there was a man came up and talked the brother stunned and said where did that lady learn that dialect and he says well she didn't learn that that was under the influence of the Holy Spirit he's filled with the Holy Spirit he's all a lot I don't understand that's beyond me and so on and and he left has a following service or whether it is that same week or very shortly after mother got up the second time and spoke in tongues same way and this time this man came running he says that woman is telling me that gets my heart straightened out with dog in a in a dialect from middle Africa she knew nothing about it there was no public interpretation of what she said but this man was a total outsider and he came up and gave his heart to God when he when she saw him that the reason you're here is for you to accept Jesus we went one night to the meeting when we heard them speaking in tongue he merely scared me to death I thought this is the way I feel I don't want to go back mr. McGowen said you would better be careful this is a God so I kept going back one not five or six women began singing in the spirit I was spellbound I had never heard such singing it sounded like angels singing they couldn't deny because the singing it was beautiful singing in the holy spirit the meetings went on every night with a full house sinners would pass the door come in and get saved the fire of God came down on me from the top of my head to the tip of my baritone truly it was like a live cold touch my lips little lost getting safe being filled with the spirit demons cast out in miraculous healings were daily occurrences at Azusa many swore that the power could be felt even blocks away the demonstrations are not the shouting clapping or jumpings of often seen in camp meetings there is a shaking such as the early Quakers had and which the old method is called the jerks it is while under the power of the Spirit you see the hands raved and here speaking in tongues our one sings a song learned from heaven with a shining face tears will be trickling down other faces many receive the spirit through the laying on of hands as they did through Paul and Ephesus a lot of people had been praying for Pentecost and when they said it's happened and people are speaking with tongues like the Apostles all the day of Pentecost that was tremendously attractive and I think it was this is this or is this not the promise latter ring that attracted people and they came with that question in mind some people saw it and said it's just black country dark he can't mean he stunts yeah the shouting and the falling others said this is that latter ring we've been praying for because the gifts of the Spirit began to operate that was what made it unique they would speak with tongues they would interpret they would sing in tongues they would prophesy they would give interpretations and healings galore at the end of 1909 the walls of Azusa Street were covered with crutches of people who'd been a bracelet canes and braces so I think the the idea went out across the world that the the last day revival has actually begun where nobody ever expected it to begin in a black church in Los Angeles in America the last place most people would have thought and yet it happened and people recognized the moral leadership of Seymour because he was pastor in Azusa Street the Lord not fall down and he got up trembling and saying Lord what will that help me do the Lord knocked all the worldly wisdom out of Paul that is the reason he knocked so many people down here and take the worldly wisdom out of them Paul was a man full of the wisdom and knowledge of this world but when he got the baptism with the Holy Spirit he was able to tell us about the true wisdom and true knowledge of God so that was one of the things that they were striving for is hoid us to get closer to God and to please God in their life and everything they said it did that was what do they eat everyone thinks it caused Azusa Street to progress said God being able to use the people oh yes oh yes they live different lives they had fear of doing wrong fear of displeasing God and they were very careful to find out what God wanted them to all God want them to live and what he wanted them to do and talk about I know what churches are like here today I've been through the lots of them for a long time and the formalities have got me down pretty bad I just it's a it's a song and then it's a it's a prayer and then there's a then there's a collection and then there's a special song and then the choirs song and then there's a message and then there's an invitation in that sad that's an hour and 15 minutes oh I don't know young man I'm not I'm not as happy as I was in the older days because we were led by the Spirit of God and that's when you're a son of God and I tell you too much formalities these days hasn't helped me any at all it was yeah outpouring of people that we draw their and boast of their reason they were drawing their is they were hungry for God my father was about here not to speak at uggs but to get closer to God and know God and he never sought speaking tuggs he and my mother were great in singing songs its missions and the way my father received the Holy Ghost was he wasn't trying to just waiting on God and all of a sudden he started to sing in another language and he had a good voice my father had a good voice and he was conscious of some power taking him over and he sang in another language that thrilled his way beyond anything he'd ever experienced in life years later at a camp meeting mr. Grissom Joe remembers when he was touched and I wandered into this little tent meeting and sat down in the front front row there wasn't anyone else there and as they testify thank the Lord for salvation thank the Lord for the baptismal Holy Spirit and so I thought well why not I stood up as I thank the Lord for salvation and I'd like to be filled with the Holy Spirit I went unconscious I did not know nor did anyone touch me no afraid for me no one sang to me or anything else and I went on and when I came to I had my arms up there and speaking in tongues and I couldn't talk English all night a kid 12 years old on on this one occasion Marie came and told the folks that she was sick and all of a sudden she started falling with her legs and having it to Detective julio and her speech start deliever well for days that two or three days or I won't say two or three I don't know exactly how long not too long we were in difficulty because the school was getting ready to close us down and the Health Department was coming out they were going to they were going to close us down and mother and dad took three make this as short as I can mother and dad took Marie took her out and walked her up and down the walkway the dirt road and over to the edge of the hill and back again and that same day dad said to the devil sis you get out of here we won't have you stay away from us and we are going we rebuke you we're not going to take it before the day was over the Apolo was completely healed completely in she's 85 years old now I have awful lot of respect for my father's prayer life he prayed for hours under travail travail wasn't something it they cooked up at the spirit with kabadi because I've sensed it myself when I got saved I asked God to give me travail and I would pray for people that had lost out with God and that Parr would come on me and I would cry out to god at follow Maddie's and I couldn't get released until I had prayed through for this person there's a spirit wicked spirit world that's we come back we're fighting against and we're in the Old Testament they fought with swords this world we fight the enemy by combating the enemy in prayer the newspapers just really killed something terrible this old mad spoken tugs and they put him out of the church the whole church in general turned against the outpouring they were called all kinds of names holy rollers and holy jumpers and tangled tuggers and and I suppose they ultimately came up with the tongues movement which is probably a misnomer as well but you'd have to look at the Azusa Street mission and say there was a lot of stuff that was going on that probably most Pentecostal churches today would look at and say what's that again kids were often put outside on their own while their parents went inside and of course the Health Department was down on their necks because of the lack of ventilation and lack of supervision for kids and all kinds of complaints the noise level some people complained that they could hear them screaming and yelling three blocks away and they would testify in court to that in fact many of these people were harassed by the local police department or by citizens I have newspaper clippings of at least nine people who were committed to either psychiatric wards in the local jail or they were placed in hospital psychiatric hospitals simply because they spoke in tongues and and were part of this burgeoning Pentecostal movement here in Los Angeles the Los Angeles Ministerial Association filed complaint that Azusa mission is a public disturbance in demands action to close it police survey nearby businesses but they do not support the complaint Azusa Street services continued Azusa workers in Los Angeles and nearby towns are sometimes arrested by police who do not approve of public evangelism in Whittier Henry McLean accepts 30 days of the chain gang rather than leave town continuing his ministry cheerfully among his fellow prisoners I have been the meetings we're all crowded round the old a laying across one another like whole blacks and whites in England it should be nothing to bring a blush ashamed to tell let alone age and yet all of this wood laid on a holy gold one of the interesting things about all of this is the newness of it nowhere in their history in the holiness movement in the Methodist Church or in any of the other mainline churches were any of these phenomena present there were no Mentors there were no teachers they were learning by experience and they were trying to test their experience against the the Word of God in fact one of the things that they were learning was that in early Pentecostalism there was this idea that if God was granting the gift of languages that languages was not simply a verbal or aural kind of thing it was also something that one could write and so there were these experiments in which they would pray that God would give them the gift of tongues and that they could write in tongues and then they would pray for interpretations to ride alongside so that you would have these what looked like chicken Scrolls and they were interpreted by someone in their in in their midst and in fact they made the newspapers as early as Charles Parham back in Topeka Kansas in 1901 there were some of these things put into the local paper in the Los Angeles Times carried a major article on one saturday or sunday seymour makes a comment in and in the very the very first issue of the apostolic faith that we now have people in our myths who can write in tongues about three or four months later he writes and he says we've been checking this experience against the Word of God and we don't find anything in the word about writing in tongues so it's probably better that we don't engage in this sort of thing so they were doing some theologizing at the time they were trying to discern and and learn and to grow in this process but it meant that along the way they sometimes made mistakes the shouting Methodists go back to the turn to 1800s early 1800s cane Ridge all these things happen with whites and blacks shouting falling out even barking like dogs dancing before the Lord there had been a long history of that but as you say they were mainly among poor people and as the churches became more middle-class and better educated they tried to put that behind them so by the 1900 the people who were still showing these manifestations were the poor people and most of them had left Methodist Church and others to form holiness churches they were mainly poor people black and white the shouting Methodist is shouting holiness people were already in place before the Pentecostal movement started well the Los Angeles Church Federation decided that they were going to meet and decide what do we do with these people at Azusa Street how do we counter this there's a great deal of denial by the Federation that in fact what they were trying to do was undercut what was going on in Azusa Street but it's clear from the reporter's eyes and the reports that are carried in the LA papers that what they what was really up there was the fact that the church Federation authorized the president of that Federation a fellow named Rylan who was pastor of a Methodist Church in Los Angeles to go over to the Azusa Street mission to look to watch to listen and to come away with the decision about the validity or lack thereof of this group he came away with two very important or significant insights one was he felt that they were involved in a lot of fanaticism that could potentially be dangerous or at least lead to insanity on the other hand what he did think was that they were so committed to evangelization and carrying the gospel to people in the city and to telling other people that he thought that the church Federation could profit from a similar kind of an experience so what they do is they come up with a four-hole plan the first point is they want to get all the people in these mainline churches that are members of this Federation to agree to set aside a special time in their own prayer lives a prayer closet if you would to pray for the evangelization of the city and they get people to sign up to become members of this prayer band that that are going to do this and they are committed to pray every day for the evangelization of Los Angeles the second thing they do is they decide that they're going to petition the city of Los Angeles and in particular the police department to get permits to hold public street meetings now one can well imagine holiness churches and Pentecostal churches holding street meetings but it's hard to imagine the local Episcopal Church and the Presbyterian Church and a variety of Baptist churches and disciples of Christ and Methodists all out there doing the same thing in a cooperative effort to win souls to Jesus Christ well what happens is that that begins a series of meetings which lasts on into 1908 and 1909 and you will see in the 1908 papers in Highland Park and for instance every single week they have a photograph of where the local Street meetings are and you'll see the Oregon out on the street and men in their top hats and it was really a revival that took place among businessmen and the newspapers would record how many people were saved and and would record parts of the sermons and and all of these things so that the public was well informed on this and that's a competitive edge that they hope to bring against the Xu's history tonight that's a fairly exciting competitive edge in a sense because the very thing that Smail was praying for namely revival in the city was beginning to happen that's correct that's absolutely correct there's my one Church of God speaking of tongues will never be given to our people who compromise mastectomy we warn all who may be getting their poisonous she called that the Apostolic Faith to be more aware of it consign it to the flames as there's where it spawns will hand unless they see the air of their way and repent you cannot win people by abusing their church all pastor if you get the preaching against churches you will find that sweet Spirit of Christ is lacking and a harsh judging spirit takes its place the churches are not to be blamed for division people were hunting for light they built up denominations because they did not know a better way we are simply a voice shouting behold the lamb of god when we commence shouting something else then Christ will die in us when people run out of the love of God they get to preaching something else preaching dress and meats and doctrines of men and preaching against churches all these denominations are our brother so let us seek peace and not confusion the moment we feel we have all the truth or more than anyone else we will drop I don't think that harem shared the vision of that I don't think that he had the capacity to engender that vision and other people in quite the way that this so simple and yet so stunning experiment called Azusa Street had I think that he was much more dogmatic and much more driven as a leader whereas Seymour would take the back seat and say okay it's time for God to work and so there was a tendency I think to allow God more freedom in a sense through see more than through harem well just look at the major Pentecostal groups in the world just look at the Church of God in Christ where CH Mason and two other men go to Azusa Street a baptized in the spirit speak with tongues come back and a revolution breaks out that church has over three and a half million members of largest Pentecostal church in America look at the symbols of God traces its roots right back to zeusie Street which is a largest Pentecost Church in the whole world with about 25 million people worldwide Pentecostal Holiness Church Azusa Foursquare church Church of God Cleveland Tennessee and many others Church you've got a prophecy Pentecost Church of God there hundreds up and they all can trace their roots to Azusa Street but then it's gone worldwide there in Europe all over Europe the men who founded the Pentecostal movement in in Italy see the largest non Catholic Church in Italy as Pentecostal well Italian from Chicago received the baptism under William Durham who got it at the zoo the street see and you go down to Brazil you go to Chile you go to Russia even I was just in Russia in the Pentecostal movement can trace its roots back to New York City back to Azusa Street so this whole renewal movement is a worldwide phenomenon and then the charismatic movement like in the Catholic Church and other mainline Protestant churches all of them indirectly can go back to the zoo the street so here's this black man and I often tell people there were thousands of people that would have gladly volunteered to be the great man that God would use theologians guys from seminaries God jumped over all of them and chose a black man born in Louisiana to slave parents in a little nondescript broken-down mission in Los Angeles to spark the greatest revival I think in the last thousand years yes so God chooses the outcasts things of the world to confound the wise and do his thing when an earthquake hits a city the high and the low are shook to the same level of destruction so when an out point of God flows upon a city the high places and the low flow together so – at Azusa the highest echelons of society mingling with the lowest of the poor all reduced to one common denominator Jesus as God's holy spirit a brother of Norman Chandler who owned the Los Angeles Times unexpectantly came to visit one doesn't know if he was initially critiquing the meeting but it was reported that he sat quietly for hours an elegant buggy drawn by beautifully groomed horses brought the wealthy railroad tycoon Charles Huntington with his beautiful wife to see this wondrous display of God following their entrance a drunk wandered in off the streets and was saved missionaries soon came from all over the world to witness this new outpouring of the Holy Spirit they began to take news of it back to their fields of labor and to share this awesome move of God at the crowds temple Church of God in Christ elder CC car he was 99 years old when he reflected on Seymour's visit to the 1907 spring denominational meeting car he vividly remembered Seymour he was telling about some of his experiences his talk went all through me I felt a glory from his ministry his face looked like the face of an angel Seymour was noted for preaching simply and with a beaming face GT Haywood leader of the black Freemasons in Indianapolis and cartoonist for two newspapers joined the movement resigning from his Lodge Haywood becomes one of the three most influential black leaders of the new movement Nelson reports that even the term Pentecostal movement derived from Seymour's usage at Azusa before this general use Pentecostal movement other terms used were Apostolic Faith and Full Gospel commonly used by Parham the word Pentecost was a synonym for the holiness experience up until Sousa Street then later on the holiness churches dropped the word Pentecost altogether because they associated with yes they don't want to be confused with the tongue speakers so Pentecost has a long history but after the tongues experience came with Azusa Street the Pentecostal movement preempted the term in the popular mind if you say Pentecostal now you're talking about people who speak the tongue Azusa spread his tongues of fire like ever widening ripple in a pond Pastor Owen Adams attended Azusa then traveling to Canada he met with Robert simple and shared with him the Pentecost experience Roberts shared the news with his new bride Amy Robert and Amy then went to China as missionaries Robert died prematurely the young widow returned to the United States preaching alone until she later married Harold McPherson that message from Azusa burned bright to the world fame Amy Semple McPherson later in one of Amy's San Jose California meetings practically an entire Baptist Church accepted the Pentecost experience a pastor Charles as price got filled with the Spirit Himself becoming a world fame Pentecostal torchbearer AC valdez like so many people who came to Azusa Street received an experience of God's power and the Holy Spirit and his family had come to Los Angeles I think they've lived here for quite a number of years his parents went to the mission in fact I think perhaps even his grandfather had visited at one point but he was touched and became an evangelist who traveled around the world holding meetings dynamic meetings he had very great success for instance in Australia throughout the US and and like and ultimately wrote a book about his experience I think was called fire on Azusa Street that The Full Gospel businessman published in the early 1980s and then ultimately retired in Arizona and passed away in the mid in the mid 80s it is documented that CH Mason who later became founder in Presiding Bishop of the Church of God in Christ je Jeter and DJ young journeyed to Azusa visiting for five weeks all three were filled by the Holy Spirit and extended Seymour an invitation to address the spring meeting in 1907 Bishop Mason and Seymour's friendship dated back to Seymour's time of living and studying in Mississippi on May 13th 1908 Seymour marries Jenny Evans more the one who received the filling of the Holy Spirit and sang and played so beautifully on that night of April 9th 1906 Seymour wedding did not just assure in marital bliss but a crippling blow to his ooze emissions a small but influential court the mission objected to his marriage citing the final days before the closing of the age are not times for marrying and being given in marriage there's too much work to do Clara Lum the missions secretary and administrative helper for the newspaper disapproves of the marriage quitting her post she immediately moves to Portland Oregon when she joins the growing ministry of her former Azusa associate Reverend Florence Crawford Lum over the objection of the Azusa trustees takes all of the newspapers national and international mailing list a list of over 25,000 irreplaceable names and addresses fraudulently she begins issuing what was Seymour's paper from the new location making it sound as if Seymour and the entire mission had relocated to Portland contributions for the paper and mission were received by mail all contributions were now directed by Lum to Portland Seymour and his wife journeyed to Portland to obtain return of his list Lum refuses the swabbing see more of its control of the global paper and of the donations contributed and insight on Seymour's character might be obtained as we note Seymour refused to seek legal remedy through the courts nelson states the epitaph for this tragic situation was written by seymour in the october/november 1908 issue of the Apostolic Faith this issue is the only one known to have been circulated by Seymour following the departure of love I must for the salvation of soul let it be known that the editor is still in Los Angeles and will not remove the Apostolic Faith from Los Angeles without letting the subscribers and field workers know this was a sad thing to our hearts for a worker to attempt to take the paper which is the property of the Azusa Street mission to another city without our consent after being warned but the elders not to do so during a time of no mass telephone radio or TV communications the mailing list was azusa's lifeline of communication and there was quite a outcry from Seymour that they had in fact stolen his a lifeline which was the mailing list that had been developed people riding in and asking for more information really you have to think about the mailing list is probably one of the most valuable things that Seymour owned without the mailing list it was impossible for Seymour to continue publication from Los Angeles robbed of the contributions and his newspaper the global national and local influence of the Azusa mission and Seymour declined I think the saddest part of the story is that from 1906 to about 1924 you had interracial worship among Pentecostals the biggest exception to segregation but by 1924 most of the Pentecostal churches had segregated on the basis of race the biggest mistake was that the spirit-filled people did not continue thee God raised him up just to solve the racial problem before the civil rights movement ever got star but they they didn't follow through and I think that's the greatest tragedy yes they were ahead of the times prophetic and the neighborhood was was in the black part of LA and Azusa Street became for the last few years of black local congregation but had already accomplished its historical mission it doesn't mean it was a failure at all it just meant that it had just exploded worldwide and as a neighborhood change of like any city eventually Azusa Street building was torn down 1931 I believe and because of the changing neighborhood patterns Azusa mission's was at its zenith from 1906 through 1909 with what was considered a non-stop revival however it is a misconception that Azusa no longer operated after 1909 there were various splits and factions each one taking its toll on the attendance at Azusa by 1910 there were no crowds at Azusa mission's most of the whites were now in attendance at various new churches and missions however there was a loyal core of blacks which numbered about 50 however in 1911 William H Durham returned to Los Angeles from Chicago he initially tries to preach out of the prestigious Upper Room mission and then tries another location but was turned down by both he then requested and was granted permission to preach at Azusa Durham presents a new doctrine entitled the finished work at Calvary the dynamic presence of Durham attracts huge crowds great numbers of whites flocked back to Azusa it's reported throughout the city that Azusa is on fire again but Durham's new doctrine causes controversy and contention among the Saints this controversy seems to be the reason Durham left Chicago and was denied the use of the Upper Room mission in Los Angeles Seymour who had been ministering backis speedily returns and pleads with Durham to modify the demands and his approach on this new doctrine Durham adamantly refuses Seymour is forced to lock Durham out of the mission Durham opens a rival mission the crowds follow him the numbers that Isuzu dwindled down to less than 50 and it never flourishes again July 7th 1912 Durham at age 39 died suddenly and unexpectedly after prophesying to a friend that if they were ever to leave the Divine Will he would perish and expectedly following summer a large camp meeting is held at the same location of Seymour's first big summer camp meeting thousands flocked to the meeting Seymour attends but is not invited to sit on the platform nor is he even acknowledged deploying the bickering jealousy and backbiting among the Brethren Seymour tries once again to call for unity he invites all of the city clergy to a meeting for love and harmony only two men attend see more sadly limits to a friend that he has done all he could do Seymour continued to minister at Azusa and made occasional trips to the east and south on September 28 1922 Seymour while dictating a letter died from a heart attack his faithful said from a broken heart for more details on the life and personality of this tremendous man of God view the companion documentary from tragedy to triumph the story of William Seymour jinnie Evan Seymour took over as pastor ministering to the small but faithful corps now left at Azusa there was one more power play it seems by now the Seymours were used to it one had taken the Lifeline mailing list others had taken people and now a man who had preached there who mrs. Seymour and the others had befriended decided he would pastor and take over the mission eventually mr. Seymour maintained her control but the court battle had taken time and money Azusa Street missions was now condemned as a fire hazard it seemed none of the saints wanted to preserve this building wherein God had so awesomely shown his presence on the day that Azusa missions was abolished Frank Bart Ehrman went and secured the address 312 as a momento William Seymour continued to minister until his death in 1922 after his death his wife Jenny Evans Marci Moore became the pastor and she continued until her death now in the early 1930s the building was condemned as the fire hazard and it was torn down and unfortunately I'll read this because it's in the records June 1st Los Angeles County Superior Court Awards final judgment to security First National Bank after 58 legal moves and countermoves spread over two and a half years so in 1938 312 Azusa Street becomes a Bank property and was made into a parking lot it was later acquired by the LA Department of Urban Renewal my father I have ever when they were tearing the building down he went and took a piece of wood had the number of the zoo sir Street on it and hung it up in his bedroom and maybe a lot of people can get together and at least buy back a corner of this and put up a monument to the glory of the tremendous outpointed took place yet that indeed affected the entire mrs. Seymour passed away on July 2nd 1936 this movement that a man is like this the Reformation had a man Martin Luther see there's a movement with a man who is indispensable leader the Methodist movement started by John Wesley and you talked about the reform in with the Calvin then when you come to the Pentecostal movement people can't generally tell you who was the founder of movement we don't have a Luther a Wesley or a Calvin but then the man who makes it a worldwide movement is Seymour he fills the place of a Luthor Wesley more than anybody else because harm soon dropped out of leadership and no one likes to call parm the founder of the movement we always said the Holy Ghost founded it but the Holy Ghost used people and worldwide I think all over the world people would be for more familiar with Seymour's name than they would par him and with Azusa Street certainly Seymour was the man that God used as a catalyst to explode this throughout the whole world and I don't think anyone can anymore say it's a movement without a man it's a movement that where God used men and sometimes used the most unlikely men and women I think the Lord knew what he was doing when he chose Seymour in Azusa Street mainly among blacks to bring one of the greatest revivals in history now there are about 400 million Pentecostals and cares makes in the world and like I say you can trace it back to Azusa Street Azusa Street was like a mother giving birth once she's given birth a mother eventually will die but she's done her historic sure art and the Sousa Street played the historic part of birthing Pentecostals into the whole world I also find it rather interesting perhaps it's ironic perhaps its divine justice if you would that in 1988 when Pope John Paul the second visited Los Angeles that the place one of the places where he went and held a meeting and gave a speech that I attended was at the japanese-american Cultural Center which sits at the site of the Azusa Street mission so there is a sense in which that site has attracted other leaders in the religious world of today I think as a historian that the subject of Azusa Street is one of those things that needs to be looked at once again and this time very carefully I've grown up with a great appreciation for my heritage and indeed I find my heritage to be deeply rooted not only in the Pentecostal movement but the Pentecostal movement which grew out of the black church so that if you want to talk about the roots of Pentecostalism you have to take very seriously both the holiness and the restorationist and the black church elements that all contribute to what is known as modern Pentecostalism I think it's important as a as a minister to help people to remember that God dealt with real people at a real level and and transformed their lives and turned the world upside down in many respects the theological world made evangelism possible in ways that that one had never thought of before indeed to talk about 360 million or there abouts Pentecostals in these days is mind-boggling him it just hardly computes when you think about this movement really at its very beginning levels in 1906 that's not very many years from then to now and to see what God has accomplished as a father who has four sons I hope to communicate to them something of the reality of God something of the heritage that we as a Pentecostal family are part of and participate in but not simply to look back on it but to say if God can do that there with those people God can do something with me today for the Church of tomorrow and my hope is that when people look at this film or when people read the book about Azusa Street or when people share the story that what they're sharing is not simply the way it used to be but hope for the Church of tomorrow and what that church can do by the grace of God in the world about it Mel you studied this man's life for 15 years why do you like Seymour so much well he's become a friend I know I'm like a brother and many of these people have become friends it's not simply a history project they are my people and I am one of him and their hurts become mine and their visions and their joy have become ingrained in me in ways I never would have expected any time past so when I get this story written I hope there is a sense in which it's not just their story but it's my story as well I'm sure that will be it'll be their story and your story and a story for people of all time and most of all God's story azusa mission man had no use for it but God was to choose it as the birthplace of a revolution as we entered the old building sometime I was I was touched by the presence of God it was such a humble place with its low ceilings in room floor that didn't work on webs or hanging in the windows as I looked around I thought of Jesus when he came to earth and was born in a manger if there was no place for him in the end I thought of the fine church houses in the city of Los Angeles but the Lord had chosen this humble spot to gather all nationality dear one there is a disease in your heart that begins to eat you when you see some saints it does not look like you get down before God and cast him to sanctify you wholly and get rid of all the old flesh your thoughts and feelings old things will have passed away and all things will have become I recall one Catholic man who was wonderful he was rejoice it had praised the Lord in Spanish where could speak Incas I tried to ask him when he got converted he didn't understand finally another brother interpreted I will never forget the childlike reply converted I know understand all I know one day his sous he jumping to me hard just as God had used a stable in the opposite side of the world almost 2,000 years ago so here at Azusa God has used another stable to draw in the wealthy to learn the theologians and the lost to witness this awesome move of God for salvation and deliverance man would have chosen great palaces and cathedrals for such mighty works but God God chose stables God spread the movement not offering the Holy Ghost did the work not an evangelist layman and ministers were equally important the greatest secret love and unity prevailed among one of the most diverse groups ever assembled the worship God in spirit and in truth just look look but not no no look now how they love one another [Applause] the No

Feature History – Rise of the Mongols



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this video is brought to you by curiosity stream yet 31 days of streaming completely free using the link in curiosity stream calm / feature story or you can wait till the end to hear more hello and welcome to feature history featuring the Mongol Empire the Empire is well known amongst everyone it's a largest continuous Empire to ever exist it was ruled by Kangas car and they had horses and bows they lived in tents and they actually that's about where it stops if you think about it we don't actually know that much about Mongols and so to get the better understanding of it we can read up about them and actually figure out where the Mongols came from what they did and where they win and then you can make a video about them but don't because that's what I'm doing so in today's episode we'll be covering the rise of the Mongols under Genghis how they grew as rapidly as they did it wouldn't actually meant in the grand scheme of things after that you'll have to wait until the next episode to figure out where it went the central steppes of Asia are an incredibly remote and desolate place sustaining a quite small population of hearty people that's how it is today it was even harder in the 12th century the land belonged to the nomadic Mongol and Turkic clans who were often in conflict with each other whether it was over scarce resources personal rivalries Wilson fabricated dispute encouraged by the clans powerful neighbors it was given their harsh environment and perpetuating Wars the clans of the steppe remained stuck while other parts of the world were transitioning through their high Middle Ages their Islamic golden ages and their chinesey ages however it would be approaching the 13th century the steppes climate changed it was warmer food was plentiful and on top of this China's political climate changed as being split between multiple dynasties they descended into their own power squabbles in this period of opportunity the boy Temujin was born a year 1162 he was the son of yesugay the ruler of a kamek mongol one of five tribal Confederations in the region when Temujin was only nine years old his father was poisoned by the rival Tatars so his father's Confederation to the power vacuum and Temujin was thrusts into the harsh nomadic reality that was Mongol life in his attempts to regain power he'd marry into a friendly tribe with his first wife bought a at age 16 she was quickly abducted by another rival tribe the markets and so Temujin turned to a tribal leader and blood brother of yesugay to rule calm Temujin alongside his own blood brother jamika were granted command of 20,000 warriors with them they stormed the market camp rescuing bought a and claiming an easy victory however with newfound power Temujin found rivals Temujin perhaps because if he struggled upbringing ranked his men not on their heritage but their merit and loyalty to him and intelligence continued campaigns against his enemies he would take conquered civilians under his protection building a force of loyal subjects this all clashed with Jammu cos traditional Mongol views and as the new methods proved effective he felt threatened by Temujin jamika would turn on Temujin and decisively defeat his army in 1180 770 of the captives were boiled alive Temujin would disappear for 10 years only seeming to return to prominence when he was recruited by the jin dynasty the jin sought to punish the Tartars and Temujin was recruited to command part of the attack and for his services was restored into a position of power with a new army rally together he would employ a new decimal system amongst his ranks giving him the proper military organization needed to gain the upper hand Tolu khan would join jamika to defend against imagens new force and jamika would be proclaimed the Gherkin universal ruler however Jammu cos universal rule was proclaimed a bit early because across ten engines campaign torille and jamika would be defeated and jamika was turned into Temujin by his own men Temujin would have those men put to death and offered jamika to join him once again jamika would respond there can only be one son and his request was to a noble death after jammu cos coalition fell Temujin would see to it the rest of the tribes were subdued or united by 1206 the once disparate and warring factions of the steppe have been united as one political and military force and Temujin was renamed and the genghis khan the actual universal ruler with the perpetually rivaled tribes united Genghis thought to spread his early Empire he had first conquer its former oppressors starting with the Western Shah the smallest of the three main Chinese dynasties the Mongols had for a long time rated the Charles frontier but under Genghis there would be mobilized as a rapid cavalry base army and swarmed the Empire forcing the Shia as a facile in only five years the neighboring Jin dynasty had blissfully ignored this conquest the Mongols were their tributaries after all subservient to the mighty Jin the Jin had long extracted tribute from and exercised punitive expeditions against the tribes and when they came to demand tribute again in 1211 they expected more at the same Ganga Salva would respond only by spitting on the ground and riding off in his horse just about the least verbal declaration of war you could manage for a war against the much largest dynasty the Mongols would mobilize a 90% of all their forces close to a hundred thousand men and holding a firm numbers advantage the hoards would meet the Great Wall and go around it and then meet the Jin forces however it would be in their earliest battle the Jin's biggest weakness was exploited their questionable loyalty the messengers that met with gangers to request is surrender actually decided that tell Ganga's where the jhen armies were positioned leading to a decisive massacre as the Mongol hordes pillaged their way through North China gang is made sure to spare those who could be useful to him siege warfare was an unknown to the Mongols but by capturing and recruiting Chinese engineers they could quickly learn the tactics of CG and better yet the well kept secrets of powder they put all they'd learn to the test when they besieged the capital of Beijing improving successful they forced the Jin to concede defeat the Jin would become the new tributary of their former tributaries in 1214 Genghis would then lead the majority of the armies back home as his loyal general je vais would do a bit of on the side conquering on the remnants of the old liao dynasty in the West the Mongol Empire had quickly grown and dominated its once powerful neighbors it established itself as the largest conglomerate of nomadic tribes and is one of the strongest Asian powers it was at this point gang is sought to build relations with nearby States sending his own voice and caravans far west to the Persian her as me an empire in 1218 while the envoy's offer trade and diplomacy word had swiftly spread of the Mongols conquest and brutality the Shah our add-in mohammed ii had no interest in relations with barbarians all 450 of genghis people were put to death and when news reached the khan he flew into a rage the wars the Mongols had fought had seen their fair share of bloodshed and cruelty but the campaign to going to Korres mia would be in a whole different scale a multi-pronged invasion over and the empire any resistance saw whole cities put to death not just the men but the women and children to the sharp would flee but was stopped literally dead in its tracks when he passed from illness and 12:20 his sons allow a beaming Bernie would now be left with the disaster he too would flee attempting to escape through Afghanistan while under pursuit he was able to rally 30,000 afghan warriors on top of his own forces and outnumbering his Mongol pursuers two to one was able to defeat the rookie general and escape offering the first major blow to the facade of Mongol and vulnerability the story quickly spread to cities in kaznia and all the way back to East Asia the Mongols had been defeated people began to rebel against Mongol conquest and so genghis knew he had to get yellow team his army made forced march in pursuit and met jellal's forces as he attempted to cross the Indus River refugees and troops were massacred as the Shia narrowly slipped away into India with the shotgun the Korres Mian Empire was defeated but genghis was left with rebellion across his empire the car made way with the main mongol force to quell the uprisings but his talented generals j-bay and su Bataille were ordered to raid west and they would reach as far west as the caucasus while on campaign against the rebellion jin genghis would fall from his horse tired and weak he died soon after at the age of 65 in 1227 the empire left in his wake stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea and Generals from all over would United the mongol homeland to form a council to curl tie the empire was to be divvied out amongst kangas's four sons his eldest jockey was born shortly after bought a it napping so his legitimacy was questionable however the gang has treated him as a son regardless jockey was to inherit the West and most part of the Empire be given that he died before his father it was left to his son genghis his grandson butter Chag attire the second son was the biggest critic of jockeys legitimacy and was considered quite a hothead he was left with Central Asia as his domain the youngest Tolu inherited the traditional mongol heart lands while it would be the charismatic popular and named successor Agha died a third son who was declared the Great Khan the khan of khans the Mongol Emperor so while the Empire was split into several Carnot's all would answer to auger daikon at least that was the idea ah dude I would begin his reign by claiming vengeance on the traders Jim who on top of breaking their tributary status had moved further south to Chi Fang many defected or surrendered to the Mongol forces and the new capital had fallen by 1232 the Mongols claimed a total conquest of the Jim it would be from here on out look at I grew even more ambitious oh god I would continue his campaign through China bringing war to the Song Dynasty in southern China at the same time an invasion of Korea was ordered the construction of a permanent Mongol capital in Karakoram began and organized nephew battle would begin a full-scale invasion far west into the Kiev in ruse modern day Russia the Song Dynasty would be pushed back across the Yangtze but the Mongols struggled to hold much ground past the river leading to a firm stalemate between the two powers the invasion in Korea would see initial gains also come to a halt needing campaign after campaign to finally defeat the Goryeo in 1259 well past organized time-bar to would prove very successful in the West though the East labs were quickly defeated by the Mongol hordes and forced into submission but who pushed further out claiming victories over the kingdoms of the Caucasus Poland Austria Bulgaria and more the fragmented European kingdoms stood no chance against the Mongol advance knights and footman were not equipped to resist rapid Mongol horsemen and the cities were not prepared for the shock of gunpowder weaponry and the horror of Mongol brutality but who took a decisive victory against the kingdom of Hungary in 1241 and it became clear the rest of Europe lay at the mercy of Mongol dominance but then Agha died died with no clear air it was crucial all Khan's returned to the homeland to form a new curl tie sober – and his armies Road East Europe was spared the Mongol Empire found itself in the Regency of agonized wife Teranga for five years as genghis children and grandchildren came to an impasse the cracks in the empire began to show conquest was seeming to reach its natural limit in the fall of the Mongol Empire beckoned as it appeared you couldn't govern on horseback that's not to say the Empire was strictly chaotic alongside the wars and conquests there was a building of trade routes religious freedoms and meritocratic society under Genghis and his descendants the world began to become further connected than it had been in a long time the famous Silk Road began to be reopened by the Mongols and a link between East and West was born you can see more about the trade route and the cultures it connected in curiosity streams series the Silk Road the series itself contains over six hours of content and the curiosity stream hosts over 2,400 titles that's a virtually endless amount of documentaries covering history science nature technology society and more all of these titles can be streamed on demand right from the comfort of your computer phone or even Smart TV you can watch all that right now for free when you visit curiosity shreem comm slash feature history and get a 31 day trial so go have a look and surely something will piqued your curiosity welcome to the end of the video and for the few you that haven't clicked off yet rest assured the fall of the Mongol Empire isn't too far away but before that I actually will be launching a new new series four little short videos on the channel so that feature history may finally have consistent uploads what about fittings and inquiry while fitting we'll be getting a new episode before the years over and inquiry is pretty much getting dropped there's a bit more going on on top of all that but that's my little secret so for now bye bye

Evidence For The Possibility of Ancient Life On Mars – Exploring Planets in Distant Space



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Though Mars is currently a lifeless desert planet, that wasn’t always the case. Scientists have long suspected that Mars used to have an atmosphere thick enough to sustain vast liquid water oceans billions of years ago. NASA’s Curiosity rover has discovered some of the best evidence yet that supports the theory of Mars sustaining water for long periods of time. Because liquid water is an important precursor to life as we know it, this has some pretty impressive implications for the possibility of ancient life on Mars. The results span six papers, all of which appear in the December 9 issue of Science.

In the Yellowknife Bay in the Gale crater, Curiosity has been analyzing soil samples, collecting data about the geology and geochemistry of the area, in hopes of better understanding the past environment. This data will help researchers decide if ancient Martian life was plausible or not. After analyzing the chemical composition of the rocks, researchers were able to deduce that some of them had traveled great distances before experiencing erosion until much later. The mineral-rich clay that could have supported life was not localized near volcanoes, as there were not large amounts of trademark water soluble elements like calcium and sodium concentrated in those regions. The data suggests that these minerals were present and shuffled around for quite a while, but eventually did succumb to the drying environment and the increasingly hostile water conditions.