Forged in Fire: Rough Rider Bowie Knife Tests (Season 6) | History



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The bladesmiths see which of their forged bowie knives will make the cut in this test from Season 6, “Washington’s Colichemarde”. #ForgedInFire
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“Forged in Fire” features world-class bladesmiths competing against each other to create some of history’s most iconic edged weapons.

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Bladesmiths, welcome
to the strength test. The moose antler chop– remember, this test is all
about what the antler does to your bowies and not
what the Rough Rider bowies do to these moose antlers. Dan, you're up first. You ready? Yes, sir. [pounding] Edge held up perfectly. There's no splinting,
rolling, chipping. One small issue–
there's a little piece of the handle that comes up
right here, and it's sharp. In general, really well done. Thank you. John, you're up. You ready? Yes, sir. [pounding] Your guard is quite loose. In the testing, your edge took
a roll that you can hear here. In all, I mean, it's one knife
instead of two, which is great. And it's got a great
look to it, so well done. Thanks, sir. Josh, you're up. You ready? Does it matter? No. [music playing] [pounding] [sighs] Good job, man. Thanks. There's some serious
gaps on both sides between the handle
material and the guard. Aside from those issues,
the blade held up perfectly. Well done. Thank you. Bladesmiths, welcome to the
sharpest test, the fish slice. To find out if there's any
edge left to your weapon, I want to take your
Rough Rider bowies and try to get some salmon
steaks out of this fish. Dan, you're up first. You ready? Yes, sir. Let's do this. [pounding] Well, we got four
steaks out of it– beautiful job. It is sharp. There was a spot
here in the guard. It could have been
smoothened out. But it did not affect
the use of your blade. The balance of
your blade is good. And most importantly,
it will cut. Good job, sir. Thank you. John, you ready? Yes, sir. [pounding] On the first cut, did
cut all the way through. I just ran out of blade. But under subsequent
cuts, it is sharp. And overall, sir, your blade– it will cut. Thanks, sir. All right, Josh.
Your turn. You ready?
– Go to it. Let's do it. [slicing] Good job. Thanks, man. All right, Josh, let's
talk about your blade here. First up is the handle. It feels like it should be held
this way because it's off-line. And in one of the
cuts, it did affect the way I was indexing my
hip with the guard and then into the blade. But this is a sharp
blade, and it will cut. That's awesome. That's all I wanted to hear. Bladesmiths, we asked you
to make Rough Rider bowies to honor President Theodore
Roosevelt. The judges' deliberation is complete. They've made a final decision. Only two of you can move
forward into the finale. One of you bladesmiths
has to leave the forge. And that bladesmith is John. Your blade didn't make the cut. David Baker's going
to tell you why. John, this decision came down
to the strength test in which your blade picked up a rolled
edge and a loose guard, making it the only blade
that took any damage. John, please
surrender your bowie. My only real regret is that
the handle just didn't hold up. The guard didn't hold up. I would have worked
better on the handle. I came here to prove
to myself that I am working down the right
path of my craftsmanship. And I believe I've
proved that to myself under these conditions.

History of Internet Documentary



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Learn origins and evolution of internet and how it has grown to become one of the foremost tools for almost everything that surround people. In short, a brief, interesting history of the internet, and its evolution.

Internet is perhaps one of the most
prestigious indispensable tools of modern times where people simply
cannot imagine a life without it, or even the world without it. It makes planet earth go round
and helps to move it forward. It is one of the primary essence
of technological evolution. Every era has had its own
indispensable tool – for us in these modern times, it is none other
than the world-wide web. Having such humble
beginnings in the university campuses of American
institutes in the 1960s, internet would soon become
a global phenomenon, a concept and a
medium on its own. Universities now teach the
origins of internet and how it has shaped mankind
in the last 60 years. It has its own nuances and the little
nuts and bolts that need to be known and be aware of if one aspires to
become a professional web designer. It is indeed a field of study and involves
continuous scrutiny and observation if one needs to understand how this
global phenomenon really became global in technical sense and how it governs
almost everything we see around us. A brief understanding of
the origins and evolution of internet will be
discussed and how it has grown to become one
of the foremost tools for almost everything
that surround people. In short, a brief, interesting history
of the internet, and its evolution. Internet, or in more technical words,
the world-wide-web (denoted as WWW in short), is a medium through which
the world connects and communicates. Yes, it is primarily just a mode
of connection and communication, similar (or in some sense, even
exactly the same) to mediums and inventions that have shaped our
world for the last five millennia. As the world became larger and
bigger, so did its communication needs and the mode through
which it communicated. No longer was it possible to simply
communicate everything on the telephone that once revolutionised the world in
the 19th and early 20th centuries. Now, the need of the hour was to develop
something even more revolutionary as letters became more complex and academia wanted
quick and efficient mode of communication. The revolutionary character of the internet
lies in its true nature and purpose. It is, as already said
above, just a mode of communication, but the
scale and the method through which it communicates
has what made it revolutionary, forever
changing human life. So much so, that the internet has
become an ideology in itself and governments across the globe decide
on the aspects they need to use on, whether it be finance or monetary
policies, law enforcement or even anti-terrorism
and general governance. Internet is a phenomenon
that even rulers depend on. Thus, in light of such
circumstances, it becomes important that people
understand what internet really is and how it has evolved
to become such a widely understood as well as a
misunderstood concept. As starters, we first describe
internet’s beginnings starting from the 1950s
when computing itself was a rarely heard concept and
most ‘computers’ existed only in laboratories and
government research. After becoming widely
popular in the academic and political circles,
internet started becoming popular in military affairs
and several western military organisations
started adopting it. Internet was never really
known as ‘internet’ as it's known now, but through
special denotations. Lastly, internet started becoming more
accessible to the general public as computing itself was made available for
the local masses and people in general. Starting from 1980s, a new
technology was being allowed to the public under certain
licenses and regulations. Although during this time, internet
was still out of reach for most because of its unimaginable price
tag, starting from the 1990s, the revolution in internet
technology an availability took place that left a
legacy we see now today. The Beginnings As simple and straightforward it may seem, internet actually has one of the most
complex launches with its history of evolution being filled with
technological advancements and inventions not easy for the layman to
comprehend too quickly. What started out as a draft
paper to connect several computers in a workplace
only got bigger and bigger, so much so that the whole world-wide-web can
now be imagined as a single workstation with millions and billions of computers
loosely connected to each other. In fact, we might as well
raise an uncanny analogy here when the internet
was just being invented. Many of you might actually
be aware of several animated cartoons that showed
futuristic infrastructure. Cartoons like The
Flintstones or even Richie Rich that originated
during the 1960s. Several episodes of these popular TV programs
showed people connecting to each other, talking and observing on a display screen
and chatting with another character. Might have seemed very out of
place but several technocrats and inventors of those times predicted
that there actually will come a time when people will connect
directly through electronic devices and do
lots of stuff with them. One of these individuals was
the late Dr J.C.R Licklider. The very first beginnings of our
modern internet can be traced back to the 1960s when he was the head of
computer research program at MIT. Several research papers by notable
scientists and technicians suggested new technologies in
computing and interconnectivity. These ideas were primarily based on existing
inventions like the telephone and the much earlier telegram services, which was the
‘electronic’ mail service of the 19th century. Since a lot of stuff was
going on in the world of science just after
the great war ended, the community that filled it
wanted innovative methods by which they could connect and communicate
instantly as and when required. In light of this, one of the first
known internet services was the DARPA, designed and implemented in 1962 upon
the recommendations suggested by J.C.R Licklider himself, in his paper
‘On-Line Man-Computer Communication’, published in the same year. Dr Licklider also published
several books on the same topic. Licklider was the first head
of the computer research program at DARPA that started
in the October of 1962. The innovative concept and the pace through
which DARPA functioned as one of the first known networks resulted in his program
receiving much acclamation and popularity and perhaps laid the foundation
stone for the next four decades where the internet would become
the latest wonder of technology. Dr Licklider had several
colleagues and fellow technicians and innovators
working alongside him. DARPA was primarily meant to connect
all its staff through a network but Licklider took one step
forward by developing it further. One of these individuals who filled up
the DARPA staff was Leonard Kleinrock of MIT and he published his first paper
on packet switching in July of 1961. This was another major step forward
for the evolution of the internet and perhaps one of the first known documents
to explain packet networking, which is still the primary mode
of internet transmission today. Kleinrock would also go on publishing books
on networking related topics, one of them becoming a popular read among researchers
and inventors and released in 1964. This packet switching
concept would soon become an applied reality in
the DARPA program. Packet connectivity was indeed a very
innovative addition to networking but it still needed time and
implementation to actually work. Kleinrock convinced Lawrence
Roberts, another member of the DARPA program to
think on switching to packet connectivity rather
than the traditional circuitry if long range
networking was to exist. Roberts agreed to the concept. Another need of the hour was the
requirement of ‘talking’ between two computers, borrowed from the
concept that made telephones work. For this, in 1965, Roberts
connected two computers, the TX-32 and the Q-32 in California
with a single telephone line and made history by developing the first ever
dial-up connected wide area network. The experiment became a success and Roberts
was able to ‘talk’ between these computers. However, the realization that
two computers could connect to each other and work in coordination
was in direct conflict with the circuit method owing
to circuits’ inability to process millions of data
in a matter of seconds. The traditional circuit method
was thus totally incapable of allowing two or more computers
to fully connect to each other and it also stood as a total
hindrance towards further development of networking
and DARPA in general. On the other hand, packets allowed for swift
movement of data and made it possible for computers to smoothly transmit
communication without much loss and noise. Packet switching was also more
desirable considering that circuits were more prone to
industrial hazards like overheating and high maintenance and needed
regular replacement of electronic components like cables and
boards for it function fully. Kleinrock’s suggestion to switch
to packets was really the need of the hour and the next
big step towards networking. DARPA and ARPANET After DARPA’s founder, Dr
Licklider, the next big member of the MIT program was
Lawrence Roberts himself. He would become the pioneer of the
ARPANET, the second stepping stone on the history of internet, and perhaps
one of the biggest stepping stones, given its wide implementation and
several technological advancements added to it starting from late
1960s till the middle of 1980s. In fact, the predecessor of our modern
day world-wide-web was ARPANET itself. In late 1966, Roberts went to develop
DARPA further by making it ‘wider’ and providing it more speed for the members
to connect with more swift and less lag. In 1967, he published his
paper describing the idea behind ARPANET and how
it would be implemented. DARPA was now becoming ARPANET. The latter would also incorporate for the
first time and for its full potential, the packet switching concept
that was the primary need of the hour for successful
and efficient networking. It also so happened that during
a conference that Roberts was attending, where
networking was the hot topic, several other researchers
from notable universities of UK also presented their
versions of networking. Donald Davies and Roger
Scantlebury of the NPL also presented their papers
on packet connectivity. That networking was solely being invented
by Americans was not true at all. One of the members of the NPL communicated
Roberts about the packet connectivity concept that was developed in 1964
independently by the British military. It appeared as a coincident,
but the work at MIT, at NPL and the
RAND group, which was a group headed by Paul
Baran and his colleagues pretty much coincided
in the same timeframe. Roberts was inspired by others too researching
on this ground-breaking concept and borrowed a few of their ideas that were
presented by them during the conference. He would go back and since
full fledged networking was being developed only at
select American universities, much of the credit during this
evolving timeline went to campuses of MIT and later on, the
University of California (UCLA). Roberts tested these
‘packets’ by increasing the speed of ARPANET from a
mere 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps. This small step was successful
prompting Roberts of the importance of packet connectivity
and further developing it (which would lead to such components like the
TCP/IP, first invented in 1980s and still the primary mode of identification through
which computers are assigned IP numbers). Since ARPANET was going through several
developments and refinements, new individuals and technicians started
replacing the existing and the old. Members like Bob Kahn, Frank
Heart and Newman would soon start developing ARPANET in
coordination with Roberts. At MIT, a new component of the
ARPANET was being designed and this was the Interface
Message Processor (IMP). The IMP was first coined by Frank
Heart and Newman and this was now being incorporated in the
overall structure of the ARPANET. Roberts was now working with a lot
of small groups and independent people on further developing
the technical core of ARPANET. Bob Kahn helped him with
designing ARPANET’s new architectural design and
economic efficiency while existing members like Kleinrock took
control over developing the measurement system that according to him would support
the packet concept he devised earlier. In 1969, Kleinrock’s
campus at UCLA was first selected as the Network
Measurement Centre, to be functioned as a node through
which Roberts would connect his computer at MIT and that
of Kleinrock’s system at UCLA. In September of 1969, the
finalisation of ARPANET came into play when
this node in the UCLA campus was made operational and a second node
at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Elizabeth Feinler and
team made it possible for the second node and
funded its establishment. The first ever host computer was
thus connected at the UCLA campus. Several other such institutes followed. A month later after connecting
SRI with Kleinrock’s system, the first host-to-host
message was transmitted. Several other such nodes were
added to the ARPANET network, the third being the campus of UC Santa
Barbara and University of Utah. Professors and researchers in these
last two campuses also added their own small contribution that would
matter big in the coming decades. Glen Culler and Burton Fried of the
UCSB researched methods on displaying mathematical functions by adding
display storages to their systems while Robert Taylor at the
Utah campus investigated methods of refreshing the
net on 3-D representations. At the start of 1970, there
were thus four major universities and their campuses
connected over the ARPANET. The groundwork was complete and the rocket
was now ready to launch from its site. With the four campuses successfully connected
without any errors, it was now fully possible for ARPANET’s founders to transmit
simple email messages and notifications. 1970 onwards, several systems
and computers outside these four campuses were added
in the ARPANET coverage. Work proceeded further
to make ARPANET a fully functional host-to-host
connecting system. In 1970, the Network Working
Group (NWG) working under the guidance of S. Crocker developed
the first ever protocol that would allow computers
to fully communicate and allow individuals to develop
software over ARPANET. This protocol was called the
Network Control Protocol (NCP) and could be considered as the first
complete host-to-host protocol. The project came into full play in 1972
when Lawrence Roberts held a major networking conference at the International
Computer Communication Conference (ICCC). There, he and his team would showcase the
first ever email message and was also the first ever public demonstration of the
networking concept and the potential it held. Roberts simply sent a simple message
through email that was received by one of his team member,
resulting in an instant applause. The first ever email application
included read, forward and send functions and
was an instant success. What would follow in the coming decades
starting from 1972, would be the first era when internet really evolved
from ARPANET to the prototype of the
world-wide-web we know it now. The Birth of Internet The next big player and pioneer of the
ARPANET technology was Bob Kahn himself. Lawrence Roberts and others
remained in the team for much of the 1970s but it was
Kahn who was now designing and developing further the
ARPANET technology that gave way to full fledged wide area
networks as we know them today. In 1972, after the successful
conference was held and for the first time, the
public saw how email worked, Kahn taking with him his knowledge and idea
for further developing the packet system, started to refurbish the whole
technology at its core with new protocols being designed
by him and for the first time, algorithms inserted in
the networking pipeline for ‘automatic
networking’ technology. Since ARPANET was primarily designed for
a select few individuals to connect, most of them belonging to the academia
of select universities of America, Kahn now decided to take this a level
further by reinforcing the existing technology that could allow more
individuals to connect at the same time without any error or
disturbance to the overall flow of packets
and thus the network. But ARPANET still had its
own limitations when it came to connecting
wide area networks. One of these limitations was the existence
of packet loss and uncontrolled noise that resulted in slow connectivity and even no
connectivity at all at some instances. So the next big job was to ask
the question on how to redesign or develop the existing protocols
and hardware technologies that would allow for a smoother
experience and connect people with more ease
and less complications. Kahn thus set himself to work again. Recall that Kahn was also the pioneer
of the packet switch system that forever replaced the circuit system
in the early days of the DARPA. Kahn was now again convinced that
it is only the packet receiving and transmitting mechanisms that
required some major overhauls for the internet to become
simpler and smoother and without the requirement for
major hardware requirements. One of these key areas was to develop what
is known as Open Architecture Networking. Recall that ARPANET and its
predecessor were designed with open contribution
and development in mind. Since these were experimental
developments, technicians and engineers designing his
technology required contribution not just from their teams but anyone who
could contribute his/her part in it. Open Architecture
Networking is still one of the core areas of 21st
century networking. If technicality were to be ignored,
it would be very sufficing to say that internet with its database of
millions and billions of websites, are designed in a customised manner
and there are no rules and set codes to define how things over the
internet need to be developed, except of course security
measures and standards that everybody has to
rely upon and maintain. Kahn in 1972 already had
open-architecture networking in mind and he was probably one of the first
to introduce it to the ARPANET. The key to this architecture
was maintaining an open end-to-end protocol and developing
a packet radio program. The packet radio program was in
existence during the final days of DARPA and Kahn only developed
and advocated it further. This system required new protocols that
could allow packets to transmit easily and smoothly between two computers and allow
users to have a smooth internet experience. Back then, this was
also initially called ‘internetting’ because
of the concept that the network was like a spider’s
net, with each node connected to a host
computer for transmission. As the radio program developed,
new protocols were designed as well that were to function with
the refurbished radio systems. The Network Control protocol
(NCP) which was earlier used by all the members and all
the four nodes of ARPANET, was incapable of smooth transmission
of these packets and had no algorithms to deal with the noise and disturbance
caused in its packet flow. After several tests and experiments,
it was concluded that the NCP needed to be designed further
to allow for more computers than just the ARPANET members for the
internet to actually start existing. Also recall that ARPANET
was not the internet as we know today, but only the
beginning of it, a part of it, since the evolution of internet after
ARPANET involves altogether new technologies and advancements
unrelated to the former technology. Since the purpose of networking
was itself evolving to include a vast community of
academia and technicians, the technology upon which
RPANET functioned was found to be incapable for
further ‘expansion’. Technically, ARPANET required
additions to the protocol system (through which it
communicated among its users), in addition to requiring
additional hardware and systems for the new protocols
to work efficiently. Why the NCP was unable to
transmit vast numbers of packets over wide areas and
long ranges was quite clear. The ARPANET was designed with
a single purpose in mind, and it was designed very robustly
to satisfy that purpose. However, as needs of it grew
and as networking’s purpose also evolved, so did ARPANET’s
demands for an overhaul. The NCP was never really designed to handle
a vast number of packet transmission. And since every node was connected,
the NCP’s job was clear and simple. However, as the concept of networking grew
outside the corridors of ARPANET, its protocols that controlled the transmission
and reception of digital packets started to see terminal
limitations that posed a hindrance to the overall
growth of ARPANET itself. Kahn observed that when a
computer tried connecting to ARPANET that was outside
the preregistered node, the NCP failed to provide
packet transmission and the whole system collapsed for
the connecting computer. In this manner, the ARPANET could
only be functioned for the registered members that were
running ARPANET’s protocol. This was too rigid for everyone to adopt
and thus required some major changes. NCP also lacked the
capability to handle packet errors, that is, anytime
during a minor packet loss, the NCP would collapse altogether
and immediately and the connection to the host computer
would come to a forever halt. The NCP thus had no end-to-end
error control mechanism. To sum up the requirements that were
needed to actually introduce the internet to the world, then could
be done so in the following manner: Redesigning the protocol system
that could handle a larger network of computers and allow for
packet control and efficiency. Devising new hardware and
algorithms that would allow these computers to connect
with the host computer. Making communication with the host computer
not only feasible but efficient and simple. New techniques for
host-to-host flow control and requirements for
network pipelines that would allow multiple
packets to transmit to and from the host
simultaneously and at the same time reducing any
chances of major packet flow errors in this
‘multiple lane’ pipeline. New technologies like gateways
and hardware that would allow to provide an identification
to a connecting computer. These would later become
things like the routers and IP addresses that
everyone uses by default. Introducing new protocols and
replacing existing ones that could govern these newly thought
about ideas and implement it in a manner that would allow the
least control over global networking while still keeping computers
connected at the very best possible. Last but the not the least, the capability
for networking with several other operating systems since at least
during the 1980s, several operating systems were
already coming up. Thus, Kahn was facing major challenges
for developing ARPANET further to include several other computers
used by scientists and innovators who wanted quick access to communication
with the academia community. Because of the nature of the
challenges as well, Kahn also accepted them as part of
developing networking further since ARPANET was definitely
not the end of the story of internet as some
might have once thought. Kahn thus proposed a totally
new protocol that was to be designed from scratch
and this he would call it the Transfer Control Protocol or
Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) that would altogether change how internet services
communicated with each other and worked. However, Kahn had no immediate knowledge
in interfacing and protocol design. He was aware of how NCP worked but designing
a new protocol and incorporating it in ARPANET demanded an all new technique that
required additional knowledge and skill. Accepting this, Kahn set out to call
technicians from leading universities to design new protocols that would
allow for efficient communications regardless of the operating
system a user is operating in. That is, this certain protocol had to
be operating system efficient as well. In 1973, he thus teamed up
with Vint Cerf of Stanford to initiate and think on the newly
arrived topic of TCP/IP. Vint had immense knowledge
of interfacing in several operating systems and skills
to develop new protocols. This knowledge teamed up with
Kahn’s know-how on implementation and architectural design resulted
in a very productive solution. The TCP/IP was finally
at place and was ready to start functioning
with several computers. The initial protocol
allowed for some 256 connections and worked
at 32-bit transfer rate. The TCP/IP was unveiled at another
conference where Cerf was also invited. The International Network Working
Group (INWG) was set up at a conference a Sussex University
in 1973 and Cerf was invited to head this group with
his all new protocol that would power up
ARPANET further. Upon meeting up with several
key players and innovators in the field of networking
design and implementation, the following points emerged
as to how TCP/IP would work and replace the
existing NCP of the ARPANET: TCP/IP would allow for packet
control at the host computer through acknowledgements
and packet flow control. This internet protocol would function
through a series of long streams of bytes. TCP/IP would remain open when deciding
upon the parameters that would allow the protocol windowing, which was required
to control the flow of these packets. TCP/IP would function through a 32-bit
assigned IP address of which the first 8 bits designated the network
while the remaining 24 bits signified the host
computer’s network. These features had a major
motivation behind them. The creators and ARPANET and of
course TCP/IP wanted much more than just sharing small sized
emails and simple voice transfers. Kahn and Cerf intended to
design the new protocol for various new topics that
networking could handle. These included techniques to share files,
folders, accessing the time sharing resources on the ARPANET and further
in time, even bigger tasks like sharing
printers and devices. The very first release of
this new protocol was put to test and it did not include
the IP section to it. Thus, in its initial beginning,
it was only TCP that worked. Kahn and team put the TCP to test
and observed different behaviours and algorithms by which two connected
computers now shared packets. It should be noted however,
that this was only the initial release of TCP and it was tested
out through a virtual circuit. This initial release was good
for file transfers and sharing between two computers but certain
roadblocks still lay open. There was certain amount of packet loss
observed and was concluded that a certain amount of packet loss correction be
left out for the computer to deal with. This led the team to develop its
integrated section – the IP address. This address was to remain
as an ‘identification number’ for the computer to
be connected to the host. This led to a final
reorganisation of the TCP to include the IP address
and thus became TCP/IP. The protocol was innovative
and revolutionary in handling packets from the
host to the node computer. It also incorporated the IP
address now that the problem of certain packet loss by
TCP was now also solved. The problem of packet radio system
seemed to have finally rested. An alternative for those
machines that were either not compatible with TCP or did not
want to use the TCP was the UDP, designed and implemented by Kahn and
team and was not very different from the original TCP in that UDP was more
preferable for ‘physical’ packet check instead of checksums that were being
provided and implemented by TCP/IP. The introduction of the
new packet handling protocol totally changed
the game of networking. Several challenges that lay prior to
TCP/IP were now resolved and perhaps the only thing left for networking
was its efficient commercialisation and further designing and
modification that could suit the requirements of
not just 256 connections but probably thousands
or even more than that as conceived by the
developers of networking. As simple as it might have seemed,
this was no easy job either. The new protocol that
was introduced still functioned for ARPANET’s
registered members, and since those had increased
over the years since the network’s inception, TCP/IP
functioned robustly well. However, how were the designers
planning on introducing and finally releasing this
technology for general purpose? This was still a question that had
its answer only during the 1980s when several technological changes
further led the idea of networking to become an even more ‘loosely
connected’ array of computers, all sharing certain characters and the
contents stored in those computers. The main idea behind networking that
was proposed in the 1960s was now becoming a reality, after consistent
effort laid down by its founders. Finally, in late 1970s, the real
face of networking started to emerge as more and more users started
using it for sending emails, small attachments, files and folders,
send voice communication similar to memos and an idea borrowed from telephony
but implemented in digital format. Thus, the idea of open
architecture networking was now truly making itself emerged
to the rest of the world. However, the story never ended there again. The newly introduced TCP/IP
was operable for a number of operating systems and
machines of those times but how was it to cope up with
time and increasing number of computing machines both
at the workplace and home? With the start of the new
decade, a plethora of operating systems and
business enterprises emerged. Firms like Microsoft and Apple,
among others were now increasingly competing against themselves to
capture computer market share. Each one of those empires needed
networking as one of their core areas of operations and the designers of
ARPANET had to face a new challenge – to make TCP/IP even simpler
and more flexible for it to exist for the several
coming decades to come. Contracts were handed to Stanford,
BBN and UCL California. Headed by Cerf himself, their
task now was different from their purely technical
background and work experience. The task now was whether TCP/IP
required major changes to its design or was it satisfactory enough for
several machines to operate upon it. Several experimentations provided
the conclusion that the ‘final’ release of TCP/IP was still too complex
and big for domestic machines, other than the workstations for which
it was specifically designed for. Cerf and his team thus set out again
to simplify the infrastructure of TCP/IP for upcoming major machines
to become compatible with it. Changes were introduced and were tested out
on machines like the IBM PC and Xerox Alto. New changes were successful
and both computers were able to operate with
TCP/IP with 100% results. The only task left, and which
required much time was how will the new and universally flexible
TCP/IP test the passage of time. This was a question that
required patience and gradual developments to the
protocol’s implementation and algorithm as computing
itself was evolving rapidly. Transition to World Wide Web In its final years of ARPANET,
the designers, both old and new were very excited and proud
on how their simple inception of connecting just a handful of computers
was now becoming a global reality. As if the whole concept had
changed altogether and become an integrated part of human life in
just a matter of years and months. In its early years of transition
to a globalised network, the transition phase could
be divided into two stages – technical transition and implementation
by networking agencies, scientific forums and academic community side-by-side
domestic computers and finally, the full scale commercialisation
of internet that had to have rules and regulations for its proper
functioning and smooth experience. The technical side of TCP/IP’s prior bugs
and hindrances were now fully resolved. Computing itself was evolving on an
unimaginable scale and these machines were not just now limited to university
campuses and academia personnel. Computing in general was undergoing a total
change in its purpose of existence and its overall objective to serve the general
public without any global restriction. The 1980s saw the very first
computer giants emerged. Microsoft and Apple were one of
those and still exist today as the dominant computer hardware and
software catering enterprises. Microsoft, under the guidance
and leadership of Bill Gates were fast becoming a
commercial empire of its own, and with the failure of Apple to
capture subsequent market share owing to its failure of its
revolutionary Macintosh computer, was now also making decisions
to making networking a default, in-built operation
in all of its machines. The emergence of TCP/IP simply
changed the wave of networking. The newly designed protocol was so innovative
that federal agencies and organisations were recommending its implementation
in all of its machines and computers. The once secretive and limited
protocol that was used only by a select individuals
and academic professors had gained global popularity and
computer producers were consulting, holding meetings and conferences with
the original designers of ARPANET and its revolutionary protocol
on how to implement networking as the default option in all
of its operating systems. UNIX was now a very widely
used operating system now and its developers came
up with quick solutions. TCP/IP was now included as the default
networking protocol to connect to anywhere it wanted; the rest
of the world simply followed. Microsoft released its very
first GUI interface and later on, the Windows operating
system that included all aspects of networking
right from networking software preinstalled on
every Windows machines. Apple never lagged behind
and incorporated the default version of TCP/IP
to its Macintosh system. Thus, in a span of just
five years, starting from 1985 till early
1990s, networking became an inbuilt feature of all operating systems
and machines that were fully operating. Thanks to the efforts laid by
its founding fathers, TCP/IP, teamed up with the ever evolving
infrastructure of ARPANET, gave way to our modern day world wide web. Several commercialisation
activities and networking firms started to appear
during the mid 1990s, when the DOS and newly introduced Windows
operating system was the dominant norm. Firms like Cisco, Asus,
Intel and AMD were one of the first computer
hardware start-ups. These were setup to
cater to all of the professional and domestic
computer community and thus came forward with several
hardware innovations and inventions that were to include nearly every
feature in just one motherboard rather setting up several
chipsets to make one computer. Intel and AMD were the first
ones to set up their processor units, and these were to process
TCP/IP calls on a default basis. The rest of the evolution
of the internet was now more of like making
networking a universal truth. Till the late 1990s,
LANs had become a common thing and no longer did
‘small networks’ exist. Network was now undergoing
physical change rather than in its technical infrastructure
or design modification (although those are
things that continuously keep expanding and evolving,
even to this day). Several new technologies
like satellite transmission and fibre cables were defining
networks on new levels. Users for the first time
witnessed increase in speeds up to ten times with the
introduction of satellite imagery and communication with fibre cables
providing speeds into megabytes per second rather than the
traditional kilobytes per second. Dial-ups that used to be the norm
in the 1990s were fast getting replaced by satellite connections
and hi-speed fibre connections. At the start of the new millennium,
internet had become a necessity. The world revolved with
the help of the internet. What started as a small, rudimentary
network of a handful of computers at an American institute
now was a global phenomenon, a medium through which the whole
world connected and communicated. Anybody who would never use it would
simply get disconnected from it. Internet has thus been the
most innovative and ground breaking medium of communication
in the history of mankind. It replaced telephony and telegram that
were the primary modes of communication for most of the decades even during
the time when internet was nascent. It is thus one of the most important
inventions in the history of mankind. You must have understood the importance
of internet and the impact it has had on normal lives of normal human beings and how
it has grown to be the thing we see today. And this is not the end of the story. Internet still evolves
and will keep evolving just like technology
has been for the past five millennia when
humans first started designing handcrafted
machines and simple tools. Like the nut-cracking stone that
first required sharpening and which ultimately led to its evolved
variants in the coming millennia, internet evolved just like every other tool
has done for the past thousands of years. New technologies and techniques
are being added every day before our very eyes as internet becomes
even bigger and more organised. Techniques like HTML, CSS and
Flash are just some of the most commonly taught subjects at technical
institutes and software design. Internet is the result
of complex computing and the technological evolution
we’ve reached so far. It is unlike telephony or
telegram simply because those never required computing or
even a computer to operate. With that in mind, internet will
forever keep evolving and will never halt ceasing if computing
itself has to remain relevant. With every new addition to
the world of internet, new challenges are recognised and
new results are dug out. We now have technologies
that were once thought to be purely imaginary and even
plain philosophical by many. A lot of these ‘prophecies’ turned out
to be true in the following decades. In fact, modern day networking has resulted
in a whole new concept of nomadic computing where an individual simply
does not require a physical connection to a router to
connect to the internet; rather that happens with technologies
like Wi-Fi or even Bluetooth. In the end however, as internet
still keep on evolving, the question will remain as to
how people will manage this gigantic invention that has
changed everything around them, rather than how it would evolve further.

92 Historical Photos of 19th Century Ending (Between 1896-1900)



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92 Historical Photos of 19th Century Ending (Between 1896-1900) | Support –
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**** The content of this videos is intend for educational purpose. Content Credit – All Right Reserve to Original Content Holder.

[ REACTION ] Jim Henson vs Stan Lee Epic Rap Battles of History & ERB Behind The Scenes



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#JimHensonVsStanLee
#EpicRapBattlesOfHistory

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what's good Tim shieff and Michel boy L I'm back with another reaction video man how y'all feel welcome back to the channel and get right let me get right listen we back with another but bottles I'm pressed right listen we back man and we got Jim Henson versus Stan Lee we got the creator of the muffets versus the comic book creator probably one of the greatest comic book creators of all time man by the square off and go at each other in the rap battle man are y'all ready for this i'm hype for it so real quick before we get into this battle that I'm salivating over listen if you new city China please take the time and go ahead and hit the subscribe button man let's get the lights up give your boy a light man shoutouts to y'all for that give me the life all right you see the social media links up there in the corner please get your boy and follow alright with that being said let's get to the battle man I'm height ready bottles up s tray let's go word washer yeah see he had all the condoms behind them right yeah look all the comics and anything back there behind [Applause] with a secret identity of a super EXTREME super he's doing that with the muppet like I can't wait to yard and know we gonna get to be behind the scenes right after that so make sure y'all stay – but I want to see how he liked his voice how is he doing everything like that leg I already know this was pre-recorded – what I'm saying like his voice that he's using it is definitely dope and brings an extra you know what I'm saying – his verse so this is pretty blow he did his own thing and now you've made it clobberin time you taught children to count then smell then you tie your own kids out of your white doing a research man maybe doing the research to give blows down dead smell and you tie your own kids how to drop your white powder then you slap that ass then I'm telling you ensign you wouldn't like me when I'm angry mmm I love a body boomba turtleneck like a Doozer stick and put you out to pasture like mr. Hooper I'm sorry Jim sometimes I can't control my rage honestly there's a lot of things you can't control it my age ya just gotta let it flow or you get old I guess I don't know we got something to look forward to they say I miss you you were gone DUSU you were like watching a beautiful sunset between us we're two mine's the same time there is no man with what we left behind I shoulda known it was leading into somebody else the way they were saying it setting it up doing the building up in anything oh now you want to talk about somebody who has an empire he'll probably controls everything but you know Disney hands in everything bro let's not even talk about tell get back to work ah yeah I was probably leaning towards Jim Henson but uh Disney coming in right now I'm just taking over Mardis with only three holiday oh hey not only is he stunting on him I burned man a little ways they starting like my daddy he's stuntin like my daddy right now just that like Big Daddy like they daddy look he said with only three one circles I dominate the planet I mean can you argue with him you know he came in like Floyd Mayweather you know how flowy like the stunt he came in life Floyd how long do we got more with it oh no it's just another two minutes of bed but I like blowing sterno you know how flowy like money Mayweather like the skillet you know he came in just like that and told him to get back to work I'm ready to see behind the scenes how about y'all y'all ready to get to it let's do it man that was that was a dope battle [Applause] you recorded Jim Henson over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over and over again Wow all those pieces are a different take and there's that set of takes and then this set of takes it happens because I'm not trying to sound like me and like get a performance I'm trying to sound like somebody else I get a performance out of them or sometimes you'll nail it rhythmically or musically but it's like that was some other dude snuck in there it doesn't even have to be the exact impression of the domain do I do i dude who isn't that performance bro so that had to take a lot you could go on a senior cruise oh yeah I'm gonna senior cruise like cruise right up to the ladies and be like let's pull this ship at a point you know [Applause] so puppets I had to learn how to at least fake my way through it I just don't think Jim ensign would show up to a battle without Kermit you know for a few weeks the studio was just full puppets I wanted to have that sort of thing around me while we were writing it and while I was trying to figure out how would you Manson rap so I just surrounded myself with puppets I figured that was a decent place to start he definitely had a lot of puppets one time when I was young man do what a door television salesman came to the house we buried him in the we thought it would be cool for Stanley to use Jim Henson's strength against him a little bit so we found a puppeteer in Los Angeles his name is Jess McKay and he made this awesome Stanley puppet it was also a little bit of a tip of the hat to Stanley because Stanley always makes cameos in his Marvel movies children to count and smell and you tie your own kids how to drop your wife hotter than you you just call me checking out epic Lloyd's new website which was designed using Squarespace and Squarespace helps millions of people build their own professional-looking websites including epiclloyd himself hello dude I thought you were gonna come onto the ship why would I come out of the shadows so we could tell people Squarespace which has intuitive and easy to use tools that let you design professional looking websites regardless of your skill level yeah but we already told them that in the last two video did we tell them that they have state of the art technology and make sure the website is secure yep did we tell them they're trusted by millions of people and some of the most respected brands in the world yeah we told them all that well did we tell them that they should go to the squarespace.com slash ARB and start a free trial today with no credit card required and receive 10% off the first purchase yep you should just go do that didn't treat the Muppets like they were living things when they weren't being used you know put them in boxes and stuff so in keeping with a house trying to treat this casually this Kermit puppet and I couldn't I get like Agron you sitting uncomfortably I'd be like oh it looks uncomfortable you go fix it but apparently is not it was not treated Jim Henson Jim Henson died in 1990 and I think I was in eighth grade and I remember really clearly that he was the first person from TV or movies or Hollywood or celebrity when he died that like really broke my heart we felt like that had to be touched upon in the song because I feel like a whole generation of kids felt the same way he'll be sadder than positive right on top of it getting a little teary at some of this most most yeah he nailed that part with Kermit on his butt yeah he nailed that where that ball was fired to be though the internet thought that you died 12 years ago so we wanted to make a shot to show just the vastness of all the things that Disney makes we spent a whole day just filming Mary in different wigs different costumes what we wanted to do is make it look like an old-timey you know wah Walt Disney was alive animation studio is this kind of a bird's-eye view of what all the layers of video are and this is the camera moving through it so you get this oh that goes on forever feeling and that's the basic idea so I just took a nap in the makeup chair and I woke up in my hair straight this is great no I want this all the time Wow oh this is where everything's been going wrong all the years by you four billion so you can play around right well history support by man they got a seems like a close-knit staff of people that they work with man that that makes everything probably flows so effortlessly man so they they got that whole setup man salute to them they continue to put out that great content that we know and love man this was fiery I could have me the conversation let me know what y'all think make sure you leave your boy a like man let's get the lights up and stick around and stay tuned until the next reaction video I'm out peace y'all stay solid hey what we do here just go back back back

Women in History Documentary



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History can hardly be complete without talking about the role women played in forming the history of the world. They changed societies and beliefs, being the reason why empires toppled and rose to glory.

Björk – Nature is Ancient



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From “Greatest Hits: Volumen” comes Bjork’s beautiful ‘Nature is Ancient’

‘Nature is Ancient’ was created in conjunction with directing trio Lynn Fox
and features intricate Adam and Eve creatures living in a fluid environment alive with microscopic life clinging on to stalks in the dark atmosphere. Both characters are made up of many translucent layers, skins and jelly-like membranes with the the internal organs still faintly visible inside. The promotion portrays the reproduction of life with the Adam character navigating the black abyss to impregnate Eve, culminating in the growth of a human foetus inside Eve. The whole scene is like looking through a microscope at life as it forms.

Historical Warfare: The Mycenaean Warrior



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The Mycenaean warrior

The Mycenaeans were an Ancient Greek Civilizations during the time of the Bronze Age. Being made up of several kingdoms, the most prominent being Mycenae, the Mycenaeans invest heavily into warfare, and as a result would later inspire the military traditions of the Classical Era Ancient Greece, as well as the epic poems of Homer.

In terms of armour, the most notable example of Mycenaean armour would be the dendra panoply. This armour consisted of a cuirass made up of several layers of bronze. This armour was flexible enough to be comfortable when fighting on foot and provided good protection. Various other types of armour included shoulder guards and additional plates protecting the upper arms. Eventually, scale armour came into use in the later Mycenaean period.

The most common type of helmet worn by the Mycenaeans was a conical one reinforced with rows of boar tusks. This helmet was widely used and was present from the beginning to the collapse of the Mycenaean culture. The helmet was made up of a felt-lined leather cap, with several rows of boar tusks sewn onto it. Bronze helmets were also used, with some having large cheek guards. The cheek guards and the helmets lower edge often had padding to make the helmet both more comfortable and to also help absorb blows from enemy weapons.

An early Mycenaean warrior would utilize a tower shield, which was a large shield that covered almost the entire body. However, as bronze armour became introduced, this shield was less utilized, however, did not completely go out of use. The so-called “figure-of-eight” shields became the most common type of Mycenaean shields. These shields were made of several layers of bull hide and in some cases were reinforced with bronze plates. Later on, smaller, circular shields/almost circular with a cutout part from their low edge were adopted. These shields were again made up of several layers of leather, with a bronze boss and reinforcements, and occasionally were made entirely of bronze.

In terms of weaponry, Spears was the most used. These were initially long, more than 3m and possibly used with both hands. During later Mycenaean times, shorter versions were adopted to accompany the smaller types of shields. These short spears may have been used for both thrusting and throwing.

From the 16ths century BC, swords with rounded tips appeared, having a grip which was an extension of the blade. These swords were 130 cms long. Another type of sword was a single-edged sword made from a solid piece of bronze. This sword was shorter and was probably used for close-quarters combat. These swords were progressively modified with stronger grips and shorter blades.

Sources:

Cartwright, M. and Cartwright, M. (2018). Trojan War. [online] Ancient History Encyclopedia. Available at: [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018].

En.wikipedia.org. (2018). Military of Mycenaean Greece. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018].

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2018). Ajax | Myth, Significance, & Trojan War. [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018].

Ancient Greece, Trojan War, Achilles, Ajax the Greater, Hector, Troy, Paris, Agamemnon, Helen of Troy, Troy (movie), Homer, Iliad, Mycenaean, Mycenaean Warrior, Bronze Age, Bronze Age Collapse, History Animated, Historical Warfare, Animated History of, Ancient History Guy, Ancient History,

#AncientGreece #TheMycenaeanWarrior #AncientHistoryGuy

the Mycenaean warrior Mycenaeans were an
ancient Greek civilization during the time of the Bronze Age being made up of
several kingdoms most prominent being Mycenae the Mycenaeans invested heavily
into warfare and as a result would go on to inspire the military traditions of
classical era ancient Greece as well as the epic poems of Homer in terms of
armor the most notable example Mycenaean armor
would be the Dendera panoply this armor consisted of a cuirass made up of
several layers of bronze this armour is also flexible enough to be comfortable
when fighting on foot and provided good protection various other types of armor
including shoulder guards and additional plate protecting the upper arms existed
eventually scale armor came into use in the later Mycenaean period the most
common type of helmet worn by the Mycenaeans was a conical one reinforced
by of rows of boar tusks this helmet was widely used and was present from the
beginning to the collapse of the Mycenaean culture the helmet was made up
of a felt lined lever cap with several rows of boar tusks sewn into it bronze
helmets were also used with some having large cheek guards the cheek guards and
helmets lower edges were often padded to make the helmet more comfortable and to
help absorb blows from enemy weapons an early Mycenaean warrior would utilize a
tower shield which was a large shield that covered almost the entire body
however as the bronze armor became introduced this shield was less utilized
however did not go completely out of use the so called figure-of-eight shields
became the most common type of Mycenaean shields these shields were made up a several
layers of bull hide and in some cases with reinforced bronze plates later on
smaller circular shields saw almost circular with a cut out part from the
lower were adopted in terms of weaponry spears
were the most used these were initially long more than three meters and probably
used with both hands during later Mycenaean times shorter that versions
were adopted to accompany the smaller types of shields these short Spears may
have been used for both thrusting and throwing from the 16th century BC
onwards sort of rounded tips appeared having a grip with an extension of the
blade these swords were 130 centimeters long another type of sword was a single
edged sword made from a solid piece of bronze this sword was shorter and was
probably used for close quarters combat these swords were progressively modified
with stronger grips and shorter blades thank you for watching and listening be
sure to comment down below what types of historical warfare you would like to see
next be sure to LIKE comment and subscribe
I've been ancient history guy and as always I'll b.cing you later you

Weszliśmy do Białoruskiej Strefy Wykluczenia cz.1 – Urbex History



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⭐️Pierwszy film z serii po Białoruskiej Strefie Wykluczenia, dopiero od 2019 roku można tam wjechać i eksplorować⭐️
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🎬 Powstało wiele filmów, publikacji i seriali o Czarnobylu. Sami zresztą pięć lat temu nagraliśmy serię materiałów ze strefy. Wszystko to co znamy i widzieliśmy znajduje się po ukraińskiej stronie Zony ale zapomina się o jednym ważnym szczególe. To na białoruską strefę spadło najwięcej radioaktywnego opadu, powodując skażenie ¼ terytorium kraju. Dlatego w tej serii pięciu filmów jako jedni z pierwszych w historii zajmiemy się białoruską strefą wykluczenia.

W zonie spędzimy 3 pełne dni, eksplorując opuszczone miasta, wioski, kołchozy, porzucone maszyny rolnicze i statki na terenie radiacyjnego rezerwatu. Przejdziemy prawie 400 kilometrów po skażonym terenie znajdując liczne ostrzeżenia przed radiacją i pokonamy niezliczoną ilość razy punkty kontroli dozymetrycznej. Swoją podróż zaczynamy w hotelu na granicy strefy w miejscowości Chojniki znajdującej się pod okresową kontrolą dozymetryczną.

26 kwietnia 1986 roku po awarii reaktora w czwartym bloku czarnobylskiej elektrowni atomowej zapada decyzja wydana przez władze radzieckie o wytyczeniu 30 kilometrowej ochronnej strefy zamkniętej wokół elektrowni atomowej. Dwa lata później w lipcu na mocy Komunistycznej Partii Białorusi oraz Rady Ministrów, na terenie 849 km2 skażonej strefy powstaje Poleski Państwowy Rezerwat Radiacyjno – Ekologiczny. Na podstawie późniejszych badań promieniowania, obszar rezerwatu zostaje powiększony do 2166 km2.

96 miejscowości zamieszkanych przez 22 tysiące osób zostaje wysiedlonych krótko po awarii a przez najbliższe 32 lata nikt oprócz pracowników nie ma wstępu na skażone terytorium. Jedynym wyjątkiem jest święto Radunicy, kiedy to wysiedleńcy mogą odwiedzić cmentarze. Sytuacja zmieniła się dopiero w ostatnim roku, kiedy to obecny prezydent Białorusi udostępnił strefę dla zwiedzających, oczywiście po uzyskaniu odpowiednich zezwoleń.

Powstanie Poleskiego Państwowego Rezerwatu Radiacyjno-Ekologiczne ma na celu obserwowanie jak przyroda radzi sobie ze skarżeniem a następnie prowadzenie licznych badań na tym unikalnym biotopie. Znaczną część terenu zapowiednika bo i tak określa się tę strefę pokrywają lasy.
Dzisiejszy odcinek był pierwszym z serii pięciu filmów z podróży po skażonej białoruskiej strefie wykluczenia. Jeżeli nie chcesz przegapić kolejnych odcinków zasubskrybuj nasz kanał i kliknij w dzwoneczek. Do zobaczenia na kolejnej wyprawie.🎬

Co to #Urbex i czym jest Urbex i UrbexHistory ? Jesteśmy grupą eksploratorów z pasją do #historia. Zwiedzamy i filmujemy #opuszczonemiejsca, często tajne lub niedostępne dla wszystkich. W każdym z naszych materiałów o Urbex jest motyw historyczny, co nas wyróżnia na tle innych ekip. Zwiedziliśmy już wiele miejsc w Polsce jak chociażby Tajne radzieckie miasto w Polsce – Pstrąże – , ale też i poza granicami naszego kraju np. Czarnobyl, Radioaktywną Zone i Prypeć. Udało się tez w styczniu 2019 roku wylecieć do Japonii i nagrać 10 odcinków z Fukushimy !

Do zobaczenia na następnej wyprawie !

A lot of films, publications and series have been made about Chernobyl five years ago, we also recorded a series of films about Chernobyl all the best known places are located in the Ukrainian Zone But everyone forgets about one, the most radioactive dust has fallen on the Belarusian zone causing contamination of 1/4 of the country that's why in this series of films, we will take care of Belarus's Exclusion zone as a primer in history we spent three full days in Zone We will explore abandoned farm machines, villages, cities and ships We will travel almost four hundred kilometers from the contaminated area, finding numerous warnings against radiation we will overcome the dosimetry checkpoint several times We start our journey on the border of the zone, in the town "Chojniki" this place is under periodic dosimetry control behind us is a hotel where we will sleep for the next three days, and we are in the village of "Chojniki" All this is on the border of the Belarusian Exclusion Zone to which we will go in a moment but let's go first for breakfast The Belarusian Exclusion Zone is divided into 5 zones we will discuss them later We are currently in the batch area of dosimetry control food and water are tested here you are probably interested about level of radiation At the moment, there is 0.15 microsievert, the same as in Warsaw in today's episode we will travel such a vehicle it is UAZ 452, commonly known as Puchanka the most important, however, is this sticker it is the emblem of the Poleski Park of Radiation and Ecology Roe deer, fish and stamp during our stay in the zone we will have a dosimeter turned on all the time at the very end we will check what dose of radiation we have actually taken we will sleep with him and eat but we calculate the total radiation dose We slowly set off towards the "Babczyn" checkpoint this is one of several entries to Zone but how was the reserve established on the contaminated area? April 26, 1986 after a failure at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant Soviet authorities decide to set a thirty-kilometer long protection zone two years later, under the resolution of the Belarus Party and the Council of Ministers, the Poleski Radiation National Park is established in later years, the reserve area was increased to 2666 square kilometers 96 cities inhabited by 22 thousand people are displaced shortly after the accident For the next 32 years, no one but employees have access to contaminated territory the only exception is the "Radunica" festival during which the displaced people visit cemeteries The situation changed a year ago when the President of Belarus made the reserve available to visitors of course, after obtaining the appropriate permits, and we reach the checkpoint Checkpoint "Babczyn" there is a museum in this hut, but look here In 1986, 728 people lived here, and after the accident the entire village was displaced I can not read Cyrillic, I've read it on the internet before on the next array of radiation dose, measured daily lower radiation on the dosimeter, it results from the fact that it is the average of the entire zone and we are counting the counter-exact place where we are here a valuable remark, someone did not know that from his house they would make a checkpoint It looks like an ordinary Polish village, a gentleman rides a bike, someone drives a tractor – nothing terrible we are on the border, later it will be different what you see will be one of the first videos on this subject on Polish YouTube and we will discover things that no one has seen before it's hard to get ready for a place with very little information after checking permits and signing up for a checklist it turned out that we are one of the first 500 people who got permission to enter the zone This confirmed us in the belief that the Belarusian zone is virgin and right not recognized at all on the internet there are just a few information about the reservation it's hard to get ready for such a trip moving more and more deep into the zone and passing vehicles helping in the fight against fires we have reached the first point of our exploration, which is the animal feed factory this is the first point adequate to what we will do someone's dosimeter going crazy 0,47 microsievert -all normal On the Ukrainian part of the zone, the radiation is spot on in this part, elevated background radiation is normal Animal feed was produced on this farm and flour, if I associate it well with such devices, you can pour flour Nothing here I am surprised I do not know what to call it, but at the top there was grain or fodder here was probably the ramp to which the truck was approaching and collected all the feed there was a stalker here because a screw lies if there are fanatics of "Stalker" here, you should associate this place, and somewhere here was one of the artifacts I wonder why all this is so bad condition, since there are no looters here it can be said that this reserve is under protection at all times all the time patrols of militia appear here, who make sure there are no poachers or vandals here all machines remain which is a very good sign some of them were deported during the evacuation the question is whether it is destroyed by the passage of time or by human activity I do not know if it can be seen on the camera, but the rust has done its job this piece rusted and slipped so it's more a matter of time passing Look how tall this elevator is here is a truss that you can not see but you have to trust me I will start the lamp in the next place some engine I went around and it was enough to go this way after the accident in Chernobyl, 23% of the areas were contaminated 1/4 of Belarus was contaminated by this failure it is a country that suffered the most Unfortunately, not many people know about it and say it 0,42 microsievert in the air let's put dosimeter into the ground the result has not changed if any of you had the idea to eat such a mushroom or an apple nearby because the worst thing can be is the absorption of radioactive elements but the mere stay is ok, 0.46 microsievert and soon mutant mosquitoes will eat me since the entire region was agricultural, it's great to start with the place that affected it the reserve area has been divided into five zones, and we just cross the most famous thirty-kilometer even before the failure, the reserve area was filled mainly with collective farms and arable lands in some places cattle were bred, therefore the next point is the abandoned village "Kazuszki" our guides are in this zone for the third time our guide is here for the third time what we discover, you certainly have not seen it anywhere else let's break up, but let's keep in touch with the radio Konrad went in the middle Łukasz went that way and I'm going in that direction because there are supposedly farm machines Do not associate the Kolchoz with something terrible, they were organized farms they also dealt with cattle grazing, and my dosimeter stirred a little However, no next to me are old destroyed machines machines or crops collected by these machines were kept in this building this place is quite specific this place is undiscovered and is a completely different experience we are on the so-called wild east this place really is wild and has not been visited for many many years I have another association with the computer game, this time with Fallout earlier I told you about the stalker, but I will add one more thing in the Ukrainian part of the wife visiting her illegally is not popular, but people do it whereas nobody here does this because here you face very high punishments in addition to the legal approximation of 2000 euros in mandate as to the legal consequences it is difficult to give me specific examples the deplorable with the ban on admission to Belarus seems to be the mildest punishment I know that a different scale and completely different disasters but this place reminds me of something specifically, Ukedo in Fukushima, more or less the same hangars in a similar state of decay at least this one here here they had to keep their fodder or fertilizers, judging by the shape of the room let's get inside Look at the old eternit boards old military-like chests in a technical channel let's see what's on the other side remember that there are few people here so we can find such artifacts from the past looks like prehistoric Pepsi jars on the floor, leaking roof and silence.. here is the checkpoint, the reactor is below and we are somewhere here here is the intersection, the river prypte and the marked points I know you can not see much here the vials lie everywhere this one is even filled with something here is another one here are ampoules with different ingredients in the middle there is a lot of this here, I will check one thing out of curiosity note that the radiation level in the building is lower than outside 0.46 microsievert decreased to 0.19 Cattle are grazed here, pastures are next to you some old artifact here is so much dust that it certainly lies for 30 years I managed to find a notebook with old notes a small thing, and enjoys I suspect that these are prescriptions and veterinary records in a sense, we set the path for future tourists visiting this place going to the Ukrainian part of the zone we could see everything on google maps, as if we lived there at this point in the internet you will not find the place where we are from 2019, you can enter here typically tourist another dream fulfilled if you want to see the films from the Chernobyl, they are displayed at the top and in a moment films from Fukushima will be screened establishment of the Poleski State Radiological and Ecological Reserve aimed to observe how nature deals with contamination additionally, research is carried out on a unique biotope a large part of this area is covered by forests the largest enemy of the reserve is not radiation, but forest fires several towers with cameras at the top were erected to monitor the site they enable quick response to fires and tracking potential stalkers but there are also those that are devoid of cameras from which apparently you can see side number 4 and its new sarcophagus wood from KGB nice it's just great fun where is reactor? there it is it is and it can be seen very well -I do not see "Duga" -to the left of the reactor (picture from Adam Bojanowski) It's at ten o'clock just wonderfull view.. man enjoys such a moments… I did not expect that I would see a reactor in the Belarusian zone the whole zone is in four regions (someone noticed that we have other shirts?) We drove through the Chojnice area, we are currently in the Brachnicki area and we are going to school and the place is called Wygrybnaje Sloboda Look at the old gas masks here must have been a technical workshop Look at these sizes, these are masks for children in the end, we're at school -here are the absorbents, filters and these masks are quite a lot -I found a lot of absorbers yesterday they can lie in one of the chests there are changing rooms here "We were here, not them" it's from school times or modern times mathematic… physics sooner it is certainly physics -we checked the school and administrative building so we have to go… -we're going further into the city yeah we're going to the city 🙂 relaxed atmosphere, we go sightseeing the villages You can go anywhere, no one controls it we are visiting one of Belarusian single-family houses there were a lot of ampoules with medicines and jars At this point, I greet all who have threatened me before going to the Belarusian zone that mutants will kill me, radiation will get thyroid cancer and that too much radiation I'm in the middle of an abandoned house in the middle of the zone where the most radioactive dust fell after the reactor's failure Dosimeter shows 0.18 microsievert, which is exactly the same as in my home in Warsaw, during reading coments ad YouTube I raised the post card from the floor for the new year There are a lot of such letters here, and all are addressed to one person I took photos and translate them later newspaper from 1986 a memorable year May 26, 1986 It is a pity that this picture is so poorly legible a wash mark at the place where the decontamination was carried out on the bank of the pripyat (Russian) 26 may 1986 look at this washing up radioactive materials very nice find interesting.. such ships sailed along the Pripyat river you can still find one of them on the Baltic sea -dool without head -tell me about your nightmare hug meee and here your soul lands like this doll will get you through the night all the souls of bad people end up here (Konrad Try to speak russian) Greek mythology in total, you can disassemble the pictures The first day in the Belarusian exclusion zone came to an end but it was not the end of our journey yet every vehicle leaving the zone must undergo mandatory dosimetry control in order to have an overview of the results, we asked for additional control before entering only one number appeared on the display – 0 However, look at the indications at the exit I will try to break the record -0,8 -3.6 roentgen 😀 -0,9 microsievert -hands to wash? 🙂 -Łukasz and I had more -but I am right-handed one hand cleaner than the other (in Russian) -1,09 everything fine I have to wash my right hand only this dosimeter is always carried with him dosimeter constantly measures the dose that our guide consumed in the zone today's trip is best compared to other contaminated zones in which we were The Ukrainian part of the zone was drawn as if from the bottom of the bottle tourists are allowed in and dismantled the roof of the power plant under a new sarcophagus despite the fact that the state has plans to adapt the zone, they will rather never enter into force Fukushima, on the other hand, is focused on decontamination and an attempt to give people what was theirs With huge effort of work and finances, areas are cleared to reside in them again The Belarusian exclusion zone has become the only reserve of its kind in the world in the reserve, the influence of radiation on nature is examined, and I observe how nature receives what is its own after the evacuation of people, many species previously considered extinct returned to the reserve each zone is different, but they have one thing in common – radiation You are wondering what dose of radiation we have been taking We have absorbed 2 thousandths of millisiveria more than in our home the first episode was the first of a series of five films in the Belarusian exclusion zone if you do not want to miss more movies, subscribe to our channel and click on the bell See You on the next exploration! 🙂

The Space Shuttle's Last Flight (Atlantis) | History Documentary | Reel Truth History



Views:26165|Rating:4.60|View Time:1:11:22Minutes|Likes:268|Dislikes:23
As Atlantis completes its 135th and final mission, this definitive documentary charts the rise and fall of the most ambitious space programme ever undertaken, the space shuttle. For the past three decades since it first launch in 1981, the shuttle has become an iconic symbol of America’s technological dominance while at the same time rewriting the rules of space travel. Here is reusable vehicle that could lift off like a rocket, carry people and cargo into Earth’s orbit, then land on a runway like a plane and do it time after time. But two disasters, in 1986 and 2003, and the tragic loss of 14 astronauts shocked the World, and signalled the end of the programme, and the end of an era. However, its legacy has been extraordinary. In 30 years of service, the shuttle has flown more miles, completed more missions and put more men and women in orbit than any other spacecraft in history. It has transformed our understanding of the universe, aided technological advancement, and enabled us to study the environmental consequences we have had on our planet. After this July, when the shuttle takes its last flight, the USA will no longer be able to put a man in space for the first time in over half a century.

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Welcome to Reel Truth History, the home of gripping and powerful documentaries. Here you can watch both full length documentaries and series that explore some of the most comprehensive pieces of world history.

Dogo Onsen | Ancient Bath House Secrets Revealed ★ ONLY in JAPAN



Views:439350|Rating:4.94|View Time:13:20Minutes|Likes:7463|Dislikes:89
Don’t be frightened! In Japan, bath houses are everywhere, but none are as mystical as Dogo Onsen. Sure, it’s a place where you get naked with a bunch of strangers to clean yourself and relax in therapeutic waters, but what makes this public onsen special is that it’s also open to everyone including those with tattoos, a rarity in Japan. You can’t stay the night here, but you can take in the magical environment that places you in what seems like a totally different world.

Dogo Onsen is famous for not only being Japan’s oldest onsen (3,000 years) but for it’s special rejuvenating waters that heal the body and make you young again.
The myth of the onsen’s origins comes from a white heron or egret who was injured. It bathed in the waters at this spot every day until healthy enough to fly away.
You’ll find a lot of people in the 80s, 90s and even 100 years old bathing to stay healthy and fix health problems. After 15 minutes in the waters, you may feel the power too!

The main building called the HONKAN was built in the 19th century. It also houses a special bathing area for the Imperial family on the east side called the YUSHINDEN. The Emperor hasn’t visited since 1950, but when he does come again, the staff said they’ll be ready just like they’re ready for every person who wants a bath in all of their luxurious tubs.

Dogo Onsen’s Baths:
Lower Floor
KAMI NO YU
The woman’s Kami no Yu is quite large with a fountain in the middle. The men’s has two smaller baths of equal size.
2nd Floor
TAMA NO YU
A VIP bath the used to be for the imperial family and their attendants. Requires a special ticket. Less crowded and quieter.

Dogo Onsen Hours:
6:00AM to 10:00PM

TICKET PRICES / ADMISSION:
★ 410 Yen / General “Kami No Yu” Bath Only
★ 820 Yen / General Bath + Tatami Floor lounge, Yukata and snack
★ 1250 Yen / SPECIAL “Tama No Yu” BATH + Tatami Floor lounge, Yukata and snack
★ 1550 Yen / SPECIAL BATH + 3rd Floor Tatami Room, Special Yukata and Snack
* Maximum Stay is 1 hour

URL:
Mikan Beer:
Matcha & Tart Set:
Dogo Brewery Restaurant:

Google Map to Dogo Onsen:

This show has been created and produced by John Daub ジョン・ドーブ. He’s been living and working in Japan for over 18 years and regularly reports on TV for Japan’s International Channel.

The History of Sweden



Views:7706|Rating:4.70|View Time:11:21Minutes|Likes:109|Dislikes:7
This is the history of Sweden please enjoy.

All material should be licensed under Creative Commons or as fair use.

Images: Pixabay and Wikimedia

Music:
Clair De Lune (Orchestral Arr.) & Clair De Lune (Wurly, Drum Machine and Bucket Arr.) by Podington Bear

Seeing the Future by Dexter Britain
www.dexterbritain.com

Sweden home to beautiful cityscape frozen wastelands flat-pack furniture and rose most famous meme generator this is the history of Sweden when the ice covering scan may be retracted the first migrators moved in they lived off hunting gathering and fishing and use simple stone tools during the early Iron Age the population of Sweden settled and agriculture set the foundation for economy and society between year 550 and 800 Sweden entered the Vandal period they established trade to the east laying the foundation for the extensive trade Sweden saw during their next period the working age this was a period of significant increase in Scandinavian activity for Sweden it was also a period of both economic and political flourish Sweden's main focus was towards the east using the long ships that both plundered and traded along the Baltic coasts they also sail up rivers deep into modern day Russia where there established colonies they travel as far as the black and the Caspian Sea and establish trade with both Arab kingdoms and a Byzantine Empire in the latter the Varangian guard was an elite unit for several Swedish Vikings served on Skaar arriving from the Frankish Empire was the first to introduce Sweden to Christianity but it would take several decades for the country to be converted in the late working age Eric's a gazelle might have been the first King to rule over both the so they are and us thought tribes with his son who loved working continuing the process in that sense they are relieved to set the foundations for a unified Sweden there's following the waiking age show that the unification of Sweden would be a long process and a long lasting conflict between the eric and Sewer clans ensued the conflict eventually got resolved by creating a new dynasty the hives of Bilbo beginning in a 1200 s b'dar and his successor consolidated the unification of Sweden and acquired fiddlin through several Crusades bTW all is also credited for owning Stockholm the modern-day capital Swede the city became an important trade hub for distribution of the minerals mined in Sweden's inland in the late 1200 s the nobility got their first privileges and society could organized into feudal model but it was somewhat different compared to the rest of Europe the farmers being to a large extent free in the early 1300s Sweden and Norway were joining a union under king Magnus Eriksson in the beginning of his rule Denmark was in a state of distress he used his opportunity to buy scania from the Danes however Denmark with only decades later take the area back as well as the island of Gotland the lusts of these rich areas made Sweden weaker the Black Death reached Sweden in 1350 and led to economic and population decline but all things considered Sweden quickly arose again late thirteen hundreds so internal conflict as the nobility was dissatisfied with Magnus and wanted Albert of Mecklenburg on the throne Albert eventually succeeded after eight years of civil war however he gradually lost much of his support and with the help of the Danish ruler Margaret he was dethroned and Sweden joined the cavalry union Margaret was a brilliant diplomat but the rulers following her could not pose to be equal thus following Margaret's death the union soon ran into problems Masha dutour dissatisfied nobility the first major conflict was the anger breath rebellion which set a precedent for Sweden's claim to serenity the latest are essentially Sweden's Parliament was also founded during this time the discontent toward Danish rule climaxed when 80 Swedish nobles were executed by the order of the Danish King in an event known as the Stockholm bloodbath Gustav Vasa who had lost his father in a bloodbath rose to lead a rebellion against Denmark he was successful in a 1523 he became king over now free Sweden wall so I introduced a Protestant Reformation confiscating all estates belonging to the church he focused on strengthening the economy the army the fleet and Unruh gaining control of the trade which was dominated by the hamsa for many Vasa is considered the father of the modern Swedish state following us as rule Sweden's foreign meddling became more active with a focus on gaining dominion over a Baltic Sea the Swedes expanded into the Baltics through several successful Wars and the following years would see Sweden in an almost constant state of war with Sweden becoming more and more powerful in the early 1600 Gustavus Adolphus became King and he knew that if Sweden to become a major power he had to restructure and modernize the army so he did just that he also bettered the in taxation system drastically improving in the state finances auto fuse was also a brilliant military strategist based by many considered the father of modern warfare the 30 Years War was a devastating religious conflict that started in the Holy Roman Empire bottled in Germany but soon spread to the other European powers Auto first perhaps saw this as an opportunity to further strengthen Sweden so he joined the game playing on a Protestant side he won a significant battle against the Emperor's army but in a later battle all of us was killed this did not stop Sweden which now had several brilliant generals under a wing leading Sweden to victory in the 30 Years War as you can see here this result in history and gaining land in the Baltics in northern Germany as well as gaining back Coughlin from the dance Sweden was also rhetoric in a second northern war very much new land including scorner at Trondheim flem this made Sweden stronger than our a longtime Danish rival as Sweden was know one of the great powers of Europe Sweden even founded a short-lived colony in what is no Delaware in North America however the years following Otto first who soon proved to be a challenge for Sweden through several more or less successful Wars Sweden consolidated their power in the Baltics but starting in a year 1700 Sweden found itself in war against most of their neighbors in a conflict known as the great northern war this war so Sweden pitted against a large coalition with Russia as the main threat Sweden experienced initial success but King call the 12th leading Sweden into some of history's most impressive victories hello there I am Charles but why Scott Kings win McGuffin wins glam Vince Penman to Cassini estonia livonia and kalla-nohra English cucumber in Verdun and millennia trees a vegan know the reason of the compile time by the right to cover Apple area account of cyber cable for a Duke of Jewish play and echo the villains from high hums like a lot of cops time but you can call me Carl but when he attempted to march on to Moscow his army was severely weakened and the war shifted in favor of Russia when Karl returned to Sweden after his losses in Russia he raised a new army to conquer Norway this campaign failed when Carl was shot and killed during the siege of Frederick Stan fortress the northern war ended was feeding defeated and they lost much of the baltic lands in the years following Carl's thethe the Swedish parliament was strong enough to introduce a new constitution that abolished royal absolutism the following years would see more wars with more loss of land as well as economic decline on the bright side it was also a period of scientific advancement which squeezed such as column Linehan under celsius reaching fame across europe the following year so little military success but when Sweden found itself forced to join the Napoleonic Wars they joined England side as very important for Sweden siren trade during the wars a French marshal Karl Johan selected as future king of Sweden he soon realized that it would be impossible to conquer back Finland from Russia instead he saw an opportunity to acquire Norway he signed a treaty with Great Britain promising to join in the coalition against Napoleon in trade of Norway the Swedish army marched to victory in Denmark and Sweden acquired norway in 1814 in a Treaty of Kiel the time after Napoleonic Wars saw a shift in politics with several liberal reforms being implemented throughout the 1800s Sweden move towards industrialism and Parliament tourism direct democracy was introduced but amount of workers was very limited industrialization of Sweden was slow and in a late 19th century 90% of the people still earn their livelihood from agriculture even though the 19th century saw a dramatic increase in population in addition more than a million Swedes emigrated to America Sweden's perhaps most famous person also lived during this period Alfred Nobel inventor of dynamite and much more with his will laying the foundation for the Nobel prizes in science and peace in the early 1900's industrialization gained serious traction and in just a few decades Sweden became one of Europe's leading industrial nations 1905 the UNAM in Norway came to an end in the following years all men gained the right to vote and Social Democratic Party experienced growth Sweden declares of neutral during first world war during the interwar period screen tried to acquire the oil and Islands through diplomacy but he was rejected in the League of Nations plans for a well first aid for drone up during the 1930s after the Social Democrats rose to power and were put into effect after World War two where Sweden again was neutral unlike most of Europe Sweden was not ravished by the war and they experienced an ever-expanding industry and economy with a doubling of rigid EP from 1950 to 1970 Sweden's welfare system went through several improvements perhaps being the best in the world however like several other countries the 1973 oil crisis had a big impact in Sweden and many became unemployed with other Scandinavian countries join NATO after the Second World War Sweden maintained the path of neutrality relying on a strong defensive force in 1976 a coalition put an end to the Social Democratic hegemony but the following year some political turmoil must due to a heated discussion concerning nuclear power in 1982 the Social Democrats once again won the election but a few years later in prime minister rule of palma was murdered openly in the streets they never caught the killer and the murder had a great impact all across Scandinavia some asking if Sweden now had lost its innocence the early 90s saw a financial crisis in Sweden in part caused by a real-estate bubble to get out of the crisis Sweden had to reduce developer benefits and private Desai's parts of the public sector in 1994 the worst accident in modern Swedish history occurred as the car ferry MS Estonia sank in a Baltic Sea claiming 852 lives a year later Sweden joined the EU but they refrained from using the Euro in the year 2000 the older soon British Open combining Sweden with down work today Sweden still maintained their path of neutrality and is one of the world's richest and most developed countries from humble beginnings to worse on Nordic empire amassing too many rivals to a path of neutrality and once again prosperity that was the history of Sweden thank you so much for watching and as always carry on or as a Swedish person a guy called Bowie sin you

Mongols: Invasions of Japan 1274 and 1281 DOCUMENTARY



Views:261098|Rating:4.95|View Time:16:47Minutes|Likes:11213|Dislikes:123
Sponsored by MagellanTV – a new streaming service with 2,000+ documentaries worth watching. The first 100 people can get a one month free trial here: History playlist –

The second season of our animated historical documentary series on the Mongol Invasions is here! Previously we have covered the Rise of the Mongol empire under Chinggis and his successors. This second season will deal with the Fall of the Mongol domain and the first episode will describe the the peak of the Mongol power under Kublai and the invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281.

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We are grateful to our patrons and sponsors, who made this video possible:

The script for this video was developed by Jack Wilson – The Jackmeister. Check out his channel dedicated to the history of the Mongols:

This video was narrated by Officially Devin (

Machinimas were made on Total War: Attila engine by MalayArcher (

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#Documentary #MongolInvasions #Kublai

بعد أن أصبح قوبلاي خان خان الأكبر
الإمبراطورية المغولية في عام 1264 ، كان الأمر متروكًا له مواصلة إرث جده ، Chinggis
خان ، واستكمال غزو الصين. كان المغول يعتقدون أن الجنة قد أمرت جميعًا
العالم ليكون مجالهم ، وفي هذا تحول الاعتقاد انتباههم إلى اليابان. في
الحلقة الأولى من الموسم الثاني نحن سوف تدرس ربما الأكثر شهرة ، و
على ما يبدو لا يمكن تفسيره ، غزو القيام بها من قبل الإمبراطورية المغولية. شكراً جزيلاً لرعاة هذا الفيديو ،
MagellanTV! ماجلان نوع جديد من الأفلام الوثائقية تدفق العضوية التي أسسها صناع السينما ،
فريقهم من المنتجين والقيمين الجمع بين المحتوى المتميز مع أعمق
يغوص. مع الاشتراك في MagellanTV ، أنت الحصول على أنواع مميزة من التاريخ ،
الفضاء ، والعلوم ، والطبيعة ، وكذلك الفرد أفلام ومسلسلات وثائقية. ماجلان حتى
لديها قوائم تشغيل مختلفة محددة التاريخ ، مثل التاريخ القديم. تحتوي قائمة التشغيل هذه على أفلام وثائقية
التي تغطي موضوعات من يوليوس قيصر ، إلى المصريين ، إلى العثمانيين. لدينا المفضل الجديد
من قائمة التشغيل التاريخ القديم يسمى "قبر جنكيز خان" ويستكشف اللغز
قبر جنكيز خان الخفي. يمكنك دفق ماجلان من أي مكان على أي جهاز دون
أي إعلانات وليس الوصول المحدود. العديد من البرامج الجديدة تضاف على أساس أسبوعي ، ومجموعة واسعة
متوفرة في 4K. نحن نوصي بشدة لك تحقق من MagellanTV ، وأول 100 زائر
يمكن أن تذهب إلى magellantv.com/KingsAndGenerals للحصول على نسخة تجريبية مجانية لمدة شهر واحد. جاءت اليابان لأول مرة إلى اهتمام كوبلاي
للقرصنة اليابانية على ساحل كوريا من 1220s حتى 1260s. الفوضى السياسية
وغزوات المغول تركت كوريا غير مستقرة وغير قادر على الدفاع عن نفسه ، ولكن هذه العمليات
توقفت مرة واحدة غزا كوريا أخيرا من قبل المغول في 1259. وفي الوقت نفسه ، فإن اليابانيين
واصلت التداول مع العدو الرئيسي لكوبلاي ، أسرة سونغ ، ودعم اقتصاديا
تم طرد عدو كوبلاي لسحقه. حتى القرن التاسع ، كانت اليابان والصين
مرتبطة من خلال التجارة والسياسية والثقافية العلاقات ، حتى اضطهاد البوذية من قبل
أدت أسرة تانغ اليابان إلى عزل نفسها. وهكذا ، لجعل اليابان تحت سيطرته سوف
إضفاء الشرعية على كوبلاي على أنصاره المنغوليين من خلال الفتح ، وإلى رعاياه الصينيين
من خلال إعادته إلى حظيرة. هذه رمزية يهم لتأمين والحفاظ عليها
ولاية السماء ، والتي منحت السلالات الحق في حكم الصين.
في عام 1266 أرسل كوبلاي أول مبعوثين له إلى اليابان ، دعوتهم لتقديم الجزية. بينما هذا
الرسالة لم تبرز تهديدات علنية بالتدمير ، لا يزال يشير إلى Kublai باسم "سيد
الكون "، وكان التضمين بالكاد مخبأة في استنتاج الرسالة: "دع
نشارك في علاقات ودية. من يرغب اللجوء إلى السلاح؟ "
بينما كانت رسالة كوبلاي موجهة إلى الامبراطور ، منذ أواخر القرن 12th الإمبراطور
كان شخصية رئيسية لشوغون ، و بعد وفاة الشوغون الأول ، حقيقي
عقدت السلطة من قبل حاكم له ، و Shikken ، موقع يسيطر عليه عشيرة هوجو. وقوبلاي
تم تجاهل المبعوثين في عام 1266 ، حفل استقبال هائل لم يأخذ الخان بخفة ، مع ما شابه ذلك
ردود على المبعوثين في السنوات التالية. بدا الصمت على نحو متزايد مثل الوقاحة ،
إهانة صاحب السيادة الأقوى على الأرض لا يمكن تجاهلها.
الاستعدادات Kublai لهذا غير مسبوق بدأ الغزو المغولي المنقول بحرا في عام 1268. كما
وكان المغول خبرة قليلة في البحرية الحرب ، جانبا من العمليات على الأنهار
الصين ، اعتمدوا على خبرة البحارة الكوريون وسفنهم. بالاضافة،
الكوريين أيضا توفير أحكام ل الغزو ، وهو عبء أدى إلى فترة قصيرة
تمرد. أعطت هذه الانتفاضة كلمة لليابانيين الاستعدادات المغولية ، و shikken الجديد ،
Hojo Tokimune ، بدأ الاستعدادات الخاصة به ؛ تم إرسال المحاربين إلى كيوشو ، على الأرجح
موقع للهبوط. سقوط معقل الأغنية الرئيسية في شيانغيانغ
في 1273 ، حرر الرجال والموارد ليتم إرسالها في مكان آخر. اليابان أيضا ، يمكن أن تتلقى في النهاية
العقاب لمقاومة مطالب Kublai ل. الأرقام الدقيقة للقوات المغولية متنازع عليها ،
مع إعطاء تقديرات 15000 منغولية ، الشمالية الجنود الصينيون وخيتان وجورتشن ، 6-8000
جنود كوريون و 7000 كوري آخر البحارة ، تنتشر بين حوالي 300 سفينة حربية و
4-500 سفينة أصغر – وحدة كبيرة ، ولكن لا يكفي لاحتلال بلد.
في حين أن قوات Kublai لم تقم أبدا عملية في الخارج من قبل ، وآخر 60
سنوات قدمت بعض الأعداء الذين يمكن أن المباراة المغول في المعركة. إذا كانت الإمبراطوريات الأقوياء
من جين والأغنية عازمة على المغول ، كيف يمكن لأمة اليابان الصغيرة أن تجرؤ على الوقوف
قبله؟ إلى كوبلاي ، أي شيء آخر غير كان النصر السريع مستحيلاً.
غادر الأسطول من كوريا في خريف 1274 ، السقوط أولاً على جزر تسوشيما الصغيرة
و Iki. المستوطنات قليلة الدفاع عرضت مقاومة صغيرة للمنغول من ذوي الخبرة
المحاربين ، لأنه في عزلتهم عن البر الرئيسى ، وقد وضعت الساموراي بهم
العلامة التجارية الخاصة للحرب ، والاعتماد على الفرد مبارزة ، بدلا من تشكيلات معقدة من
المغول. غادر المغول تسوشيما وإيكي مع السجناء
مسمر إلى جحافل سفنهم ، قادمة في هاكاتا خليج كيوشو في نوفمبر تشرين الثاني. هم
لم يكن الهبوط دون معارضة: جدار بحري قديم ركض على طول جزء من الخليج ، وكان وراءه
المتمركزة المحاربين من Hojo Tokimune. أعداد للقوة اليابانية المتنازع عليها ، مع
بعض الأرقام منخفضة تصل إلى 3600 ، وهذا واضح أن عدد المدافعين فاق عددهم
لا خبرة في قتال القوات الأجنبية و تفتقر إلى القدرة التكتيكية والاستراتيجية
المغول. مع هبوط اليوان أسطول ، وكانت المعركة الأولى في خليج هاكاتا
بدأت. كان الساموراي ، مثل المغول ، ماهرين
الرماة على حد سواء مشيا على الأقدام وعلى ظهور الخيل توقيعهم غير متناظرة يومي. اليابانيون
افتتح القتال مع صفير السهام ، مصممة لإزعاج وتخويف أعدائهم. اليابانية
مصادر تصف المغول بالضحك السهام ، ثم يقود الخيول
الساموراي غاضب من الخوف على أصوات طبول الحرب والصنوج تستخدم لتوجيه المغول
قوات في المعركة. غير مستخدمة لمثل هذه الضوضاء ، و أصيبت الخيول اليابانية بالذعر قبل ذلك
قابل العدو. الدفاع عن منازلهم والمحاربين المهرة
ومع ذلك ، قاتل اليابانيون بشدة على طول جدار البحر. المغول ، القتال
شاقة من الشواطئ ، لم تكن قادرة على تحقيق الفرسان المخيف لتحمل ، ولكن ، كما هو مبين
من الأدلة الأثرية والتصويرية ، استخدم المغول قنابل ضد اليابانيين.
في عدد قليل من الأماكن اندلعت المغول ، حرق مدينة هاكاتا القريبة.
أثبتت المنطقة الواقعة وراء الاختراق أنها غير مواتية إلى المغول ومع ذلك: الموقع المختار ل
معسكرهم ، أكاساكا ، أثبت أنه لا يمكن الدفاع عنه ، وأثبتت الرماية اليابانية ماهرا حتى
حسب المعايير المغولية. ليو قائد ليو ضرب فو شانغ في وجهه بسهم ،
وكان حصانه استولت عليها السامرائي. مع قائدهم عاجز ، غير قادر على الضغط
الداخلية والجري منخفضة على الذخائر ، على الرغم من إلحاق خسائر فادحة باليابانيين ،
تم طلب الانسحاب. ما تلا ذلك هو مسألة بعض النقاش ،
لكنه أصبح لحظة حاسمة للحملة. المصادر اليابانية لهذا الغزو تصف
الرياح العكسية التي دفعت الأسطول المغولي مرة أخرى ، الشواطئ بضع سفن. مصادر يوان على
من ناحية أخرى ، تحدث عن إعصار عظيم نهض ، وسحق الكثير من الأسطول تحتها
الأمواج وإجبار الباقي على التراجع. أسباب هذا التأكيد واضحة ،
لأنه من خلال إلقاء اللوم على حادث طقس غريب المغول يمكن الحفاظ على سمعتها العسكرية ،
بدلا من الاعتراف بأن اليابانيين قد عرضوا مقاومة أشد من المتوقع. لا هذا ولا ذاك
رأى الجانب هذا الخطبة الأولى حاسمة ، وعندما تم إعدام مبعوثي كوبلاي في عام 1275 ،
تم ضمان عودته. في 1279 سقطت أسرة سونغ أخيرا إلى
المغول ، واستكمال غزو الصين بدأت من قبل Chinggis خان في 1211. الآن Kublai
يمكن أن تثير الرجال والموارد والسفن من جنوب الصين لاستخدامها ضد اليابان. مع
كوريا دمرت اقتصاديا من قبل الأول الغزو ، وكانت هذه القوات غزا حديثا
لأخذ دور قيادي. في اليابان Hojo Tokimune لم يجلس الخمول ، وإصلاح وتمديد
جدار البحر حول خليج هاكاتا لمدة 20 كم ، وكذلك إعداد دفاع أكبر.
بحلول عام 1281 ، كان كوبلاي مستعدًا للرد ، جمع ربما أكبر غزو المنقولة بحرا
قبل هبوط نورماندي عام 1944. بينما ومن المتوقع أن مصادر القرون الوسطى
تضخيم الأرقام ، فمن الواضح بأي مقياس أن هذا كان عملا عظيما. المصادر
الدولة التي تم تقسيم أكثر من 100،000 رجل بين أسطولان: الأسطول الشمالي تقريبا
40،000 المغول ، Jurchen ، شمال الصين والقوات الكورية على متن 900 سفينة ، وآخر
من حوالي 60،000 رجل من الفتح حديثا أراضي جنوب الصين ، على متن 3500
أوعية. قليل من هؤلاء كانوا على المحيط الصحيح سفن حربية أو وسائل نقل ، إلى حد ما
السفن الساحلية أو النهرية لم يسبق لها مثيل هذه الحملات الطويلة.
على الفور كانت الحملة قبالة إلى مشؤومة بداية. تنوي المغادرة في الربيع لتجنب
مواسم الإعصار ، عانى الأسطول الجنوبي التأخير ، جنرال سقطت مرض والغذاء مدلل
في الطقس الدافئ في جنوب الصين. الخطة كان للأسطول الشمالي ، المغادرة
مرة أخرى من كوريا ، للقاء على Iki مع الأسطول الجنوبي المغادرة من تشيوانتشو ،
ولكن في النهاية انطلق الأسطول الشمالي وحده ، احتلال ايكي بحلول يونيو 1281.
بعد أسبوعين ، كان الأسطول قبالة الساحل من كيوشو ، ولكن وجدت مواقع الهبوط دافع
من قبل الساموراي أعدت جيدا على جدار البحر. المقاومة شجاع بالقرب من Munakata أبقى
الأسطول الشمالي من الهبوط الكامل أو صنع التقدم الداخلي.
وصل الأسطول الجنوبي أخيرًا في يوليو ، نحو الطرف الجنوبي من الجدار ، و
تهدف إلى القتال طريقهم شمالا للقاء مع الأسطول الأول. لكن هذا الأسطول الجنوبي ،
تتألف بالكامل تقريبا من الصينية من غزا مؤخرا سلالة سونغ ، تفتقر إلى
المهارة والانضباط وتجربة المغول القوات ، وكان حصة ضئيلة أو مصلحة في
المخاطرة بحياتهم للسادة الأجانب في أرض أجنبية. حاجز اللغة بين
المغول والكوريين والصينيين وغيرهم ، والتوترات بين المغول والجنرالات الصينيين
والقائد الأدميرال الكوري ضعيف وقدرتهم على التصرف. من أواخر يونيو إلى
أوائل أغسطس ، تشارك يوان واليابانية إلى حد كبير غير حاسم ، واليوان غير قادر على التقدم
ضد اليابانيين ، لكن اليابانيين غير قادرين للتغلب على الأسطول الكبير.
في الليل ، اتخذ اليابانيون أصغر ، ذكيا الحرفية خارج بين الأساطيل ، والتسلق
على متنها وقتل الرجال في نومهم أو إرسالها اطلاق النار على السفن لإشعال النار في السفن. خسائر يوان
كانت تتصاعد ، مع انخفاض الإمدادات ، غير قادر على استعباد رجالهم على أي شيء ولكن
ما أحضروا معهم. ليال على متن ضيقة ، ثبت السفن الهزاز لا راحة ل
المحاربين المغولي تستخدم لفتح السهوب ، مع العلم الساموراي قد يأتي الزحف من الظلام.
في الخامس عشر من أغسطس عام 1281 ، جاء الانقلاب دي نعمة. البحر قبالة ساحل كيوشو
مضطرب كما ارتفع الإعصار في وقت مبكر بشكل غير معقول ، أساطيل يوان اشتعلت الآن بين العاصفة
والساحل. السفن الكورية أكثر ثباتا مصنوعة للمياه المفتوحة تمكنت من تجنب التعرض
سحقت ضد الصخور ، ولكن أكثر مؤقتة كان الأسطول الجنوبي عاجزًا ضد المحيط
غيظ. ربما خلال 15 و 16 أغسطس ثلث الأسطول الشمالي وأكثر من النصف
من الجنوب دمرت ، والثانية كانت محاولة المغول للاستيلاء على اليابان قد انتهت. أولئك
وكان الجنود يوان الذين غسلها إلى الشاطئ بسرعة وجدت من قبل اليابانيين وقتلوا ، في حين أن
تعثر الباقي إلى الصين. كان كوبلاي غاضبًا. هالة المغول لا تقهر
تراكمت على مدى القرن لم يدمر ، ولكن كان ملوثا بالتأكيد ، والاقتصادية
كان ضربة كبيرة. الغزو الثاني كان إنفاق هائل من الرجال والموارد ،
الكثير منها جلس الآن في الجزء السفلي من محيط. كوريا على وجه الخصوص دمرت ،
بعد أن قدمت الكثير من الحبوب والسفن ، المواد والشباب من كل الغزوات.
لتغطية التكاليف ، كان على كوبلاي اللجوء إلى المستشارين الماليين مثل أحمد فناكاتي
ولي شيه يونغ ، الذي أصبح سيئ السمعة ل الفساد والمحسوبية والإفراط في فرض الضرائب ، والدخول
عصر من سوء الإدارة المالية وزيادة عدم الكفاءة.
في 1281 صوت كبح رئيسي على Kublai ، زوجته الشابي ، مات ، تلاه
وريث Jingim في 1286. مع وفاتهم ، Kublai أصبح سحب متزايد من الحكم ،
العثور على العزاء في الطعام والشراب ، والمعاناة من الاكتئاب والسمنة والنقرس.
نمت مطالبه العسكرية أكثر وحشية: هو أمر الغزو الثالث لليابان ، والتي أبدا
تتحقق ، غزت بورما ، فيتنام وحتى الغزو المنقول بحرا لجافا ،
كل ذلك انتهى بشكل غير حاسم أو بشكل مباشر كارثة، الحرارة المدارية ومرض
جنوب آسيا والغابة الكثيفة مما يجعل المنغولية سلاح الفرسان عديمة الفائدة.
واجه تمردا من التبت ومن أبناء عمومته كايدو ونايان ، الذين تحدوا كوبيلاي
الشرعية من آسيا الوسطى ومنشوريا ، كل حين تأثيره على الغرب
نمت خانات الإمبراطورية أضعف من أي وقت مضى. على الرغم من بعد الانتهاء من غزو الصين ، كوبلاي
أشرف على تجزئة الإمبراطورية المغولية. توفي Kublai خان في فبراير من عام 1294 ، نجحت
من قبل حفيده تيمور Oljeitu. النجاح عقد يوان خان في السلطة الاسمية فقط
الخانات الأخرى ، كل الذهاب منفصلة خاصة بهم مسارات وانهيار على مدى القرن التالي.
هذا هو انهيار الإمبراطورية المغولية سنبحث في مقاطع الفيديو التالية ،
تأكد من أنك مشترك في قناتنا وضغط زر الجرس. نحن نريد أو نحب
للتعبير عن امتناننا لأنصار باتريون وأعضاء القناة ، الذين يصنعون الخلق
من أشرطة الفيديو لدينا ممكن. الآن ، يمكنك أيضا دعم لنا عن طريق شراء البضائع لدينا عبر
ربط الوصف. هذا هو الملوك والجنرالات

Cambodia | A Historical and Cultural Mecca



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I’ve been to many places in the world but this country is beyond words. Cambodia also known as The Golden Land is so rich in culture from the famous Angkor Wat to the unique Khmer lifestyle and much more.

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History Memes 10



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Stalin killed the most people in history no we're not letting anyone on the ark Britain hey colony so we are gonna raise your taxes by a bit you okay America how about you lick these American nuts submarines basically fly underwater put a flat panzer on the seafloor and simply shoot them down historical problems require historical solutions Henry the eighth yes oh I need you to execute my wife executioner so no head Lincoln we are not going to allow slavery in our new territories in the West the South what in the hot crispy Kentucky Fried fuck News CNN Australia is at war with feral cats the biggest threat to its native species the government wants to kill 2 million of them great Erie War veterans Jesus Table four twenty six please waiter but there are only 13 of you Jesus yes but we are all going to sit on the same side when someone asks you how naval combat worked in 480 BC WOM United States NYX Japan finally the war is over Soviet Union hey those were some pretty cool bombs the world we did it with time travels but to watch here let me ask that guy over there where are we Hiroshi when I hear the phrase men don't start drama world history America when Germany sinks a ship full of innocent British and American people America when Germany sends a text to Mexico girls we aren't that confusing also girls time traveler hey what year is it French man its 13:37 we've been at war with the British hopefully it's over soon time traveller oh you mean the 100 Years War French man say psych right now me is in the same room as Stalin Stalin makes joke me something I've never expected Japanese ex German offender chant to attend while you obviously never heard of the Second World War when the Sun never set in your empire as well but everyone remembers the British instead sad desperate own noises Europe isn't has always been all about culture art poetry peace and freedom literally every historian France fuck you Germany Germany fuck you to Belgium my time has come when my son died Sark asks why I'm taking him to the mountain with a knife I am the cool dad that's my thing when you were once the most powerful country in Europe able to fight Russia and win but everyone remembers you for selling iron to the Nazis giving support to the US Revolution so they defeat the British France your own people start a revolution because you are now in crippling financial debt France senator hey we killed Caesar you're free from tyranny people of Rome you are America you are going to be a democracy third world country no we are going to tried communism America sorry but I wasn't asking who would win an advanced space shuttle that cost one hundred and ninety six billion dollars to operate a piece of plastic used to seal joints on tubes when you plan to kill Julius Caesar but the squad doesn't show up Trotsky I don't know if this economic policy is really what Marx intended Stalin French monarchy exists French revolutionaries you have lost head privilege 13-year old Nazi sympathizers talking about Waldron or two in their history class we were on the verge of greatness we were this close the British were good to Ireland penal laws Oliver Cromwell Black and Tans collusion and Northern Ireland internment the famine they are not loot boxes they are surprised mechanics it's not an Italian tank it's a surprise malfunction how Italians see Italy and other countries see Italy British troops arriving in Africa for the first time get back you savages horrible things the USA has done to Japan Dragonball Evolution Death Note when them happy trees start speaking Vietnamese me is incapable of lighting a fire in the summer with paper fire lighters dried wood and a magic stick of flames my ancestors who made fire in five minutes without shelter in the snow with wet grass and Flint shane robert e lee trench warfare at the siege of Petersburg I guess you guys aren't ready for that yet but your kids are gonna love it study history to pass exam study history to understand culture study history to understand memes we understanding a more complex meme than France surrendering World War two or area 51 time traveler which Reich are you guys 1st 2nd or 3rd Otto von Bismarck the Third Ward Tito slaps map of Yugoslavia this bad boy can fit so many ethnic conflicts in it that doesn't want dog family gets dog anyway dead and dog the us bombs Hiroshima Japan doesn't surrender the US will be right back with double jeopardy Germans the Allies are moving up don't worry the Italians we Italians charging towards Germans Germans say psych right now listening to Sabatini because it's awesome music listening to sabaton to learn about history mongol empire join us nation no mongol empire shame USA we are gonna punish you for war crimes nazy's how about we send us a to the moon before usher it can't be that easy it's that easy I require a virgin sacrifice Christopher Columbus discovered the Americas perfect teacher today we learn about Asian imperialism bills wait what Asia had an imperialist cow boys when an anarchist assassinate an Archduke and Bosnia random farmer in Wisconsin guess I'll die Austrian 1940 Hitler is ours Austria raft in 1945 I've never met this man in my life when you go to war with 80 men but come back with 81 Starks Europe we just banished Napoleon to an island time traveler the first time or second time Europe say psyche right now normal person you can't be a victim and commit war crimes Japan now this looks like a job for me Stalin has political opponents also Stalin wow that's so weird they just disappeared Mongols storm the Great Wall of China they can't stop us all if you enjoyed the video be sure to leave a like and subscribe if you haven't already feel free to check out my other videos as well thank you for watching

Royal Deaths & Diseases: Living By The Sword | History Documentary | Reel Truth History



Views:123824|Rating:4.80|View Time:49:24Minutes|Likes:1371|Dislikes:57
Extraordinary royal war injuries, including Richard the Lionheart, hit by a crossbow bolt, and Henry V, critically wounded by an arrow to his skull.

Series investigating how royal doctors and medicine have changed the course of British history – from madness to war wounds, decadence to the struggles to conceive an heir. The series recounts the fates of Richard the Lionheart and Henry V on the battlefield; examines Britain’s most famously mad king, George III, and investigates the stories of Queen Victoria’s clinical depression and Henry VI’s acute schizophrenia. The film also examines how Royal misbehaviour changed the image of the monarchy – from Henry VIII’s overeating and lack of exercise to Charles II’s death at the hands of his own doctors and George IV’s opium-fuelled reign.

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Ancient and medieval philosophy and classical philology, Master's Programme



Views:112|Rating:5.00|View Time:1:30Minutes|Likes:6|Dislikes:0
Shadrack from Ghana tells you about the programme and what it is like to study in Gothenburg.

The philosophy of language and mind in ancient and medieval traditions is largely understood to include logic and semantics, theories of communication and argumentation, theories of knowledge, cognitive psychology, as well as their metaphysical foundations.

In addition to philosophical competence, linguistic skills in Greek and Latin and palaeography and textual criticism are essential tools for any student or researcher who wants to access the most influential texts in the development of Western thought directly and independently. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy requires essential skills that are increasingly rare on a global scale.

Ancient and Medieval Philosophy and Classical Philology, Master’s Programme offers students the possibility to acquire these skills in a leading research environment. It prepares for postgraduate education and an international research career in the interdisciplinary field. The programme has close interaction with the research group Representation and Reality and its international network of leading scholars and partner institutions.

More information about the programme:

The programme is a study of the history of philosophy, focusing on medieval and ancient philosophy. Now, since all the ancient and medieval philosophers wrote in either Latin or Greek palaeography of Latin and Greek is taught as part of the programme. One thing I really like about this programme is its affiliation with a research group at the department known as Representation and Reality. We as students have the opportunity not only to attend and listen to presentations by lecturers from all around the world, but also to be taught by them. The last seminar I visited a professor gave a presentation about Aristotle's interpretation of dreams. I got the opportunity to watch him present as well as his paper being analysed, examined, and criticised by his colleagues. It was an interesting thing to witness. After this I believe I’m equipped to pursue a PhD in philosophy to enable me to achieve my long time dream to become a teacher and researcher in the academic field of philosophy.

Gibson Girl Hair Tutorial | Historical Hairstyling



Views:79831|Rating:4.91|View Time:3:24Minutes|Likes:1845|Dislikes:32
In this video I’m going to show you how to recreate a basic, iconic Gibson Girl hairstyle. Enjoy!

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My name is Lucy, I’m a 23-year-old girl from the Netherlands, and I’m here to offer an alternative approach to beauty.

On this channel I do mostly hair tutorials where I show you how to braid, pin and style your own hair. I recreate hairstyles from movies & tv shows and I regularly come up with my own, which I love to share with you!

I do lifestyle and beauty videos as well, ranging from wearable everyday looks, makeup tips and DIY natural beauty treatments, to fashion lookbooks, vegetarian recipes and more extreme Halloween tutorials.

If you enjoy history, you’ve come to the right place as well. I have a few series based on historical makeup and hairstyling that are my little passion projects.

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hey guys today I'm going to show you how to do this basic classic Gibson curl up do um it is actually quite simple there's a little bit of technique involved it shouldn't take you too much time as soon as you kind of get the hang of it it is in fact quite simple to do so if you want to know how to do this we classic Gibson girl hair then keep on watching I am going to start by separating out a piece at the front of my hair on both sides this is going to create my poof's so I'm going to leave that for now and create the same thickness of hair in the back as well so that it's going all around my head and then I'm going to tile the top of my hair into a ponytail separate that into two sections and then I'm going to twist those into a loose bun that is going to be the center of my hairstyle so I'm just twisting this hair around the base and then I'm going to pin it down with a couple boy pins to make sure it stays in place alright time to work on the pouf so I'm going to work in sections and I'm going to start near my forehead I'm going to take all this hair and then I'm going to backcomb this to create some volume we want these proves to be quite big I'm not going to back home too much just enough to give this a little bit of volume and firmness okay then I'm going to take this section and I'm going to start rolling it from the tips making sure the ends of my hair are tucked inside the roll and I'm going to roll this all the way back to create the this kind of barrel and that I'm going to sprout a little bit and then pin down to my head I'm going to stick my bobby pins into the center of the roll so they're going to be hidden in there and then this is pretty much we're going to do all around your head so moving on to the side section going to the exact same thing back home all this hair and then roll it up into this nice big barrel and now the trickiest part is to try and make these two rolls kind of integrate and blend into each other so you're just going to have to play with this a little bit yeah fold them over each other just play around with it until it looks good all right so like I mentioned just do this to all sections of hair just take manageable strips of hair every time and then back home and roll them up and then when you're done you should be left with something like this and there is your belly book Gibson air all done I really hope you enjoyed this video guys if you did not forget to give a thumbs up and subscribe to my channel for more historical hair tutorials and thank you so much for watching and I will see you very soon in my next video bye

Pawn Stars: How Chumlee Got His Name (Season 6) | History



Views:215976|Rating:4.90|View Time:4:46Minutes|Likes:3453|Dislikes:71
Chumlee reveals the origin of his nickname when a vintage animation cell is brought into the shop in this scene from Season 6, “Hot and Colt”. #PawnStars
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COREY: What do we got? BRAD: I'm selling a
limited edition animation cel of "Tennessee
Tuxedo," featuring Stanley, the zookeeper,
Tennessee Tuxedo, and– COREY: –Chumley the walrus. Well, I can definitely see now
how you got the name, Chumlee. CHUMLEE: Spitting image. BRAD: I came to
the pawn shop today to sell a limited
edition "Tennessee Tuxedo" animation cel. I'm hoping to get $350 for it. I want to sell it because I
just bought an engagement ring. I'm hoping she says
yes, but we'll see. COREY: So how'd you get it? I bought it online from
a dealer a few years ago. COREY: All right. Well, "Tennessee
Tuxedo" has always been pretty popular around here. Tennessee was a penguin
that lived in the zoo and was always coming up with
ways to try to break out, and Chumley would
inevitably screw it up. BRAD: Exactly. COREY: It's just
like our pawn shop. I'm Tennessee Tuxedo,
trying to run a business, and a guy named Chumlee
is screwing it up. And the zookeeper
always reminded me a little bit of my grandfather. Just always kind of angry
and yelling at Chumley. Well, I could definitely
see the resemblance. Tennessee Tuxedo came
out the early 1960s and only ran for
like three seasons. But it kind of
became a sleeper hit. There was reruns on
TV up until the 1980s. Can I see this cel? BRAD: Sure. You got anything with it. BRAD: There's a
seal right there. All right, now, is
this a reproduction? Because it says 1993 on it. The cartoons were made
in the early '60s. BRAD: It's a reproduction,
but it's a limited edition. It's signed by executive
producer Peter Piech. CHUMLEE: No one ever cares
about the executive producer. [chuckling] COREY: In 1993, they
probably went around, and who's still alive that we
could tie to "Tennessee Tuxedo" and had him sign
a bunch of them. Right. I mean, the only reason I'm
going to buy it is because I'm going to hang it above
my desk because my best friend's Chumlee. Corey acts like I
get on his nerves, but I knew he had
a soft spot for me. So what do you
want to do with it? I'd like to sell it. Any idea what you're
looking to get out of it? I was hoping to
get $350 for it. $350? I deal with thousands of
production cels a year. And in my experience, I'd
say it'd be worth about $300. So that being said, man,
I'll give you around $200. Could you do $275? It's limited edition, so there
aren't that many out there. COREY: I'll split it
with you and go $250. Don't ask for any more because
I'm not going to pay it. I can do $250. All right, man, deal. $250 is fine. It doesn't pay for
the engagement ring, but it definitely pays
for the taxes of it. [cash register ding] COREY: Check this out, Pops. It's pretty cool. What's the cartoon? What is it? COREY: Chumley the
walrus, Tennessee Tuxedo, and Stanley Livingston. I like it because it
reminds me of Chum, myself, and The Old Man. RICK: I think it's
stupid, and it's never going to be worth anything. Don't be mad because you don't
have a cartoon of yourself. Why would I want
a cartoon of myself? COREY: Because
you're the most vain, egotistical person I know. And we all have a cartoon
that represents us, and you're not in it. I don't think Rick likes
it too much when he's not the center of attention. RICK: It was bad animation
when it was made. Corey, he's jealous. Figures my dad would get
jealous over a cartoon, but I think I found a
way of including him that will make him feel better. RICHARD: Go hang it
in Rick's office. [cash register ding] COREY: Here, Pops. Look what I got for you. Noticed you were a little
hurt about not being included in the whole cartoon
thing, so I went ahead and found Professor
Whoopie here, you know, the bald, know-it-all
professor that Tennessee would always ask for advice. I added it into the
picture for you. In a Pawn Shop shirt? Yeah, I customized it for you. RICK: How in the
world is that me? Well, he's got
short, stubby legs. He's bald. He's got kind of a potbelly. He's a know-it-all,
puffy cheeks. If his head was a
little bit bigger, he'd be a perfect
match for you, son. [chuckling] Why are you doing this to me? COREY: Doing what? You're finally a
cartoon character. All I know is if you guys
start calling me Whoopie, I will fire you. Get that thing out of my
face and get back to work. Whatever you say,
Professor Whoopie. RICHARD: You have to admit,
Rick, they got you good. RICK: They didn't
get me on anything. RICHARD: They got you.

Cleopatra's Lost Tomb – Full History Documentary (Ancient Egypt)



Views:39516|Rating:4.74|View Time:45:48Minutes|Likes:398|Dislikes:22
Amateur archaeological sleuth Kathleen Martinez’s quest to find Cleopatra’s tomb took her to a temple complex known as Taposiris Magna, which is located 25 miles west of Alexandria, Egypt. Could it be the site of Cleopatra’s lost tomb?

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A 3D tour of Ancient Rome



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Discover ancient Rome through a 360° virtual-reality walk through history at Assicurazioni Generali’s Roots of the Present Museum.
Making your way through the museum, you’ll discover the area between the Trajan Forum and the slopes of the Campidoglio, the evolution of Piazza Venezia, Trajan’s Column, the worship of household gods and Romans’ relationship with the afterlife. The museum features 300 ancient Roman artefacts dating from the 1st to the 5th centuries AD, as well as a Greek relief sculpture from the 4th century BC. The exhibition is specifically designed to stimulate the younger generation’s interest in culture and history, with leaflets and informational videos also provided alongside the 3D images.

The museum is located at the headquarters of Assicurazioni Generali in Piazza Venezia, Rome.

Click here to enter the Virtual Tour:

IMF's Mati On Nigeria Historical FX Rates



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The Warsaw Uprising – The Unstoppable Spirit of the Polish Resistance – Extra History



Views:435295|Rating:4.83|View Time:10:53Minutes|Likes:26697|Dislikes:955
Thanks to the Polish National Foundation for sponsoring this video.
The Polish are determined to make Poland matter on the world stage, and they will not wait for whatever mercies may come from the Russians. So the Home Army stages their own uprising to liberate Warsaw, and for some 60-odd days, their strongest members, the Grey Ranks, tragically held steadfast.
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*Music by Demetori:

♪ Outro music: “Broad Street Pump” by Sean and Dean Kiner

For five years, execution, torture, and vicious oppression has been the fate of the Poles. But resistance, the will to fight the Nazis who occupy their homeland, has been kept alive. In the face of unspeakable brutality, The Polish Home Army, the volunteer force of resistance fighters secretly living in Poland, has continued to grow. For these fighters, discovery meant instant death. But with sabotage, indirection, and a message of hope for the people, they kept the Germans from ever feeling secure in occupied Poland. And now it was time. Russian shelling could be heard in the streets of Warsaw. Liberation was at hand. But the Home Army wasn't going to wait for the Russians to march into their capital and return to them, whatever portion of their country they felt generous enough to give. The Warsaw Uprising was about to begin. A few months ago, James was invited to Poland to attend one of their massive game jams and observe what they're doing to help grow the games industry there. With any luck, he'll get back there for their game jam in September and I'll be hiding in his luggage to go visit my homeland. Because while in Warsaw, he fell in love with the city and its history. So much so that he worked with the folks running the game jam to help sponsor this special episode so he could talk about one of the greatest tragedies of the 20th century. So, let's begin. August 1st, 1944. The Allies have landed in Normandy. Rome has fallen. And the Soviets have pushed the German war machine off Russian soil. And in Warsaw, a people oppressed for five long years are about to rise up against their oppressors. But what precipitates this is the approach of the Soviet Army. Because the history between the Soviets and Poland is a fraught one. In 1939, as allies of Hitler, Soviet forces stormed over the Polish border, taking Poland by surprise and collapsing Polish defenses. Up to that point, while not winning the war against Germany, the Polish Army was taking their toll. Slowing down German forces and making them pay for every inch of ground. But to do this, almost all of their forces were sent to the West, never expecting an attack from the supposedly neutral Soviet Union. When Soviet forces poured over the eastern border, it spelt the end for the Polish Army. Two weeks later, Poland would surrender and more than half would be annexed by the Soviet Union until they in turn lost it to the Nazis double-crossing them. And while not as systematically brutal as Nazi occupation, the Soviet domination of Poland was still horrific. They rounded up and shot 22.000 Poles in the Katyn forest. And even when they joined the Allies, they refused to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Polish government-in-exile. All of which means that many in the Polish resistance believed that the only way they'd have a seat at the table after the war is if they liberated their own country. Which leads us back to the 1st of August. The Russians are a few dozen kilometers away. As their advance continues, The Germans are guaranteed to fall. It's now or never, it's time to rise up. The previous night, a tense meeting had occurred and "W hour", the start of the Polish uprising was declared. The troops had trained for a surprise attack at dawn. But at the last minute, plans changed. The uprising was now set for 5:00 P.M. But it's hard to hide that many people spoiling for a fight and by 5:00 P.M., sporadic engagements had already broken out across the city. The Polish troops were barely armed many without weapons at all. Charging in with homemade submachine guns or captured German rifles. They took the gasworks, the power and water plants, and some vital production facilities, but they were repulsed in key locations as well. The bridges, the airport, the rail line, and the main police station all remained in German hands. Most crucially though, they failed to link up. By night, groups were erecting barricades. The city was now divided and though there would be some coordination and reinforcements, many pockets were now fighting in their own small wars. Then the bombs begin to fall. The Luftwaffe is laying waste to the city. Not differentiating between civilian areas and those controlled by the resistance. The Polish Home Army doesn't have a single anti-aircraft gun and all eyes look for signs of the Soviet air force. But no planes sporting the Red Star of Russia are anywhere to be seen. Four days into the uprising, the true atrocities start. On orders of Heinrich Himmler, German troops begin going house-to-house, shooting every inhabitant they find. The old, the infirm, women, children, all were gunned down. Over the course of a week, tens of thousands of civilians are murdered as they huddled in their homes. But the Polish resistance didn't break. The Home Army ground the Germans to a halt. Though it's strongest battalions were also its most tragic, "The Grey Ranks". They were made up of the boy scouts. Older scouts were frontline troops, better organized, better trained, better disciplined, than most of the volunteers. The younger members ran courier duty while the girl scouts served as combat medics, nurses, and munition haulers. And they all swore an oath. "I pledge to you that I shall serve the grey ranks, safeguard the secrets of the organization, obey orders, and not hesitate to sacrifice my life." And they would hold this oath, all the way, unto their death. They fought house-to-house, door-to-door, in the chaotic melee of city fighting. Classmates died side by side, first loves torn apart by machine-gun fire. They referred to each other as bees, because they were a hive. A collective and they would sting the Germans. They fought with the fury only possessed by the young and the righteous and they pushed the Nazis from the burnt-out remains of the Warsaw ghetto. They cut into the German line far enough to liberate one of the concentration camps. 384 Jews who had survived the extermination of the ghetto were still in prison there. And they took up arms to fight against those who had enslaved them, who had murdered everyone they knew. But then, the young fighters of the grey ranks were faced with the unthinkable. Something I don't know as a human being you could face. German tanks rolled forward, but it wasn't the hundred tons of steel and death that stopped the scouts. They had faced tanks before, armed only with rifles and hand grenades. No. It was what was in front of the tanks, because in front of those tanks, were women. Some burned or beaten, all Polish. The Nazis were using them as human shields It was this the scouts couldn't face. So the advance turned to a stalemate and still aid did not come. By the end of August, the undersupplied Polish forces had to withdraw from Warsaw as old town, making their way through the sewers to more easily held points. For nearly a month, the soldiers and many of the civilians had been living off barley from a brewery the grey ranks had captured early in the fighting. Soon even water was scarce, with waterways clogged with corpses and the Germans cutting off remaining water mains as they advanced. At last, on the 15th of September Soviet forces appeared on the far banks of the Vistula. A crossing attempt is made, but Soviet command only sent the lightly armored division of Polish volunteers who had joined them after the fall of Poland to try to relieve Warsaw. Of the 1.600 men, who went more than a thousand fell to German guns. The Soviets decide that a crossing was impractical and no further attempt would be made to aid the Polish partisans. Meanwhile, America finally attempts an airdrop of supplies, but 80% of it is accidentally dropped behind German lines. American forces will not try again. The resistance is shelled day and night, great mortars with shells 2 feet in diameter, rained down on them. Rockets slam into the few remaining upright buildings and tanks hammer away at foxholes for scouts armed with no more than rifles. The Germans advance on the Mokka Tube district. The resistance is pushed back. They enter one of the major hospitals under Polish control and they execute every wounded soldier and all of the hospital's personnel. Again, the resistance flees through the sewers but a 150 of them exit too early and are killed by German troops. The Poles now control only a few square blocks right against the river They were surrounded, starving, outgunned, and outnumbered, and yet they fought not like bees but like wasps. Every house was a stronghold, every doorway a bunker, and they fought within sight of the Soviet Army across the river yet no aid came. They fought with the determination of the damned. They fought and fell. The outcome was inevitable. Surrender had to come. Germans weary of fighting and interested in concentrating on the Soviet threat offered terms. The entire population of Warsaw was to be expelled but no one was to be executed. The terms were accepted. The resistance fighters spent their last days forging documents for the Jewish members among them. 15,000 of the Home Army were taken away as POWs and 500.000 civilians were shipped out of the city. The lucky ones were simply let go with no homes, no food, no jobs. But 60,000 ended up in the death camps and 90.000 more found themselves unloaded at forced labor yards. And after the surrender, Himmler said, "The city must completely disappear from the surface of the earth and serve only as a transport station for the fair mocked." "No stone can remain standing, every building must be raised to its foundation" And in one of the last great acts of senseless destruction, perpetrated by the Nazi regime, German engineers took flamethrowers and dynamite and systematically, building by building, block by block, wiped Warsaw off the map. By the time 3 months later, when the Russians finally crossed the Vistula, 85% of the buildings in Warsaw had been leveled. Monuments, schools, libraries, historical sites all reduced to rubble and ash. If you go to the historic district of Warsaw today what you're actually seeing is a reconstruction. An attempt to rebuild based on old photographs and paintings. If you walk the halls of the Royal Castle, you're not seeing a building that's been standing for 400 years. Instead you walk through a palace completed in 1984 and in the rubble of that city, lay 70% of the young people of the grey ranks. But their sacrifice was not forgotten for their nation still stands, long after the thousand-year Reich was wiped from the earth.

A Historical Look at The Azusa Street Revival (1906-1909)



Views:50092|Rating:4.76|View Time:1:45:32Minutes|Likes:661|Dislikes:34
A historical look at the Modern Pentecostal Movement that took place in Los Angeles, CA from 1906 to 1909: The Azusa Street Mission & Revival.

All revivals usually begin with fervent prayer. There is usually a hunger for a move of God.

In the Azusa Revival God used William J. Seymour as the revival’s spiritual leader.

William Seymour was a very humble man, who prayed at times five to seven hours a day.

Eyewitnesses often referred to Seymour as having almost a helpless dependence on God, almost childlike.

The Azusa Revival touched many people, in Los Angeles, and around the world. Many were filled with the Holy Ghost, with the evidence of tongues, at the revival. Many were healed. Many were anointed for the ministry. All who came in contact with God were humbled in His presence.

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Jeanita’s blog:
Jeanita’s website:

Jeanita’s book: An Open Letter to the Church: On Faith, Holiness, and Being Full of the Holy Ghost (Get this book!)

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Recommended Reading: (Books about the Azusa Revival)

The Azusa Street Mission and Revival

(This is the first book I read about the Azusa Street Revival. The book is insightful, and spiritually enlightening. And the testimonies are powerful and spine-tingling!)

The Azusa Street Revival: An Eyewitness Account

(Frank Bartleman was a penniless preacher who hungered for God and had almost a helpless dependence on God, and an unwavering faith in God’s power.

Barleman’s accounts of him laboring in prayer for hours, and expecting God to answer those prayers for revival, healing, miracles, and a fresh outpouring of His Spirit, makes the Christian hunger and thirst for such sweet communion with the Father.)

Azusa Street was the most worldwide it represented all the races in peoples of the world like no other revival that I know I've been history since the day of Pentecost even when I've been in Africa I said to Africans it's not a white man's religion have you ever heard William Seymour in Azusa Street yeah most of them have not heard right and I think that's a I think the Lord knew what he was doing when he chose Seymour in Azusa Street mainly among blacks to bring one of the greatest revivals in history now there are about 400 million Pentecostals and Kara's makes in the world and like I say you can trace it back to Azusa Street Azusa Street was like a mother giving birth once she's given birth my mother eventually will die but she's done her historic sure art and the zoo zoos we played this dark part of birthing Pentecostalism to the whole world know I've been to German I've been to just Russia recently all of the European all over the world in the literature of the early days they always would trace it back to Azusa Street you'll find that everywhere so that's what identified the movement worldwide is a Pentecostal movement and whether they knew that Seymour was black or not I don't know but certainly I think you could make a point like Sydney ahlstrom did for me al that Seymour is the most important black religious leader in the history of America I think you could make a good case of that absolute and as OU's the street is the most important address you know the Lutheran's the Reformation has Wittenberg door right and the methods have all this great street I think Azusa Street will take its place in in church history as one of the most important addresses of all Christian history fifteen years out of a man's life is a lot for anything why is it that you happen to pick a zoos the street and wait him see more all right well there are a couple of reasons I think one is that I've been reared in the Pentecostal movement all of my life I've grown up with the story of Azusa Street I've heard many many of the things about it I've met a number of people that went there at one time or another but I have never seen written anywhere the whole story this is recorded history for all of God's people for the next hour we employ you let's put aside our denominational beliefs traditions and barriers God the Father doesn't look at one as Catholic the others Methodists or say that one's Baptist and she's Full Gospel he simply sees the blood of his beloved Jesus and looks into your heart so let our hearts cry out for another mighty outpouring of this holy spirit as he did for those that cried out to him in the early 1900s you see it as OU's a mission all races sexes classes and nations gathered in a miracle on Azusa Street to offer the church an opportunity ever for restoring its loss fullness Seymour called for all Christians who honored Christ to come together saying we recognize every man that honors the blood of Jesus to be our brother regardless of denomination creed or doctor within the first month of its opening vast crowds of people from almost every class nationality and race gathered at a zoo submissions these were the days of the strictest Jim Crow segregation laws however what God was offering was so vital that racist or proud whites laid aside their prejudice to worship besides agents Hispanics to humbly receive Seymour's leadership produced the embodiment of the Apostle Paul's vision for the church there's neither Jew nor Greek there is neither bond nor free there is neither male nor female for ye are all one in Christ Jesus and deed Seymour carried the Christian community beyond what was possible in the Apostolic days because Los Angeles in 1906 was a vast melting pot for varied races and nationalities within two years a small black prayer meeting exploded to a momentum of being established in over 50 nations across the world Seymour's newspaper began in 1906 with 5000 copies and grew to a global acceptance of 50,000 missionaries were both coming and going faster than Seymour could properly tabulate not only had lost dope addicts and drunkards wandered in to receive salvation but veteran clergy and seasoned missionaries came with open hearts to receive more of God some came from as far away as China and India Seymour said this is meant to spread over the entire earth we are on the verge of the greatest miracle the world has ever seen barliman wrote the opportunity of a lifetime of centuries is at our door in acts 2 it declares when the day of Pentecost came they were all together in one place suddenly there came a sound like the blowing of a rushing wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting they saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them all of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the spirit enabled in eighteen hundreds of mighty outpouring of the Holy Ghost fell in Russia a quarter of a century later the outpouring fell in Armenia and uneducated you with under the power of the Holy Ghost wrote a prophecy warning that many Christians would be martyred unless they escaped to America their God would prosper them at the end of 1900 as Parham was departing for field ministry he left an assignment for his Bible students who were studying the book of Acts that they determined what should be the New Testament evidence of the baptism in the Holy Ghost one of these students agnes osmond gives her account on watch night we had a blessed service praying that God's blessings you know might rest upon us because the new year came in during the first day of 1901 the presence of the Lord was with us in a marked way healing hearts to wait upon him for greater things the spirit of prayer was upon us in the evening it was nearly eleven o'clock on the 1st of January when it came to my heart to ask that hands might be laid upon me that I might receive the gift of the Holy Ghost as hands were laid upon my head the Holy Spirit fell on me and I began to speak in tongues glorify God I had to added joy that my heart longed for they have a death of the presence of the Lord within that I never knew before she was as if rivers of living water were Pristina for my innermost being contrary to popular belief the first year the 20th century was not 1900 but 1901 the year ending in zero is the last year the preceding century so on the first day of the new year of this new century the Holy Spirit fell on agnes osmond as she was filled and horrified God other students wanted to speak in tongues but I told them not to see for time but to seek for the Holy Ghost it was so much later that I was fully persuaded in my own heart about the evidence of the baptism I watched some nine nine different ones receive the Holy Spirit saying to myself and before God I will see if everyone talks in tongues and one by one everyone received the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues because the Spirit gave them utterance forum received the fillion of the Holy Spirit soon after his return to properly understand the Azusa outpoint that then rippled throughout the United States and indeed spread around the globe one must first visit the Welsh revival of 1904 through 1906 this major revival began its prayer meetings with less than 20 intercessors but when it flowed forth the churches of Wales were crowded for more than two years more than 20% of the population was converted and then added to the church's grayed-out points do not just change people but indeed they change even the society and environment drunkenness was immediately cut in half and many taverns went bankrupt crime was so diminished that judges were presented with white gloves signifying there were no cases of murder assault rape or robbery to consider police became unemployed in many districts it was even said that work in the coal mines grounded to a halt not due to strikes between laborers and employers but because so many foul-mouthed miners became converted and stopped using their habitual foul language that the horses which hauled the code trucks and the mines now could no longer understand what was being said to them transportation does grounded to a halt Evan Roberts became the most publicized preacher in the world his slogan remove human resistance to God's will and change the world by 1905 several of the Armenian families heeding the prophecy of the late 1800s had indeed fled Armenia and migrated to Los Angeles California the Armenians established a Pentecostal church at 9:19 Boston Street in the large home of Danish Aquarian who was father of Isaac grandfather of day mmus now president of the Full Gospel Business men's fellowship International the city of Los Angeles in 1905 had a population of less than 300 thousand less than 6000 were black compared to today's LA County population of 8 million 800,000 with over 900,000 blacks throughout Los Angeles there was an undercurrent of Prayer a crying out for more of God the religious setting in America that time also was really a time of great religious ferment you can't say people were apathetic the holiness movement had just recently separated from the Methodist Church there were hundreds of small hole in these groups all over the country in which Sousa Street started as part of the holiness movement and a lot of people in the mainline Protestant churches at that time were interested in the baptism the Holy Spirit Scofield said more books have been written about the Holy Spirit in the 1890s then in all previous history the place was fertile also for what has later become known as new religious movements the the Christian Science was moving into Southern California through a highly touted suit that Mary Baker Eddy's son was suing her over certain things what became known as the job Jehovah's Witnesses at that time was known as millennial Don that was being brought to Southern California at that time the Mormons were making major inroads so it was an area where these more sectarian and cultic type groups were meeting the local newspaper had a regular one the local newspaper had a regular column for the spiritualist Church in which it taught people how to give seances and use the Ouija board and all of those kinds of things he began to hold water known as protracted meetings that would mean that they would meet at the church every single night of the week and they met that way for 16 weeks and sometimes those services would go on until 1:00 and 2:00 o'clock in the morning sometimes they could go around the clock but they were an extended period of time where people prayed they sought God for revival and one of the interesting things about him was that he was preaching that many of the gifts of the Spirit including speaking in tongues and prophecy and healing and miracles would be brought back into the church as a result of a latter-day revival that they hoped that they were praying in so he had been preaching from first Corinthians chapter 12 and telling his congregation to expect these kinds of phenomena to take place it strikes me it's very interesting that revivals almost inevitably take place among the lower classes and not among the upper classes that it it goes from the bottom up if you would through the class system and I think the reason is because these people are powerless they're alienated from culture and from the structures of power and they actually for a day-to-day sustenance they must turn to God because that's the only hope that they have they are desperate people and when that desperation turns to a quest after God then suddenly God moves in on their behalf and begins to do things that they hadn't anticipated and that's precisely the way it went about in the holiness movement of the nineteenth century and on up into the Pentecostal revival of the 20th century it began at the bottom it began in the storefronts it began at the brush arbors it began in the homes and it began among the poor the black the alienated the uneducated and it moved its way up through the class system as a result of them telling their story to the next to their neighbor in and it moving around others didn't know how to handle the hunger during this time in Angeles Julie Hutchins a black woman and eight other families are expelled from their church for stating and believing holiness teachings eventually they started their own mission at ninth in Santa Fe and joined the Southern California holiness Association in the interim Seymour in Rose and Charles Parham Bible class due to strong segregation laws seymour cannot sit inside with the other white students but sits outside in the hallway listening to par hams teachings they are varying reports as to the length of time that seymour sat outside of par hems class some cite a few days others say weeks all agree it could not have been over a month seymour then informs Parham he has accepted position as pastor and departs for los angeles seymour preaches on many Christian themes and although he himself has not received the baptism of the Holy Spirit he states it should be part of every believers experience including speaking in tongues as the Spirit gives utterance Julia Hutchins who was expelled by her church for believing differently or going too far now padlock see more out of her church his beliefs apparently going too far but what he believed having been with parem that she had not yet accepted was this third step namely this baptism in the Holy Spirit which was evidenced by the Bible evidence were speaking in tongues that went one step farther than she was prepared to go at that particular point in hundred now with no church no money and no place to live seymour becomes the fourth guest of mr. and mrs. edward lee most of his time spent in prayer and fasting Richard and Ruth Asbury beckoned Seymour to hold prayer meetings at their home to 14 Bonnie Brae note in 1910 according to the Los Angeles City Directory the address was changed to 216 for several months a small prayer group gathered at Bonnie Brae to seek a deeper experience from God this group is mostly black with a sprinkling of white visitors which included Frank Bart Ehrman and mrs. Osterberg God definitely called my to reduce the street there was an opposition that my father had a part I fasted prayed he would fast for days tough some people thought he was going to die there was a effort against that services some way the enemy what was out to destroy my father had a gift of travail he would pray for hours and hours would go by and he would ever be conscious of the prayer that he'd that they're praying that he'd gone through that his life accomplished a lot of deliverances that the enemy was trying to destroy you might say that he often referred himself to a colleague like Martin Luther had to braid something Seymour's nightly prayer meetings continued as the spirit would rise and then seemingly ebb Seymour then sent train fare to Lucy Farrow who already had the baptism and Jay a worn both residing in Houston April 1906 Evan Roberts suffering from exhaustion retires from public ministry April 6 1906 Seymour and his group enter into a 10 day fast determined to get more of God April 8th was Palm Sunday 1906 Monday April 9 Seymour visits Lee at home about 6:00 in the evening to pray for his recovery from illness Lee feels much better at once and requests prayer for receiving the Holy Spirit with the expected sign in response to Seymour's prayer Lee bursts forth in glossolalia both men are ecstatic seemingly walked the short distance to Bonnie brave for the prayer meeting Seymour opens the service was song and then is best remembered with prayer from the congregation and several testimonies he rises to begin and never-to-be-forgotten sermon announcing his Texas acts 2:4 and they were all filled with the Holy Ghost and began to speak with other tongues as the Spirit gave them utterance he lifts his hands opens his mouth and electrifies everyone with the torrent of glossolalia cuts the entire company is swept to its knees in an out point of glossolalia and sudden joy such as brother Hughes and sister trainer her son bud and daughter sis all praising God in the spirit as the young daughter rushed into the living room young bud was on the front porch prophesy Jenny Evans Moore who owned the house across the street began speaking in tongues Jenny did not know how to play the piano but now being filled with the spirit she plays beautifully in with a beautiful voice incredibly sings in six foreign languages with interpretations these gifts of tongues singing and plain stayed throughout her life and now fame piano still sits in the Bonnie Brae home even now there are conflicting reports as how and who was filled first by the spirit that night some reports claim Lucy Farrell from Houston prayed and laid hands on people others say a young boy was first to be filled but all reports agree that it happened this night Monday April 9th 1906 ironically Seymour did not receive that night but continued to preach the message the next three days were filled with spiritual all and joy the initial group of black cooks Ross women janitors and Porter's are joined by large crowds of blacks and whites within the next three nights Seymour – is filled by the Spirit of God describing the experience he states as I sank slowly to the floor it was like fiery hot rain falling upon me melting my heart with divine love the news spread rapidly throughout families homes and neighborhoods the house now was too small to accommodate so the front porch became the pulpit the front lawn and street became the pews I'm sitting in the house in Los Angeles California on 2:16 North Bonnie Brae street in this particular house something great took place that really touched church history I'm with dr. art glass and we're gonna talk a little bit about this event now I'm understanding dead there was a great outpouring of the Holy Spirit that took place right in this living room is that correct that's correct it was a two sixteen at this house in April of April the 9th 1906 and God moved in a mysterious way he blessed and filled those that were situated here around the table with the Holy Ghost my goodness so they're famous Azusa Street revival our outpouring – some call it literally took place before the Azusa Street mission in this living room is that correct almost certainly it started here and the reason that they moved was because the house became too small to accommodate the audience the house as it sits today is it similar as it was in 1906 it's basically the same same house the same layout now in this house they actually have services or was this a Bible study or a prayer meeting or what used to take place in this house in 1906 brother Asbury and his wife suggested that they come here and pray and fast which they did and that they were seated here they begin praying and fasting then that's about when it occurred so it's just really a prayer meeting it was a premie in a regular person's home so it was not a church or a cathedral was not so once again we see God using ordinary situations to do extraordinary things now how did you get involved I'm understanding the story that they almost took this house from us and then you helped get involved and helped to save this historic kind of place learning that was an escrow we were and I sure as to what they the new owners have planned to do and we discovered that they had planned to tear down and build a complex of apartments that's amazing to me because when we talk about history church history you would think that more Christians would have an understanding of what actually took place here and this is part of our heritage where you know you can go somewhere like in Memphis Tennessee and they have a memorial there to Elvis Presley but we're talking about thousands of people have been changed through what took place in this living room that's true that's tremendous now are there a lot of people that come and even visit this site today and to find out what took place oh yeah there are thousands of people still come to this building and buses and cars and vans on a monthly basis this yearly even be perfect even before we purchased the building this was in diamond course we didn't mat know that that house was so recognized about so many people but there are a number of schools in the area that bring their students special especially be religious schools they bring their students out here to see the building and they come out and some just come out on the sidewalk and pray why did you get involved in preserving this house for church history tell us why dr. glass got involved in this I became involved because I thought that was a very necessary thing for us to preserve one of the last relics of the church this is the only physical relic that we know how of the early revival of 1906 revival and this was of course the latter-day rain not boring what so happened that people begin to hear about this all over Los Angeles and they would come to this little house and they would meet in the living room well after a while deliveryman got too small and they had to come out into the porch and William steamer would stand up on this porch and teach the word of God and they would pray and they would fast and one particular night the took places that people got so excited up on the porch and the courts actually collapsed well with all the people coming coming night after night as Seymour was preaching and they were out here on the porch it was obvious that they needed a new place for me 3:12 Azusa Street one of the most famous addresses in the world is no more near downtown Los Angeles this is the area that surrounds where those emissions once stood Leon 3:12 Azusa Street has been a very famous address which took place right here in the spot well initially in 1888 the African Methodist churches arrested yet there was one of the first black churches in Los Angeles California then they moved to the porters gym and the building basically became deserted it was later rented out it became a warehouse upstairs and basically which used to the horse stables down there as you know the Bonnie Brae just became so crowded that William Seymore started looking for another location they were reminded of this particular location they came to 312 they named it elusive commissions Nelson reported that the first mention of Azusa was made by father Juan Crespi in 1769 a name derived from the Shoshone Indian language one of the initial Azusa women was a student of Indian folklore and received her story from an old Indian woman now baptized and living in the Mission of San Juan Capistrano she remembers legend has it that in a small Indian village there lived a simple Indian maiden highly spiritual she always fasted and prayed and at a young age she was bestowed with a divine gift the people said that when she laid hands upon the sick the suffering lifted and they were healed so for many territories the hurt and suffering came to be healed legend continues that a powerful chief was dying his own medicine men could work no cure so they carried him to the region of the young maiden used to here the maiden ministered to him and after falling into a deep sleep the powerful chief awakened healed proclaiming she shall be called Azusa the blessed miracle so whenever there was pain and suffering people said go to a zoo go to a zoo and be here the legend spread throughout the California even after the Indian made his work was done the place where she lived and worked in her memory continued to be called a zoo zoo in place of the countless healings the blessed miracle a young pastor Arthur Astor Berg who later became superintendent for the Assemblies of God Church was at that time straw boss for the McNeil construction company Osterberg personally paid a crew of co-workers to come and help clear debris Osterberg stated this is what made a Sousa different even as we went to initially do a cleanup we were met by several black ladies who began praying for the men one of the workers a Roman Catholic fell to his knees amid the clutter and burst into tears this is remembered as the first manifestation of the Spirit at Azusa missions and services had yet to begin junk was hauled out the place was washed down sawdust was put on the floors large nail kegs were brought in and wooden planks were placed across them for benches JV McNeil himself a Catholic provided lumber for the altar two large wooden shoe boxes were placed one atop the other this would be Seymour's token they used the large shoebox I used to wonder what these shoeboxes were but Seymour's always depicted as having his head in a shoebox it I've seen one they must be about four feet long or three and a half feet long about two feet wide and about two and two feet high Austen Berg described the mission the Azusa Street mission measured 60 feet by 40 feet 2,400 square feet austere Berg's figure of eight hundred persons inside before the days of fire regulations allowed three square feet per person a not unreasonable estimate since the people crowded into every available bit of space and the sparse furniture was set close together many stood throughout the services the windows and doors were knocked out single their electric bulbs coming from the ceilings behind the building stood a small cottage and outhouse a few large trees on the east side provided shade a wooden sidewalk around the base gave some protection from the dirt yard and unpaved street one long room upstairs the upper room was furnished with chairs and a red wood planks supported by abacus chairs used for prayer a sign caution no talking above a whisper Azusa missions took no routine offerings during service instead large tin mailboxes were nailed along the walls a sign above them read settled with the Lord people deposited offerings as they were moved money was as quickly drawn out for those in need it was said say more gave money to whomever was in need when Barbara Minh left for his global tour only Azusa of all the Los Angeles mission gave him an office there were numerous rooms upstairs see more and more than 12 full-time workers made their home on this upper level there were hard wooden planks to sit on if you were fortunate enough to get a seat at all 600 to 800 persons squeezed inside with at times another 400 pressing in from outside around every doorway and window leadless to mention there was no air conditioning and most didn't wear deodorant the summer of 1906 was unusually hot inside as OOOs emissions that temperature was stifling and then there were flies fly deposited in the previous debris were still hatching on the bottom floor they had had horses and a lot of junk in there there was a pretty dirty place in fact one of the newspapers reporters who visited the Azusa Street mission early on said that the horses had hardly been separated from the Flies the Azusa Street mission was notorious for its flies in the middle of this summer of 1906 he was a likeable kind of fellow and I remember hearing stories from from people at least two people that talked about the fact that they might be lying on the floor praising the Lord and one of the things I remember is brother Seymour coming off over and shooing the Flies away so so is that they could have a little piece without being crawled all over by these flies in this very hot atmosphere there in the zoo so street it was a low ceiling place and one reporter said that you had to stick your head under the seats in order to get a breath of fresh air you can imagine 1906 summertime with no deodorants and and so forth that you really probably had a problem there Seymour designed an unusual seating arrangement he placed the pulpit in the center of the room with the altar in front of it serving as a bench for persons to use following the invitation the fuse formed a circle surrounding the pulpit an altar all on one level this depicted Seymour's vision of oneness in equality Nelson reported worshippers gathered in a new way completely equal in the house of God the body of Christ not a collection of individuals looking over the back of many heads simply to the clergy or choir but an intimate whole serving one another one of the significant things about the Pentecostal renewal at the turn of the century was that every person was a potential participant there are stories about services at the Azusa Street mission for instance in which the newspaper reporter would say if you had a verse of scripture to give you stood up and you gave you had a testimony of what God had done in your life that day you stood up and you told what God had done in your life so there was an opportunity for every single person to participate in it and they were encouraged not only to participate as they gather together but to participate by telling the story over the fence to the neighbor who was hanging up clothes in the backyard or or whatever to talk to the street car attendant or to talk to people at work so it became really as a grassroots of people's movement this unconventional CD plan revealed Seymour's conviction that events transpiring at Azusa Mission were different unique and revolutionary Jesus was too large for the synagogue he preached outside because there was not room for him inside this Pentecostal movement is too large to be confined in any denomination or sect it works outside drawing all together in one bond of love one church one body of Christ Harper sighted Azusa missions Seine it was in this simple building that a few ignited an international movement which was to circle the globe and fifty years later penetrate even the sophisticated circles of the Episcopal and other churches the Bonnie Brae location was in a safe nice middle-class neighborhood however the Azusa location was in a part of town deemed undesirable regardless of what race you happen to be however people flooded in people described the phenomenon as such news has spread far and wide that Los Angeles is being visited with a rushing mighty wind from heaven the how and why of it is to be found and the very opposite of those conditions that are usually thought necessary for big no choir but bands of angels have been heard by some in the spirit and there is a heavenly singing that is inspired no collections are taken there no bills have been posted to advertise the meeting no church organization is in the back of it you find a two-story whitewashed old building you would hardly expect heavenly visitations there unless you remember the stable of Bethlehem man would have chosen palaces or multi-million dollar cathedrals but it was here and with these that God chose to display his awesomeness the Los Angeles Times in a reporter to Azusa on Tuesday night April 17th the next morning the paper carried a sensational account saying even for Los Angeles home of numerous creeds the new sect made startling claims a prominent rabbi present professed to have been miraculously healed and welcomed into the group the article closed citing a speaker who prophesied all for destruction to this city unless its citizens turned to God the article appeared on page one of section two Wednesday April 18 1906 the day of the great San Francisco earthquake one of the worst in world history 300,000 of the city's 400,000 population became homeless 10,000 estimated dead as gas and water mains ruptured causing fires throughout the city tremors continue for an hour buildings collapse in surrounding towns as far away as 60 miles firefighters were forced to dynamite many more buildings in an effort to control sweeping fires tremendous tremors shook Los Angeles forcing people out of their buildings in his diary barliman reports how he felt the shocks during noon prayer at Vanille Hall sensing the divine purpose at work and purposely distributed 10,000 tracts entitled the last call followed by 75,000 more now there are spiritual tremors rippling through Los Angeles zoo's emissions is operating daily with three services morning afternoon and evening often running continuously in an interview with dr. Leonard Lovett maxi Jonas remembered I originally went by this gift testified Jonas then went to the altar and dedicated his life later becoming a bishop in the Church of God in Christ we're so honored to have Fred greasing her with us today you know he may be one of the only eye witnesses of people who were actually there at the Azusa Street revival fred is 90 years young and he's gonna tell us some interesting things about what took place but what were some interesting stories that you can tell us today about what took place at Azusa Street well a biggest story of course was the fact that that the word got out that the holy spirit was being given that's the first thing my father at the time was it was a choir leader at the German Baptist Church within not too far from where Azusa Street as sembly was and when he heard that there was an outpouring of the Holy Spirit he would he would lead his choir and go out the back door and Ryan down the mezuzah Street there's the street was on Sampson right off of san pedro street and there was a streetcar line went down san pedro street there was there were no automobiles lavinia none as far as going services are concerned same thing went for the the upper room mission everyone walked or took streetcar and then walked at that time I was seven years old we presumed so because my brother and I have talked about this for years what what ages we were because both of us started at ninth in San Pedro and both of us started when the San Francisco earthquake in 1906 people were seeking the Lord they come in there and go right down to the altar start praying the upstairs was the Tyrian back then both believed you had to tear it for the spear but many were filled by the spirit just as a set in the lower room as many as nine services were held in one day Lord immerses the meetin's continued day and night in Azusa was open 24 hours a day for three straight years it was said that people's will come in they kneel down and they pray then with their eyes closed they quietly wait for God to do his work and in the beginning there was no punana not even know him book they would sing on impulse two favorite songs was the company has come and under the blood yes yes yes a spontaneous singing in the spirit as if suddenly singing with the heavenly choir would send shim runs of God's presence throughout the whole room usually Seymour sat with his head bowed inside his shoe box punky allowing God's Spirit to run to me only those that knew that they was anointed with the message for that night retreat it was said that interpretations messages and prophecies were given with such power it was as if God Himself were speaking one evening has damage to carrion and several Armenian friends were walking down the street they heard familiar sounds the worshippers at Azusa shouting singing and praying as in their old Armenian services the Armenians joyfully spread the news God was now moving in America as he had in Armenia Russia and of course in and through the early church fathers within 30 days of moving completely to Azusa Street a surge of interest brings throngs of virtually every race nationality and social class on earth to Seymour's congregation largest crowds came on Sundays with services running from 7:00 a.m. until midnight or later Nelson reports the Azusa miracle appears as the racial color line disappears whites begin to far outnumber blacks and their pride is laid aside most of Joseph's smells New Testament church leaves for Azusa both AG Garn and Arthur Osterberg bring their entire congregations to Azusa to many the old barn like mission building serves as a reminder of the manger of Bethlehem it was probably the most significantly integrated Church in the whole of Los Angeles that blacks and whites mingled together freely there especially between 1906 and 1909 and then in another move that took place in 1911 or 1912 it began to attract large numbers of whites there were some whites at Bonnie Brae though in the house meetings but soon after it became noised abroad and became famous worldwide at one point there were more whites and blacks in Azusa Street there was a long time maybe a couple of years where the majority were white it seems to me that the first ones in Azusa Street that spoke with tongues that caused the sensation were blacks when I read LA Times and read the reports it's always black women black men who are speaking with tongues but white people were extremely interested in it and and they weren't just the poor there were theologians who came and many were turned off but there was some pretty well-educated people who accepted Pentecost there and the big thing was that they would ask this black man to lay hands on them which was unthinkable at the time Los Angeles was called the American Jerusalem because every religion in the world was there even non-christian religion every culture in every culture and when you look at the zoo the street there were Mexicans there there were Russians there Chinese blacks whites you have just about every kind of person Jews were there two years of Glorieta zoos emissions Reverend 8ji car leads a party of five is the first missionaries to depart for India and China Seymour's congregation raises $1,200 within 15 minutes to provide their transportation expenses $1,200 was a lot of money in 1906 one worship service of Holy Communion and foot washing is composed of over 20 nationalities lasting until dawn Seymour begins publishing the Apostolic Faith newspaper which immediately circulates around the world with 50,000 copies per issue papers often passing from hand to hand until worn out reports and newspapers reach India ahead of the gars arousing keen interest and starting the movement their interested persons began arriving at Azusa Street from all over the USA and as far away as China volunteers meet incoming trains veteran pastors and missionaries tell of finding their heart's desire Thomas ball Barrett Methodist pastor from Norway joins the movement in New York City at a meeting held by Azusa missionaries in route to Africa Barrett returns to Europe to begin an influential Pentecostal ministry Anglican vicar a a body in England welcomes Barrett's new message describes the movement as surpassing the Welsh revival and begins an outreach that affects the far-flung British Empire from January to November the panic of 1907 brings economic hardship to the u.s. a new york stock exchange prices collapsed Dow Industrials plunge 45% however work under seymour expands and flourishes the mission incorporates elects trustees and buys the property for fifteen thousand in gold coin pain $4,000 cash as down payment william h durham of chicago visits the mission he calls seymour the leader of the movement under god amicus man I ever met he walks and talks with God his power is in his weakness he seems to maintain a helpless dependence on God and is as simple hearted as a little child and at the same time is so filled with God that you feel the love and power every time you get near him and I've heard that people came from literally all over the world who come to this was mad that take people criss cross around the world as people were leaving a zoo the missions to go to China and Africa and Russia and other parts as missionaries people were coming from all parts of the world to see what God was doing attitudes emissions as a matter of fact the mission had people posted at the train station to bring in the visitors and take them directly to his OU's emissions because people were coming from all around the world to Los Angeles not recite see but to see this mighty move of God and I've heard that day and night from 1906 to 1909 that they had services at the Azusa Street place services mom stopped him there was always something going on the move of God was going on and people were invited to come whenever they were led to come people were upstairs carrying waiting for the baptism of the Holy Spirit downstairs there were people praying there are people singing there were people studying the Word of God it was a non-stop meeting as a matter of fact there were several instances with a fire department caught in because people said that there were flames on the roof that the building was on fire the fire department came but nothing was burning down it was just the glory of God on the building what moved it beyond this kind of a regional mentality that apparently really overwhelmed the movement as it as it focused around Charles Parham in the South there South Central us is the fact that this really had a centrifugal kind of an understanding of this message it was to go everywhere so that within a year you can trace missionaries to the Middle East or to Europe or to Africa or to Latin America or to the Far East in a variety of places and on up into Canada so it really had a major impact this was faith missions at its best you know Vincent cynon talks about the missionaries in their one-way tickets they had no source of support once they were there it was totally on faith and they picked up their families and they went as missionaries to Liberia and within three months virtually all of them had died from Blackwater fever kind of a side effect from having overdosed on on quinine too as a result of malaria problems so it was a sad story but at the same time they founded a church which a year and a half later when when the first really white missionaries went to Africa in West Liberia and so forth they found a church of about two hundred and fifty people going very strongly there in Monrovia Africa Liberia so it carried both good and negative kinds of things and it was the tightest tightest paper said a bad a real it tells you bad to see what was all about and as he set in the meetings there were little children that dance did the Spirit and prophesied and the prophecy that they gave at the language they used was not for little children it was for it thought of intelligent people and that's what changed his mind he said how could little chiller like this this must be real then the children can't act like this said talk like this one time at the Upper Room mission mother got up during the Sorek service I began speaking in tongues and it was seemingly under the Holy Spirit there wasn't it no one to interpret it but at the close of the service there was a man came up and talked the brother stunned and said where did that lady learn that dialect and he says well she didn't learn that that was under the influence of the Holy Spirit he's filled with the Holy Spirit he's all a lot I don't understand that's beyond me and so on and and he left has a following service or whether it is that same week or very shortly after mother got up the second time and spoke in tongues same way and this time this man came running he says that woman is telling me that gets my heart straightened out with dog in a in a dialect from middle Africa she knew nothing about it there was no public interpretation of what she said but this man was a total outsider and he came up and gave his heart to God when he when she saw him that the reason you're here is for you to accept Jesus we went one night to the meeting when we heard them speaking in tongue he merely scared me to death I thought this is the way I feel I don't want to go back mr. McGowen said you would better be careful this is a God so I kept going back one not five or six women began singing in the spirit I was spellbound I had never heard such singing it sounded like angels singing they couldn't deny because the singing it was beautiful singing in the holy spirit the meetings went on every night with a full house sinners would pass the door come in and get saved the fire of God came down on me from the top of my head to the tip of my baritone truly it was like a live cold touch my lips little lost getting safe being filled with the spirit demons cast out in miraculous healings were daily occurrences at Azusa many swore that the power could be felt even blocks away the demonstrations are not the shouting clapping or jumpings of often seen in camp meetings there is a shaking such as the early Quakers had and which the old method is called the jerks it is while under the power of the Spirit you see the hands raved and here speaking in tongues our one sings a song learned from heaven with a shining face tears will be trickling down other faces many receive the spirit through the laying on of hands as they did through Paul and Ephesus a lot of people had been praying for Pentecost and when they said it's happened and people are speaking with tongues like the Apostles all the day of Pentecost that was tremendously attractive and I think it was this is this or is this not the promise latter ring that attracted people and they came with that question in mind some people saw it and said it's just black country dark he can't mean he stunts yeah the shouting and the falling others said this is that latter ring we've been praying for because the gifts of the Spirit began to operate that was what made it unique they would speak with tongues they would interpret they would sing in tongues they would prophesy they would give interpretations and healings galore at the end of 1909 the walls of Azusa Street were covered with crutches of people who'd been a bracelet canes and braces so I think the the idea went out across the world that the the last day revival has actually begun where nobody ever expected it to begin in a black church in Los Angeles in America the last place most people would have thought and yet it happened and people recognized the moral leadership of Seymour because he was pastor in Azusa Street the Lord not fall down and he got up trembling and saying Lord what will that help me do the Lord knocked all the worldly wisdom out of Paul that is the reason he knocked so many people down here and take the worldly wisdom out of them Paul was a man full of the wisdom and knowledge of this world but when he got the baptism with the Holy Spirit he was able to tell us about the true wisdom and true knowledge of God so that was one of the things that they were striving for is hoid us to get closer to God and to please God in their life and everything they said it did that was what do they eat everyone thinks it caused Azusa Street to progress said God being able to use the people oh yes oh yes they live different lives they had fear of doing wrong fear of displeasing God and they were very careful to find out what God wanted them to all God want them to live and what he wanted them to do and talk about I know what churches are like here today I've been through the lots of them for a long time and the formalities have got me down pretty bad I just it's a it's a song and then it's a it's a prayer and then there's a then there's a collection and then there's a special song and then the choirs song and then there's a message and then there's an invitation in that sad that's an hour and 15 minutes oh I don't know young man I'm not I'm not as happy as I was in the older days because we were led by the Spirit of God and that's when you're a son of God and I tell you too much formalities these days hasn't helped me any at all it was yeah outpouring of people that we draw their and boast of their reason they were drawing their is they were hungry for God my father was about here not to speak at uggs but to get closer to God and know God and he never sought speaking tuggs he and my mother were great in singing songs its missions and the way my father received the Holy Ghost was he wasn't trying to just waiting on God and all of a sudden he started to sing in another language and he had a good voice my father had a good voice and he was conscious of some power taking him over and he sang in another language that thrilled his way beyond anything he'd ever experienced in life years later at a camp meeting mr. Grissom Joe remembers when he was touched and I wandered into this little tent meeting and sat down in the front front row there wasn't anyone else there and as they testify thank the Lord for salvation thank the Lord for the baptismal Holy Spirit and so I thought well why not I stood up as I thank the Lord for salvation and I'd like to be filled with the Holy Spirit I went unconscious I did not know nor did anyone touch me no afraid for me no one sang to me or anything else and I went on and when I came to I had my arms up there and speaking in tongues and I couldn't talk English all night a kid 12 years old on on this one occasion Marie came and told the folks that she was sick and all of a sudden she started falling with her legs and having it to Detective julio and her speech start deliever well for days that two or three days or I won't say two or three I don't know exactly how long not too long we were in difficulty because the school was getting ready to close us down and the Health Department was coming out they were going to they were going to close us down and mother and dad took three make this as short as I can mother and dad took Marie took her out and walked her up and down the walkway the dirt road and over to the edge of the hill and back again and that same day dad said to the devil sis you get out of here we won't have you stay away from us and we are going we rebuke you we're not going to take it before the day was over the Apolo was completely healed completely in she's 85 years old now I have awful lot of respect for my father's prayer life he prayed for hours under travail travail wasn't something it they cooked up at the spirit with kabadi because I've sensed it myself when I got saved I asked God to give me travail and I would pray for people that had lost out with God and that Parr would come on me and I would cry out to god at follow Maddie's and I couldn't get released until I had prayed through for this person there's a spirit wicked spirit world that's we come back we're fighting against and we're in the Old Testament they fought with swords this world we fight the enemy by combating the enemy in prayer the newspapers just really killed something terrible this old mad spoken tugs and they put him out of the church the whole church in general turned against the outpouring they were called all kinds of names holy rollers and holy jumpers and tangled tuggers and and I suppose they ultimately came up with the tongues movement which is probably a misnomer as well but you'd have to look at the Azusa Street mission and say there was a lot of stuff that was going on that probably most Pentecostal churches today would look at and say what's that again kids were often put outside on their own while their parents went inside and of course the Health Department was down on their necks because of the lack of ventilation and lack of supervision for kids and all kinds of complaints the noise level some people complained that they could hear them screaming and yelling three blocks away and they would testify in court to that in fact many of these people were harassed by the local police department or by citizens I have newspaper clippings of at least nine people who were committed to either psychiatric wards in the local jail or they were placed in hospital psychiatric hospitals simply because they spoke in tongues and and were part of this burgeoning Pentecostal movement here in Los Angeles the Los Angeles Ministerial Association filed complaint that Azusa mission is a public disturbance in demands action to close it police survey nearby businesses but they do not support the complaint Azusa Street services continued Azusa workers in Los Angeles and nearby towns are sometimes arrested by police who do not approve of public evangelism in Whittier Henry McLean accepts 30 days of the chain gang rather than leave town continuing his ministry cheerfully among his fellow prisoners I have been the meetings we're all crowded round the old a laying across one another like whole blacks and whites in England it should be nothing to bring a blush ashamed to tell let alone age and yet all of this wood laid on a holy gold one of the interesting things about all of this is the newness of it nowhere in their history in the holiness movement in the Methodist Church or in any of the other mainline churches were any of these phenomena present there were no Mentors there were no teachers they were learning by experience and they were trying to test their experience against the the Word of God in fact one of the things that they were learning was that in early Pentecostalism there was this idea that if God was granting the gift of languages that languages was not simply a verbal or aural kind of thing it was also something that one could write and so there were these experiments in which they would pray that God would give them the gift of tongues and that they could write in tongues and then they would pray for interpretations to ride alongside so that you would have these what looked like chicken Scrolls and they were interpreted by someone in their in in their midst and in fact they made the newspapers as early as Charles Parham back in Topeka Kansas in 1901 there were some of these things put into the local paper in the Los Angeles Times carried a major article on one saturday or sunday seymour makes a comment in and in the very the very first issue of the apostolic faith that we now have people in our myths who can write in tongues about three or four months later he writes and he says we've been checking this experience against the Word of God and we don't find anything in the word about writing in tongues so it's probably better that we don't engage in this sort of thing so they were doing some theologizing at the time they were trying to discern and and learn and to grow in this process but it meant that along the way they sometimes made mistakes the shouting Methodists go back to the turn to 1800s early 1800s cane Ridge all these things happen with whites and blacks shouting falling out even barking like dogs dancing before the Lord there had been a long history of that but as you say they were mainly among poor people and as the churches became more middle-class and better educated they tried to put that behind them so by the 1900 the people who were still showing these manifestations were the poor people and most of them had left Methodist Church and others to form holiness churches they were mainly poor people black and white the shouting Methodist is shouting holiness people were already in place before the Pentecostal movement started well the Los Angeles Church Federation decided that they were going to meet and decide what do we do with these people at Azusa Street how do we counter this there's a great deal of denial by the Federation that in fact what they were trying to do was undercut what was going on in Azusa Street but it's clear from the reporter's eyes and the reports that are carried in the LA papers that what they what was really up there was the fact that the church Federation authorized the president of that Federation a fellow named Rylan who was pastor of a Methodist Church in Los Angeles to go over to the Azusa Street mission to look to watch to listen and to come away with the decision about the validity or lack thereof of this group he came away with two very important or significant insights one was he felt that they were involved in a lot of fanaticism that could potentially be dangerous or at least lead to insanity on the other hand what he did think was that they were so committed to evangelization and carrying the gospel to people in the city and to telling other people that he thought that the church Federation could profit from a similar kind of an experience so what they do is they come up with a four-hole plan the first point is they want to get all the people in these mainline churches that are members of this Federation to agree to set aside a special time in their own prayer lives a prayer closet if you would to pray for the evangelization of the city and they get people to sign up to become members of this prayer band that that are going to do this and they are committed to pray every day for the evangelization of Los Angeles the second thing they do is they decide that they're going to petition the city of Los Angeles and in particular the police department to get permits to hold public street meetings now one can well imagine holiness churches and Pentecostal churches holding street meetings but it's hard to imagine the local Episcopal Church and the Presbyterian Church and a variety of Baptist churches and disciples of Christ and Methodists all out there doing the same thing in a cooperative effort to win souls to Jesus Christ well what happens is that that begins a series of meetings which lasts on into 1908 and 1909 and you will see in the 1908 papers in Highland Park and for instance every single week they have a photograph of where the local Street meetings are and you'll see the Oregon out on the street and men in their top hats and it was really a revival that took place among businessmen and the newspapers would record how many people were saved and and would record parts of the sermons and and all of these things so that the public was well informed on this and that's a competitive edge that they hope to bring against the Xu's history tonight that's a fairly exciting competitive edge in a sense because the very thing that Smail was praying for namely revival in the city was beginning to happen that's correct that's absolutely correct there's my one Church of God speaking of tongues will never be given to our people who compromise mastectomy we warn all who may be getting their poisonous she called that the Apostolic Faith to be more aware of it consign it to the flames as there's where it spawns will hand unless they see the air of their way and repent you cannot win people by abusing their church all pastor if you get the preaching against churches you will find that sweet Spirit of Christ is lacking and a harsh judging spirit takes its place the churches are not to be blamed for division people were hunting for light they built up denominations because they did not know a better way we are simply a voice shouting behold the lamb of god when we commence shouting something else then Christ will die in us when people run out of the love of God they get to preaching something else preaching dress and meats and doctrines of men and preaching against churches all these denominations are our brother so let us seek peace and not confusion the moment we feel we have all the truth or more than anyone else we will drop I don't think that harem shared the vision of that I don't think that he had the capacity to engender that vision and other people in quite the way that this so simple and yet so stunning experiment called Azusa Street had I think that he was much more dogmatic and much more driven as a leader whereas Seymour would take the back seat and say okay it's time for God to work and so there was a tendency I think to allow God more freedom in a sense through see more than through harem well just look at the major Pentecostal groups in the world just look at the Church of God in Christ where CH Mason and two other men go to Azusa Street a baptized in the spirit speak with tongues come back and a revolution breaks out that church has over three and a half million members of largest Pentecostal church in America look at the symbols of God traces its roots right back to zeusie Street which is a largest Pentecost Church in the whole world with about 25 million people worldwide Pentecostal Holiness Church Azusa Foursquare church Church of God Cleveland Tennessee and many others Church you've got a prophecy Pentecost Church of God there hundreds up and they all can trace their roots to Azusa Street but then it's gone worldwide there in Europe all over Europe the men who founded the Pentecostal movement in in Italy see the largest non Catholic Church in Italy as Pentecostal well Italian from Chicago received the baptism under William Durham who got it at the zoo the street see and you go down to Brazil you go to Chile you go to Russia even I was just in Russia in the Pentecostal movement can trace its roots back to New York City back to Azusa Street so this whole renewal movement is a worldwide phenomenon and then the charismatic movement like in the Catholic Church and other mainline Protestant churches all of them indirectly can go back to the zoo the street so here's this black man and I often tell people there were thousands of people that would have gladly volunteered to be the great man that God would use theologians guys from seminaries God jumped over all of them and chose a black man born in Louisiana to slave parents in a little nondescript broken-down mission in Los Angeles to spark the greatest revival I think in the last thousand years yes so God chooses the outcasts things of the world to confound the wise and do his thing when an earthquake hits a city the high and the low are shook to the same level of destruction so when an out point of God flows upon a city the high places and the low flow together so – at Azusa the highest echelons of society mingling with the lowest of the poor all reduced to one common denominator Jesus as God's holy spirit a brother of Norman Chandler who owned the Los Angeles Times unexpectantly came to visit one doesn't know if he was initially critiquing the meeting but it was reported that he sat quietly for hours an elegant buggy drawn by beautifully groomed horses brought the wealthy railroad tycoon Charles Huntington with his beautiful wife to see this wondrous display of God following their entrance a drunk wandered in off the streets and was saved missionaries soon came from all over the world to witness this new outpouring of the Holy Spirit they began to take news of it back to their fields of labor and to share this awesome move of God at the crowds temple Church of God in Christ elder CC car he was 99 years old when he reflected on Seymour's visit to the 1907 spring denominational meeting car he vividly remembered Seymour he was telling about some of his experiences his talk went all through me I felt a glory from his ministry his face looked like the face of an angel Seymour was noted for preaching simply and with a beaming face GT Haywood leader of the black Freemasons in Indianapolis and cartoonist for two newspapers joined the movement resigning from his Lodge Haywood becomes one of the three most influential black leaders of the new movement Nelson reports that even the term Pentecostal movement derived from Seymour's usage at Azusa before this general use Pentecostal movement other terms used were Apostolic Faith and Full Gospel commonly used by Parham the word Pentecost was a synonym for the holiness experience up until Sousa Street then later on the holiness churches dropped the word Pentecost altogether because they associated with yes they don't want to be confused with the tongue speakers so Pentecost has a long history but after the tongues experience came with Azusa Street the Pentecostal movement preempted the term in the popular mind if you say Pentecostal now you're talking about people who speak the tongue Azusa spread his tongues of fire like ever widening ripple in a pond Pastor Owen Adams attended Azusa then traveling to Canada he met with Robert simple and shared with him the Pentecost experience Roberts shared the news with his new bride Amy Robert and Amy then went to China as missionaries Robert died prematurely the young widow returned to the United States preaching alone until she later married Harold McPherson that message from Azusa burned bright to the world fame Amy Semple McPherson later in one of Amy's San Jose California meetings practically an entire Baptist Church accepted the Pentecost experience a pastor Charles as price got filled with the Spirit Himself becoming a world fame Pentecostal torchbearer AC valdez like so many people who came to Azusa Street received an experience of God's power and the Holy Spirit and his family had come to Los Angeles I think they've lived here for quite a number of years his parents went to the mission in fact I think perhaps even his grandfather had visited at one point but he was touched and became an evangelist who traveled around the world holding meetings dynamic meetings he had very great success for instance in Australia throughout the US and and like and ultimately wrote a book about his experience I think was called fire on Azusa Street that The Full Gospel businessman published in the early 1980s and then ultimately retired in Arizona and passed away in the mid in the mid 80s it is documented that CH Mason who later became founder in Presiding Bishop of the Church of God in Christ je Jeter and DJ young journeyed to Azusa visiting for five weeks all three were filled by the Holy Spirit and extended Seymour an invitation to address the spring meeting in 1907 Bishop Mason and Seymour's friendship dated back to Seymour's time of living and studying in Mississippi on May 13th 1908 Seymour marries Jenny Evans more the one who received the filling of the Holy Spirit and sang and played so beautifully on that night of April 9th 1906 Seymour wedding did not just assure in marital bliss but a crippling blow to his ooze emissions a small but influential court the mission objected to his marriage citing the final days before the closing of the age are not times for marrying and being given in marriage there's too much work to do Clara Lum the missions secretary and administrative helper for the newspaper disapproves of the marriage quitting her post she immediately moves to Portland Oregon when she joins the growing ministry of her former Azusa associate Reverend Florence Crawford Lum over the objection of the Azusa trustees takes all of the newspapers national and international mailing list a list of over 25,000 irreplaceable names and addresses fraudulently she begins issuing what was Seymour's paper from the new location making it sound as if Seymour and the entire mission had relocated to Portland contributions for the paper and mission were received by mail all contributions were now directed by Lum to Portland Seymour and his wife journeyed to Portland to obtain return of his list Lum refuses the swabbing see more of its control of the global paper and of the donations contributed and insight on Seymour's character might be obtained as we note Seymour refused to seek legal remedy through the courts nelson states the epitaph for this tragic situation was written by seymour in the october/november 1908 issue of the Apostolic Faith this issue is the only one known to have been circulated by Seymour following the departure of love I must for the salvation of soul let it be known that the editor is still in Los Angeles and will not remove the Apostolic Faith from Los Angeles without letting the subscribers and field workers know this was a sad thing to our hearts for a worker to attempt to take the paper which is the property of the Azusa Street mission to another city without our consent after being warned but the elders not to do so during a time of no mass telephone radio or TV communications the mailing list was azusa's lifeline of communication and there was quite a outcry from Seymour that they had in fact stolen his a lifeline which was the mailing list that had been developed people riding in and asking for more information really you have to think about the mailing list is probably one of the most valuable things that Seymour owned without the mailing list it was impossible for Seymour to continue publication from Los Angeles robbed of the contributions and his newspaper the global national and local influence of the Azusa mission and Seymour declined I think the saddest part of the story is that from 1906 to about 1924 you had interracial worship among Pentecostals the biggest exception to segregation but by 1924 most of the Pentecostal churches had segregated on the basis of race the biggest mistake was that the spirit-filled people did not continue thee God raised him up just to solve the racial problem before the civil rights movement ever got star but they they didn't follow through and I think that's the greatest tragedy yes they were ahead of the times prophetic and the neighborhood was was in the black part of LA and Azusa Street became for the last few years of black local congregation but had already accomplished its historical mission it doesn't mean it was a failure at all it just meant that it had just exploded worldwide and as a neighborhood change of like any city eventually Azusa Street building was torn down 1931 I believe and because of the changing neighborhood patterns Azusa mission's was at its zenith from 1906 through 1909 with what was considered a non-stop revival however it is a misconception that Azusa no longer operated after 1909 there were various splits and factions each one taking its toll on the attendance at Azusa by 1910 there were no crowds at Azusa mission's most of the whites were now in attendance at various new churches and missions however there was a loyal core of blacks which numbered about 50 however in 1911 William H Durham returned to Los Angeles from Chicago he initially tries to preach out of the prestigious Upper Room mission and then tries another location but was turned down by both he then requested and was granted permission to preach at Azusa Durham presents a new doctrine entitled the finished work at Calvary the dynamic presence of Durham attracts huge crowds great numbers of whites flocked back to Azusa it's reported throughout the city that Azusa is on fire again but Durham's new doctrine causes controversy and contention among the Saints this controversy seems to be the reason Durham left Chicago and was denied the use of the Upper Room mission in Los Angeles Seymour who had been ministering backis speedily returns and pleads with Durham to modify the demands and his approach on this new doctrine Durham adamantly refuses Seymour is forced to lock Durham out of the mission Durham opens a rival mission the crowds follow him the numbers that Isuzu dwindled down to less than 50 and it never flourishes again July 7th 1912 Durham at age 39 died suddenly and unexpectedly after prophesying to a friend that if they were ever to leave the Divine Will he would perish and expectedly following summer a large camp meeting is held at the same location of Seymour's first big summer camp meeting thousands flocked to the meeting Seymour attends but is not invited to sit on the platform nor is he even acknowledged deploying the bickering jealousy and backbiting among the Brethren Seymour tries once again to call for unity he invites all of the city clergy to a meeting for love and harmony only two men attend see more sadly limits to a friend that he has done all he could do Seymour continued to minister at Azusa and made occasional trips to the east and south on September 28 1922 Seymour while dictating a letter died from a heart attack his faithful said from a broken heart for more details on the life and personality of this tremendous man of God view the companion documentary from tragedy to triumph the story of William Seymour jinnie Evan Seymour took over as pastor ministering to the small but faithful corps now left at Azusa there was one more power play it seems by now the Seymours were used to it one had taken the Lifeline mailing list others had taken people and now a man who had preached there who mrs. Seymour and the others had befriended decided he would pastor and take over the mission eventually mr. Seymour maintained her control but the court battle had taken time and money Azusa Street missions was now condemned as a fire hazard it seemed none of the saints wanted to preserve this building wherein God had so awesomely shown his presence on the day that Azusa missions was abolished Frank Bart Ehrman went and secured the address 312 as a momento William Seymour continued to minister until his death in 1922 after his death his wife Jenny Evans Marci Moore became the pastor and she continued until her death now in the early 1930s the building was condemned as the fire hazard and it was torn down and unfortunately I'll read this because it's in the records June 1st Los Angeles County Superior Court Awards final judgment to security First National Bank after 58 legal moves and countermoves spread over two and a half years so in 1938 312 Azusa Street becomes a Bank property and was made into a parking lot it was later acquired by the LA Department of Urban Renewal my father I have ever when they were tearing the building down he went and took a piece of wood had the number of the zoo sir Street on it and hung it up in his bedroom and maybe a lot of people can get together and at least buy back a corner of this and put up a monument to the glory of the tremendous outpointed took place yet that indeed affected the entire mrs. Seymour passed away on July 2nd 1936 this movement that a man is like this the Reformation had a man Martin Luther see there's a movement with a man who is indispensable leader the Methodist movement started by John Wesley and you talked about the reform in with the Calvin then when you come to the Pentecostal movement people can't generally tell you who was the founder of movement we don't have a Luther a Wesley or a Calvin but then the man who makes it a worldwide movement is Seymour he fills the place of a Luthor Wesley more than anybody else because harm soon dropped out of leadership and no one likes to call parm the founder of the movement we always said the Holy Ghost founded it but the Holy Ghost used people and worldwide I think all over the world people would be for more familiar with Seymour's name than they would par him and with Azusa Street certainly Seymour was the man that God used as a catalyst to explode this throughout the whole world and I don't think anyone can anymore say it's a movement without a man it's a movement that where God used men and sometimes used the most unlikely men and women I think the Lord knew what he was doing when he chose Seymour in Azusa Street mainly among blacks to bring one of the greatest revivals in history now there are about 400 million Pentecostals and cares makes in the world and like I say you can trace it back to Azusa Street Azusa Street was like a mother giving birth once she's given birth a mother eventually will die but she's done her historic sure art and the Sousa Street played the historic part of birthing Pentecostals into the whole world I also find it rather interesting perhaps it's ironic perhaps its divine justice if you would that in 1988 when Pope John Paul the second visited Los Angeles that the place one of the places where he went and held a meeting and gave a speech that I attended was at the japanese-american Cultural Center which sits at the site of the Azusa Street mission so there is a sense in which that site has attracted other leaders in the religious world of today I think as a historian that the subject of Azusa Street is one of those things that needs to be looked at once again and this time very carefully I've grown up with a great appreciation for my heritage and indeed I find my heritage to be deeply rooted not only in the Pentecostal movement but the Pentecostal movement which grew out of the black church so that if you want to talk about the roots of Pentecostalism you have to take very seriously both the holiness and the restorationist and the black church elements that all contribute to what is known as modern Pentecostalism I think it's important as a as a minister to help people to remember that God dealt with real people at a real level and and transformed their lives and turned the world upside down in many respects the theological world made evangelism possible in ways that that one had never thought of before indeed to talk about 360 million or there abouts Pentecostals in these days is mind-boggling him it just hardly computes when you think about this movement really at its very beginning levels in 1906 that's not very many years from then to now and to see what God has accomplished as a father who has four sons I hope to communicate to them something of the reality of God something of the heritage that we as a Pentecostal family are part of and participate in but not simply to look back on it but to say if God can do that there with those people God can do something with me today for the Church of tomorrow and my hope is that when people look at this film or when people read the book about Azusa Street or when people share the story that what they're sharing is not simply the way it used to be but hope for the Church of tomorrow and what that church can do by the grace of God in the world about it Mel you studied this man's life for 15 years why do you like Seymour so much well he's become a friend I know I'm like a brother and many of these people have become friends it's not simply a history project they are my people and I am one of him and their hurts become mine and their visions and their joy have become ingrained in me in ways I never would have expected any time past so when I get this story written I hope there is a sense in which it's not just their story but it's my story as well I'm sure that will be it'll be their story and your story and a story for people of all time and most of all God's story azusa mission man had no use for it but God was to choose it as the birthplace of a revolution as we entered the old building sometime I was I was touched by the presence of God it was such a humble place with its low ceilings in room floor that didn't work on webs or hanging in the windows as I looked around I thought of Jesus when he came to earth and was born in a manger if there was no place for him in the end I thought of the fine church houses in the city of Los Angeles but the Lord had chosen this humble spot to gather all nationality dear one there is a disease in your heart that begins to eat you when you see some saints it does not look like you get down before God and cast him to sanctify you wholly and get rid of all the old flesh your thoughts and feelings old things will have passed away and all things will have become I recall one Catholic man who was wonderful he was rejoice it had praised the Lord in Spanish where could speak Incas I tried to ask him when he got converted he didn't understand finally another brother interpreted I will never forget the childlike reply converted I know understand all I know one day his sous he jumping to me hard just as God had used a stable in the opposite side of the world almost 2,000 years ago so here at Azusa God has used another stable to draw in the wealthy to learn the theologians and the lost to witness this awesome move of God for salvation and deliverance man would have chosen great palaces and cathedrals for such mighty works but God God chose stables God spread the movement not offering the Holy Ghost did the work not an evangelist layman and ministers were equally important the greatest secret love and unity prevailed among one of the most diverse groups ever assembled the worship God in spirit and in truth just look look but not no no look now how they love one another [Applause] the No

Feature History – Rise of the Mongols



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this video is brought to you by curiosity stream yet 31 days of streaming completely free using the link in curiosity stream calm / feature story or you can wait till the end to hear more hello and welcome to feature history featuring the Mongol Empire the Empire is well known amongst everyone it's a largest continuous Empire to ever exist it was ruled by Kangas car and they had horses and bows they lived in tents and they actually that's about where it stops if you think about it we don't actually know that much about Mongols and so to get the better understanding of it we can read up about them and actually figure out where the Mongols came from what they did and where they win and then you can make a video about them but don't because that's what I'm doing so in today's episode we'll be covering the rise of the Mongols under Genghis how they grew as rapidly as they did it wouldn't actually meant in the grand scheme of things after that you'll have to wait until the next episode to figure out where it went the central steppes of Asia are an incredibly remote and desolate place sustaining a quite small population of hearty people that's how it is today it was even harder in the 12th century the land belonged to the nomadic Mongol and Turkic clans who were often in conflict with each other whether it was over scarce resources personal rivalries Wilson fabricated dispute encouraged by the clans powerful neighbors it was given their harsh environment and perpetuating Wars the clans of the steppe remained stuck while other parts of the world were transitioning through their high Middle Ages their Islamic golden ages and their chinesey ages however it would be approaching the 13th century the steppes climate changed it was warmer food was plentiful and on top of this China's political climate changed as being split between multiple dynasties they descended into their own power squabbles in this period of opportunity the boy Temujin was born a year 1162 he was the son of yesugay the ruler of a kamek mongol one of five tribal Confederations in the region when Temujin was only nine years old his father was poisoned by the rival Tatars so his father's Confederation to the power vacuum and Temujin was thrusts into the harsh nomadic reality that was Mongol life in his attempts to regain power he'd marry into a friendly tribe with his first wife bought a at age 16 she was quickly abducted by another rival tribe the markets and so Temujin turned to a tribal leader and blood brother of yesugay to rule calm Temujin alongside his own blood brother jamika were granted command of 20,000 warriors with them they stormed the market camp rescuing bought a and claiming an easy victory however with newfound power Temujin found rivals Temujin perhaps because if he struggled upbringing ranked his men not on their heritage but their merit and loyalty to him and intelligence continued campaigns against his enemies he would take conquered civilians under his protection building a force of loyal subjects this all clashed with Jammu cos traditional Mongol views and as the new methods proved effective he felt threatened by Temujin jamika would turn on Temujin and decisively defeat his army in 1180 770 of the captives were boiled alive Temujin would disappear for 10 years only seeming to return to prominence when he was recruited by the jin dynasty the jin sought to punish the Tartars and Temujin was recruited to command part of the attack and for his services was restored into a position of power with a new army rally together he would employ a new decimal system amongst his ranks giving him the proper military organization needed to gain the upper hand Tolu khan would join jamika to defend against imagens new force and jamika would be proclaimed the Gherkin universal ruler however Jammu cos universal rule was proclaimed a bit early because across ten engines campaign torille and jamika would be defeated and jamika was turned into Temujin by his own men Temujin would have those men put to death and offered jamika to join him once again jamika would respond there can only be one son and his request was to a noble death after jammu cos coalition fell Temujin would see to it the rest of the tribes were subdued or united by 1206 the once disparate and warring factions of the steppe have been united as one political and military force and Temujin was renamed and the genghis khan the actual universal ruler with the perpetually rivaled tribes united Genghis thought to spread his early Empire he had first conquer its former oppressors starting with the Western Shah the smallest of the three main Chinese dynasties the Mongols had for a long time rated the Charles frontier but under Genghis there would be mobilized as a rapid cavalry base army and swarmed the Empire forcing the Shia as a facile in only five years the neighboring Jin dynasty had blissfully ignored this conquest the Mongols were their tributaries after all subservient to the mighty Jin the Jin had long extracted tribute from and exercised punitive expeditions against the tribes and when they came to demand tribute again in 1211 they expected more at the same Ganga Salva would respond only by spitting on the ground and riding off in his horse just about the least verbal declaration of war you could manage for a war against the much largest dynasty the Mongols would mobilize a 90% of all their forces close to a hundred thousand men and holding a firm numbers advantage the hoards would meet the Great Wall and go around it and then meet the Jin forces however it would be in their earliest battle the Jin's biggest weakness was exploited their questionable loyalty the messengers that met with gangers to request is surrender actually decided that tell Ganga's where the jhen armies were positioned leading to a decisive massacre as the Mongol hordes pillaged their way through North China gang is made sure to spare those who could be useful to him siege warfare was an unknown to the Mongols but by capturing and recruiting Chinese engineers they could quickly learn the tactics of CG and better yet the well kept secrets of powder they put all they'd learn to the test when they besieged the capital of Beijing improving successful they forced the Jin to concede defeat the Jin would become the new tributary of their former tributaries in 1214 Genghis would then lead the majority of the armies back home as his loyal general je vais would do a bit of on the side conquering on the remnants of the old liao dynasty in the West the Mongol Empire had quickly grown and dominated its once powerful neighbors it established itself as the largest conglomerate of nomadic tribes and is one of the strongest Asian powers it was at this point gang is sought to build relations with nearby States sending his own voice and caravans far west to the Persian her as me an empire in 1218 while the envoy's offer trade and diplomacy word had swiftly spread of the Mongols conquest and brutality the Shah our add-in mohammed ii had no interest in relations with barbarians all 450 of genghis people were put to death and when news reached the khan he flew into a rage the wars the Mongols had fought had seen their fair share of bloodshed and cruelty but the campaign to going to Korres mia would be in a whole different scale a multi-pronged invasion over and the empire any resistance saw whole cities put to death not just the men but the women and children to the sharp would flee but was stopped literally dead in its tracks when he passed from illness and 12:20 his sons allow a beaming Bernie would now be left with the disaster he too would flee attempting to escape through Afghanistan while under pursuit he was able to rally 30,000 afghan warriors on top of his own forces and outnumbering his Mongol pursuers two to one was able to defeat the rookie general and escape offering the first major blow to the facade of Mongol and vulnerability the story quickly spread to cities in kaznia and all the way back to East Asia the Mongols had been defeated people began to rebel against Mongol conquest and so genghis knew he had to get yellow team his army made forced march in pursuit and met jellal's forces as he attempted to cross the Indus River refugees and troops were massacred as the Shia narrowly slipped away into India with the shotgun the Korres Mian Empire was defeated but genghis was left with rebellion across his empire the car made way with the main mongol force to quell the uprisings but his talented generals j-bay and su Bataille were ordered to raid west and they would reach as far west as the caucasus while on campaign against the rebellion jin genghis would fall from his horse tired and weak he died soon after at the age of 65 in 1227 the empire left in his wake stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Caspian Sea and Generals from all over would United the mongol homeland to form a council to curl tie the empire was to be divvied out amongst kangas's four sons his eldest jockey was born shortly after bought a it napping so his legitimacy was questionable however the gang has treated him as a son regardless jockey was to inherit the West and most part of the Empire be given that he died before his father it was left to his son genghis his grandson butter Chag attire the second son was the biggest critic of jockeys legitimacy and was considered quite a hothead he was left with Central Asia as his domain the youngest Tolu inherited the traditional mongol heart lands while it would be the charismatic popular and named successor Agha died a third son who was declared the Great Khan the khan of khans the Mongol Emperor so while the Empire was split into several Carnot's all would answer to auger daikon at least that was the idea ah dude I would begin his reign by claiming vengeance on the traders Jim who on top of breaking their tributary status had moved further south to Chi Fang many defected or surrendered to the Mongol forces and the new capital had fallen by 1232 the Mongols claimed a total conquest of the Jim it would be from here on out look at I grew even more ambitious oh god I would continue his campaign through China bringing war to the Song Dynasty in southern China at the same time an invasion of Korea was ordered the construction of a permanent Mongol capital in Karakoram began and organized nephew battle would begin a full-scale invasion far west into the Kiev in ruse modern day Russia the Song Dynasty would be pushed back across the Yangtze but the Mongols struggled to hold much ground past the river leading to a firm stalemate between the two powers the invasion in Korea would see initial gains also come to a halt needing campaign after campaign to finally defeat the Goryeo in 1259 well past organized time-bar to would prove very successful in the West though the East labs were quickly defeated by the Mongol hordes and forced into submission but who pushed further out claiming victories over the kingdoms of the Caucasus Poland Austria Bulgaria and more the fragmented European kingdoms stood no chance against the Mongol advance knights and footman were not equipped to resist rapid Mongol horsemen and the cities were not prepared for the shock of gunpowder weaponry and the horror of Mongol brutality but who took a decisive victory against the kingdom of Hungary in 1241 and it became clear the rest of Europe lay at the mercy of Mongol dominance but then Agha died died with no clear air it was crucial all Khan's returned to the homeland to form a new curl tie sober – and his armies Road East Europe was spared the Mongol Empire found itself in the Regency of agonized wife Teranga for five years as genghis children and grandchildren came to an impasse the cracks in the empire began to show conquest was seeming to reach its natural limit in the fall of the Mongol Empire beckoned as it appeared you couldn't govern on horseback that's not to say the Empire was strictly chaotic alongside the wars and conquests there was a building of trade routes religious freedoms and meritocratic society under Genghis and his descendants the world began to become further connected than it had been in a long time the famous Silk Road began to be reopened by the Mongols and a link between East and West was born you can see more about the trade route and the cultures it connected in curiosity streams series the Silk Road the series itself contains over six hours of content and the curiosity stream hosts over 2,400 titles that's a virtually endless amount of documentaries covering history science nature technology society and more all of these titles can be streamed on demand right from the comfort of your computer phone or even Smart TV you can watch all that right now for free when you visit curiosity shreem comm slash feature history and get a 31 day trial so go have a look and surely something will piqued your curiosity welcome to the end of the video and for the few you that haven't clicked off yet rest assured the fall of the Mongol Empire isn't too far away but before that I actually will be launching a new new series four little short videos on the channel so that feature history may finally have consistent uploads what about fittings and inquiry while fitting we'll be getting a new episode before the years over and inquiry is pretty much getting dropped there's a bit more going on on top of all that but that's my little secret so for now bye bye

Evidence For The Possibility of Ancient Life On Mars – Exploring Planets in Distant Space



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Though Mars is currently a lifeless desert planet, that wasn’t always the case. Scientists have long suspected that Mars used to have an atmosphere thick enough to sustain vast liquid water oceans billions of years ago. NASA’s Curiosity rover has discovered some of the best evidence yet that supports the theory of Mars sustaining water for long periods of time. Because liquid water is an important precursor to life as we know it, this has some pretty impressive implications for the possibility of ancient life on Mars. The results span six papers, all of which appear in the December 9 issue of Science.

In the Yellowknife Bay in the Gale crater, Curiosity has been analyzing soil samples, collecting data about the geology and geochemistry of the area, in hopes of better understanding the past environment. This data will help researchers decide if ancient Martian life was plausible or not. After analyzing the chemical composition of the rocks, researchers were able to deduce that some of them had traveled great distances before experiencing erosion until much later. The mineral-rich clay that could have supported life was not localized near volcanoes, as there were not large amounts of trademark water soluble elements like calcium and sodium concentrated in those regions. The data suggests that these minerals were present and shuffled around for quite a while, but eventually did succumb to the drying environment and the increasingly hostile water conditions.

History Of India in 14 Minutes



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India’s History is very long and very interesting so in this 15 minute video (almost) sit back and enjoy in this animated video. From the Indus valley civilisation, to the beginnings of Hinduism, various empires will arise such as the Mauryan, chola, Mughals, Martha. Before Europeans settle along the coast to trade spices. The British would rule India before their independence in 1947.

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Captivating History – History of India

This video has been made possible by
Skillshare a country that has geological jewels and culture it is the birthplace
of one of the oldest religions and is rising rapidly to become a world force
in trade and commerce from ancient monuments and lavish palaces from great
wealth to poverty a country that has witnessed a turbulent history of war
famine and extremes of weather this is the history of India in the 5th and 6th
century AD there lived a man by the name of Aryabhatta often considered a genius
of its time his mathematical prowess deciphered the volume of pie he
described a model of the solar system and even has a spacecraft named after
him he was a man of skill and knowledge when he considered he obviously had no
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in the region surrounded the Indus Valley River a civilization emerged the
Indus Valley otherwise known as the harappa civilization archaeologists have
discovered over 1500 sites the largest cities being mohenjo-daro and Harappa
these cities at urban planning elaborate baked brick buildings and sanitation
systems they conducted trade with the Sumerian civilizations of Mesopotamia
and had a writing system that remains undeciphered archaeologists have
uncovered that this great civilization housed
urban planning and commercial enterprise but it slowly fell into decline and
ultimately disappeared after the Indus Valley cities were abandoned there was a
migration of indo-aryans into the Indian subcontinent these
migrants were known to introduce the ancient religious texts known as the
Vedas which were to define religious truth for Hindus the Vedic period
flourished from 1500 BC to 500 BC it was also around this time that the caste
system was developed the caste system which was a class system determined by
birth created a hierarchy of Brahmins or priests kshatriyas or warriors and
kings next came the Viashyas or skilled workers and merchants and then finally
the sutras or Labour's farmers and unskilled workers towards the end of
this period the Aryans spread from the Punjab region to the Ganges River where
several kingdoms formed the Nanda Empire subjugated the surrounding kingdoms but
would soon be overthrown by Chandra Gupta after his conquests Chandra Gupta
encountered Seleucus a general of Alexander the Great who had established
an empire for herself a peace treaty was signed within
marriage between the royal families and the gift of 500 elephants Chandra
Gupta's grandson Ashoka expanded the Mauryan Empire and waged a great war
against the state of Kalinga killing a hundred thousand soldiers on both sides
following his conquest Ashoka became a devout follower of the Buddha's
teachings for the rest of his 36 year reign Ashoka took a vow of non-violence
and spread Buddhism throughout his realm however fifty years after his death the
subcontinent fractured into multiple kingdoms once more meanwhile the south
of India was controlled by the Tamil kings who reigned over three states
disagreements were rife and war was frequently waged against each other
where they excelled in trade it was between the 4th and 5th century AD that
India was widely acknowledged to have entered a golden age with the rise of
the Gupta Empire a period of invention and discovery in science technology
engineering mathematics astronomy art and literature was born all these fields
saw an explosion of understanding and knowledge and set the mark of the world
to follow it is also believed the game chess was invented in this period
following the collapse of the Gupta Empire there followed centuries of
multiple kingdoms and dynasties that rose and ultimately fell however in the
tenth century King Rajaraja was successful in uniting the southern
kingdoms under one leadership the chola empire under this king expanded further
and though one of the largest Hindu temples within India dedicated to the
god Shiva this Empire with a centralised government created unique architecture
and boasted naval skills that spread their influence throughout Southeast
Asia it was in the 11th century that the Ghazvanid of Turkic Mameluke origin
over on the North Indian Plains using Swift horse
cavalry and vast armies united by ethnicity and religion eventually the
Muslim army broke up and led to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi
Sultanate it was the beginning of an Indo Muslim fusion of cultures the
Sultanate was to control much of northern India and would make incursions
into South India and they successfully repelled the Mongol invasions however
internal instability and Hindu reconquest resulted in the decline of
the Sultanate and new Muslims alternates splintered from the Empire India and the
Roman Empire had liaised of each other since as early as 30 BC this connection
was mainly through merchants and trade however with the collapse of the Roman
Empire contact between India and Europe was all but lost during the 15th century
Portugal dedicated to shipbuilding and exploration sent explorers to sail down
the coast of Africa Vasco da Gama subsequently discovered a new sea route
to India he met with the Zamorin of Calicut who granted permission to
trade following successful trade expeditions the Portuguese soon set up
trading posts in Goa Calicut Colombo Cochin Bombay and many more largely
through conquest and diplomacy as trading posts and thoughts expanded
disagreements were rife between the Portuguese and then hustling rivals the
Mughals who were an Islamic empire had successfully campaigned to dominate
India Muhammad Babur was the founder of the Mughal Empire and was himself a
descendant of Emperor Timur and Genghis Khan his grandson Akbar the Great
endeavoured to establish good relation with all religious groups throughout his
empire and withdrew the cheesy attacks for non-Muslims
under aquas rule the Empire tripled in size and wealth libraries and schools
were built across the Empire for both Muslims and Hindus he appreciated the
arts and culture and cultivated them throughout his empire assuring in the
Mughal style of architecture which combined elements of Islamic Persian and
Hindu design the reign of Shah Jahan was the Golden Age of Mughal architecture
perhaps the most profound and lasting monument was the Taj Mahal which still
attracts millions of tourists every year in the early 18th century the Mughal
Empire sank into chaos and violent feuds weakened by tension between the Hindu
population and the Muslim ruling class as well as invasions by the Afghans and
other Indian rulers the Maratha Empire capitalised on the struggling Mughals
and expanded further and became the dominant power in the region meanwhile
the Portuguese Dutch Danish French and English had gradually established
several forts and trading posts along the Indian coast line the English East
India Company was founded in 1600 but gathered greater power within India
because of a private army and an imposing Navy who gradually overwhelmed
their European competitors in 1757 the East India Company under the leadership
of Robert Clive won victory against the now up of Bengal which consolidated the
company's power Robert Clive amassed a personal fortune but his actions and
atrocities led to the deaths of millions of people as he enforced the cultivation
of non-food crops which resulted in extreme famine in 1760 the company and
asserted control over a vast quantity of the subcontinent to direct control or
tributaries they continued to expand over the following decades they
encountered resistance from the Sikhs who had established an empire in the
Punjab region after the death of a Sikh leader the Empire was weakened by
internal division which enabled the British to conquer them
following their Anglo-Sikh Wars the East India Company managed to rule India due
to large naval vessels the introduction of steam trains and the use of more
advanced weapons the British population was nowhere near the same size as India
so the British employed Indian infantry thoughts their boys who were under the
command of British officers the set boys were not treated well receiving low pay
and weren't forced to fight abroad this fueled frustrations Butler further
upsets when the British band child marriage and outlawed slavery which were
part of an Indian culture at the time a rebellion began when they're supposed
were issued with ammunition coated in pig and beef fat which they refused to
use and deeply offended them and they amongst others mutiny rebellion and
mutiny failed largely because there was little shared identity between Indians
and in 1857 the British crown took direct rule of India with Queen Victoria
being declared Empress of India in 1876 during World War one over a million
Indians saw combat on the western front the Mesopotamian campaign East Africa
Egypt and Gallipoli claiming the lives of 75,000 people shortly after the end
of World War one Gandhi amongst other leaders led Indians to challenge the
British for independence and during World War two he called for the British
to quit India however during World War Two as part of the Allied nations over
two and a half million Indians volunteered to fight in 1947 Britain
granted independence British India was partitioned into a Hindu majority India
and a Muslim majority Pakistan this period also saw one of the largest mass
migrations ever recorded in modern history with a total of
around 15 million Hindus Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created
nations in India and Pakistan in 1971 East Pakistan was formed into the
country of Bangladesh and to this day tensions between Pakistan and India
remain tense today India is the world's largest democracy with a rapidly growing
economy science and technology achievements are both ancient and modern
the Indian Space Research Organisation are currently sending mission to the
moon and beyond and are arguably one of the best countries in space exploration
the Indian film industry of Bollywood is one of the world's largest cricket has
long been a passion for many Indians India is also the birthplace of Hinduism
and many follow its practices throughout the world India Today and her out
history has a varied past it is the seventh largest country by area and the
second largest country by population it cannot be denied that India today as
much to offer the world in the decades cup I hope you have enjoyed this episode
and thank you for watching remember to Like subscribe ring the bell
notification and see you next time

100 Unsolved Mysteries That Cannot Be Explained | Compilation



Views:6519709|Rating:4.23|View Time:3:46:32Minutes|Likes:23609|Dislikes:4269
100 unsolved mysteries that cannot be explained | compilation. We take a look at these 100 unsolved mysteries that cannot be explained | compilation.

It appears that the more we uncover, the less we know about the nature of our world. It seems like more and more mysterious events surface from all around that are more than just impossible to explain, they completely defy what we know to be possible within the realms of physics and science.

So today, here at unexplained mysteries, we take a look at these 100 unsolved mysteries that cannot be explained.

Thank you for watching!

Thank you to CO.AG for the background music!

the redheaded Giants of Lovelock cave back in 1911 miners that had worked in Nevada's Lovelock cave and they found a massive wealth of ancient relics on their surprise after a bit more search they found the mummified remains of a 198 centimeter tall man with red hair a side of this redheaded mummy they also found a 38 centimeter sandals which appeared to be used by a rather large person maybe even a giant this entire cave has been turned into an archeological dig site and many strange things have been found after a longer research people connect this entire site with a pain tree legend about redheaded freckled face cannibals see Thai cars the original redheaded mummy that had been found is now destroyed which makes this story impossible to actually prove luckily some people did not give up and they still believe that the see Thai cars were real if this story really is true this would mean that the see Thai cars were a group of violent European explorers Stone ways to Sri Lanka many Indians grow up hearing the story of Ramayana which is an ancient Hindu poem that spoke of a magical bridge being constructed from large floating stones that stretch from the southern parts of India all the way to the northern part of Sri Lanka that was placed by the Hindu god Rama what is absolutely mysterious about this claim is that no evidence of stones had been found until new state-of-the-art NASA satellites looked towards the region of northern Sri Lanka to notice large stones resting on the sand bar underwater that stretched 30 miles from Sri Lanka to the southern part of India connecting the massive land masses researchers immediately began carbon dating the stones in an effort to better understand the timeframe of the formation stones and whether or not they had formed naturally this theory was almost immediately proven to be false as evidence of carbon dating showed that the stones had been placed in that location artificially given the fact that the large stones on top of the sand bar were an older material than the sand beneath it leading research scientists to believe that the rocks were carved from different areas and moved to that location by ancient people the ability for the ancestors of the region to have constructed a massive 30-mile megalithic structure of stones weighing thousands of tons appears to lead many to believe that the ancients had advanced technologies that we could not fathom today even more interesting are all the ancient Hindu accounts of the bridge and the gods forming these magical pathways via flying machines they would ride on the Oak Island money pit dubbed by researchers archaeologists historians and treasure hunters alike as the last great unsolved mystery of the modern era the Oak Island money pit is a conspiracy of claims and reports that spanned centuries and historical references that led to the overall belief and finding that Oak Island in Nova Scotia may house a collection of the greatest treasures the world has ever seen though the existence of treasure in the region is still up for debate there is a substantial amount of evidence relative to the proof of buried riches and hidden artifacts among these supposed artifacts are supposed to Shakespearean manuscripts the jewels of Mary Antoinette and religious artifacts that range from gold hidden by the Catholic Church and even reports of the fabled Ark of the Covenant hidden by the Templar knights in the region the historical value of these reports is so great that the majority of treasure hunters work alongside archaeologists historians and experts in the field to help uncover the true nature's of hidden documents and conspiracies forgotten to time the History Channel had even recently created a television show around the excavation processes and treasure hunting on the island that is titled the curse of Oak Island that details proof of treasures hidden underwater chambers depressions in the ground and even minor artifacts covered in the area despite these findings there are still many researchers that are skeptical about the claims and it is quite commonly believed that potentially no treasures of substantial value are located on the island and that reports that outlined these buried treasures could have been forged to direct misinformation and prevent people from discovering its true locations the united states military base known as area 51 is known across the world as being a hotspot of alien conspiracy as well as a possible research base housing extraterrestrial spacecraft and attempting to work at reverse engineering further alien technologies that have been recovered by the united states military what many alien enthusiasts are not aware of however is that the united kingdom has it's very own version of area 51 radlo manor has been shrouded in mystery since its use with the united kingdom military operations mysteries that have only deepened as new evidence and theory comes to light so today we will be exploring the vast complex conspiracy surrounding radlo manor also known as the united kingdom's area 51 the history of Rhuddlan manor started from very humble beginnings originally created as a bath stone mining station the area that would later be Rhuddlan manor was worked and designed to mind bath stone from the region to be used in massive building projects utilizing the material and its ability to be cut in any direction a property that other layering stones do not have this led to larger scale projects and cheaper means of production which worked to help build hospitals different forms of housing and other major construction projects across the United Kingdom it was not until the start of World War two that road blow Manor gained its use in military operations as the tunnels from the existing Bath stone mine was a prime location to store a munitions and other material after the relentless strategies by the Nazi regime that led to massive bombings of above-ground facilities these tunnels and further large cabins that burrowed deep into the ground and helped to create a safe and stable natural bunker was merely used as a central ammunition depot at the start of the war but soon the area found itself to be a major control center used by the royal air force this led to the creation of further operations within the underground facilities of the red glow Manor in 1940 that included the operations room the filter room and then finally the shadow factory it is this collection of rooms that would later lead to the formation of an alien research base after the end of World War two the operations room was essentially used as a military command center establishing covert protocols on the handling of sensitive information and issuing out military commands to the Royal Air Force and establishing secret clandestine projects the filter room acted as an intelligence filter hence where it got its name that served to establish a complex sorting system that helped to provide intelligence regarding enemy operations and further sensitive information and documents with such a secure filtering system that no links of information would have ever been possible from this filter room these two rooms however dwarfed in comparison to the importance of the shadow factory the factory was originally established under the belief that a secret underground facility with the ability to create aircraft was necessary in the event that the Nazi forces continued their bombing assaults and destroyed factory productions of aircraft they sled to the creation of a complete underground facility with the incredible ability to produce entire aircraft in an assembly line from nothing but raw materials deep underground though the factory was claimed to have never been in operation this would soon change during the 1950's after what alien enthusiasts refer to as a definitive UFO incident bread la manna was then seen as a hotspot of the alien activity and a control center for further investigations this incident occurred as Royal Air Force pilots returned from a bombing raid and encountered unidentified flying objects though the details around this incident are unknown released reports provide further information claiming that Winston Churchill himself asked for the event to be covered up to prevent mass panic this would develop into its own team of investigators from the Joint Intelligence Committee at radlo Manor and within the operations room as weekly reports would be filled regarding the presence of extraterrestrials and the military's involvement further leaked information began spreading that the underground shadow factory soon became used as a potential reverse engineering facility as the Royal Air Force had supposedly recovered a crashed alien spaceship that was being studied and held in the underground facility interestingly enough these rumors are further confirmed by the James Bond equivalent of the alien world Nick Pope who used to work for the British Ministry of Defence and was tasked by the government to study and gather further information and research relative to unidentified flying objects the alien presence and their potential threat to national security Pope would later go on to be an advocate for the disclosure projects with the hopes of the UK government releasing further documents relative to their findings of extraterrestrial activity but would later go on to say that mysteriously all of the files pertaining to the 1950s operations at red glow Manor that concerned alien activity was destroyed and unable to be recovered despite this unfortunate turn of events further documents had been later released to the British National Archive that provided proof and evidence of the alien investigations and clandestine operations held at Rudd lo Manor at this time and with the help of Nick Pope and his efforts at alien disclosure these clandestine operations included a wide array of alien reports that span over 5000 documents as well as famous events that had been covered up by the British government the list of these events include a near-collision report of a 737 airplane almost colliding with an unidentified flying object with statements from the captain and first officer an alien response team investigating and recovering a crashed UFO at the barren mountains in Wales full detailed investigative reports of the western ours incident that many locals claim to have heard a loud explosion over the Atlantic confirming the incident to be of extraterrestrial origin the 40 minutes of supposedly missing footage from the Blue Streak missile test launch that shown evidence of a craft landing and the presence of a spaceman as described in the report and many other incredible discoveries that seemed too frightening to be true of course these reports and their details would lead many conspiracy theorists and alien enthusiasts to begin referring to rod Lamanna as the uk's area51 and as a potential command center for black budget operations that would soon go above the clearance level of even the highest officials in the military British government and clandestine operations as much as people might argue that this would be a stretch the logistics and development that had already been established at red Lamanna were more than prepared to undertake such a project and to become a completely self-reliant facility and factory capable of its own research production and testing what's many critics and skeptics of this idea do not realize is the extent of the size and ability of red glow manners vast complex tunnel systems the underground tunnels and facilities make up more than 2.2 million square feet to get a sense of this scale one should look towards one of the biggest warehouse production facilities in the world Amazon's fulfillment center 2.2 million square feet is more than twice the size of Amazon's fulfillment center which works to be a massive warehouse that produces and houses the endless Goods available on Amazon available worldwide now imagine that level of production completely underground self-sufficient and twice as massive with a budget of the British military additional black budget spending and an endless amount of Royal Air Force engineers that are capable of doing the impossible the potential is nearly limitless now if we take into account the past 70 years and the massive amount of reports that total over 5,000 documents and investigations that would mean the facility had the ability to investigate and report roughly once every five days on top of the additional clandestine operations that existed throughout this time and the usage of the Manor for sensitive intelligence and military operations these reports are also only made up of the surviving documents and shared intelligence with the National Archive that are still around from that era according to various sources and those within the intelligence community many other reports investigations and further informational documents have been destroyed to prevent any further leaked information which could mean an additional tremendous amount of evidence search of alien activity and alien disclosure that are lost forever the scale of this performance had to have already been massive and well underway it is also important to remember that information at the road low manner went through high levels of filtering processes and so forged documents would not have been created or stored at the facility many skeptics claim that their release documents supplied to the National Archive are merely bogus documents that work to spread misinformation amongst the general public however given the strict protocols that had already existed amongst the Joint Intelligence Committee and further witness accounts from ex British Ministry of Defence Nick Pope this seems to be the most improbable explanation for the release of these 1950s documents and archived information what is even more interesting about this case is that even though site 1 of the road Lamanna base has been decommissioned and no longer within military use the site three buildings along with the vast underground tunnel complex is still used and hidden by the British government and Royal Air Force these tunnels were stated as being repurposed with the ability to house British politicians and other high clearanced personnel during the event of a nuclear strike and be completely self-reliant and independent with vast established systems to live indefinitely underground this could be further confirmation of the abilities of the shadow factory and its potential of vast production self-reliance and pre-existing infrastructure spanning nearly seven decades of developments why do we dream similar to the question previously asked dreaming is all the more of a mystery to scientists along with the mechanisms of sleeping in fact there is a whole field of study in the world of science called honor ology that is dedicated to attempting to work to understand the exact reasons for why dreams themselves even exist research into this field of study include the exploration of the mechanisms of dreaming the influences on dreaming and disorders linked to dreaming what is all the more interesting into this study is the work made towards understanding the electric stimuli of the dreaming world and advancements made in understanding dream cycles and the discovery in recent times of the rapid eye movement which is a specific moment in dreaming that a dreaming patient's mind is similar to that of a waking mind further studies made by professor known as dan yang in the field of neuroscience that often overlaps into AA neurology has found that it might even be possible given the advancements she has made to potentially view one's dreams and catch a better glimpse into the minds of the subconscious many scientists in honor ology often debate on the reflections of the subconscious mind the Dreaming inhabits and believed that it could be possible that the inner subconscious mind is allowed to communicate with the conscious mind during this time allowing an individual to better understand hidden traumas and subconscious desires outside of understanding dreams however the mechanisms that cause such a phenomenon are still widely unknown and it appears that any new satisfying answer is not coming anytime soon the a mailer and touka similar to that of the triceratops fossils discovered all across the world by paleontologists is that of the myths surrounding the creature known in its native language as the emile ur and touka that comes from sightings made by natives located in the congo it was often referred to as the elephant killer and seemed to be very similar to that in design to that of the triceratops the creature is reported as being described in the same likeness as that of the African bush elephant that stands at roughly ten feet tall and weighs six tons the Beast is drawn with a large and heavy tail brownish to grey in color and with the body similar to that of a rhino including a large horn at the front of its snout interestingly enough the reports descriptions and even supporting fossil evidence of the creature having at one time existed not too long ago leaves many experts believing that it could be a distant ancestral cousin to the Rhino or a possible descendant of the triceratops dinosaur unfortunately the tribe native to the Congo region that reported on the creature claimed to have purposefully sought out each creature of the species to eradicate them from the area due to their growing fears of the creature its aggressions and history of attacks the last reported sighting of the creature was seen in Kenya though many experts believe that if the creature did at one time exist then it has long since been extinct for a few thousand years given the lack of fossil record interestingly enough however the tribe reports that the last of the creatures to be killed was back during 1930 with claims about a man that removed the horn from the body of the creature and holds it in possession further information about the creature has not been released and – the only reliable information to be found on it is that of the evidence and work gathered by dr. Roy Pete McHale that describes the creature in his 1987 publication of his book a living dinosaur the Georgia Raptor back on the 25th of July in 2008 a young 18 year old man and his grandfather went on a trip down into the forests of Georgia out in remote locations in the hopes of bagging a fresh deer on a small little hunting escapade the trip had been planned more than a year in advance and the two were wanting to look into old areas of which do not usually have a lot of human activity in the hopes of finding a native species of deer that was not a skittish of human intervention in the region the grandson wrote a letter in which he described that as he was on the hunting trip with his grandfather at around 3:30 p.m. when the two were walking down what appeared to be a small animal trail they heard a strange noise that they previously had never heard before suddenly he describes that something started slowly walking out from behind the bushes and onto the pathway roughly 150 yards in front of them the creature appeared at first to be similar in size and shape to that of a Velociraptor however the two described that the creature had feathers down the nape of its neck and at the edges of its body this has earned the creature the name of the Georgia Raptor and ever since this first reported sighting many others have come forward about encountering the creature with some even believing that it could be a surviving species of a large bird-like creature that has directly descended from a family of the Raptor known as a Troodon others have reported hearing strange noises in the night and even finding strange specimens of feces that appear to have been created from that of a larger bird similar to that of an ostrich for those that are not aware an ostrich is a very close descendant to that of the family related to the velociraptors and even have the majority of the same physical structures and group like intelligences this could very well be supporting evidence of a yet to be uncovered descendant of the Raptor living in the wooded lands of the state of Georgia the Voynich manuscript is one of the most elusive and famous pieces of literature in all of recorded history and written in an unknown language or code the manuscript features copious amounts of text illustrations and diagrams the subject matter of the drawings range from various and identifiable plants diagrams of constellations zodiac symbols and even nude women bathing in oddly shaped pools the manuscript was brought to popular attention by Wilfrid Voynich a Polish samogitia a book dealer who the manuscript was unofficially named after he purchased 30 manuscripts from the Collegio Romano in 1912 who were selling parts of their library due to lack of funds and the Voynich manuscript just happened to be one of the 30 manuscripts for which purchased Voynich was perplexed by the strange yet fascinating book and spent the next several years in search of scholars cryptographers and codebreakers who could potentially decipher the manuscript during this time Voynich himself focused his efforts on attempting to trace back the origins of the book he believed that finding past owners of the manuscript would help to uncover its author or authors and possibly even decipher the books an identifiable language before diving into the physical and visual contents of the Voynich manuscript much like wolfred Voynich it can be helpful to attempt to trace back the books previous owners in order to better understand its history and possible purpose the earliest owner the Voynich manuscript has been traced back to is from the late 16th early 17th century in the court of holy roman emperor rudolf ii who was also king of Hungary Croatia Bohemia and a member of the Habsburg house throughout various points of his life Rudolph's reputation varies depending on who you ask but it is commonly accepted that he was very much devoted to the arts both popular and occult in addition to collecting art he was known to collect rare weapons botanical gardens exotic animals obscure literature and even dwarves he was known to have giants in his army let a lion roam freely about a section of his castle grounds and had a deep fascination of cryptography and alchemy at some point during his reign speculated around 1586 Rudolf was believed to have purchased the Voynich manuscript from an unknown party for somewhere between 300 and 600 gold ducats the former most likely in today's currency this could be valued from anywhere between $1,000 to $14,000 an extremely high amount for any piece of literature Rudolph's ownership is not 100% confirmed but was speculated upon due to a letter found in the manuscript too late it down the ownership timeline which we will revisit shortly at some point during Rudolph the seconds reign as King his court was accompanied by alchemists John D and Edward Kelly some researchers believe either D or Kelly to be the selling party or even the authors of the Voynich manuscript do both to their attendance of Rudolph's court at this time as well as an entry in John Dee's diary in 1586 in which he writes about comeuppance of three hundred ducats from an unnamed source upon rudolf ii death many of his belongings were passed down to various members of his court including the Voynich manuscript exactly who the manuscript was given to at this point is still up for debate it was either received by Rudolph's personal physician at the time jaqobis d teppan s or to Rudolph's botanist a man named Marcy C either would make sense due to the subject matter of both biology medicine and plant life within the manuscript the former was the likely owner at this time as Wilfrid Voynich allegedly found Jacob as his name written in a corner on the first page of the book although it did not resemble his handwriting at any rate the book remained with one of these two parties for approximately twenty years the next owner is unknown but at some point in the mid 17th century the manuscript came into the possession of Czech antique collector and Alchemist George beresch the first confirmed owner of the Voynich manuscript beresch unsuccessfully spent many years attempting to decode the strange book eventually beresch learned about a Jesuit scholar who was extremely well studied in physical sciences such as geology biology and medicine as well as cultural studies and linguistics such as Egyptology and Synology little did beresch know this man was Athanasius Kircher one of the greatest poly paths to ever live beresch discovered that kerscher had successfully deciphered a large amount of egyptian hieroglyphs and even carter graphed a supposed map of the lost continent of Atlantis beresch reached out to Kircher sending him handwritten copies of the manuscript along with letters in 1637 and 1639 the latter of which was preserved Kircher did not reply but was fascinated by the script he reached out in an attempt to obtain the real copy of the manuscript but beresch did not oblige upon Jord beresch death the manuscript was passed to a man named John Merrick Marcy not to be confused with the aforementioned botanist Marcy C a bohemian doctor and scientist for the Holy Roman Emperor Marcy spent some time with the manuscript but later concluded it would be better off in the hands of his longtime friend and colleague al Phinehas Kircher how ironic at this point the year was 1666 and Kircher studied at the Collegium romano in italy marcy sent Kerch of the manuscript along with the letter stored inside the manuscript which was still inside the book when purchased by Wilfrid Voynich nearly three hundred years later the letter from Marcy states that the manuscript was apparently authored by Roger Bacon a 13th century philosopher and astronomer his reputation was very highly regarded by though who studied alchemy at this time so his authorship was not entirely irrational the letter also reads that Marcy's friend bohemian lawyer and writer Raphael Mushaf skee who also served under rudolf ii claimed that rudolf purchased the manuscript for 600 gold ducats perhaps dee and kelly split this amount and the deal was made sometime before 1611 perhaps by german book dealer carl Weidman who was known to sell books to rudolf in the late 16th century in the end Athanasius Kircher was unable to decipher the Voynich manuscript and came to the conclusion that the text was a universal language maybe at some point understood by the entire world's population or perhaps meant to be understood by all living and non-living beings and objects this claim is largely conceptual and often disputed because although Kircher was an accomplished polymath his decipherment of the egyptian hieroglyphs were later found to be incorrect upon coach's death the Voynich manuscript remained in the library of the Collegio Romano for the next 200 years in 1870 the papal states were annexed by victor emmanuel ii of italy the government chose to take much of the church's property including some of the Collegio Romano library before this happened some of the literature was transferred to various faculty members at the time including Kercher's collection which held the manuscript the book was acquired by Patrice Beck the then head of the Jesuit Order and rector of the Collegio Romano his library was then moved to Frascati where it was housed until 1912 when the 30 manuscripts were purchased by Wilfrid Voynich upon voyages death the manuscript was passed down through various family and friends of his and in 1969 while in possession of hands Krauss the book was donated to Yale University where it is still housed today in the by Niki Rare Book and Manuscript library under call number M s 4:08 although much of the Voynich manuscript background has been at least partly uncovered much of the book remains a mystery in 2009 the manuscripts vellum a type of paper was dated back to the 15th century sometime between 1404 and 1438 using radiocarbon dating scholars believe it could have possibly been written in northern Italy during the early Italian Renaissance and the language could possibly have Turkish or Hebrew origins the manuscript itself consists of approximately 240 pages some of which fold out to show large illustrations and many pages are missing because the text is unreadable the manuscript has been split up into six sections based on the varying illustrations and assumed subject matter number one herbal 112 pages this section contains one to two illustrations of plants and flora per page accompanied by paragraphs of text none of the plants are 100% identifiable to astronomical 21 pages this portion is made up of circle shaped diagrams similar to those found in the fields of astrology and astronomy some of these diagrams show stars suns and even moons one collection of diagrams shows 12 symbols for the zodiac constellations as in a pair of fish for Pisces a bull for Taurus and so on 3 biology 20 pages also referred to as the anatomical section this portion is made up of large blocks of text with various smaller drawings mostly of nude women bathing in pools or tubs connected to elaborate plumbing systems which were later believed to resemble various human organs and body parts namely those of the female type for cosmological 13 pages this portion is made up of more circular diagrams similar to those found in the astrological section but far more obscure this section contains a popular fold-out illustration known as the rosettes folio this fold-out shows nine Islands connected by what appear to be causeways accompanied by what may be castles and a volcano five pharmaceutical 34 pages this part is made up of isolated plant parts such as roots leaves seeds and so on drawings of what appeared to be apothecary jars are also present accompanied with text six recipes 22 pages this section is full of pages of text but broken into step-by-step sections some pages are text only and therefore uncatted eyes one of the biggest mysteries behind the Voynich manuscript lies in its purpose although still unknown many experts believe the book was meant to serve as a pharmacopoeia or a technical book covering subject matter like medieval sciences early modern medicines and even alchemy other researchers believed the solution behind finding the manuscripts purpose lies in the path of finding the true author some of the more popular theories for who created the manuscript include Roger Bacon John Dee or Edward Kelly Giovanni Fontana or Wilfrid Voynich himself if Roger Bacon did indeed write the manuscript it would make sense that John Dee at the very least sold the Voynich to rudolf ii as d was known to have a large collection of bacon manuscripts however none of these diaries mention rudolph even once others believe Dee and Kelly created the manuscript on a whim in an attempt to acquire some easy funds from rudolph and started the rumor about bacon being the true author other researchers believed the same to be true about Wilfrid Voynich being an established book dealer one can assume a book by the great Roger Bacon would be worth a great deal of money and he could have fabricated the letters found inside the manuscript although the vellum was carbon dated the ink was not another theory was that 15th century Maggi italian engineer giovanni fontana was the true author many of the illustrations in the manuscript bear some resemblance to some of his other works and in his book secret of the treasure room of experiments in man's imaginations Fontana talks about using encrypted languages along with ciphers used to decode them while some seek to find the manuscripts creator others focus on attempting to decode the text within his pages it is believed that the text is either a code base message that needs to be deciphered by using some type of letter based or number based cipher that of which has still not been found others believe the texts are actually coded messages whereas one would use a stencil to cover-up portions of the page to reveal characters from an actual known language blocking out the noise text the issue is there could be a different stencil required for each page which could have been made randomly on a whim by the author when the manuscript was written some researchers have found that much of the text is actually made up of commonly used shorthand often used by scholars during that time period upon recreating the text into full language the contents did not make much sense likely ruling out this theory there have been a number of people throughout time claiming to have decoded the manuscript however none have been 100% confirmed perhaps the Voynich was a medicine book written in a lost language by a loss to civilization or maybe its contents come from outside of our earth it is also a possibility that the book is complete nonsense used to get some quick cash until more history is uncovered or code breaking technology advances the Voynich manuscript will remain one of the most unexplainable literary mysteries the world has ever seen on the evening of September 19th 1961 married couple Barney and Betty Hill were traveling home from vacation to Niagara Falls in Montreal Canada they had been driving for much of the day and were nearly to their home in Portsmouth New Hampshire while passing through just south of Lancaster around 10:30 p.m. Betty noticed a few small but bright star like spots of light in the night sky they moved from below her perspective of the moon upwards to the left and then to the right across the face of the moon at first Betty assumed it was some sort of falling star only this star moved in ways she had never seen before she watched as the lights traveled in a sporadic and unpredictable movement while they also appeared to grow in size and luminosity eventually Betty convinced Barney to pull over to get a better look at the anomaly which he only agreed to because there – and Delsea needed to be walked using binoculars Betty claimed to see that the source of the flashing lights was some kind of aircraft one of which she was unfamiliar with in the past Betty had heard rumors of reported UFO sightings from her friends and family so her mind immediately assumed this was what she was experiencing when Barney got to look through the binoculars at first he deduced that this supposed UFO was a commercial airplane enroute to Vermont however after some time observing is truly acrobatic like movements he considered it to be some sort of top-secret government testing I did not want to believe the possibility of it being some sort of extraterrestrial UFO this startled Barney enough to urge the family back into the car to continue driving on their route home which was nearing a pass through the mountains as they continued driving the hills recall the UFO remaining in their field of view coming even closer than it was before Barney almost felt like they had been targeted by the craft and it was following them as they neared a familiar picnicking area known as Indian Head the UFO descended so close and so rapidly to the hills car that Barney abruptly stopped the car in the middle of the road the craft now hovered in front of them about 100 above the car taking up the field of view of the windshield they recall it being flat and wide in shape and it appeared to be rotating Barney stepped out to have a look first retrieving his pistol from the trunk of the car and holstering it with in his pocket he stepped away from the vehicle and then recalls feeling compelled to peer through the binoculars up towards the craft he then observed anywhere from 8 to 11 human-like figures that moved with robotic almost German soldier like efficiency they appeared to stare back at him and although far away Barney was able to see they were wearing what appeared to be black uniforms in the next moment all but one of the figures moved away the one remaining appeared to be at a desk or terminal of some sort and Barney assumed they were the leader Barney then received a message either verbally or telepathically that said stay where you are and keep looking do either to fear or an unknown force Barney was seemingly unable to take the binoculars away from his eyes in this moment he was convinced that the beings aboard the craft were not human the craft then continued to lower about 60 feet above him and 300 feet away thin like structures then protruded from the craft and began to telescope towards him at this point Barney was in such a state of shock that he found the strength to tear the binoculars away from his eyes in turn breaking the leather neck strap near a state of hysteria he returned to the car warning Betty that he thought they were about to be captured the craft proceeded to move directly above their car and Barney tore off down the road next they heard what sounded like a rhythmic pattern of buzzes or beeps coming from the trunk of their car the entire car began to vibrate and tingling almost numbing sensation passed through their bodies in the next few moments their memories became spotty and both experienced states have altered unaware consciousness just as fast as they heard the few series of buzzing sounds they heard another and the two returned to their normal coherent states of mind they were still in the car and were surprised to find there were nearly 40 miles from where they last remembered when they finally did return home they noted that it was much later in the night than they had expected to return back it was nearly 5:00 in the morning after the initial sighting of the craft they had apparently lost about two hours of time after the event although their memories were spotty they did recall making a sharp unplanned turn into the woods and then coming upon some sort of road block and observing a fiery glowing ball of light in their path after getting some rest the hills awoke in the early afternoon and immediately noticed some out-of-the-ordinary sensations and bodily impulses Barney found the broken leather neck strap from the binoculars however he could not recall how they broke Betty insisted that their luggage be placed at the side door rather than the front for fear of some sort of radiation from the event Barney who is known as a meticulous dresser found his dress shoes from the ride home were scuffed scratch and basically ruined Betty found the dress she was wearing from the night before to be torn and tattered at the zipper and hemline there was also a strange pink powder like substance on the dress that blew away when hung on the clothesline she also insisted on taking a long shower to wash away feelings of contamination and Barney felt compelled to inspect his private parts in the bathroom but found nothing unexpected in addition to this odd behavior and discoveries the couple also found that neither of the watches they wore from the incident worked any longer the hill's tried to reconstruct their memories of the events from the night and early morning but they had seemingly lost time they remembered the initial encounter but after the buzzing sensations their memories were fragmented Betty against by his request informed her sister of the incident one of her sisters neighbours was a scientist and he suggested they try placing a compass near their car and belongings and record the results Barney came to find small concentric circles on the trunk of the car and the compass needle would whirl around rapidly when placed near them being an interracial couple in 1960s United States of America Barney did not want to bring their experience into public attention although they were both highly respected dignified and intelligent people within their community the state of racial tension within the u.s. simply did not favour interracial relationships at the time and Barney was wise to keep unwanted tribulation out of their lives he also feared they would be labeled as lunatics for even mentioning an encounter with possible extraterrestrial life approximately 10 days after the incident Betty claimed to have been having several vivid dreams for five nights in a row they occupied her mind constantly throughout the day and of those five nights they never returned she proceeded to document the dreams for future reference in one she dreamt that Barney and herself were driving in their car at night and was stopped when they encountered a roadblock and several men surrounded the car in the next instant two small men were leaving her against her will through a path in the forest she noticed Barney behind her and cried out to him but he was in some sort of trance she estimated the captors in her dream were just over five feet tall wearing dark blue military-style uniforms she noticed their human-like appearance but with gray skin blue lips and dark eyes the hills were led into a disc-shaped craft like the one they remembered encountering and they were taken into separate rooms which she protested against she was spoken to by their leader and an examiner and they both spoke very broken English which she could hardly understand she was told their bodies would be tested to compare the differences between the hills and them she was placed into what reminded her of a dentist's chair and the examiner examined her head including her hair ears mouth teeth then other parts of her body like her hands finger nails legs and feet he then unexpectedly inserted a needle into her navel region this caused Betty an intense amount of pain and the leader responded by waving his hand over her forehead and the pain went away after the examination Betty began a conversation with the leader and she was offered a book the book was filled with symbols she had never seen before the leader said she could keep the book but then an argument broke out among the creatures and she was unable to against Barney's wishes Betty ended up reporting their incident to the peace air force base and they were followed up with for a long-form interview the report was eventually sent to the US Air Force's UFO research team called Project Blue Book during the interviews the hills talked about having some form of amnesia during a certain time period of the experience this was the first case involving a UFO that was accompanied with missing time the hills were then referred to dr. Benjamin Simon a Boston psychiatrist well-versed in hypnotism they agreed to undergo a series of hypnosis sessions however Simon insisted they be separate for their sessions in order to keep each of their stories separate during Barney sessions he became nearly hysterical describing his overwhelming feelings of fear and helplessness during the whole ordeal he then recalled events nearly identical to Betty's dreams as well as exams on his male reproductive organs Betty's sessions were similar with the added fact that during the abduction she had asked the beings where they were from and they showed her a three-dimensional star map they asked if she knew where she was located on the map she did not they explained it would be too difficult to explain Simon concluded that the pair had suffered some form of unknown trauma but their stories were simply made up from Betty's dream at any rate the therapy calmed their anxieties from the event Betty made a sketch of the starmap and at the time it was not an existing star map in 1969 astronomer Marjorie fish was intrigued by the story and constructed a more detailed map from Betty sketch the results found that the star map Betty was supposedly shown closely resembled the double star system known as a Zeta but securely hence the other alias of this incident perhaps the hills were abducted and studied by aliens from the Zeta reticule II system or perhaps they made the entire thing up as a publicity stunt however the latter is unlikely due to their position in society at the time either way this incident had massive impact on pop culture at the time and inspired many to come forward with claims of extraterrestrial encounters that were to come the hills were said to be dignified people and not the kind to make wild accusations especially about something as controversial as aliens the mystery remains unsolved and likely will remain unsolved unless more evidence comes to light The Burren jaw of Australia there are more than enough variations in species all across the Australian outback for many experts to be unaware of their existence given the nature of the Outback and it's incredibly hostile environment and surprisingly the area does not see much human activity if any this of course goes without saying that the Australian outback is at the centre of may myths and legends involving that of a wide variety of terrifying creatures roaming the landscape many of these focus around the encounters that native Aboriginal peoples have when traveling through the outback and passing down stories of strange creatures they fought or were attacked by one is the story of the borange all of which is a creature that shares incredible similarities to that of a Tyrannosaurus Rex although not as tall as its ancient ancestor molds of large three-toed footprints have also been created from imprints found out in the Australian outback at more than three feet in width and four feet in length according to the Aboriginal myths there roams a massive lizard with the tail of an alligator that walks on two hind legs possesses a massive and powerful jaw and has two short arms at its chest interestingly enough there has been a large number of reports of a t-rex like creature out in the Australian outback with TV networks going out to film episodes centering around the discovery of the creature and its existence although it's unlikely that the t-rex survived in such a climate given the large number of reptiles of all sizes in the Australian outback it could be a very real possibility that the descendants of the creature exists today roaming in some of the largest and emptiest landscapes in history never found Cleopatra's tomb there are many stories of Cleopatra her beauty and her lover Marc Antony Cleopatra is probably one of the most famous people from our history and most of us heard of her even as kids she was a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty and the last known Pharaoh of Egypt the ancient writers claimed that Cleopatra the seventh was buried together with Mark Antony back in 30 BC Cleopatra and Anthony were lovers who just wanted to be together forever it is believed that Cleopatra actually committed a suicide two weeks after Octavian defeated Antony and invaded Egypt the writer known as Plutarch claimed that the tomb could be found near the Temple of Isis a beautiful Egyptian goddess Plutarch also said the tomb would contain gold treasures silver pearls ivory emeralds and ebony back in 2010 Zahi Hawass former minister of Antiquities of Egypt conducted various excavations at the site found near Alexandria currently known as top Osiris Magna the site contained 27 Tunes and 10 mummies all dating back to the era of Cleopatra the seventh her ruling of Egypt sadly it was no look for Hawass he did not find the tomb he was looking for and he probably never will some theory suggests that Octavian would never let Cleopatra and Antony get buried in such a great manner while others believed he was not as harmless considering he let Cleopatra make a funeral for her Antony after his tragic defeat some archaeologists claim her even if we would find Cleopatra's tomb now it would probably be very heavily plundered and completely unidentifiable the Hanging Gardens of Babylon reality or a myth the ancient writers described them as a series of beautiful gardens that have been constructed at the ancient Babylon city no one really knows the exact time when these gardens could have been built but many seemed to be impressed by the gardens and they believe they are a wonder of the world one of the texts claims that the gardens were built by a Babylonian Emperor Naboo code Nizar for his lovely wife Amy itis back in 250 BC filo of Byzantium wrote about the Hanging Gardens saying the plants were cultivated at a height that was above ground level throughout the years many archaeologists have tried to find to the Hanging Gardens they even excavated Babylon and they were still not able to find any of the remains of this beautiful garden just when we all thought the Hanging Gardens were just a myth an interesting story appeared by a researcher who has spent over 20 years looking for the location of the gardens 2013 Stefanie dally from the University of Oxford proposed that the gardens were located at the Assyrian city nan IVA doctor dally managed to combine the ancient maps with today's versions of the maps to finally locate this famous place doctor dally also says that mineva is actually new Babylon and that we have been looking at the wrong place for the entire time sadly past two decades these zones have been suffering a lot of damage from looting and war so it is very unlikely we are ever going to find these beautiful gardens if the Hanging Gardens really did exist we hope to find them someday from the descriptions these were we have never seen before the golden owl hidden in France created by French author and communications expert regis Hauser under the pen name of max Valentin on the trail of the golden owl is a 22 page book filled with complex codes riddles and puzzles that outline the details of how to uncover a hidden artifacts created by the book's illustrator and win the prize supplied by the author which is a statuette of an owl created from solid gold and silver and affixed with several diamonds across the top the author has passed away in recent time yet the treasure detailed in this book still has yet to be found by enthusiasts and devout treasure hunters from across the world many treasure hunters pursue the quest today not for the riches but for the bragging rights of being able to uncover the secrets of the complex codes and riddles the treasure of the golden Isle is valued at 150,000 euros but can easily be auctioned off at a much higher price the creator of the riddles and codes also claimed to have put a tremendous amount of time into false trails and misinformation in the riddle to throw off treasure hunters and prevent the treasure from being found too quickly Valentin later clarified that he had visited the site several times to ensure the presence of the treasure still in its rightful place and found it to be undisturbed evidence of people being roughly within 400 feet of the treasure had been reported by max Valentin in an interview later held of course as time grew and no participants could find the treasure Valentin set up the maxval server to help answer any questions treasure hunters might have and provide additional clues after answering over 100,000 questions pertaining to the search over the span of several years Valentin closed the server and remnants of the information exists to this day no one has found the treasure but given the advancements and information shared today a winner should be able to finish the treasure hunt sometime soon a planet in our neighborhood might be highly habitable if Mars manages to leave us disappointed with no living creatures on it we might as well take a look at Proxima Centauri B this terrestrial exoplanet is orbiting the habitable zone and it has just been discovered this planet has a mass that is about 30% larger than Earth and the orbital period of this planet seems to be around eleven point two earth days one year equals eleven point two days a team of astronomers from all around the world studied the prospects for this recently discovered planet we all know that water is the key to life but it is still unknown how much water does this planet really have the planet is said to be at least five billion years old and it receives a significantly higher amount of high-energy radiation than our own planet about 60 times higher and while the amount of water on this planet remains unknown the calculations reveal that próximo has probably lost about 1/8 all thanks to the irradiation in the first 100 million years after the formation of this planet thanks to the technology these days the scientists managed to create a sophisticated 3d model of this planet and they are currently studying the scenario in which próximo B actually has an atmosphere and surface water some scientists believe that Proxima Centauri B features liquid water but only in the sunniest region probably in an area in the hemisphere that faces the star or even in a tropical belt whether or not this planet is habitable it surely makes it very interesting to know about it would be great to see that the nearest star to the Sun is also a host to us unknown extraterrestrial species Martian bacteria methane cycle in 2004 the initial signs of life on Mars arose for NASA astrobiologists and research scientists they saw signs of a methane plume ejecting from the surface of Mars and began to quickly theorize its implications as an organic molecule and after many sleepless nights worked to send a Martian Rover with the capability of testing the Martian surface for additional organic molecules later in 2014 Martian rover Curiosity began collecting evidence of methane traces in the Martian atmosphere and made a startling discovery the Martian Rover found that the methane on Mars grew more concentrated by season in the Martian atmosphere and directly correlated with the Martian seasons over all this led researchers to believe that this correlation between concentration by season was additional proof to the hypothesis that Mars contains some form of life methane is also an organic molecule and the majority of methane on earth also correlates with our seasons as certain bacterias and microbes eject this organic molecule into the atmosphere during summer and autumn seasons similar to what the data shows in spikes of methane across the Martian atmosphere although definitive signs of life have yet to be observed on the red planet the odds of this observation seems to be more and more promising with the passing years as curiosity uncovers additional complex organic molecules and continues its drilling processes to locate bio signatures of life Bryant Johnson a drunk man from the future 2017 has been a year of many time travelers apparently various people have claimed to be a time traveler last year not many seemed to be saying the truth though one night that police officers in Casper Wyoming actually got called in order to deal with a drunk man who had been roaming the streets this drunk man turned out to be Bryant Johnson a man who claimed he actually came from 2048 according to his story he is a time traveler who went back to 2017 in order to warn us about an alien invasion that is supposed to happen in 2018 his story is funny though he said he wanted to travel to 2018 but the aliens got him completely drunk so he ended up arriving one year earlier than supposed to luckily his story did not really turn out to be true at all his time traveling experience was just an excuse to avoid public drunkenness charge and he has been arrested Baghdad battery many will often dispute supposed writings of talking statues massive machines and artificial lighting of the past given that it would have been impossible to have powered such devices since there had been no developments or evidence in the realm of electricity and electrical production this claim has however been proven false after the discovery of the Baghdad battery by archaeologists in the region of Iraq and in the surrounding areas the Baghdad battery is often described as a potential galvanic cell as the entire body is a large vase filled with a cylinder of iron wrapped with copper sheeting when the vases filled with grape juice add would have been a common drink to have had in the area it has been found that the Baghdad battery generates a significant electric current which could have been used for electroplating and have essentially created a battery used for further electrical requirements though many archeologists reject this claim a man by the name of Wilhelm coning worked as an assistant of the National Museum of Iraq and began noticing ancient artifacts of a very fine silver coated in small trace amounts of gold similar to the technique of electroplating this led to further supporting experiments by willard gray and w hansen that recreated galvanic cells from the baghdad battery using both grape juice and again using vinegar another common chemical available at the time New Guinean Iguanodon described similar to that of a real-life Jurassic Park type scenario is that of the local encounters residents experienced in Papua New Guinea a few miles south of Rabaul back in the month of March 2004 locals began reporting in mass waves that a dinosaur that stood over three metres tall had a body that was large and gray in color that possessed to the head similar to that of a dog and had the tail of a crocodile was terrorizing a small village and destroying everything in its path this led to multiple news outlets in the area also reporting the same finding and the local police quickly began investigating the matter when the police entered the small village they reported that there indeed was some kind of large creature wreaking havoc and reported it immediately to all the stations and emergency services nearby this led the government to send out an SBS alert a special broadcasting emergency service alert that reported that a police hunting party had gone out in search of the creature out in the jungles of Papua New Guinea and that villagers in the volcanic island province of East New Britain should evacuate if able a reporter by the name of Christine samay after hearing the initial reports by other news outlets of the creature immediately raced out to the scene of the crime to better understand what was transpiring this led to her not only seeing the creature but able to write down a complete description of its behaviors size and at parents leather reporters surfaced claiming that three dogs had been eaten by the creature and six police officers armed with m16s all trifles had taken the creature down and was to be examined for further study at a hidden location the disappearance of BIR manger island made popular by the BBC's documentary Mexico's missing island the major island is a phantom islet that according to maps as recent as the middle of the nineteenth century should currently be lying off of the north coast of the Yucatan Peninsula however for some inexplicable reason when a recent survey was conducted back in 1997 involving a team of surveyors charting lands to update the Mexican border the team was unable to locate the ver major island and seemingly found that it had completely vanished from existence this proved to be a very prominent issue for the Mexican government as the BIR major Island helped the country of Mexico extend its borders another fourteen miles past the land claimed on this island this then allowed the country's territorial borders to cover sensitive areas of water located off of the coasts of the island that otherwise would have been deemed international waters and then could be used by any other nation whatsoever this border extension was due solely to the existence of the small island as outlined in the United Nations conventions on the law of the sea that strictly specifies that a nations territorial border that extends out into open waters can only be up to fourteen miles off of the furthermost coast under the nation's influence this led many different conspiracy theorists to question that perhaps the island was purposefully destroyed by the United States government in an effort to gain access to these waters that lied within the extended borders of Mexico additionally this pushed the Mexican government to launch a detailed investigation into the area in attempt to better understand what took place on March 20th of 2009 the National Autonomous University of Mexico as instructed by the Mexican government was at the center of investigations all throughout the region of where the island was said to rest in an attempt to naturally explain the islands disappearance the team used an oceanographic vessel known as the justo sierra of which was equipped with state-of-the-art devices to help uncover any low-lying lands or completely demolished areas however at the end of June of that year the investigation was ended with overwhelming evidence that not only was there no evidence of such conspiracy but that there had been no desta jiz of an island ever existed in the area sunken or otherwise the area 51 caller and art bell back on September the 11th 1997 a man who worked at area 51 called in to coast to coast a.m. he was terrified for his life his voice was trembling he described extradimensional beings he even mentioned plots made by the government that would drastically change the world we live in they want the major population centers wiped out so that the few that are left will be more easily controllable he said to make the situation even more terrifying the satellite transmission was lost seven months later art bell received another call from the same man this time the man claimed his first call was a prank a hoax ever since the second call there were many debates related to these calls was the first call real why was he so terrified if it was not the truth there is a possibility both of these calls were fake but it is surely very strange that the satellite went out during the first call the satellite going off at that exact moment is extremely weird many people believe the first call was actually true they believe he called it a hoax because he had been scared for his life he might have wanted to have peace and not be bothered by media it is extremely hard to determine why this man decided to make these calls in the first place but it is surely a mystery we are never going to get a real answer to Stonehenge always a major fascination amongst the locals of the area and researchers from around the world Stonehenge has proven to be quite a mystery to anyone who even attempts to try to understand its construction and the techniques behind it not only other large blocks used so massive that even modern means of construction would fail in regards to establishing the Stonehenge but the source of the blocks appears to have been carved from hundreds of miles away which lead many researchers to question the ability of transporting such large stones to the area to add to this bizarre strangeness of the formation of the Stonehenge it has been discovered that the structure appears to have been built with astonishing precision in its placement and carved creation the structure appears to be able to be used as a complex calendar and can even keep track of time – an incredibly mysterious accurate degree this does insinuate however that not only did the ancients have the technology to cut the stones with laser precision transport the massive blocks lift them with tremendous force and place them with perfect alignment but that our ancestors also had the ability to make megalithic constructions in a very short span of time this continues to baffle researchers to this day who work to uncover more secrets regarding Stonehenge such as its weird electromagnetic properties and special materials used in its creation others have even argued that the formation of the great Stonehenge could be direct proof of ancient technologies and extraterrestrial intervention Andrew basiago a lawyer with time-traveling experience as strange as it might sound this Seattle lawyer claims that he actually time traveled to Andrew basiago not only claims he travelled to the future but he also claims to have been traveling to Mars and the past andrew has some very interesting claims one of them is his Mars travel back in 1981 together with young Barack Obama and William Stillings apparently they were all involved in a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency creating a time machine he also claims that the project named Pegasus was actually active between 1968 and 1972 this project led them to the creation of real working time machine Andrew claims he had used the time machine to travel back to the Year 1863 just to listen to one of Abraham Lincoln speeches and he also traveled to the year 2050 for according to his claims the United States government frequently used this time machine to deploy various military units unlike most of the time travelers Andrew did not provide us with any future predictions that are worth mentioning the Wyoming incident the mysterious TV transmission the Wyoming incident is probably one of the most deliberated and researched pieces there is a possibility you have never even heard of this one but do not worry the entire incident was explained as a television broadcast hijacking the hacker behind all of this managed to interrupt a local program channel and aired his own video for hold six minutes during a new cast the video was extremely bizarre confusing and very unsettling there were multiple disembodied heads strange facial expressions or from various camera angles soon after a special presentation has been shown followed by a message you will see such pretty things this video has been remembered it had rather strange effects on its viewers people who decided not to change the channel and they continued to watch the video they were slowly experiencing dizziness headaches vomiting and physical discomforts to make it even worse some of them were feeling paranoia followed by visual and auditory hallucinations as well after the examination of the sounds which played throughout the video the researchers found that the frequency was the reason for all these physical and mental issues frequencies within 17 Hertz and 19 Hertz range are known to cause distorting vision headaches nausea and vibrations of the human eyeball 80 Hertz frequency is often said to be the cause of supernatural and paranormal occurrences these results from a certain electrical frequency or sound and they can get different responses from the human body aside of very disturbing sounds there were series of numbers to be seen displayed as 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 people managed to explain this as a sum of each set of threes is 9 when we invert all three it becomes a 6 6 6 the Forrest Fenn treasure of the Rocky Mountains famed millionaire art dealer and author Forrest Fenn was confronted with his own mortality back in 1988 after getting diagnosed with a terminal form of cancer after pondering for a few years about his life and the legacy he had left behind in the world in an almost Willy Wonka like fashion Forrest Fenn took a substantial amount from his art collection and priced artifacts valued at 10 million dollars today and hid it inside of a wooden box in a random part of the Rocky Mountains he later detailed in a poem several clues to help treasure seekers locate the hidden riches and even further confirmed in an interview back in May of 2017 that though people had figured out the clues and potential locations of the treasure none had discovered the clues in the correct order and have failed to locate the treasure specifically he later clarified that several treasure seekers had been roughly within 200 feet of the treasure and many more within 500 feet of the box most treasure hunters today are still in search of the famed treasure of Forrest Fenn and none have provided any amount of substantial evidence of obtaining the treasure which further inspires treasure hunters to continue their search in the hopes of the famed riches and luxurious life that accompany it it's important however to not get your hopes up too high although it is confirmed that the treasure exists Forrest Fenn himself claimed that it would probably take ten thousand years before a single soul will ever find the treasure this does not deter true treasure hunters though as they write that the thrill of treasure hunting hiking through the Rocky Mountains and working to be credited as the one who figures out the clues and find the treasure is more than reward on its own and that the money involved is merely an added pleasure Easter Island heads on April 5th of 1720 to Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen visited the Easter islands and remained to be the first outside human contact with the natives of the region Roggeveen and his crew wrote vast documents and creating many detailed drawings of the island and large stones that appeared to be buried deep into the ground due to natural erosion and winds what made the crew or in the sight of these large stones is that they appeared to have been large statues carved from massive rocks and moved across great distances that were seemingly impossible to accomplish the locals had stories that explained that the statues were floated to their positions by their powerful kings and priests that had the ability to transport these large stones later in a BBC documentary many researchers would revisit the island in an attempt to explain the large stone statues but failed to come up with any reliable hypothesis as to the movement creation and placement of the massive stone heads many have subscribed to the theory that large rolling locks would have the ability to transport the stones however the size of the larger heads are physically impossible to move with rolling logs as there are no trees with trunks thick enough to support the massive weight of the Easter Island heads Dendera bulb found in the egyptian Hathor temples were vast hallways and even deeper constructions that seemed completely void of light many Egyptologists and archaeologists believe these areas to have been lit using torches or mirrors to reflect the sunlight but further investigation showed no residue or evidence of soot on the ceilings as would be comment with such findings and after inputting several mirrors in areas believed to reflect light the light of the mirrors were dim before being able to illuminate the temples and their vast hallways it became a mystery soon enough to the Egyptologists who could not understand why ancient Egyptians would build such a temple only for it to remain dark inside eternally it was not until they began reading the hieroglyphics on the walls of the temples and looking at the carvings within the stone reliefs before they began to realize that something even more strange was the case referred to as dendera bulbs the stone reliefs depicted light bulbs throughout the temple in incredible detail from the glass surrounding tubes to the power cord and even the lit inner filament inside the tube that is used to generate the light of the bulb itself given this finding and the temple's lack of conventional lighting it appeared to many that perhaps ancient Egyptian technology was far more advanced than originally interpreted and that possible sources of artificial light could have been in place thousands of years before the modern discovery of electricity how does ASMR work the autonomous sensory meridian response almost commonly referred to in the mainstream as ASMR is more than just a trend sweeping across the internet in fact it is one of the biggest mysteries in medical science to this day roughly 95% of the population can experience it the rest simply cannot and the reasons for how and why it can be experienced are even further shrouded in mystery for those that are not already aware of what ASMR is and wish to try the experience for yourself it is common to find videos all across YouTube that will place sounds that can cause this sensation ASMR is described medically as an experience characterized by that of a static like or tingling sensation on the skin that typically begins on the scalp and moves down the back of the neck and the upper spine it is currently not known as to what can cause our brain to begin feeling this tingling sensation that is just caused by listening to auditory stimuli of a certain nature nor the fact that certain soft sounds and whispers can cause this feeling some argue that it could quite possibly be an evolutionary adaptation that is in most people that allows parents to softly calm their children and lull them to sleep and that this sensation works to relax stresses and other sensations to cause an easier sleep pattern there is not much information to support this theory however and so any further advancements made relative to understanding the direct cause of ASMR have not yet been discovered why are there different blood types not much has been known about blood types since their discovery and is often the center of mystery around topics of illnesses and immunity the variation of blood types that many people are aware of known as a be a grouping has been difficult to understand since their discovery no more than 100 years ago these variations in blood types refer to the appearance of different antigens in the blood of an individual that can cause blood donors and recipients to have a bad reaction and rejection if the antigens do not accurately match but the nature of these antigens and of the cause for the blood types themselves seem to have no real purpose it was believed that blood type antigens can work to prevent infections but studies surrounding infections of all types have proven to be inconclusive in most studies it has found rather that certain bacteria can mimic blood antigens making them harder to detect from white blood cells and the body's natural immune system meaning that certain blood types can be more susceptible to different diseases such as how people with the blood type a are more vulnerable to smallpox and people with the blood type B are more affected by E coli infections the people that are Type O which is the most common blood type I'm perfectly fine without the antigens entirely so then it begs the question if blood types appear to worsen the condition of fighting infections and cause other evolutionary disadvantages then why do they still exist why did they ever exist in the first place scientists struggled to understand these questions and provide answers but it is safe to assume that understanding blood types can lead to newer discoveries that may shed light into a secret vital role these antigens can play in the development of health and medicine why do we need sleep it might seem obvious to people who hear this question and believe that the need for sleep is already a predefined and well understood phenomenon of the medical world this is hardly the case in fact even the evolutionary advantages of sleep are not entirely known to research scientists studying this strange need a misconception that people often seem to have is that sleep allows our body ample resetting time and our mind to relax and shut down to allow us to perform better during the day the truth is however that sleep is not a resting period and that our mind actually begins going through a higher performance known as an active period in which a lot of different functions begin happening for no real understood reason these various functions can range from information processing restoration and even memory strengthening one of the added benefits of sleep weirdly enough is there helps our minds reinforce information retrieved during the day and play a vital role in memory retention what is all the more odd however is that no one really knows how or why this occurs and even though sleep is the single most activity humans will do throughout their lives the secrets surrounding sleep continues to elude us a question the further leaves scientists scratching their heads in confusion is the argument of evolutionary advantage what could possibly be the advantage to forcing a member of the animal kingdom to spend one-third of its natural life unconscious and vulnerable unable to eat or stay on alert for predators or even just to perform natural bodily functions this strangeness is only compounded further when analyzing that every single member of the animal kingdom requires sleep and to deny sleep for a prolonged period of time could result in seizures and then subsequently go passing but why is that no one really knows why sleep is so required and why without it you can die perhaps there is some supernatural secret to the idea of the abstract world that sleep provides us and the answer might be far more extraordinary than scientists can understand at this moment in time Lake Winnipesaukee mystery stone obscure and unknown by many is the Lake Winnipesaukee mystery Stone a relic that has often been referred to as the thunder stone Thunder stones have often been referenced by many different cultures from around the world originally seen as large stone eggs that fall from the skies as a gift from a thunder God associated with the culture interestingly enough this Thunder stone was discovered back in 1872 and was believed to have been found in Meredith New Hampshire as workers were preparing the land for construction the stone was regarded as being four inches long two and a half inches thick and was described as being a dark egg-shaped stone with a variety of carved symbols and two large holes burrowed deep into the stone many ancient astronaut experts described the stone as being similar to that of a head of an astronaut as one side of the egg-shaped stone shows a man's face inside the egg as if he were wearing a large helmet the stone appears to have also been made with such incredible precision that the authenticity of the find was put into question back in 1994 researchers performed a borescope analysis of the stones holes and found that the appearance of the holes indicated having been constructed with power tools the holes were described as being extremely regular throughout with no unevenness or variation this could not be the case however as the stone was discovered back in 1872 more than a decade before the invention of the electric drill this could very well be irrefutable evidence of advanced technologies discovered on an artifact hundreds of years old and yet despite this evidence the object itself is widely regarded by academics as nothing more than a hoax and further research into the stone has been completely non-existent the Rendlesham forest incident in December of 1980 near Rendlesham forest in Suffolk England there was a series of reports made by credible witnesses that detailed the event of an unidentified flying object landing in the forest and causing several unexplainable phenomena in the area these witness reports would include sworn affidavits from multiple military offices in high positions and untold chaos for the coming years at around 3 a.m. on December 26th a security patrol at the Royal Air Force Base Woodbridge saw what they described as bright lights descending nearby the Rendlesham forest the security patrol described the lights as that of a downward aircraft and so quickly rushed to investigate their sighting working to follow its general direction in the forest once they arrived within sight of the aircraft the group two men took notice of the fact that the animals nearby native to that region of the forest appeared to be screeching and going into a panicked frenzy the men described what they saw as a glowing object metallic in appearance surrounded with attached and brightly coloured lights one of the members of the security patrol sergeant Jim Penniston later wrote in his memo that the team had encountered a craft of unknown origin which only helped confirm the sighting of an unidentified flying craft additional evidence was gathered the next day by a high military official known as Lieutenant Colonel Charles halt of whom found spiked radiation readings at the supposed site of the landed craft within Rendlesham forest as well as a triangle of depression that sank within the ground as if a large object with a massive pressing force had recently been resting on that region Lieutenant Colonel Charles halt would later be punished and reprimanded for creating witness reports sworn affidavits and going on record to say that he had believed the event to be extraterrestrial in nature and that the incident had been covered up by both the governments of the United Kingdom and the United States hexagon on Saturn in 1981 as both of the space probes involved in the Voyager mission passed by Saturn and began snapping many different angles of its surface they discovered an anomalous property of the gas giant that is still unanswerable even to this day located at the North and South Poles of the planet were large open vortexes this was only made increasingly more mysterious as their probes soon discovered that the North Pole vortex created a massive hexagonal pattern on the planet this was compounded in its strangeness as future NASA missions would later confirm this anomalous property never before theorized on many of the other planets in the solar system Juno analyzing a strange hexagonal pattern on the north pole of Jupiter and Voyager 2 noticing vortexes on the poles of Neptune not only was the scientific community baffled by these findings and are still attempting to hypothesize the cause of the anomalous properties but these discoveries led to a massive outcry from conspiracy theorists who had predicted this planetary behavior eons before the observation the Hollow Earth community pointed to these open vortexes at the north and south poles of the planets as proof of the physics behind the conspiracy theory of the Hollow Earth hypothesis in 1947 a man by the name of Admiral Byrd wrote a diary about his events of sitting World Records around the world one of these entries included his journey to the North Pole where he claimed he witnessed a massive open vortex that reached inside the earth when he flew inside he claimed that there were inhabitants of the inside of the earth that were not human but or entirely aware of human beings the creation of our weapons of mass destruction and the governments of the world many Hollow Earth conspiracy theorists pointed to this witness account as evidence of their hypothesis but were argued against by scientists and physicists at the time claiming for such an a to be impossible interestingly enough Google Earth blurs out the poles of our earth and international laws make it illegal for planes to fly directly over poles despite it being the shortest path from certain areas to get across the earth this theory only gained more traction as proof of other planets in the solar system surfaced containing these vortexes life on an asteroid in 2007 an astrobiologist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center named a Richard Hoover made a shocking discovery when analyzing pieces of a meteorite which fell in France in 1864 he discovered structures that appeared to be fossilized microbes many NASA scientists challenged his hypothesis by stating that fossilization of microbes could have occurred as the meteorite struck the earth and may not have been original inhabitants of the meteorite itself after further research however this rebuttal was quickly disproven as definitive proof was established that the fossilization occurred prior to the meteorites landing Richard Hoover specifically states in his papers and presentations his findings as many of the filaments shown in the figures are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix consequently it is concluded that the filaments cannot logically be interpreted as representing filamentous cyanobacteria that invaded the meteorite after its arrival they are therefore interpreted as the indigenous remains of micro fossils that were present in the meteorite rock matrix when the meteorite entered the Earth's atmosphere these reports and hypothesis only helped to contribute to the widely debated theory of panspermia which was a recently hypothesized general theory of life which holds the belief that perhaps all life across the universe is seeded via meteorites this posits forth the mathematical implications that perhaps life overall is not very rare and rather quite common that perhaps even our selves were planted here by a crashed meteorite millennia ago that worked and evolved into more complex life over time given theories of adaptation perhaps out there in the expanse of the universe across many different planets there could be additional complex life that had the ability to be planted by a similar meteorite and evolved into intelligent life or perhaps even more mysteriously out there in the empty expanse of the cosmos on other earth-like planets there is life that evolved from a similar strain of microbes and one day if we ever have the pleasure of visiting the expanse of the universe we would find on some distant planet humans like us the Book of Enoch after the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls new and untold scriptures were translated from the scrolls to reveal ancient stories that had long been omitted from the Bible by the Catholic Church due to their controversial nature among these stories in Scripture was the Book of Enoch which told the first-person account of Enoch as he joined angels in the heavens and wrote about his findings the mysterious nature of this story only deepens as Enoch gives vast a detailed account for visiting stars and planets witnessing a star being sucked into a black hole and even traveling through time to foresee the future of humankind describing humans as riding in fast metal chariots and travelling through the skies after only travelling through space for roughly a week when Enoch came back to earth he witnessed that nearly 300 years had passed within the seven-day timespan which is equivalent mathematically to time dilation discovered by recent findings in the realm of fourth dimensional physics and the special theory of relativity the Battle of Los Angeles more commonly known and referenced by its nickname the great Los Angeles air raid was an incident in 1942 that led people to believe in a massive unidentified flying object sighting over the city of Los Angeles tensions during this time had already been heightened following the Japanese Imperial Navy attack on Pearl Harbor and so stationed anti-air military officials were on hair-trigger alert throughout the night at approximately 2:25 a.m. the air raid sirens sounded throughout Los Angeles County after officials and radar control towers spotted several unidentified aircraft floating through the night sky at 3:15 a.m. the anti-air rounds were firing into the sky with 0.50 caliber machine guns and twelve point eight pound anti-aircraft shells witness reports stated that a large cigar shaped object was floating through the sky and appeared to be completely unaffected by these shells as a total of 1,400 cannon ball sized rounds were fired at its underbelly the result of the incident would end with damaged buildings destroyed vehicles and five civilians of whom had died as indirect result of the ongoing chaos no aircraft was ever recovered and the entire incident was attempted to have been covered up by the United States Air Force over the following days today the incident is still regarded as a mystery and experts have suggested that the cause for the Los Angeles great air raid could have been due to a floating weather balloon in the region that could have caused mounted tensions to have climaxed and led to this full-scale retaliation from the United States military forces but the witness reports directly contradict this finding however claiming that the main cause was due to extraterrestrial involvement and the spotting of unidentified craft in the night sky whatever the true cause could have been still led to the incident and is regarded with high levels of scrutiny by the ufologist community has key evidence of extraterrestrial life the mysterious lost treasure of the copper scroll everyone likes treasures no matter where we mention a treasure someone will go ahead and try to find it people have a thing for treasures and aside from all the curiosity there are various treasures that might actually make a difference this extraordinary cache is named the copper scroll and it has been found on March the 14th 1952 at Qumran it is believed that this scroll is actually a lot different than other documents found in the Qumran library the scrolls found that Qumran library are usually written on papyrus or parchment but this one is special it was written on a metal that is copper mixed with one percent tin as metal corrodes throughout the years the scroll could not be enrolled at all for that reason the archaeologists actually cut it into 23 strips and pieced it back together the language that has been found on the scroll was different from others and gianmarco Allegro had to transcribe the contents of it right away not only this scroll seems to be from an unusual material it also has a lot of things written on it the results of gianmarco Allegro pointed out something amazing the scroll itself is unique and unlike other Scrolls it was not a work it was a list a list contains 64 locations where a treasure of silver and gold could be found along with silver and gold it is said that treasure contains vessels and maybe some other Scrolls too the estimated number of treasures that could be found goes up to tonnes there are over 4,600 treasures that have been listed on this mysterious scroll which means if anyone ever finds it it will be over a billion dollars worth this mysterious scroll had started many treasure hunts right away but it was all useless considering the scroll required intimate knowledge of the obscure references everyone who tried to find the treasures returned empty-handed no one has found any treasure mentioned in the scroll and we probably never will but the search continues maybe if you feel like it you could give it a try the invasion of Washington DC 1952 many people will retort that if aliens truly existed then these extraterrestrials and visitors from another plant would quickly fly to the leaders of our world and confront them with their concerns or agendas depictions from old science-fiction movies of the early 1900's showcased is thought more so than others with props of unidentified flying objects landing on the White House lawn filled with alien life attempting to approach the leader of the free world what many are not actually aware of however is that back in 1952 this very much proved to be the case later referred to by Project Blue Book specialists as the invasion of Washington DC for roughly eight consecutive days from July 19th to July 27th the most publicized sightings events of extraterrestrial life took place above the nation's capital not only was there a tidal wave of reports that flooded in from the general population as outlined by UFO historians and alien investigators but the reports consisted of high officials members of the military and air force participation in reaction to these unidentified craft one of these reports took place at 11:40 p.m. on Saturday of July 19th from a man by the name of Edward Nugent mr. Nugent was an air traffic controller at the Washington National Airport and detected seven objects on his radar moving at speeds flight paths and directions that no known human craft could have produced at the time Nugent later wrote we knew immediately that a very strange situation existed their movements were completely radical compared to those of ordinary craft this was merely the first report out of countless hundreds of sightings that took place during that time this later caused the climax by then President Harry Truman who ordered the Air Force to investigate and provide an explanation for the wave of sightings and odd radar information data this further led to involvement from the central intelligence agency that worked with the office of scientific intelligence and the office of current intelligence to lead their own investigations into the matter that provided by Lee reports further led to the creation of a supposed alien organization branch within the Central Intelligence Agency that specifically handles such investigations given the credibility of the witness reports the information retrieved by air traffic controllers and radar data specialists and further investigations led by the Central Intelligence Agency the existence of extraterrestrial involvement seemed certain how does DNA work although given the recent advancements made by the human genome project that utilized different research labs and international resources from many different participating countries and corporations that helped to map out the entire human genome and better understand the entire DNA of the human species it still remains a mystery that many argue might never be solved one of the biggest questions surrounding DNA is what causes it to work the exact way that it does for those that are not aware every single cell in your body contains the same DNA code inside of its nucleus and the nucleus itself works to acts like the brain of the cell and carries out the specific growths and functions needed to perform a specific job that is communicated via the strands of DNA inside it it is then safe to assume that DNA is the sole mechanism responsible for the creation and performance of every cell in the human body which works to be the building block of all life oddly enough this mechanism is completely covered in mystery why is it that certain cells will perform certain functions with every single cell holds the same genetic information inside of it scientists struggle to understand how it is that specific parts of the body will finish replicating or perform different functions as others and how it is that DNA operates as a whole and carries out these functions even after mapping in detail the entire human genome this is still a mystery if this secret can be cracked however it could mean understanding why cells refused to replicate or break down after a period of time allowing us to turn back the clock of aging or solve other diseases that are centered around the functions of a cell including different forms of cancers though DNA is one of the biggest mysteries of medical science understanding its true nature could mean everlasting life for the human race the discovery of materials 10 million times stronger than steel a neutron star forms after a massive star becomes so large due to a supernova explosion that the gravitational forces that once held the star together caused by its mass soon caused the star to implode to form a densely compacted neutron star if the mass is not enough to cause the entity to form into a black hole a theoretical singularity the star will stay as an imploded neutron star researchers from the United States and Canada performed advanced simulations regarding the formation of these neutron stars earlier this year and plan on publishing their findings in the journal Physical Review Letters that outline the possible formation of stringing dense materials that could be 10 million times stronger than steel though there are no practical applications of the materials due to even a sugar cube of the material weighing the equivalent of Mount Everest the material being referred to as nuclear pasta led to deeper implications and understanding as to the formation of the densely compacted stars and other potential materials that can be inspired from the layering design and stringing nature of the neutronium material physicists model electrons in unprecedented detail early in 2018 physicists worked conduct highly sensitive experiments relative to sub atomic particles to help better understand the model of the electron and further information relative to its design standard models of the electron had always existed which believed the particle to be round in nature this was widely debated however as the size of the electron and its standard model failed to help explain other phenomena existing within the realms of physics and quantum physics that many other models could work to help explain in an effort to settle this debate and to help us better understand the nature of these subatomic particles research scientists began using new state-of-the-art powerful lasers to reveal the shape of the electron by firing these powerful lasers and lighting up surrounding molecules the research scientists were able to interpret and better understand how other subatomic particles alter the distribution of the electrons charge this experiment revealed to the research scientists the fact that the surrounding particles do not appear to be large enough to skew electrons into oblong or pear-shaped particles which help to prove that electrons fit the standard model of theory and are indeed symmetrically spherical this leads to many new issues however and was regarded by physicists as equally puzzling not only did this discovery overturn other possible the alternative theories and explanations but leaves many blanks as to the reasonings of other strange phenomenon that the standard model cannot explain this has also led many research scientists to realize that the expectations of new subatomic particles to be inconclusive or non-existent entirely leading to additional information in the search for exotic material such as dark matter which also cannot be observed directly like subatomic particles the sunken treasures of Lake Teplitz described by treasure hunters as the Nazi Eldorado the sunken treasures of Lake to plaits is a treasure of history that is known to exist and that the location of the treasure to already be uncovered the main issue of obtaining the treasure is not finding it however but rather of being able to reach it and retrieve the sunken treasures in 1943 to 1944 the shores of Lake Tirpitz was utilized by the Nazi regime as a temporary naval testing station throughout the station's lifetime Nazi research scientists experimented with many different types of devices and chemicals and the effects of ocean depth relative to pressurized force given its secluded nature and difficult to reach location after the failure of the Nazi project operation Bernhard which worked to attempt to overinflate British currency the Nazis used this temporary naval research station to dump over 100 million pound sterling notes into the lake these notes have yet to be recovered and it is further believed that several priceless artifacts may be located at the bottom of the lake given witness reports from divers who have spotted sunken aircraft closer to the bottom of the lake given the dangers of sunken logs halfway to the bottom of the lake that creates a natural barricade diving in the lake to retrieve these treasures and artifacts have proven to be beyond hazardous and regarded by even the most experienced divers as impossible the hunt for the sunken treasures of Lake to blitz has also unfortunately claimed many people's lives who were brave enough to risk it in the first place and due to this has led to a ban in the region relative to treasure seeking and diving in the dangerous regions of the lake let us know and share your ideas on where some hidden treasures might be located lights on the New Jersey Turnpike on July 14th 2001 several drivers on the New Jersey Turnpike stopped alongside the road and witnessed strange lights in the sky that began forming a v-shaped pattern in the sky the sighting lasted for a total of 15 minutes including a report from one of the motorists in the area that happened to also be a police officer that filled out a form that detailed the incident and took witness accounts and statements the report finds that the lights were described as orange yellow and amber in color and could hold their position stationary in sky and disperse at great speeds interestingly enough the air traffic controllers originally denied evidence of craft of any kind being reported in the area however recovered FAA radar data confirmed the sighting and information relative to the craft at the supposed witness time and location the treasurer of Lima removed from Lima a city in Peru the treasure of Lima is reported to have been a collection of treasures artifacts and riches worth roughly 160 million pounds or about 208 million u.s. dollars in today's currency the more interesting story behind the burial of the treasure and the collection of this hunt was built up over centuries of conflicts and tensions within South America during the sixteenth century Spain had taken control of Lima after defeating at the native populations in this region and over the next few centuries worked with the Catholic Church and had gathered a vast amount of resources and treasures within the city of Lima Peru it wasn't until the 19th century that this collection of vast wealth was threatened due to rising difficulties in colonies due to Wars of Independence all across South America in 1820 as Lima was on the edge of revolt the Mexican government quickly worked to preserve the established wealth and established a safety precaution for this conflict the Viceroy of Lima quickly worked to transport the wealth to Mexico for safekeeping and took a detailed inventory of the goods retrieved the outlined jeweled stones precious metal candlesticks 2 life-sized solid gold statues and an untold amount of money the treasure would quickly be seized by a corrupted newfoundland a captain by the name of William Thompson who was put in charge of the riches and headed for the Cocos Island located near present-day Costa Rica supposedly the men buried the treasure there and were soon captured after this the treasure has still been yet to be uncovered and many people scour the island in the hopes of locating where it could have been hidden if you wish to join then you will have to do this at your own risk as treasure hunting on cocoa Island has been deemed illegal and is banned by the Costa Rican government the giant village of Peru the arrival of the Spanish to Peru has been recorded by Pedro Cieza de Leon he wrote everything he could in a books named The Chronicles of Peru this incredible piece is full of details and truly accurate descriptions of the natives and their culture a side of great interesting stories such as the conquests by the Spanish and details of the environment pedro claims he had seen the village which had been built by giants throughout his book he describes them as giants who arrived in boats made of reeds massive as ships the legend says the Giants actually built wells that were a lot beyond the native technology it is believed the great fire came down and took away the Giants Cieza de Leon claimed he has seen the village and well that was built by giants he believed they were massive enough to fit the legendary story not only did he write about this but he also claimed there was a giant skull and a femur these artifacts are non-existent we no longer have them and this story might never be confirmed at all whether Cieza de Leon was deceived or made it all up no one really knows but his story is interesting and we love the mystery behind it by following Cieza de Leon's story it seems that the Spanish were not the first foreign visitors to arrive in Peru atoms binding to nothing the ability to bind two distinct atoms help to create new chemical bonds which could lead to many new discoveries in the field of Science and Industry the uses in alloys chemical processes and other new materials that could help to solve many new and arising problems in the world that we face today this is the main reason as to why in early 2018 the recent discovery that involves tricking atoms into binding with nothing helps to potentially create a whole new field of science originally referred to as the creation of the rid burg Adam when an electron begins to move far away from its host atom it will bind to another atom and create a new chemical process however research scientists have found a way of utilizing microwaves laser technology and other forms of deliverance of energy to move the electron away from the atom artificially which helps to create a rigged burg atom that binds to nothing when the experiment had been performed the newly created artificial red burg Adam still behaved as if it was bonded with another atom that didn't exist that scientists now refer to as a ghost atom even more interestingly the new created rid burg atom still displayed new chemical processes as if the binding had actually occurred which has baffled research scientists and challenged our modern understanding of both matter bonding and chemical processes that exist today almost as if matter doesn't actually exist and our universe is far more strange than we ever previously understood this new insight has been leading research scientists to believe that the new artificial rig bugs could be used to create whole new chemical processes that could lead to further discoveries in the world of alloys materials and complex molecules the formation of the artificial red Berg's only lasted for approximately 200 microseconds however given new advancements in the field many research scientists believe this time can be adjusted and further efforts could be made by using other sources of energy and different angles and methods of the ghost binding the petrifying Lake Nature Lake Natron located in the Arusha region of northern Tanzania is a natural wonder of the world that seems better suited as being the background landscape for a horror movie than real life due to the lakes low depth and incredibly rich mineral deposits strange cyanobacteria fills the lake creating a peculiar red hue during its photosynthetic processes that makes the thick waters of the lake similar in look and texture to that of coagulated blood interestingly enough because of these rich mineral deposits and strange red bacteria it has been found that any animals that enter the region are almost immediately petrified and turned to stone seemingly untouched by time skeletons of a variety of birds can be seen floating across the shallow tops of the lake and larger animals including wildebeests and larger Falcons have been turned to statues in the areas nearby via this petrification process these findings create an unbelievably surreal environment that swallows the area in what can only be described as a nightmarish design the cause for this petrification process is still widely unknown and a research into the region has been halted due to the preservation efforts to the local environment this could mean that not only is the lake mysterious in its appearance and abilities but that the mechanics for such an odd discovery may be completely unknowable and possibly fringing on the supernatural aspects of animals being frozen in time similar to the Greek mythologies of Medusa the landscape is littered with these petrified remains dr. Herbert Hopkins and the missing coin many people regard the men in black as being nothing more than the appearance of government agents dressed in perfect black suits that attempt to cover up or use scare tactics to prevent the public at large from understanding the true occurrence of extraterrestrial activity however the men in black could also be something else entirely something not human this appears to be the case when reviewing the reports made by a dr. Herbert Hopkins and his strange encounter with an individual who suddenly showed up at his house while he was conducting a private investigation dr. Herbert Hopkins was working as a consultant on a case involving a sighting of an unidentified flying object as well as various other extraterrestrial claims that had occurred in the state of Maine one night as dr. Hopkins was poring over further details of the case he had recovered he received an eerie phone call from someone who claimed to be an activist in the alien community who then further stated that not only did he wish to visit Hopkins but he had additional evidence regarding the case dr. Hopkins was thrilled to hear this as any additional witness testimony and proof brought forward would certainly help him to better understand the situation that had occurred and so he gave them and the details of his address and directions on how to reach him oddly enough it only took a few minutes before he heard the ring of his doorbell the man that showed up to his house was described by mr. Hopkins as wearing a perfectly pressed black suit and black tie but this was far from the most noticeable thing about the man according to dr. Hopkins the man in black had incredibly unusual facial features the man had no hair of any kind including a bald head completely shaved eyebrows and no eyelashes he was also so unbelievably pale to the point that it looked unhealthy and completely unnatural not wanting to be rude dr. Hopkins invited this strange man into the home to discuss the details of the case when the strange man entered dr. Hopkins dog began barking at the man erratically and demonstrated incredible uneasiness around him the only thing after the man's mouth were direct questions being asked about the details of the case involving information that no one other than the current investigators were made aware of after dr. Hopkins answered his questions and told the man everything he had learned about the case the conversation became a whole lot weirder the man in black told dr. Herbert Hopkins that there were two coins in his pocket and for the doctor to make sure he was correct when the doctor checked his pockets he found two coins and immediately became disturbed by this the man in black then instructed the doctor to remove one of the coins in his pockets and to hold it in his hand as the coin sat in the palm of the doctors hand he began to see what he described as the coin taking on a silvery appearance and then appeared as if it was going out of focus after a few more seconds the coin disappeared completely and was nowhere to be seen the man in black then explained to Hopkins that the coin will never be seen on this plane again implying that perhaps it's in a different plane of existence altogether the man in black then asked the doctor if he was aware of the case of Barney Hill for those that are not aware of Barney Hill he was a famous collaborator in the alien community with interesting experiences and witness accounts he and his wife worked tirelessly to develop a legitimate study of alien life before his untimely death that was already shrouded in conspiracy the man in black then told dr. Hopkins that the reason Barney had passed away was due to them using the same tactic as they did with a coin on Barney's heart the man in black clarified by saying just like you no longer have a coin Barney didn't have a heart the man in black then told dr. Hopkins to destroy any material he had related to the UFO case and to no longer participate any further in the alien community extremely disturbed by this and dr. Hopkins immediately burned all the files he had relative to the case the origin of the prehistoric stone spheres of Costa Rica the stone balls were first referenced back in 1971 by famed ancient alien author Erich von däniken in his cult classic novel known as the chariots of the gods though the discovery of these stone spheres go as far back as the 1940s located and scattered throughout the jungles of Costa Rica these spheres were originally found in the Delta of the Tarawih River but followed as far away north as the Estrela Valley and as far south as the mouth of the Coto Colorado River this appears to be no easy feat however as the objects were massive most of them being as large as roughly 2 meters in diameter and weighing more than 16 tons in ancient Costa Rican myth as well as evidence found by archaeologists it was originally believed that these spheres served a purpose by matching constellations in the sky and that according to these myths represented the constellation of which the gods had arrived from the ancient astronaut community believed that the spheres could have served as a primitive star map depicting a very specific constellation as told by the ancient gods in an attempt to show us their home planet when the time was right unfortunately the Costa Rican stone spheres when discovered were either moved from their original location by archeologists and researchers all blown up by treasure seekers believing the stone spheres to contain ancient artifacts priceless antiques or gold treasures that could be sold on the black market it is due to this that the true nature and archaeological context of the scattered spheres is completely lost for the foreseeable future and though there may be a handful of stones still in their original location hundreds of others have been completely destroyed removed or washed away by flooding in the original together even though the surviving stones could still prove to be useful regarding archaeological context and discovery for some strange reason the discovery has gone wildly unnoticed and completely ignored since its original finding back in the 1940s the flying Saqqara bird of ancient Egypt it was very common in the old days of Egypt for children to possess intricately carved wooden toys not much different two toys found today interestingly enough the discovery of the Saqqara artifact puts many ideas into question on whether or not the object was a toy or evidence of ancient aircraft during 200 BCE in an 1898 excavation at the Pardee Amon tomb located in the town of Saqqara Egypt was discovered strange bird shaped artifacts made out of sycamore wood and incredibly preserved these artifacts depict a bird first at the front however the rest of the body seemed similar in design to a modern-day charter plane rather than a bird located atop the bird appears to be one single large wing commonly seen in modern taildragger planes whereas the back of the back shows what appears to be a similar design to a rudder that flattens out at the back in a vertical position further evidence of the ancient Egyptian gods wildung advanced technologies is the fact that the bird fakes used for the Saqqara bird is that of a falcon an image commonly used to depict many of the Egyptian gods and their power further evidence was established when aerodynamics expert Simon Sanderson tested an exact replica model of the carved bird in a modern wind tunnel even without a tail plane rudder or flaps the model generated four times the gliders own weight in lift proving indefinitely that even without the use of modern day equipment scaled up the carved image could glide on its own when Simon Sanderson added a stabilizing tail plane to the car wooden figure and tested it in a flight simulator it was able to fly quite well and control with ease the rivals in comparison to many aircraft built today in his paper Simon wrote that quote modern technology has proved beyond all doubt that it could have flown end quote despite the substantial evidence and research many experts claim Simon Sanderson as forging the results or even go as far as claiming that perhaps the wooden bird is nothing more than an elaborate hoax placed there during its discovery Devil's tramping ground out in North Carolina locals of the area have found an unexplainable region of the nearby forest that seems to deny all logic and reasoning the area is referred to as The Devil's tramping ground as it appears to be completely devoid of growth of any kind similar to that scene of a large animal or beast stomping around in a circle without rest the strange and mysterious 40-foot ring of compacted blackened soil has been the talk of local legends since the discovery of the region found right beside silver city located in North Carolina 10 miles west of the location the local residents claim that almost every night if someone visits this odd and mysterious location you will be able to see a dark spirit stomping on the ground in anger and leading to the region's blackened compacted state the location is so strange that even the North Carolina State Department of Agriculture had spent years taking samples of the soil in this area but is still yet to come up with an explanation for why the 40 foot radius is completely devoid of life of any kind experts originally believed that perhaps there was a more scientific approach to the whole situation believing that maybe a lack of nutrients in the soil or a spawning ground for insects could be the reason for the blackened compacted state studies came back inconclusive to any of those results and by the standards of the tests held by the North Carolina State Department of Hagrid culture the soil should be some of the most fertile soil in the region today experts are still uncertain as to what can be causing this blackened compacted soil and many paranormal investigators have stayed out most nights to watch the region but failed to spot anything supernatural or paranormal causing The Devil's tramping ground the 50-foot Congo snake back in 1959 when the Belgian air force occupied the Democratic Republic of the Congo a colonel by the name of Remy van Leeuw ed made a startling discovery as he was flying over the rainforests of the Congo there were three people on the flight himself a pilot and a photographer as they were attempting to get surveillance information of the forest below them on their journey to another military base suddenly the colonel noticed what appeared to be a large snake over 50 feet in length and lifting its body more than 10 feet high the colonel reportedly told the pilot to turn around so they could get better photographs of the creature and hovered for a while in the helicopter before they realized they were low enough to be within striking distance of the snake it's believed the team encountered a large titanosaur in the region and that if the estimates by the colonel were correct the creature was the largest snake to have ever existed interestingly enough since the sighting there has been many other claims from tourists in the region of encountering massive anaconda like creatures that can lift their bodies more than 10 feet in the air and are somewhere between 30 to 40 feet in length given snakes at such sizes existed in the prehistoric past this could very well be a surviving descendant of the titanosaur and exist in the oxygen-rich areas of the congo basin no other explanations exist for these continued sightings to this day the big bay point lighthouse located on the north shore of Michigan's Upper Peninsula the big bay point lighthouse has similar origins when it comes to the cause of its hauntings back in 1896 when the lighthouse was first constructed and opened to begin its duty of warning those of the dangers of its foggy shores built on top of a 60-foot rocky mountain side the falls into the lake beneath it a man by the name of William Pryor became the station's inaugural keeper whatever happened to William Pryor became a mystery for residents over 100 years ago after he supposedly disappeared and was believed by many to have fallen into the choppy waters after an especially foggy night and thunderous storm interestingly enough the location is now operating as a romantic bed-and-breakfast with fireplaces and spa services to match but the current innkeeper is not at all happy about the rumors spreading Linda Gamble has done a variety of exorcism techniques to help guests feel more at home after years of many reporting slamming cabinets doors apparitions appearing and a few of the residents being attacked by a strange ghostly figure it appears however that these attempts have been fruitless as many still report the haunting of the lighthouse to this day the swine flu outbreak of Mexico in the month of April back in 2009 the locals of La Junta in the state of Chihuahua located in the country of Mexico began reporting strange sightings of an unexplainable creature that fits the descriptions of the Mothman entity the locals reported a creature that was described as being incredibly tall and standing at more than seven feet high which fits with previous claims seen in the town of Point Pleasant back in 1967 they also claimed that the creature had two incredibly large and expansive wings with red bloodshot eyes though they were not glowing other information was given as well though many witnesses disagreed with the reports of others such as those who claimed the creature was more man-like and others arguing that the creature was covered from head to toe in a thick wall one young students in the region even filed a police report in which detailed an experience he had had in which he was walking home and encountered the Mothman creature in the streets according to the students the Mothman creature followed him overhead and chased him for more than 15 minutes as he ran home trying to get away from the creature though was left unharmed as the creature quickly flew away before anyone else could help the student interestingly enough similar to the other accounts of a strange sighting and an impending disaster it appears that the region was at the center of an eventual swine flu outbreak scene back in 2009 although the main cause for the swine flu was never truly known many experts believe that the pandemic very well could have originated in the region at the time of the first reported cases of the swine flu infection by Rolla gist s' that the swine flu itself could have been caused by a strain of the influenza virus mutating that although usually only infected pigs somehow changed to be able to be transmitted to people from the infected livestock this could very well mean that perhaps the appearance of the Mothman can be more accurately explained as an individual with knowledge of soon to occur future events that usually lead to the death of a large amount of people and read is public notoriety on an infamous scale the Buried desert cities of Juba although Dubai is recognized as one of the greatest modern cities in the world filled with expensive luxuries and modern designs the country of the United Arab Emirates believes that within its borders may exist an untold number of buried civilizations lost in the deserts surrounding their cities the prime target of these Buried civilizations is the long-lost many evil city of Jafar of which many archaeologists have acknowledged the viability of its existence and is seen as one of the most famous lost cities in Arabia during the 10th century all the way up until the 14th century the city of Jaffa underwent an incredible Golden Age which led to the development of the city into becoming a trade hub of the entire southern Gulf Arabic trade during the Middle Ages this meant that not only was the city being more than a thousand years old at the time of its disappearance the city of the Arabic trading world but held a massive reservoir of information he stole all significance and unrecovered artifacts that could paint the most complete picture of the Muslim Golden Age to date evidence of the city of Jaffa revere the sight as being able to trade with areas as far away as India and the Far East on a routine basis and had developed extensive trading routes all throughout the Persian Gulf not much is known today as to where the city might reside or what could have caused the disappearance of the city on such a massive scale but back in the early 1960s many archaeologists and researchers speculated that the coasts of the United Arab Emirates could be the last piece of the puzzle in the search for the long-lost city buried beneath the vast deserts in the region unfortunately for researchers efforts to excavate certain sites are blocked under the bureaucracy of the UAE government which has stalled further efforts to uncover these secrets until more can be done we will just have to wait and see what the desert sands naturally reveal the sightings at the Chernobyl power plant after the encounters witnessed in the town of Point Pleasant back in 1966 to 1967 the Mothman would not return for another couple of decades in which reported sightings of the creature was seen throughout the Soviet Union but concentrated around the town of Pripyat and at the Chernobyl power plant there were an overwhelming number of reports in the region and even witness accounts from those that worked the power plants that appeared to be bothered by the appearance of the creature according to the residents of the town of Pripyat there were a number of reports and claims of a strange winged creature often seen flying over the town late at night on a variety of different occasions in the case of the workers at the Chernobyl power plants however there appeared to be much more alarming reports that were provided in the months shortly following the Chernobyl incident on the 26th of April back in 1986 the workers at the Chernobyl power plant noticed the same creature reported throughout the town of Pripyat hovering over the plant and sometimes even resting on the larger towers and areas of construction what's grew more perplexing for the workers were the reported incidents of which people often claimed to have experienced harrowing nightmares of the creature that would manifest into threatening phone calls of the creature calling them all throughout the night many residents of Pripyat and workers at the Chernobyl power plant often described the creature as resembling the shape of a man with wings and piercing glowing red eyes this creature would later be referred to as the black bird of Chernobyl and similar to the cases of Point Pleasant would cease to exist in the region shortly after the Chernobyl incident the Chernobyl incident is known worldwide as one of the largest tragedies and potentially the most environmentally damaging of its time although it appeared that the governments of the world were ready and prepared when it occurred the event still saw more than 50,000 square miles of land contaminated with radioactive fallout and being made completely unusable for the foreseeable future the site of the town of Pripyat an Chernobyl will not be habet for another 20,000 years it could very well be that the Mothman was warning us of an impending doom that could have left a much larger amount of land completely uninhabitable for much longer the point sir light station the point sir light station can be found on a rocky coast covered in the fog of the Californian Bay year round at the small port side town of Big Sur interestingly enough given the often dense fog and the dangers of the rocky area all year round by many of whom come from all around the world just to visit the location the light station still shines bright to this day as it did when it was first constructed back in 1889 atop the massive volcanic rock just offshore of the widely visited scenic area located nearby although no one can find histories of deaths in the region or other terror inducing tales that has not prevented rumors among the tourists and the locals spreading about strange specters scene manifesting and appearing in the area shapes will often be reported dancing in the Fox that take the form of shadowy people and moonlight tours are available for all of those who wish to experience the area in a more sinister atmosphere helicopter hieroglyphics definitely seen out of something of a science fiction novel there appears to be a strange Egyptian hieroglyphic that depicts a modern-day helicopter with unbelievable accuracy the hieroglyphic is found located at the SETI 1 temple at Abydos Abydos was believed to be an important cult site at which Pharaohs treated it as a royal necropolis in which the early rulers were entombed and is seen as one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt despite being such an ancient relic the carvings in the city one temple depict modern-day and futuristic vehicles such as the helicopter hieroglyphic as well as two other images that look like a modern-day yacht and one directly below that that appears to be similar in design to a flying saucer many ancient archeologists and renowned Egyptologists have translated the inscription in the region to read as quote he who protects Egypt and overthrows the foreign countries end quote could this be proof that not only was advanced technology used by the ancient Egyptians but perhaps this advanced technology was piloted by extraterrestrial beings of whom helped to protect Egypt in its time of need from other foreign invaders many members of the paleo contact hypothesis community believed this to be a smoking gun piece of evidence and has even been used in renowned works such as the encyclopedia of science written by David darling back in 2013 to support the paleo contact theory given the detail of these vehicles on such an old and proven to be legitimate piece of ancient Egyptian work there could be many more secrets to be uncovered that the ancient city of Abydos however due to construction efforts many artifacts have been lost at a massive percentage of the city is underground and never to be recovered due to new construction over the region the Yonaguni monument in Japan it was originally believed by ancient Japanese Scriptures and legends that there was an undiscovered Yonaguni city located near the shores of the Yonaguni islands that used to be a potentially massive trade hub in the region unfortunately for archeologists and historical experts nothing had ever been recovered and artifacts that would be common with the remains of an ancient city were never unearthed in where many speculated this trade hub to have existed it was due to this that many experts widely regarded these myths and legends as similar to that of a Japanese Atlantis and believed the city to be fictitious in nature due to its supposed massive size and potential for trade however it appears that due to recent discoveries this could very well not be the case back in 1986 divers in the region discovered striking underwater rock formations that appeared to be similar in design to megalithic structures seen in traditional cyclopean masonry it appeared by researchers to have been artificial in creation due to the many sharp edges 90-degree angles and massive megalithic pillars in the region unfortunately despite this proof as well as the work done by professor of seismology dr. Masaaki Kimura proving that the formations are not naturally made and are definitely man-made the Japanese government and academics refused to believe that any such structures exist and attribute them to being naturally formed rock formations under the water it is impossible for divers to visit the region in recent years as the location has been deemed unsafe by the Japanese government has no further research can be established given the blatant efforts of covering up the incredible archeological finding many believe it to be an effort to conceal the truth regarding the ancient city and the Japanese culture in fears that other governments and cultures might have legitimate land claims to the Japanese island the sheepsquatch of south america similar to that of its sasquatch counterpart the sheepsquatch of south america stands at over 9 feet tall and seems to be a strange hybrid of a large woolly man with the face of a ram and the large curling horns to match the creature is believed to be native to South American jungles with a number of eyewitness reports of the creature coming out through jungles and scaring locals in the region interestingly enough there has also been reports of the creature up in North America back in 1995 an incident involving a group of campers out in the forest at night in an area located around a dense forest featured the monster in its entirety according to the group of campers they here what originally was described as the huffing and snorting of a bear in the region only for the large sheepsquatch creature to come running out of the bushes and attempt to attack them although they ran away completely unharmed they claimed they could hear the monsters terrible screams chasing them through the forest witness reports of the creature today vary from that of the creature running on two legs or crawling around on all fours with a long tail behind it regardless of these variations in witness accounts they all compare the monster to that of a ram and give it the name the sheepsquatch today the creature is known to inhabit mountainous regions all throughout North America and make appearances throughout the denser South American jungles there has been no cause for the explanation of the creature and it appears that any further evidence surrounding the creatures existence is up for question Aric Shipton's collection of photographs it was not until the early 1950s that nationwide headlines began running the story of the mysterious and elusive Yeti creature that many would later go on to compare to the unending amount of Sasquatch sightings made all throughout the United States at the time back in 1951 a group of hikers were already making headlines for their attempt to scale Mount Everest and the endless amount of training they had taken to see the journey to the end of their life threatening trip the group came well-prepared with the equipment and mental fortitude necessary for their expedition to be seen as a success but most importantly in order to prove the validity of their climb they brought along a state-of-the-art camera to take high-quality photographs once they had reached the mountains peak interestingly enough the headlines that ran all across the country after the group had finished their ascent was not that of their incredible Trek to the top of the world's tallest mountain but rather of that of their incredible high quality images they had snapped of what appears to be anatomically correct footprints for strange humanoid like creature living at an incredibly high altitude in the region the footprints were originally found by Michael Ward and were later pointed out to fellow members of the hiking group eric shipton quickly took a high-quality photograph of the prints while placing down his eyes pick next to it to show the length and width of the incredible find many skeptics had argued the authenticity of the footprint but research analysts have found anatomically correct details so perfect that it would have been impossible to fake the footprint showed that the big toe of the creature appeared to be at the perfect size and volume one would see in a creature of a massive size needing for adequate balance and the depth of certain areas of the footprint showed a correct distribution of weight that the hikers would never have been able to accurately reproduce today the photograph is seen as one of the most compelling pieces of evidence of the Yeti creature and even helps to shed light into its weight size and evolution see schwa lighthouse the C schwa lighthouse can be found overlooking the area of Lake Michigan from the San chuan point originally constructed back in 1892 this 78 foot lighthouse tower has seen more than enough of its fair share of history it is no wonder then that its walls seem to repeat the sounds echoed many years prior to the current residents taking over the location in fact one of its old keepers known as Captain Joseph Townsend is rumored by the locals in the area to haunt the lighthouse and adjacent museum to this day according to local legends Captain Joseph Townsend had passed away in the keepers house back in the early 1900s and that for months the next keepers of the residents were unable to bury his body due to the terrible winter weather at that time and so then his body was forgotten in the basement below the keepers house this has led people to believe that perhaps the fact that his body had not been laid to rest for so long that that is the main cause as to why the old keeper still roams the halls of the building many visitors and even working staff have claimed to suddenly smell strong odors of an old cigar similar to those smoked daily by Captain Joseph Townsend and have also observed chairs and place settings moving on their own in the museum's kitchen if you are interested in learning more about the location and the strange sightings you can visit the museum and take a tower tour any day from Memorial Day through to mid-october the Bridgewater triangle definitely one of the strangest and most well reported areas featuring mysterious sightings is that of the Bridgewater triangle the Bridgewater triangle is similar to that of the Bermuda Triangle in which it seems that strange and anomalous properties focus their events to encompass an area spanning roughly 200 square miles and encompasses the majority of southeastern Massachusetts located in the United States the land itself is determined via referencing specific boundaries such as the town's Abington Brae abbath and Freetown that make up the three points of the triangle and create an area of land in between that seems to be a focused area of paranormal activity these dense forested areas seem to hold a wide variety of different unexplainable sightings along with terrifying encounters with monsters and supernatural entities many have reportedly encountered numerous different types of Sasquatch in the area scene large birds flying overhead that are commonly described as massive Thunderbirds encounter strange animal mutilations that seem to be the work of darker cults and ritual sacrifices as well as evidence and artifacts of ancient native tribes and peoples cursing the land or revering the land as cursed and supernatural this has led to a wide variety of strange disappearances as well of which left locals blaming the unexplainable paranormal phenomenon as the cause of these tragedies interestingly enough a man by the name of Loren Coleman ran a study on the area of which he later published back in 1970 in his book mysteries America where he details individual witness accounts and their effect on those of whom witnessed these strange events to this day there seems to be no real explanation as to the cause of the mass amounts of sightings disappearances all the strange nature of the dense forested areas in the region the lost city of gold El Dorado argued by many different historians and archaeologists from around the world that this city is nothing more than an old myth and legend for amateur treasure hunters and adventuring enthusiasts the lost city of gold known as El Dorado is still widely debated in its existence and purpose in history this has changed in recent times as a variety of long believed mythical cities built by many different tribes of Native Americans have been discovered hidden deep in the South American jungles that otherwise could not be spotted by even the best satellite technology of the modern era this does not mean that the city has only been a difficult task for modern-day archeologists and researchers as myths of the city has led countless men throughout the 16th and 17th century to a hopeless end originally legends told of an entire functioning City built from the ground up out of pure gold and to fabulous jewels located somewhere at the tops of the remote Andes Mountains in the region but is now present-day Colombia interestingly enough when the first European settlers visited the region they found the remnants of a tribe located at Lake Guatavita that would celebrate every year by conducting a strange ceremony this tribe believed there to be a God living at the bottom of the lake and so would cover a man in gold dust before having him throw all the gold and precious jewels they had harvested that year into the lake in order to appease the God that lived in the water this ritual continued for what was believed to be centuries however when the settlers searched the lake they only found a small amount of gold and treasure that should have more than filled the area it was then believed that perhaps the City of Gold called El Dorado which is a name that refers to a gilded man covered from head to toe in gold dust was created by the gold in the lake a few centuries thereafter many went in search for this mysterious City but nothing more was ever found since archaeologists in the modern era have the lake they found intricately made gold artifacts and jewels that many ancient astronaut theorists argue could have been created with knowledge of advanced technologies this has led many to speculate that perhaps the God living in the water were real beings and that they could have been the original creators of the City of Gold hidden somewhere in the Andes Mountains still nothing more has been discovered in recent years and given the dangers of the region and the political instability of the government further exploration of the area is nearly impossible to accomplish industry nickel titanium the nickel titanium alloy is referred to in the industry by the name of nitinol although most metallic alloys are used in different industries such as that of construction vehicle design or even in electronic components nitinol is different in that it holds a special property making it incredibly useful for that of the medical industry it appears that in the way that the alloy itself forms its atomic bonds it can be built to remember a very specific shape in which it was designed and that when the alloy is twisted or distorted into a new shape under stress or compression it can very easily twist itself back into its neutral shape with ease this allows the material to be used in stents or other practical medical needs as well as industry materials that allow the alloy to twist and contort and always resume back to its normal shape the Dogu figures of Japan made during the ancient prehistoric period of Japan that goes as far back as 16 thousand years ago the doggy figurines have fascinated conspiracy theorists and the ancient astronaut community as hard evidence of the existence of extraterrestrials during the times of our ancestors the doggy figurines depict small humanoid creatures that appeared to be visually similar to that of the small gray alien sightings of the modern era that appeared to be wearing what can only be described as atmospheric diving suits that encase their small bodies the purpose of the Dogu are widely unknown but they have been found all around the Japanese island and have consistently dated to be somewhere around 14,000 to 16,000 years old which is four to six thousand years before the first human civilizations began to arise many members of the UFO community believed that these small figures could be evidence of extraterrestrials influencing the ancient past given their remarkable similarities between modern-day sightings the strange body designs can also be clues as to possible older versions of spacesuits worn by these extraterrestrial beings that could have influenced traditional Japanese designs in clothes and style further information and research into the figurines is still being conducted today and more and more of these clay figurines are recovered all across Japan every single year the lost city of Atlantis one of the most well known mysteries of the ancient world was the sudden disappearance of the city of Atlantis though many might assume the lone eyelid nation to have been nothing more than a tale of both myth and legend in an attempt to teach philosophy through allegorical means that is far from the case many popular historians of the time recounted that details and advances made by the ancient city one most notably was Plato himself Plato spoke on end about the ideal state of the Atlantean people and their nation the tremendous levels of advancement made in warfare technology and ethics so much so that many people believed Plato to have made up the small island city in an attempt to provide a lecture on how human beings should treat one another and how a state should be run believing the entire story to be fictitious even in the modern day this belief is still held by most scholars who refuse to acknowledge the incredible early advancements made by a state that focused on education and philosophy according to one of Plato's students when Plato would find himself being confronted by other scholars and historians who claimed the Atlantean city did not at any time exist and that the story was interpreted as being fictitious Plato would argue on end that the island nation truly did exist and even sought proof and record of the city to honor his word in fact the student of whom would overhear these conversations would later go on to complete his teachers goals and try to gather substantial evidence to the island having once existed by recounting Egyptian records and the real-world battle between the Egyptians and the Atlanteans so though there is a tremendous amount of evidence of the lost city of Atlantis in regard to the historical record there are many who believe that the island does not exist and has never existed in the first place this has led many researchers and experts on a wild goose chase to uncover artifacts created by the Atlanteans or even the lost city itself but as the title of the video suggests this endeavor might be entirely fruitless the claims of the Atlantean city outside of historical reference would require physical evidence of this city to be gathered something that may very well be impossible to accomplish Plato gave record that the island nation was obsessed with isolation and maintaining the secrets of its vast wealth and technologists and so this rules out the discovery of artifacts by a trade as all created materials by the Atlanteans would have most likely never even left the island the second reason for the impossibility of proof is the fact that Islands have disappeared via natural means in the past either by earthquakes tectonic events or even by erosion Plato claimed that the island nation was defeated by massive tragic events that not only wiped out the Atlantean people but all of its structures and wealth as well this could very well mean that nothing survived at this event and the island could have been swallowed up by the ocean and then subsequently movement of the tectonic plates completely destroying any sign of life on the island location the untersberg portals the untersberg mountain can be found amongst the burnished gayden alps on the border of the countries of germany and austria although the site is regarded as one of the prime hiking spots for travelers coming from all around the world just to bask in its scenic beauty it appears that the mountain holds are more sinister history researchers often regard the untersberg mountain as one of the most mysterious mountains in the world due to the fact that it appears to be at the center of many different rumors that believe the mountains to hold ancient of lost civilizations the burial grounds of long-forgotten Roman emperors and strange never-before-seen creatures in its forests in fact these legends are so old that there are reports from the Nazi regime that the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler was focused on uncovering the strange mysteries of the mountain and that he had funded the construction of a house on a nearby mountain to observe Anton's Berg through high-powered state-of-the-art telescopes and research equipment to do this strange reports still occur as travelers will often report missing whole sections of time and waking up on a different area of the mountain altogether people have suggested that this could be due to portals opening up the warp space and time and cause people to travel greater distances that is physically possible whereas others believe it could be due to alien abductions and the Mindwipe that follows an extraterrestrial attack the first ever reported sighting of the Mothman although it took a lot of research and digging it appears that interestingly enough the first ever reported sighting of the Mothman comes from a small town that was located more than 80 miles away from that of the town of Point Pleasant the story goes that according to a group of five individuals of whom worked as grave diggers in the town of clendenon West Virginia as they were busy working at a burial plot getting ready to dig a new grave they heard a strange noise overhead at first they were unaware of what could have been causing the strange noise but he persisted for a while before one of them spotted a figure floating above them they claimed that it looked human almost as if a person itself was floating without the use of ropes strings wings or hover designs of any kind and that this strange humanoid creature was moving between the awesome trees in the area they reported that all five of them saw this human-like figure and believed it to have originally been a prank of some kind with a man but as they watched it slowly move away from them they believed the creature to be far more ominous than usual they then left and quickly reported the sighting to the police department of clendenon West Virginia although had no name for the creature the reports indicate that the sighting originally occurred on the 12th of November back in 1966 many have often disregarded this sighting however believing that given the fact that the creature was reported as not having wings of any kind and it could not have possibly been the Mothman sighted in the town of Point Pleasant this is argued by others who believe that wings have not always been a staple of the creatures design and that many have reported the creature appearing more as a man than a moth the white river light station the haunting scene at the white river light station seems to be one of an actual benefit that has left many of the staff working at the location in a much happier mood the tower stands tall in the city of Whitehall found in the state of Michigan as an ode to the lighthouses that often littered all throughout the area of the state although the light was deactivated and shut down back in 1960 its lens still remains in the Museum located next to the tower for those who wish to see what the site would have looked like on a foggy night back in the late 1950s another piece of history that is still around to see for visitors is that of a ghost of whom apparently likes to assist with the maintenance and dusting of the location Captain William Robinson the lights first keeper had served at the lighthouse for more than 47 years before passing away in the main room of the building the museum curator has often reported that if she were to leave a dust rag near any display case she will often return to find the rag moved the entire case completely dusted and maintained this is believed to not be Captain William Robinson's doing however but his wife of whom had also passed away in the building as she was known to be fixated on cleaning and could have had a very early form of OCD Captain William Robinson is believed to rather be the one roaming the halls that often leave visitors reporting of heavy footsteps or running throughout the station Waterfalls of red in Antarctica definitely viewed as one of the most peculiar natural phenomenons from around the world is that of the waterfalls of red located in the Antarctic Tundra when a cruise ship passed by a remote location showing off the incredible size of the glaciers located off the coast of Antarctica they came across a startling discovery that led to an investigation by research scientists in the area that were at first incredibly puzzled that what they were witnessing it appeared as if the glaciers were bleeding out a thick red liquid that would spill out into the ocean looking very similar to that of the consistency of blood this led to the name Blood Falls located in Antarctica as the site looked as if the Antarctic mountains were bleeding profusely into the nearby snow and ocean waters when scientists analyzed the liquid they found that it was merely water mixed with a high concentration of a hyper saline body of water trapped beneath a glacier when the glaciers began to melt this would release the hyper saline mixture with the freshwater of the snow and oxygen of the atmosphere which would create a rust like color in the water and caused it to thicken into a syrup like consistency creating the illusion of millions of gallons of blood pouring into the ocean below still the site can be seen occurring even to this day as the glaciers continue to slowly melt and can even be sheduled to view on a tourist destination a part of the Ross Sea cruise line that has made the site one of its main destination points for those less fortunate the site is so large and so long-lasting that images from satellites can see this strange occurrence and can be viewed by anyone wishing to see the site for themselves the Berwyn Mountain incident in the month of January back in 1974 a strange incident had occurred and the Bowen mountains in Wales that has since been tied to the mountain since its occurrence it is nearly impossible to mention the name of the mountain to the locals without hearing them describe the strange sighting seen back in 1974 and how it changed the location forever according to surviving witness accounts back in January of 1974 many people reported hearing a loud explosion and then feeling violent tremors that shook the ground beneath them the authorities at the time had believed that there had been a plane crash that slammed into the side of the mountain considering there was a massive influx of police reports of people claiming to see blazing lights above the Bowen Mountains the police were quickly dispatched and looked into the matter only to report that nothing had been seen and that the reports were nothing more than a common form of mass hysteria according to the official explanation regarding that night on the mountain a meteorite strike had occurred at the same moment a natural earthquake was happening due to this strange explanation that seems far more unlikely many extraterrestrial researchers believe that the main cause could have been due to an extraterrestrial crash landing and that the authorities merely covered up the event from the local population the port Boca Grande lighthouse the port Boca Grande lighthouse located in Gasparilla Island in the state of Florida is seen as one of the hottest tourist destinations considering it rests on prime beachfront location as well as a part of the most beautiful island in the region during the day the port boca grande lighthouse is seen as an almost heaven on earth year-round perfection at nights however the lighthouse takes a rather dramatic turn as the staff often report that being there at the building alone could lead you to experience a strange encounter that's completely unexplainable in the scientific realm staff will often report that they will see the manifestation of a young girl running through the building that can be heard giggling and playing in different areas of the lighthouse more ominously however is when an apparition begins to take the form of a headless woman who carries out dangerous attacks and terrifying encounters with staff who stay there too late many have speculated that this apparition might be the body of joseffer a Spanish princess of whom was attacked by a pirate in the region and never heard from again in fact many visitors of the beach located near the property have often reported seeing a headless ghost running across the beach in a horrifying manner looking for a person to attack herself the glowing waters of the Cowell yen lake located on the Indonesian island of Java are waters that are so bright and blue that in the night they tend to be the brightest glowing object across the landscape the cause of the glowing waters of Kauai yen Lake is due to the lakes location and formation the lake sits atop an active volcano summit and so is constantly being filled with sulfuric compounds that pour into the lake from the bubbling sulfuric gas is coming up from the ground in addition to these compounds are the adding of dissolved metals which turn the lake into a brilliant blue color as well as filling the waters with beautiful citrine colored stones with billowing plumes of snow-white gases unfortunately the mixtures of these toxic and dangerous chemicals that create this natural glow lead to the lake having a pH of 0.5 of which makes the lake dangerously acidic and to that of the acidity of sulfuric acid even taking so much as a smell of the gases coming from the lake can be more than enough to cause acidic damage to the inside of your nasal cavities and lead to complications of the lungs despite this danger tourists can still hike three hours to get to the location and see the beautiful glowing waters firsthand many tourists have even reported glowing gas columns at different hours of the night that will grow a bright blue as the sulfuric acid gases become heated and will glow brightly all around the lake this leaves the lake is not only one of the most beautiful naturally formed mysterious phenomenon but also one of the most dangerous of which leads many of the locals to refer to it as an unexplainable acidic monstrosity supercritical fluid under very specific standards of both pressure and temperature a material could enter what is described as a supercritical fluid supercritical fluid is caused when a fluid becomes superheated to the point that it is above its critical temperature and pressure critical temperature refers to when an object is heated to the point that it cannot liquefy and rather either maintains a solid form or a gaseous form because of this change in heat and pressure the material will rest at a point that is indistinguishable from that of a gas a liquid or a combination of both this means that though the state might be in a form similar to that of a gas it will act and behave similar to that of a liquid as well and seem to possess properties completely impossible to predict dark matter out of all of the substances discussed today nothing seems to be more mysterious and unexplained than the very nature of dark matter what is it quite frankly we have no idea not a single person has a single idea what it is but it makes up over 80% of the mass of the universe and can't for some reason be directly observed by any means available though it can't be observed by understanding the movements of stars it was made obvious to researchers that there was a large amount of mass and not accounted for this mass would need to make up roughly 80% if it was to be able to hold the elements of the universe together which is how scientists became aware of dark matter and its implications relative to the very nature of our universe understanding what it is why it can't be detected and all of its strange properties could be the key to understanding B key questions about the nature of our universe and existence in general until then we will just have to sit and wonder what it is and why we can't exactly measure it in any way owls head lighthouse the Owls Head lighthouse located in the town of Owls Head in the state of Maine has been at the center of rumors in the small port side town that believed the old lighthouse to be inhabited by an old sea captain with this strange lingo to match in fact past residents of the lighthouse known as the keepers of the lighthouse lived at the residence with their three-year-old daughter despite the lighthouse no longer being in use the three-year-old daughter began talking about an imaginary friend that she would describe as looking like an old sea captain according to the three year old the old sea captain would tell her that the fog was rolling in and that it was time for them to put the foghorn on as rumors spread through the town of the three-year-old with the ability to speak to the long since deceased sea captain in charge of the lighthouse decades past stories spread about the location being haunted and watched over to this day the past residents have long since moved away but the Owls Head Lighthouse is still visited every single day by interested travelers and tourists graphene aerogel one of the strangest materials on this planet that almost seemed to defy belief is the creation of solid objects that is made out of 99.98% of air by volume graphene aerogel is one of the lightest materials ever created even holding a density that is lower than helium gas and only slightly higher than hydrogen the material was created when researchers took hydrogel a consistency similar to that of jell-o and replaced all of its liquid counterparts with air making the majority of its creation filled with nothing outside of creating the least dense of all known solid materials graphene aerogel finds its uses in that of fillers coatings adhesives and even being used to develop lightweight 3d printing that can produce incredible precise results the Black Mountain found in Queensland Australia a little more than 25 kilometres from Cooktown is a mountain that has earned worldwide infamy due to its peculiar nature and unending witness reports the mountain is known as the Black Mountain and not only is it famous for strange and unexplainable disappearances of even the most talented and skilled hikers and outdoorsmen but it also appears to be at the center of strange unidentified creatures roaming the mountain alongside shadowy figures many locals have often reported seeing the ghost of a medicine man standing on the many different boulders that litter the mountain side as if his spirit plays a hand in the strange occurrences alongside this reports have been made that farmers and ranchers traveling through the area alongside their herds of cattle have completely vanished with the herdsmen and the entire herds of animals never to be seen or heard from again commonly it has been noted by pilots that instruments of the aircraft will begin to act strangely and that compasses will no longer point in the direction required to get a proper bearing when flying over the location the locals have often told stories of travelers of whom were hiking the location and would trip or fall because they would feel as if hands had come out from the ground and tried to pull them underneath stories pertaining to the mountain are seemingly unending and when asking any number of locals stories will be told from many different perspectives and witness accounts that seem impossible to understand some have claimed that the mountain is completely abandoned by wildlife and for animals will attempt to flee the area if they find themselves near others have claimed that the mountain has living caves that will swallow and digest anyone who enters many amongst the extraterrestrial community believed the location holds numerous underground caverns that could be supporting an ancient alien civilization in the area given the mountains almost are look although nothing is known for certain the number of reported missing cases seems to be more than enough cause for alarm to warn travelers from ever visiting the location the floating stone of al-hassa Saudi Arabia in this small village of Al Hasan located in Saudi Arabia there is this natural rock formation that creates the illusion of a large boulder seemingly completely defying gravity referred to as the floating stone rock has been at the center of viral sensations claiming that the formation levitates more than 10 centimeters off the ground using nothing more than magic and miracles as its support of course these claims are false however at first glance the rock does appear to be hovering a foot off the ground while seemingly weighing more than four tons this is due to the natural placement of the support of the rock that have been filed down due to wind erosion usually when boulders are formed it is because the weight is only supported by either one or two small pillars supporting it at the base of its form that throws the center of weight off the axis of the support which will cause the pillar to crumble beneath leaving behind a large boulder that can freely move around in the case of the floating stone of al-hasa there were three small pillars that formed in the middle of the stone in a perfect triangular formation that allowed the center of mass to be in between all three pillars allowing for the weight to be evenly distributed and supported despite the incredibly thin size of the supports at first glance these supports are so thin and located so far underneath the rock that the entire stone appears to be floating until one looks under the structure to see the supports although this does make the formation and naturally occurring illusion it is still no less an amazing sight to see as the odds of such a natural occurrence are so rare that it appears to be one of only a handful of naturally forming floating rocks in the world be sure to check it out before it's too late as future wind erosion can very well lead to the crumbling of the support pillars seeing the boulder being made free from its location and crashing back down to the ground the sailing rocks of Death Valley also known as the sliding rocks walking rocks rolling stones and moving rocks the death valley sailing stones are a strange phenomenon recorded nowhere else on the face of the earth it appears at different times of the day the rocks will begin to move and inscribe along tracks along the smooth valley floor without any human or animal intervention there are many different hypotheses of explanations that may be causing the movement of the stones however the trail of lines help to provide an insight at times these lines can move straight for long distances turn around or turn at 90-degree angles many researchers believed that the movement of the rocks could be caused by a balance of very specific conditions that naturally form that allow the rocks to slowly glide by using the frozen sheets of ice beneath them and the perfect wind conditions that valley creates against the stones oddly enough no definitive proof of the movement of the stones exists as there are no recordings or direct monitoring's of the stones as they are moving this has led some to believe that perhaps there is another mechanism at play for the movement of these stones contributing to the idea of ley lines and strange electromagnetic properties seen at specific points around the world this theory might actually prove to be legitimate as research has found that volcanic rock can display electromagnetic properties as seen in other areas around the world and research into the event has proven that the rocks were not moved by any mechanisms of buoyancy regarding 2014 data and research into the matter with other evidence that natural materials found within the stones could be magnetic and manipulated by electromagnetic properties the creatures of Mount Naya Ghani being one of the most recent and peculiar mysteries from the past few years is the encounter witnessed atop Mount nyan Gani in Zimbabwe back in the month of November 2014 a 20 year old British explorer named Thomas Gainsford journeyed to explore Mount Naya Ghani in the hopes of finding sites never before seen the main cause for him being in Zimbabwe was due to him having won a university award that was focused to help pay for trips to new and exciting locations to help with building confidence and discovering new and exciting things about the world unfortunately this trip only provided the opposite effect for Thomas Gainsford as he went to Trek the mountain alone he had planned to reach the peak and stay there overnight however at roughly 3 a.m. a thick fog began rolling in which left him disorientated and lost he decided to sit still and camp overnight where he was until the weather cleared up but he was only met with a thunderstorm that soon arrived at his location it was at this point that things started getting especially strange in the fog surrounding him Thomas Gosford reported that creatures were circling him and observing him he had already been warned by the locals to ignore any animals that were acting strangely on the mountain as the locals explained they were simply not from this world when the weather finally cleared after 24 hours he rapidly fled the mountain and never returned although some claim that perhaps the amateur Explorer had merely gotten dehydrated and became disorientated locals agree with what he experienced and not many outside of the local population have ever journeyed up the mountain since then perhaps there truly are animals from another dimension on that mountain and there simply has not been enough who have tried to understand the mountains peculiar properties to report this finding Starlights material back in the 1970s appearing on a popular television show known as tomorrow's world that showcased incredible inventions and scientific discoveries that would lay the foundation for a better and brighter future was a revolutionary new discovery known as starlight starlight was an intriguing new chemical compound that demonstrated an incredible ability of heat resistance of all kinds when undergoing testing on the television show according to many different sources including the NASA spokesperson Rudin or angle starlight was capable of defending a material from heats that exceeded ten thousand degrees Fahrenheit this was tested using state-of-the-art lasers with an intense and focused beam capable of generating the heat equivalent of the surface of the Sun despite this heat being directed at starlight for a prolonged period of time against the material it never penetrated the material and was completely unabsorbed leaving starlight cold to the touch immediately upon ceasing the application of heat the material also proved to be incredibly efficient at dispersing energy and heat commonly seen in nuclear blasts being more than capable of withstanding the blasting force and the heat generated by such a weapon vantablack after going viral many years ago when the internet was surprised to see a strange material that was so black that it seemed to be impossible to even look at with the naked eye many were wondering what material could have been responsible for such a strange phenomenon that led people to even believe Photoshop was at the center of the effect this strange material responsible is known as vantablack and it currently holds the world record for the darkest material on earth vantablack was originally discovered and manufactured by the sri nanosystems company of whom normally create and work on nano gb interestingly enough the properties of vantablack make it an incredible conductor of heat from photos and can even catch a material on fire if sprayed with the paint version of the material on any object this is due to the fact that the material allows the retention of 99% of all light that hits it recently a building in South Korea was coated in the material to create the darkest place on earth that can be visited by tourists of whom wish to see the incredible qualities of the material the natural posture of the Spinosaurus taking into account these contradictory findings of the creatures diet the proposed hypothesis surrounding the nature of its large protruding spine and the possibility of the creature spending the majority of its life in shallow or deeper waters this has led to many to question on whether or not the modern-day understanding of the Spinosaurus and its natural posture is accurate in skeleton recreations paleontologists only believed at the time of the skeletal findings that the dinosaur walked on two hind feet due to the similarities in structure to that of the much larger Tyrannosaurus Rex of whom also had a much longer and larger tail to assist in balance interestingly enough with the new findings and the analyzation of the two arms of the Spinosaurus being much larger and much longer than that of its Tyrannosaurus Rex counterpart many believe that though that posture of the Spinosaurus is similar to that of the larger carnivores it most likely spent the majority of its time crawling and crouching down on all four limbs this would explain its ability to swim much faster and for far longer than its carnivorous counterparts along with its shortened tail and longer more stable front limbs although it would have been possible for the creature to temporarily spend its time on its hind legs traveling at greater speeds would have been much easier and much more stable on all four limbs allowing it to reach top speeds dramatically faster and further than that of the Tyrannosaurus Rex the function of the dinosaurs hump another interesting feature to notice about the Spinosaurus of which it mostly derives its name is the long sail-like spine that protrudes from the back of the creature the function of the dinosaurs large hump has been at one of the most volatile centres of debate surrounding the creature with many different groups of paleontologists and evolutionary theorists proposing their own idea on what purpose the spine could have performed many scientists believe that the spine could have been a tight skin like structure similar to that of the wing of a bat that could have helped the creature to regulate its temperature by having large blood vessels running through the sail that could allow it to warm up its blood by sitting out underneath the Sun or to cool down by sitting in the shade or shallow waters other scientists are quick to assert that the large spine light structure is massively larger than that of other species with similar formations and that it could have helped to support a much larger weight than that of a skin-like structure and could have perhaps been similar to that of a large grouping of feathers and mostly been for display purposes inciting fear in other enemies slightly larger than its own size or even for that of demonstrating breeding behavior lastly one of the least popular theories that circles around the spine is that of the debate surrounding the creatures diet and posture scientists believe that the Spinosaurus could have perhaps lived the majority of its life in the water and that the spine could have acted similar to that of a sail or to allow the creature to cut through water much more easily and reduce drag similar to that of a large dorsal fin of the shark though many might not accept this theory it has helped to promote other similarly held theories on the creature in other areas of evolutionary changes you the self-proclaimed experts were wrong when an investigation into the matter of the Titanic was conducted the team of investigators consulted with experts of the Titanic and it's constructed procedures and worked around the clock to accurately portray the sinking of the ship they had believed that the ship had originally sunk rather calmly and that the witness interpretation of the ship rising up high and then splitting in half with his boilers exploding into the sky was nothing more than survivors giving you traumatized and overly dramatic account of the real-world events additionally they had believed the witnesses to have been making up a variety of false information that spread amongst themselves as they conversed on the ships of which took the survivors all together back to their closest port a number of these false claims were that there were not enough lifeboats for everyone as the ship was more than capable of holding more than enough lifeboats for the entirety of the crew and the passengers and that the crew had shot enough multicolored flares into the sky of which colored flares were not ever used aboard such ships and that no such crate of multicolored flares was ever purchased or stored aboard the ship interestingly enough these self-proclaimed experts on the sinking of the RMS Titanic were proven to be wrong over the next few decades as investigations persisted it turns out that the survivors account of the boat sinking was completely accurate upon finding the sudden can wreckage back in 1985 of which confirmed the boats breakup its steep rise and the boilers aboard the ship having exploded due to the introduction of freezing cold waters additionally a crate of multicolored flares was also found in the wreckage which linked her uncovered that the flares were seen as experimental flares and were not sold commercially which leaves many wondering how they got in the boats in the first place definitely one of the most interesting finds however shows that the survivors account was completely accurate and not not a single additional lifeboat had been found among the wreckage as it would late to turn out apparently the manufacturer of the ship refused to add on all the necessary lifeboats required for the number of passengers of which were attending the maiden voyage as he believed that the clientele would rather prefer to see the boats beauty and design and that the view of the ship would be completely obstructed by the numerous amounts of lifeboats required grid anomaly found on ocean floor back in 2011 an elaborate post was written by a user that noticed strange and unusual ocean floor grid patterns that seemed to be artificial in nature this grid pattern seemed to span 60 miles in width and 65 miles in length and had numerous different right angles all across its formation the post then goes on for several more paragraphs talking about how the carving all throughout the area appears to be artificially created with what is described as being similar to that of paved streets walkways and a number of smaller squares all throughout the region that also seemed to have 90-degree angle turns and look that is similar to modern-day property loss at first many rejected the discovery and believed that the entire finding was nothing more than conflicting terrain maps compiled together by satellite data however the information surrounding the heights and depths of the terrain was not of that of overlapping or erroneous bugs in the satellite information additionally in the comments following the thread many others began pointing out similar discoveries of these strange grid like patterns found in many different parts of the ocean as well as what it could potentially mean for the history of humanity or the formation of underground structures to this day this still appears to be no explanation on the matter and not a single researcher will comment on the discovery for reasons that are not completely understood this could very well mean that information surrounding these strange grid like anomalies could be actively suppressed by governments from around the world or that they could be at the center of top-secret missions involving military involvement or extraterrestrial cover-up unfortunately we won't be getting any answers for this strange discovery any time soon Point Lookout lighthouse the Point Lookout lighthouse in the town of Scotland located in the state of Maryland appears to have had a long history with the supernatural in fact many paranormal researchers claimed that lighthouse to be one of the most haunted locations in the United States and that going to the lighthouse will turn even the most unshakeable skeptics into a terrified believer many have often reported seeing male and female apparitions appear before them only to vanish shortly before a picture could be taken or others could see it doors will often open and close slamming them shut and people have also reported hearing noises of heavy footsteps running up and down the lighthouse along with shouting screaming whispering and even snoring many have speculated that this could be due to the fact that many years ago the spot was once used as a hospital and prison camp for Confederate soldiers during the time of the Civil War although the lighthouse went out of operation back in 1985 it still holds an incredible piece of history that can be heard in the hallways of the lookout rygel the dog who saved lives Newfoundland dogs are known around the world for being able to tolerate the coldest temperatures as well as working around the clock to protect their owners from any dangers possible this appeared to be the case when discussing the events of Rygel the dog of whom helped to save numerous lives during the sinking of the RMS Titanic Rygel was the dog owned by the captain of the Titanic of whom was believed to have perished early on in the sinking of the ship his dog however continued on with his duties and after the survivors were aboard for lifeboats and the ship had sunk pretty deep Rygel the dog jumped off the starboard bow and landed in the frigid icy waters many of those in lifeboats remembered seeing Rygel swimming around almost as if completely unaffected by the temperature and doggy paddling his way onto floating debris or beside lifeboats where he could get a moment's rest after a long while of waiting for search and rescue it appeared that lifeboat number four was far away from the search efforts of the crews near the area looking for survivors as the Carpathia came into the region the crew of which would come to pick up the majority of the survivors it appeared that lifeboat four had begun to drift under the boughs of the ship and was at risk of being run down although the survivors of the lifeboat did not understand the danger they were in it appeared that Rygel was well aware he quickly began barking and alerting the crew of the Carpathia as loudly as he could whereas the survivors on the lifeboat were already far too weak to allow their voices heard on board the Carpathia was a man named Jonas Briggs of whom heard the barking of the dog and noticed the lifeboat drifting closer and closer to the bow he signaled for the boat to turn and the survivors were met with the crew of the Carpathia quickly coming to their aid Rygel would later be adopted by Jonas Briggs and would live out the rest of his days in a home in rural Scotland to a ripe old age the blue and the Julia sound back in 1997 a sound was recorded emanating from deep within the ocean in vast unexplored regions that was so loud that it was actually considered to be one of the loudest sounds on earth ever recorded at the time it was given the nickname the bloop as the recorded noise mimicked a lot of the sound patterns of marine animals in some ways the strange thing about this noise was that the sound was so loud for it to have been a sea creature it would have had to emanate from a large marine animal larger than the size of most naturally formed islands because of this impossible size the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration considers the noise to have been caused by an ice quake a large shattering sound caused when massive pieces of underwater ice begin cracking however many experts reject this explanation as the noise is too loud for standard ice quake recordings and so has been seen as a mystery requiring more evidence for explanation oddly enough the noise would once again resurface years later in 1999 nicknamed the Julia Sound the recording mimicked the original behaviors of the bloop recording and was recorded by a number of different devices that helped to analyze the recording in much greater detail which helped the audio to be determined closer to a cooing sound or a continuous whining noise this might be definite proof that perhaps rather than ice quakes there appears to be a massive underwater creature deep beneath the ocean surface interestingly enough it also appears that new information regarding the matter has recently surfaced due to HP Lovecraft enthusiasts and a collection of conspiracy theory writings according to the Lovecraftian novels a large ancient elder god known as foo who rests at the bottom of the ocean awakening to arise one day and bring on the of humanity in the book Lovecraft elaborates and provides a location to the monster as residing somewhere around a latitude of 50 degrees south and a longitude of 100 degrees west oddly enough the source of the bloop sound had been traced to be a 50 degree south latitude and 102 to directly matching this Lovecraftian tale ancient Aztec pyramids though many might be unaware of the discoveries pyramids are not only constructions found in that of Egypt in fact archaeologists and researchers have found pyramids all around the world being made by many different types of ancient civilizations long since forgotten interestingly enough it appears that the ancient Aztec civilization also holds a variety of these pyramid-like structures that have been dated as being more than 2,000 years old in creation unfortunately the purpose of these pyramids seem to be shrouded in mystery and similar to that of the strange nature of unexplained phenomena the Pyramid of the Sun located in the city of Te'o Tijuana in Mexico stands as one of the largest constructions ever created in the Americas researchers believe it took more than 100 years to create and measurements show that it contains over 1.1 million Adobe mud bricks the base of the pyramid is almost exactly identical in size to that of the Great Pyramid of Giza but then stands much shorter as the angle of height is much lower than the angle used for the pyramids in Egypt not much is known about the pyramids except for a few peculiar formations such as the structures create a perfect recreation of the stars of Orion and seem to be used as centers of religious human sacrifice the purpose of the pyramid for the Aztec civilization archeologists have found that at the center of every major city and establishment by the ancient culture there stood a large pyramid to act as a sort of heart of the city's design this has led many researchers to believe that the pyramids held a manger religious and spiritual significance that the city was built around rather than that of the pyramid being built into an already pre-existing city additionally given the large amount of importance that the ancient Aztec civilization had for that of human sacrificial rituals to their God of War and God of Sun many researchers believed that the temple could have been used as a place of these rituals to be performed the Pyramid of the Sun is believed to be the site of a number of these rituals that were conducted by the Aztecs to ensure that the safety of humanity was guaranteed by the gods in fact they believed that in the event that the ritual was not completed their God of War and Sun would immediately seek out a bloodthirsty solution and blow the Sun from the sky completely casting the world into darkness and preventing life from continuing to combat this the Aztecs were believed to have performed rituals at this massive pyramid to appease their God and guarantee a new year additionally in ancient Aztec mythologies it is believed and claimed that the pyramids acted similar to that of a connection to that of their ancient gods the Aztecs who wrote many different accounts in their mythologies of their gods descending from the sky and landing on the pyramids that had been constructed in order to engage in conversation with the ancient Aztec people provide gifts or use the pyramid as a way of maintaining this contact in the future this has led many ancient alien conspiracy theorists to believe that the pyramids were that of an ancient landing site that alien life could descend upon given the fact that the Aztec mythology is talked about giving golds or other gifts to their gods this could very well be the case and act as a sort of refueling station for those of an extraterrestrial nature still today there is no true consensus as to the rule of the pyramids and why they were usually constructed as the centerpiece of cities though there is believed to be a connection with the structure and that of the ancient gods worshipped by the Aztec civilization additionally the pyramids in the region the pyramids of the Sun and Moon along with a smaller pyramid structure nearby mark the exact coordinates of the three stars that make up Orion's belt on the Orion constellation this helps to demonstrate their connection with the celestial bodies in the sky the stars and their religious significance the Adaro mer person one of the darker tales involving the mythical sea creature known as the mermaid is that of the Adaro mer person according to old mythologies and accounts the Adaro are described as being more similar in behavior to that of evil spirits roaming the Pacific Ocean and living at deep depths in the darkest regions of the ocean though they do share many physical characteristics with that of the mermaid legends the Adaro are described as looking similar to that of a person but with large gills behind its ears a long tail fin instead of feet a shark like dorsal fin that can grow into the shape of a large horn along with a massive shark spear growing out of the top of its head similar to that of a swordfish or a sawfish the origin of the creature appears to be far more paranormal in nature rather than that of other means according to legends surrounding the sea creature an Adaro is born when a man of evil falls into the ocean and passes away shortly after this evil then lingers and grows in the ocean forming the body of the Adaro of which will continue to grow in numbers said to reside close to the Solomon Islands it appears that these creatures are far more sinister than the traditional mermaid legends and definitely an encounter to be avoided the Loch Ness monster possibly one of the biggest ocean mysteries is that of the search for the Loch Ness monster although everyone knows the myths and legends tied around the Loch Ness monster many have made the connection to the creature sightings habits and overall shape and size to that of the long since believed to be extinct plesiosaur oddly enough scientists have recently discovered that another long since believed to be extinct species known as the vampire squid is still alive and well in much deeper parts of the darker ocean and capable of staying down at depths previously unimaginable ordinary is the fact that the only known natural predator to the vampire squid in history is that of the policia so this could very well mean that given the fact that its resources never dwindled in history but were merely relocated to much deeper depths and areas located near island this could very well mean that the strange sightings of the Loch Ness monster could be nothing more than a small surviving species of the polícia saw dinosaur that is still around to this day in fact back in the early 1900s Japanese fishermen had caught a large creature in the ocean similar to that in look and design to that of a living plesiosaur that had been washed up near the beaches local to they would fish this led many experts to study the creature and believe that it could have been a descendant of the policías or dinosaur from millennia past given the fact that our body pictures of the body evidence of a living plesiosaur species and its natural resource have all been found in the past century this could very well mean that the dinosaur still exists to this day at depths previously undiscovered until new efforts can be made to explore deeper areas of the ocean such as that of the Marianas Trench the creature will continue to elude even the brightest minds and remain to be one of the oceans many mysteries the massive circular stone structure under the Sea of Galilee referred to as the mound in the sea there appears to be a strange underwater anomaly directly underneath the Sea of Galilee and located at its shallowest section this strange mound was discovered back in 2003 when research scientists were doing searches under the water in the hopes of uncovering ancient artifacts from the region after further analysis researchers believe the area to be artificial in nature and having formed by the hand of ancient people from long ago the mound is located in the 30 feet of water and so it is believed that perhaps the area was once above water and used as a construction site by ancient people the mound itself is believed to have been built using a variety of basalt rocks that have been stacked into a cone shape while being twice the size of Stonehenge in more recent reports concerning the finding archaeologists have written that the mound shares similar characteristics with that of ancient communal burial sites and so that it might have been used for such a purpose others believe that it could have been a large ramp or a ceremonial structure of some kind but had been slowly grinded down from the subtle movements of the water that surround it today no further research into the area has continued and not a single research scientist has been able to accurately date to the structure or uncover its true purpose during that of the ancient world an 8.5 mile pyramid discovered underwater back in 2016 a strange and unexplainable deep-sea anomaly was discovered spotted using state-of-the-art satellite information there appears to be a massive pyramid construction underwater that completely Dwarfs the size of the pyramid seen at Giza it appears that the structure seems to be somewhere around 3.5 to 11 miles across and looks to be resting in a large area of underwater terrain in the Pacific Ocean a little west of Mexico many can even view the massive structure using Google Earth satellite images when looking up the coordinates at 12 degrees north at 12 degrees west the discovery of the object was made by a researcher located out in Argentina by the name of Marcelo egas Austin he claims that the structure could be evidence of the formation of an ancient civilization long before man was supposedly capable of roaming the planet and that at a different time in Earth's history could have experienced a change in tide that would allow the construction of the monstrosity his theories however have not prevented a wide range of conspiracy theories from forming in the community many believe that it could very well be a possibility that the structure isn't that of a large underwater pyramid but that of a secret alien base inhabiting the ocean floor many have often referenced the existence of strange sightings of unidentified submerged objects or that of UFOs existing from under the ocean and shooting off into the sky in different maritime accounts the radiocarbon dating of the cloth one of the main claims around the authenticity of the Shroud of Turin is their radiocarbon dating results surrounding the cloth radiocarbon testing of the artifacts had been allowed under special permission for researchers to take a tiny sample of the Shroud of Turin and use it for testing unfortunately the sample they took from the Shroud was the same damaged section burned in a fire that would have thrown off the carbon results from the tests which made the test inconclusive it was not until many years later that testing could be redone but instead of the usage of radiocarbon testing they used state-of-the-art techniques by using techniques in vibrational spectroscopy which demonstrated to researchers in 2013 that the cloth was most likely produced somewhere around 300 BC and 400 AD which would have put the average at the time of the resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth helping to prove the authenticity of the age of the cloth no paints or substances back in 1390 at the royal palace of turin an unnamed and anonymous artist came forward to claim ownership of the Shroud Witcher in making the audacious claim that it was nothing more than a forgery that he created himself using paints and substances throughout the cloth to create the imprint of what he best imagined Jesus of Nazareth this unnamed artist refused to provide his name or likeness and also demonstrated no prior ability to create artistic works of any kind eating the priests of whom was in charge of the protection of the artifacts believing that the man had made up the claim for the sole purpose of stealing the artifact for his own personal ownership ever since this claim however many skeptics cited it as indefinite proof of the artifacts forgery as an artistic piece it was not until several decades ago that these claims of using paints and substances were completely disproven by the scientific community back in the early 1970s a special 11 member Turin Commission conducted several tests on the Shroud to determine whether or not the image on the shroud was produced via the use of different paints and substances after using conventional and electron microscopic examinations of the Shroud there appeared to be an absence of heterogeneous coloring materials or pigments whatsoever on the Shroud puzzled by the lack of paints of any kind they began questioning what it was exactly that made up the image of the man on the cloth and so were given special permission to analyze samples of the shroud when the team subjected the samples of the shroud to further testing they found that there appeared to be an organic material on the shroud that was later identified as containing a rich and pure iron oxide when accounting for the concentration of pure iron oxide researchers found that it mimicked the properties of blood as the iron oxide is a natural residue of hemoglobin but fortunately despite these testings they concluded that the existence of the organic material was not the cause of the formation of the image and was rather a layer found on top of the image further testings into the iron oxide residue allowed for the blood found on the cloth to be tested and the same consistencies as that of a beef type blood though no further information could be found conclusively no paints or physical substances of any kind were found to make up the image of the man on the shroud the Baltic Sea anomaly during the summer of 2011 an independent Swedish based organization known as the ocean X team began its search for sunken treasures and historical artifacts that could be recovered from old rumored shipwrecks in the region of the Baltic Sea interestingly enough as they continued in their investigation using high-end sonar imagery equipment they soon discovered a strange image taken that appeared to look strikingly similar to a sunken unidentified flying object referred to as the Baltic Sea anomaly below the waters appears to be a strange formation that contains sharp edges a large overall body and an interesting shape that looks similar to that of a large completely circular flying saucer unfortunately no efforts could be made to go deeper into the water and uncover the true nature of the object as the structure appears to be located too deep for an independent research team to explore because of this no new information regarding the structure can be uncovered and the strange Baltic Sea anomaly is still hidden deep beneath the waters when the ancient Greek civilization first journeyed to Egypt and laid witness to its incredible methods of construction megalithic structures advanced cities and technologies and incredible strides in mathematics and philosophy not only were they completely intrigued by this but they quickly work to try to classify what they saw and provided with the names we know today when the ancient Greeks came across the large stone structure that depicted a lion with the face of a man reminding the Greeks of the stories of the Sphinx recorded in the struggle of a deepest they quickly named the structure the Sphinx as an ode to their own culture seen in the Egyptian culture however outside of this original encounter nothing else was known about the strange structure in fact new evidence and research today has found that it could very well be possible that the Sphinx structure itself is far older than supposed Egyptian writings and documents proclaim it to be so today we will be going over at this evidence regarding the Sphinx and asking ourselves the question does the Great Sphinx of Egypt predate the Egyptian civilization itself one of the main reasons for why the Sphinx has been dated its current age of being only four thousand five hundred and eleven years old is not due to carbon dating or other reliable efforts made to accurately measure its date but rather because of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and documents that detailed that the Sphinx was supposedly created during the reign of Egypt's 4th dynasty unfortunately it was recently discovered that these documents could very well not to be legitimate and that the Pharaoh or the fourth dynasty forged them for the sole purpose of taking credit of another past Pharaohs work a common practice amongst Pharaohs to rewrite history and take the honor of a past Pharaohs life long efforts this was discovered not by taking a closer inspection of the Sphinx but rather discoveries made in the tombs of long deceased kings of Egypt originally a theory posited by the groundbreaking author Robert temple there appeared to be overwhelming evidence that the Sphinx we know today was actually an attempt made by a pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty to do nothing more than to claim the works of those before him evidence for this can be found when analyzing the head to body ratio in fact the head on the Sphinx is so small that many had often believed upon first sight that it could have been grinded down from a much more massive structure the second piece of evidence is provided by the hieroglyphics located at the temple of Thep tufa the outline in great detail that the original god of ancient Giza was Anubis and the accounts and images of Anubis in his jackal form are drawn all throughout the site in the same pose as of the body of the Sphinx with no mention of a lion of any kind at the ancient city interestingly enough this exact same pose was discovered in one of the only tombs of an Egyptian pharaoh ever discovered that had been completely undisturbed since his burial the tomb of pharaoh tutankhamun within King Tut's tomb is a shrine to Anubis that demonstrates an exact scale of the Sphinx statue but with the head of a jackal to represent Anubis showing in overwhelming evidence that the original statue at the ancient city of Giza was supposed to be that of a jackal-headed Anubis and not that of a lion body with a human head so where do we get the idea of a human head and a lion body the truth is the only reason why the statue is referred to as a sphinx is because of old Greek mythologies such as those of Oedipus the talk about a lion with the head of a man called a sphinx but no such symbol exists in that of ancient Egypt this means that the hieroglyphic texts that describe the Sphinx with a human head to represent the Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty was nothing more than a forgery by the then Pharaoh to take credit for a great statue of which he had not created or designed in fact a pre-dynastic pharaoh gives a great account about providing his royal dog a grand burial at the site of ancient giza in this text his argument for why he had such a royal burial for what has been speculated to be his guard dog was due to his want and need to have the dog buried before the great god Anubis not only definitively proving that the Sphinx was originally that of the god Anubis in the jackal form but also that the structure itself was created during the pre-dynastic times long before any Pharaoh could claim ownership of its creation this could very well mean that not only was the creation of the Sphinx older than that of the dynastic reigns of Egypt but that perhaps the structure is older than the Egyptian civilizations themselves further evidence of this theory can be found when analyzing the recent archaeological finds of strange bones discovered all throughout ancient Egypt it is well known amongst Egyptologists that the ancient Egyptians treasured animals of all kinds believing them to be the representation of their gods it is due to this obsession that strange structures and bones from animals all around the world even from areas previously believed to not have been operating open trade routes have surfaced all across ancient Egyptian cities described as Egyptian zoos strange hieroglyphics and designs have come forward showing evidence that not only were the early Egyptians capable of owning strange beasts from around the world but that they possibly possessed an extinct species of woolly mammoths dubbed as the world's first zoo a 6,000 year old ancient Egyptian cemetery was uncovered filled with the remains of wild animals from all around the world that should have been unable to collect from the reaches of early man for thousands of years to come skeletons of ostriches crocodiles leopards and other exotic animals were found alongside pools of water large fenced-in cages and a potential animal hospital filled with removed molars teeth claws and evidence of animal surgeries though the importance of animals regarding the Egyptian religion was widely known the evidence of the global reach of the species available to them including species long believed to be extinct has been a mystery that even the most elite of archaeologists and Egyptologists have failed to explain this is odd though mostly due to the fact that it is widely believed by historians and archaeologists all around the world that the oldest civilization to exist was merely ten thousand years old however evidence in the fossil record shows that the modern day intelligent human been around for more than 50,000 years so why is it then that the oldest cities don't start appearing until the past 10,000 it might have to do with the evidence of the extinct animals recorded at Egypt the woolly mammoth was one of many distinct megafauna that went extinct at around the same time in the fossil record merely ten thousand years ago these extinct species included the mastodon short-faced bear the giant ground sloth and many others in fact when Charles Darwin first visited the areas near the Galapagos Island when he originally discovered the ground sloth bones they were so fresh that he believed them to still be a living species of megafauna proving the recency of their extinction so why was it then that around 10,000 years ago all of these species went extinct partly due to three strange reasons large fires a massive flood and a sudden Ice Age the evidence for these three events are widely known by archeologists and research scientists found in the fossil record that showed that all around the earth appeared to be massive fires that were followed by a rapid cooling event that only took about four decades as well as certain events being hit by numerous tsunamis and large flooding many experts had originally speculated that perhaps a massive meteorite strike could have caused such a phenomenon but no large craters supporting the theory had yet been discovered at the time of the original publications however this year a massive crater underneath an ice sheet in Greenland shows a tremendous impact point where a meteor could have hit generating more than 700 megatons of force so much force in fact that it would have been equivalent to 140 fully efficient nuclear strikes using the Tsar bomber nuclear warhead a nuke capable of not only breaking the stratosphere but generating enough dust and debris in the air to cause a full-on nuclear winter any human civilization at the time regardless of how advanced would have been completely wiped off the face of the earth in such a massive meteor strike all of this happening at not only around the same time as a massive extinction event but also around the same time oldest civilizations would have been constructed could this be evidence then that perhaps the pyramids and the Sphinx as well as many other advancements made in megalithic structures and creations could actually more accurately come from the efforts of human beings from before this catastrophic event and the Egyptians were merely the surviving peoples to pick up where humanity left off given the incredible advancements we have made in the past ten thousand years this could very well mean that the humans before the event could have been significantly more advanced than we are today and the old stories of gods and Kings could very well have just been the technological advancements before humanity had to reset due to such a catastrophic tragedy what do you all think of the evidence gathered about the Sphinx and the fact that it could very well have predated the establishment of the Egyptian civilization themselves be sure to leave your questions and answers in the comment section below and help us to grow this community while working to solve these unexplained mysteries thank you for watching and don't forget to subscribe for more videos

Ancient Mummy Found in Peru



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Archaeologists have found the ancient tomb of a mummified noble woman in Peru.

archaeologists have found the ancient tomb of a mummified noblewoman in Peru the body was found buried in an ancient fishing village located in northern Peru her tomb was filled with carvings of coastal and jungle animals which indicates possible trade between cities civilization dates back to 2600 BCE it's believed the mummy is 4,500 years old

Too Cool For Historical Gaming



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Too Cool For Historical Gaming. In this video I talk about why I thought I was too cool for historical gaming and ask for your thoughts.

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hi folks welcome back to the channel so when I was a kid I had a cousin and he played toy soldiers that was all I knew I just knew that he played toy soldiers I now know with the power of hindsight and a little bit of knowledge that he had a huge Napoleonic era British red quart army and he played every single weekend in tournaments and traveled all over the place for it now these huge armies were locked behind glass cabinets and I wasn't allowed to touch them and so started my lack of interest in historical gaming as they got a little older I was introduced to Citadel miniatures by a school friend he had a much older brother who was in a blood ball and he used to spend his time and paint in those miniatures and he had them all displayed in his bedroom so we started to go shopping on weekends going to town picking up the old Citadel miniature and picking up the odd Potter pins and basically trying our best to try and pin some of these little metal figures not long after that I got HeroQuest as a Christmas present yes that very copy there still got it all these years later and so started a little bit of love with fantasy genre I got into the fight in fantasy books and I was starting to get immersed in that world however this didn't last very long I suddenly became all obsessed with Star Wars and playing with those little Kenna figures and I went off down a completely different path as I got a little older in it being a teenager sport was my main passion I used to spend a lot of time running and I used to play football and a number of other sports as well and pretty much all of my free time was taken up with sport military gaming was just never on my radar back then fast-forward a little bit further I think I was probably about 28 years old and walking past the Games Workshop one day I decided to pick up some of those miniatures that I remembered from being a kid and just pinch them at home I was spending more time at home so I thought I did I paint some miniatures and I picked up Warhammer 40,000 miniatures as sci-fi it was very much my kind of tears than my aesthetic as time went on I'd painted quite a few of these miniatures so I thought why not try and find out how to play alert learn sort of what all this game ins about so I went to a local gaming group now that gaming group was a quite a sizeable one based in a church hall and it turned out that the actual the sci-fi gamers the 40k players were by foreigner with most welcoming the guys that played fantasy seem to have their head down in these huge rule books far too busy trying to look at what they were doing in their game and didn't really seem that interested in China and the historical guys well they were much older and seemed to spend most of their time arguing about stuff that didn't really seem to make much difference in the game things like the Pantone reference of German Greer now I am generalizing however this was my experience in the first gaming group I ever went to the fantasy armies just seemed way too many models and the rules seem so convoluted that it really didn't interest me and the historicals to be honest I probably thought I was a bit cool to be getting involved with these old guys discussing Fifty Shades of Korean fast-forward a few more years to present dear and my interest in gaming really has become my passion I will quite happily bore the life of my wife talking about new games that's coming out and showing her my latest painted miniatures I'm a little bit older I'm a little bit wiser and I'm much more open to new suggestions now and to try different games my interest in fantasy was Pete recently by kings of war one God now as I mentioned before fantasy wasn't as genre I'd really been interested in and kind of ashamed to admit that I still haven't seen the second and third Lord of the Rings movie however there was something about kings of war Vanguard orb in the rules itself and in the style of the miniatures that really did pique my interest into the fantasy genre I'd never been one for the kind of magic spells and all other kind of things however it really did piqued my interest and that's what brings me on to historical gaming so I've avoided it my entire life I've never been one to pick up kind of the airfix kits and build tanks and plans when I was at school we didn't learn about World War two we learned a bit about the Romans as there's a famous woman wall or too far away from me and we learned about the Industrial Revolution so things like world war ii has never really been a big interest of mine I can appreciate the sacrifices that people made but it's never been something I felt the need to really delve into for the background as I mentioned before maybe I was a little too cool for it back then however I ain't getting any younger and I'm certainly not too worried about being the cool kid anymore so that's where you come in please tell me what you love about historical gaming is the color of your models really that important or the largest thing can't let a bunch of those guys that go well actually I think you'll find that do you need to be engrossed in the history of it or does it play more like a world war two Hollywood movie are there any historical skirmish style games that would be a good starting point let me know down the comments where you think somebody new to historical z' would be best place to kind of dip their toe in convince me that I'm wrong to avoid historical and sell me on your passion thanks for watching and I'll see you in the next video

History Summarized: Scotland



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Put on your Kilt and grab some bagpipes, it’s time to talk about Scotland! From the earliest beginnings to the modern day, the Scots have had a fiercely independent attitude, and are absolutely willing to fight about it — several times, in fact.
Fun fact about Kilts, I couldn’t fit this in the video anywhere, but basically Scots used to wear these big complicated vaguely-toga-like wraps of tartan plaid starting in the Renaissance, but in the 1720s one guy said “This is too complicated, take the top part off but keep the bottom half and just attach it with a belt — and behold, the Kilt as we know it was born.

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in researching this video I very quickly learned a valuable lesson about how little the Scots mess around okay I thought that Scots in the English hate each other sure but it can't be that bad honestly so I took a little peruse to see how many times the two actually fought each other and sweet mother Mary that is a lot of stabbing Scotland who hurt you trick question England so be warned the Scots throughout history are every bit as bonkers as they come across on Twitter to find out why let's do some history this video is brought to you by audible which is a wee bit ironic seen as the Scottish language is damn near inaudible around 2,000 years ago Scotland was inhabited by various tribes of Pictish Celts living up north herding and minding their own business so when the Roman Empire swaggered up to try and conquer them they gave those Romans a walloping so bad that Emperor Hadrian built a wall just to make sure that nobody ever tried to conquer them again essentially I just don't think you can do this one I've been an assassin for a while now what makes you think Oh get that bad eh you're right so even though these original Celts weren't anything like modern Scots it is refreshing to see the national character demonstrated so well at such an early stage Rome eventually collapsed but Europe reintroduced itself to Scotland via Christianity and anglo-saxon migrations which coalesced through the seventh century into a few main groups for our purposes the most relevant to our the pics and the scottie where we get the name Scotia aka Scotland in 843 Kenneth MacAlpin United the scottson pics in order to create the Kingdom of Alba the early Kingdom had to deal with the Vikings and the English in the 8th and 900s land from every corner was getting yanked but beyond outside threats there were also constant internal fisticuffs over the crown the quintessential example of the early Scottish King is Macbeth whom hereafter shall be referred to exclusively as mcboyd because that play is haunted and I'm not looking for trouble trouble is nearly everything you might know about him from Shakespeare is wrong here's why see the Scottish crown didn't follow a strict succession but claimants came to debate who was best fit to rule and this caused constant disputes that escalated into Wars Soumik boy actually killed King Duncan in a battle in the year 1040 and ruled for the next 17 years peacefully generously and successfully in 10:57 he died in another battle against Duncan's son Malcolm Kenmore who then assumed the throne all that stuff about murder conspiracy see he's got added by Scottish historian centuries later but civil wars over the throne were already a matter of protocol since the kingdom had gotten started like boys real life path was actually quite standard but speaking of wonky royal succession crises the next decade brought the Norman conquest of England and William the Conqueror's second son Henry married King Malcolm's daughter the family relations are confusing now and they stay that way for the next thousand years so I'm gonna try to avoid specifics where I can for the sake of my sanity but the bottom line is that the King of Scotland exchanged notes with his sister the Queen of England about culture and statecraft so in the following two centuries Scotland picked up some Norman tricks like a central bureaucracy at church hierarchy and a curious new language derived from the Norman French called Scots the native Gaelic was still the dominant language in the highlands especially but the lowlands trended slowly towards the customs of their anglicized southern neighbours the eleven and twelve hundred saw study back and forth between Scotland and England along the borders in Northumbria but not a whole lot of drama until however the king is Scotland's died in 1286 without a clear air and rather than have all 13 possible cousins Duke it out the old-fashioned way they called in the English King to mediate the dispute which I don't know seems like kind of a short-sighted and terrible idea unsurprisingly King Edward installed the weakest most pliable puppet who would let him treat Scotland like a vassal state and when even that pushover got fed up with forfeiting Scottish land paying tribute and kneeling to English superiority King Edward invaded Scotland's dethrones the king and yoinked the Scottish coronation stoned back to Westminster dragging Scotland firmly under the English heel this was frankly terrible so the Scots duly rebelled against England under the command of the famous William Wallace who won a victory the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297 but lost horrendously at Falkirk the next year and was later executed by England and paraded around Scotland in pieces quick fun fact of the many many reasons that the movie Braveheart sucks the blue war paint that everybody's wearing is about a thousand years out of style for the Scots I mean come on that kind of anachronism is like dressing the cast of The Godfather in togas it was after Wallace died that Robert the Bruce took up the mantle of guardian of Scotland he had to kill a rival claimants to earn his title but he also earned an excommunication from the Pope because apparently murdering somebody in a church is impolite and a mortal sin whatever he was defeated early by Edward and 1306 and went into hiding for a year before returning to win the battle of Loudoun hill from there he stomped out local rivalries and United Scotland fully against the English of the decisive Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 though the treaties weren't signed for another 15 years Robert the Bruce won Scotland three centuries of Independence in that battle quick OS protip skip Braveheart but watched the outlaw king it's better and way more accurate so having fulfilled his dreams for his kingdom Robert died the next year but this was exceptionally poor timing and really unfortunate in the long run because the throne passed to a series of useless Kings from the House of Stuart for the next several decades through the thirteen and fourteen hundred Scotland had no real leadership so the local Lords started throwing hands or more accurately Glamis in this case the warring states were actually the dozens of clans scattered across the lowlands in Highlands mercifully England had just gotten sucked into the hundred years war with France so Scotland was free to be its own antagonist the way God intended and although the Stewart clan still held the crown other families like the Douglas clan were regularly challenging them for land and power some progress came with King James the first and 1406 who sent twelve thousand Scotsman to fight with France against England in the Hundred Years War winning big and returning home in a strong position to consolidate many of the clans under his crown and reformed the Kingdom unfortunately he got assassinated and it was right back to the sea song balance of power between Kings regions Lords and clans even after James the Highlanders still largely spoke Gaelic and paid little heed to the culture or politics of the anglicized royal court in lowlands the king could say whatever he wants down in Edinburgh but unless he personally marches up to Inverness to tell Clan Fraser in person to pay their taxes it's not gonna happen and one king even tried that but still nothing happened it's just all very Game of Thrones II for a couple centuries and I mean heck it's at this time that the War of the Roses is raging on just down the street and you know what since it's just a big mess anyway I'm gonna speed round through the next 300 years so bear with me and let's get ready for a game of monarchy is volatile let's meet our players one King was really cool and helped reform the government to work for more of Scotland while making Edinboro into a Renaissance capital of learning and culture one queen got the short end of the stick when Scotland's Parliament voted to convert to Protestantism while she was on vacation in France and then she got the shorter end of the stick when England imprisoned her for two decades and then executed her her son played his cards just right and inherited the throne of England from his cousin the childless Elizabeth and then became King of England and Scotland his son was so inconceivably bad at being King that his abuses of power brought England and Scotland into open rebellion for entirely separate reasons and his reign ended with the British Isles locked in twelve years of civil war before everybody called a do-over and gave the crown back to his son one King became King because Parliament literally invited him from the Netherlands to replace their current monarch and then he proceeded to strangle Scottish trading rights and the last Queen on our list tried to be a pal by offering Scotland a National Union with England's to open up trade avenues in exchange for the bargain price of nearly all of their sovereignty I had originally gone way in depth about how all of this stuff went down in my first draft but then I realized you know what royal politics is dumb and confusing and I kind of hate it more than anything else in history so I'm gonna skip through it yeah so I did one standout event from the mid 1500s is when the King of England tried to drive a wedge between a long-standing alliance between Scotland and France in the hopes to endear Scotland to their southern English neighbors they did this by pillaging the lowlands and burning Edinburgh to the ground you may find that this is a bad way to make new friends the Scots came to call the seven-year campaign the rough wooing as they did not appreciate being bullied into love and this sentiment persisted for centuries way up until the Act of Union in 1707 Scotland was suspicious of the Queen's offer of partnership and while they'd get one metric British Empire out of the deal in the long run the immediate result was England deciding they now had a constitutional right to treat Scotland like a colony as you can see this is kind of a recurring problem and it led to two revolts for Scottish independence in 1715 and in 1745 both failed but the second one spooked England into being slightly less despicable about everything in the next century and a half following the rebellions things turned remarkably for the better as the Enlightenment came north writers like Walter Scott and Robert Burns helped rekindle the Scottish identity and thinkers like Adam Smith and David Hume radically changed European perspectives on rational thought in economics Hume claims that reason was the core of human thought and Smith described the benefits of letting people act in their own self-interest this all sounds very profound but don't be fooled the clear Scottish subtext to these azar the English don't make a damn lick of sense and we'd be better off making our own decisions and you can't expect a Scottish enlightenment thinker to not bury snide comments at England under two tons of hard academic theory though Scotland had long been an educational powerhouse in the following two centuries they also became the industrial heart of the British Empire producing such famous doodads as the steam engine the telephone radar and mechanical television and also most of the ships in the Imperial Royal Navy nice other happy beneficiaries of the 18th and 19th centuries were the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh which build up substantially in the Georgian neoclassical style and it just looked really damn pretty funny thing about the Edinburgh Castle is instead of firing off 12 cannon shots to mark the passing of noon like the English do they just wait one hour and save 11 rounds that is so Scottish quickly approaching the modern day now Scottish attitudes towards the Union grew more suspicious as England seems to care less and less by the decade about what happened up north and the hard forged British identity faded with time and the decline of the British Empire after years of campaigning skaaland gained greater autonomy and the right to hold their own Parliament in 1999 and the first words spoken there were quote the Scottish Parliament adjourned on the 25th of March 1707 is hereby reconvened and if that is not some big Scotland energy right there then wrap me in a tartan plaid and throw me in Loch Ness because I'd done I know what this now if you want to jump into the tumultuous world of medieval Scottish murder Kings then you've got to go for Shakespeare's Macbeth and one of the best ways to do that is with today's sponsor audible with an astoundingly huge catalogue of audiobooks to choose from audible as the world's leader in cutting out the middleman between an author's ideas and your brain read and I do a lot of research on this channel so it's great for me to be able to listen to history while I'm taking a walk or just making dinner and of course I've got to mention my absolute favorite feature speed control sometimes you want to go fast and sometimes you want to really slow down and enjoy a scene so audible lets you listen at your own perfect pace audible members who sign up get a credit for any audio book completely free every month as well as additional discounts in the store if you're feeling jazzed about scottish history i would highly recommend this audiobook production of Macbeth not only is it some of Shakespeare's finest work in my opinion but it's voiced by a full cast which is really great to listen to and audible is offering all of you a 30 day trial and one audio book along with two free audible originals to get you started if you sign up with our link on audible.com slash overly star or text overly sarcastic – 500 500 if you do you'll be supporting the channel and getting a good audiobook in the process again if this sounds like something you'd like head to audible.com slash overly sarcastic thank you for watching now you should know that the temptation to do this entire video in a thick Scottish blog was too high I cannot tell you how close I was seeing as I am half Scottish it's only fair that I should sound the part so I hope you enjoyed this look into the history of Scotland and I'll see you in the next video

The Mystery of the Balochistan Sphinx | Indus Valley Civilisation | Ancient Architects



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Hidden in plain sight, in the rocky landscape of the Makran coastline of Southern Balochistan, #Pakistan is an architectural anomaly that seems to have gone unnoticed and unexplored for centuries. The site is known as the #Balochistan Sphinx and researcher, Bibhu Dev Misra, has done a great deal of work on the site. The area includes a possible temple and an enormous #Sphinx, which could belong to the Ancient #IndusValley Civilisation. Watch the video to learn more.

Images have been taken from Misra’s article at

Visit his website at

Any other supporting images were taken from Google Images for educational purposes only.

hello everybody and welcome to ancient architects hiding in plain sight in the rocky landscape of the macron coastline of southern Balaji Stan in Pakistan is an architectural anomaly that seems to have gone unnoticed and unexplored for centuries known as the Balochistan Sphinx the site in question first came into the public eye in 2004 after the macron coastal highway was opened most people pass it off as a natural geological formation but as far as I'm aware no archaeological work has been conducted on the site I can understand the geological interpretation but some researchers have taken a closer look at the Balochistan Sphinx and are convinced it is a gigantic ancient rock-cut architectural complex researcher be bhudev misra believes that what we are looking at is in fact a badly worn Egyptian like Sphinx he believes he has identified a jawline discernible facial features and even a headdress that closely resembles the nemours of the egyptian pharaohs furthermore misra points out that you can easily make out the reclining four legs of the Balochistan sphinx which terminates in well-defined paws but the argument for this being a man-made structure isn't just the close resemblance to the Egyptian sphinx there is in fact a far bigger picture and the morphology of the surrounding hillside reveals a larger complex from a distance we see what looks like a South Indian Hindu temple with a mandapa or entrance hall and a vimana or temple spire the Sphinx is located in front of the temple and misra interprets this as being the protector of the temple sites sphinxes as we know can be found next to sacred monuments temples and tombs and although it is debated many interpret the purpose of the Great Sphinx of Egypt to be the guardian of the Giza pyramids also the fantastic statue and the Sphinx of Naxos is also believed to have acted as a protector sinks is also appear in Indian art and are known as Purusha Mariga or man-beast and are often seen at temple gateways acting as guardians or protectors of a sanctuary furthermore slinks his feature in Buddhist architecture in Southeast Asia they are known as Medusa her meaning mam lion and are depicted in a cat-like crouching posture wearing a tapering crown and ornamental ear flaps with feathered wings attached to their front limbs the point to make here is that sphinxes are found throughout the world and often acted as protectors of sacred places therefore a sphinx in Pakistan isn't as far-fetched an idea as you may have originally thought especially as it is located next to what has been interpreted as a possible temple sites misra has looked into the area with greater detail and he believes there was clear evidence of pillars carved into the boundary wall and he has even located the temple entrance behind the large pile up of sediment to the left of the entrance he has identified an elevated sculpted subsidiary shrine to misra all of this information when viewed together points to the structure being man-made a rock-cut monument with a level of erosion showing that it must be of great antiquity after analyzing the structure of a sphinx temple misra believes that it may actually be a gap Orem which is the entrance Tower of a temple Kapur UM's have flat tops and rows of what looked like ornamental pots arranged on top both of which are identifiable at the Balochistan sphinx complex the latter having a covering of sediments the Sphinx temple appears to be contiguous with the outer boundary wall which is what you would expect with a Kapur 'm but you would also expect to see sculpted figures according to misra we do but granted they are badly eroded he believes there are two monumental figures carved on the facade just above the entrance the elevated platform on which the Sphinx and the associated temple sits on is also believed to be elaborately carved with pillars niches and a symmetrical pattern that extends across the entire upper part of the platform some of the niches could be potential doors into the temple in the same way there are chambers beneath the Great Sphinx of Egypt if you are still unconvinced by the site's miserable eaves he has found a series of steps that lead up to the elevated platform which gives the site the impression of a grand rock cuts architectural complex which granted has been badly eroded by the elements and covered with sediments hiding the possible ancient ruin in plain sight as well as natural wind and water erosion over the years we know that the area has been subjected to tsunamis and mud volcanoes so it is hard to date the structure from studying the erosional patterns and sediment buildup alone without having a clear geological history of the area so do we have any idea we know that the Indus Valley Civilisation extended along the macron coast meaningless links temple complex could therefore have been built thousands of years ago during the Indus period possibly around 3,000 BC or earlier also according to the accounts of Chinese Buddhist monk hai and sang the macron coast was even in the seventh century AD dotted with hundreds of Buddhist monasteries and caves as well as several hundred Hindu temples including a richly sculpted temple of Lord Shiva where they are today we don't know so they must have simply been eroded away by the elements or covered in sediment for whatever reason possibly a large-scale Cataclysm misra believes they were entirely forgotten and then over time passed off as not formations it is important to note that this particular site also isn't in total isolation as on top of another elevated platform are possible remains of another ancient Hindu like temple to truly get to the bottom of the mystery the area does require archaeological excavation as the site is still classified as a natural geological formation and not a site of human interest if excavations do confirm misery's claims and inscriptions and archaeological finds will certainly help to pinpoint the date of its creation the site could be of extreme historical importance as it could fill in the gaps of the historic Indian civilization we know that exquisite rock-cut temples and monuments were built from a third century BC onwards but where the skills and techniques came from is unknown as there doesn't seem to be a clear evolution of monument building in the region the rock cut monuments of the macron coastline may provide the answer and could well hold the keys to understanding the transition between the Indus period and the later day Indian civilization the site could be a treasure trove of archaeological wonders waiting to be discovered but sadly the monuments continue to languish in isolation it is miseries wish for international attention to be drawn to the macron coast to bring in teams of archaeologists and independent researchers from around the globe to shine the spotlight on these monuments and help write a new chapter in the history of humanity but are they actually amazing historic ruins or are they simply natural geological formations personally I am undecided but there is certainly a case for further investigation thank you for watching this episode of ancient architects if you enjoyed the video please subscribe to the channel please like the video and please leave a comment below thank you very much

101 Amazing Historical Photos Volume 21



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10 Biggest WASTE OF TALENTS in NFL History



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#JoshGordon #WasteofTalents #Biggest

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For us NFL fans, there are few things as sad as seeing an ultra-talented player have their careers go to waste. Most of the time, it’s the player’s fault. They don’t have the drive, work ethic or common sense to go all the way. Some of them run into problems off the field and can’t escape it.

Other players simply get poorly managed by their teams, and if they had played elsewhere, you know they would have succeeded. These 10 guys on our list came into the NFL with tremendous hype, but for multiple reasons, their careers wound up being giant disappointments instead of something of legendary proportions.

Today we present the 10 biggest waste of talents in NFL history.

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what's up are you quantum maniacs I'm Daquan young and today we presented the 10 biggest waste of talents in NFL history don't forget to subscribe to TPS and make sure you hit the bell and turn on our notifications and join the notification squad and don't forget to leave your video ideas down in the comment section below we're looking and we'll give you a shout-out in the video if we use it this shout-out goes to Jude nd for suggesting this video now for us NFL fans there are a few things as sad as seeing an ultra talented player have his career wasted most of the time it's the players fault they don't have the drives the work ethic or the common sense to go all the way some of them run into problems off the field and they can't escape it other players simply get managed poorly by their teams and if they are played elsewhere you know they would have succeeded these 10 guys on our list came into the NFL with tremendous height but for multiple reasons their careers end up being giant disappointments instead of something of legendary proportions number two John sport Gordon could be higher on this list down the road but he's not out of the NFL for good just yet perhaps there'll be a nice comeback story and late career Renaissance but that remains to be seen he joined the Cleveland Browns in Oh 12 and had a strong working year he followed it up with an amazing second season notching 87 receptions for a whopping 1600 and 46 yards and 9 touchdowns but Gordon was suspended in 2014 for violating the NFL substance abuse policy and he was limited to 5 games he violated it yet again and was suspended for all 2015 gordon was about to be reinstated early in the 2016 season but he stepped away and went in rehab Gordon finally returned in 2017 to play five games for the rise early in the 2018 season Gordon was traded to the New England Patriots despite a strong performance in 11 games Gordon announced he was stepping away to focus on his mental health the Patriots kept him on the roster in one Super Bowl 53 so Gordon was given a championship ring we can only hope that John squirtman will be able to fix himself and return the football he's been through a lot and he's tried to make himself a better man given all he's been through Gordon desserts a nice end to it NFL career otherwise we'll always look back on gorn's career and simply ask what could have been number nine Justin black after shining at Oklahoma State where he won both the Fred Biletnikoff and Paul Warfield trophies Justin Blackman entered the 2012 draft as one of the most hyped up and talented wide receiver prospects in history the Jacksonville Jaguars drafted Blackmon with the fifth pick in 2012 but just weeks after he was selected Blackmon was arrested and Stillwater Oklahoma for drunk driving Blackmon still turned in a strong rookie season though with 64 receptions for 865 receiving yards then he was suspended twice in the second year for violating the NFL substance abuse powers in the 2014 offseason he was arrested again for being caught with marijuana during the traffic stop the NFL has not reinstated Blackmon ever since and it seems unlikely he'll play football Blackmun had the skillset to be a true Pro Bowl talent but he just couldn't stop getting in the trouble and it cost him the chance to be something great in the NFL number 8 Albert Haynesworth the six foot six 350 pound defensive tackle was one of the NFL's elite players during his time with the Tennessee Titans Hainsworth on Pro Bowl selection in o7n o8 after leading the team to the playoffs and back-to-back years in the old nine offseason Haynesworth signed a whopping seven-year contract worth 100 million dollars with the Washington Redskins and instead of adding more towards already solid career Haynesworth completely wasted he skipped offseason workouts he didn't pass a simple fitness test and complain about the team's defensive schemes during the 2010 season Haynesworth was suspended by the Redskins for what was said to be kind of detrimental to the club his lack of effort was also notable during the 2010 home game against the Philadelphia Eagles he was traded to the Patriots in 2011 but Haynesworth was released midway through the year after getting into an argument with one of the team's coaches think about that even Bill Belichick couldn't turn his career around his laziness hot temper and selfish attitude made him go for potential hall-of-famer to the worst free agent signing in NFL history that's called white to contrast number 7 Michael Vick now we could have Vick higher on this list too but I like the other guys on here they're former Pro Bowl quarterback actually saw plenty of success in the NFL the only thing is he could have done way more drafted first overall by the Atlanta Falcons in 2001 Vick became a highlight reel sensation as an electrifying dual-threat quarterback he wound up earning four Pro Bowl selections in his career in deleting the facets of the o for NFC Championship Jam but in the old seven offseason authorities discovered that big had been running a dogfighting ring on his property law enforcement seized more than seventy dogs and big wound up spending 21 months in prison as such he missed the entire o7o eight season the Philadelphia Eagles gave Vic a second chance and he led them to the NFC East title in 2010 however injuries piled up on the former Comeback Player of the Year and he spent his final years as a backup now there's no telling where Vick could have gone if he stayed out of trouble he could have been the face of the Falcons franchise all this time but Matt Ryan became the guy instead making only had one more strong season when he returned to the NFL after serving his jail time and he really should have been a Hall of Fame number six Robert Griffin the third the Washington Redskins traded up and selected the Heisman trophy-winning quarterback with the number two pick in the 2012 draft rg3 dazzled in his rookie season as a dual threat quarterback leading the Redskins to a 2012 NFC East Division title he was also named Offensive Rookie of the Year after tossing 20 touchdowns and five interceptions but near the end of the regular season Griffin suffered a knee injury and was forced to miss a brief period of action dr. James Andrews reportedly didn't clear Griffin but he played the final two games and started their playoff game against the Seattle Seahawks sadly rg3 suffered another knee injury in the wild-card loss and that's when it was revealed that rg3 had been cleared in play he underwent knee surgery and endured a terrible second year during which he was clearly hampered from the injury he suffered an ankle injury and he only played about half of the 2014 season a year later Kirk Cousins won the starting job and rg3 didn't play at all in 2015 the Redskins released Griffin during the 2016 offseason and he has since continued as a career backup he kind of feel horrible for rg3 the Redskins made while he was hurt and it cost him the chance to be something special imagine how great our g3 could have been if the Redskins showed more regard for his healthy safe number five Johnny Manziel the 2012 Heisman Trophy winner dazzled during his college days at Texas A&M Johnny football was one of the most athletic quarterbacks we had ever seen dominating opposing defenses with his excellent dual threat style of play there despite his talents there were some concerns about Menzel's character and if he would be able to adapt at the NFL level the Cleveland Browns took the risk and drafted Manziel with the 22nd overall selection in 2014 however Brian Hoyer earned the starting job so Manziel had to spend most of his rookie season on the bench he started two games but struggled with zero touchdown passes and two interceptions he started six games in a second year tossing seven touchdowns and five interceptions sadly Manziel was able to escape his off the field troubles he broke curfew and was seen partying in Vegas while in disguise at one point Dallas police also investigated menzel for a domestic violence case involving his girlfriend at the time his refusal to take his job seriously along with his off the field problems gave the Browns no choice but to release them after just two seasons Manziel had the chance to be something great in the NFL but he just wasn't able to focus and keep his act clean he tried out for the CFL but was released by the Montreal Alouettes for reportedly violating a part of his contract the league would let him sign elsewhere it was later said that Manziel was a no-show for some mandatory meetings he then joined the Memphis express of the AAF but the league ceased operations before the 2019 season in number four Greg Hardy the Carolina Panthers selected Hardy in the sixth round of the 2010 NFL Draft but he more than outperformed expectations during his time with the franchise Hardy broke out in 2012 with an 11 sacks season a year later he earned a Pro Bowl selection after racking up 15 sex leading Carolina's to surprise NFC South title but in the 2014 offseason Hardy was arrested for viciously assaulting his ex-girlfriend a judge found Hardy guilty and he played the team's first game but was put on the commissioners exact list after that and what play again in 2014 Caroline had opted not to resign hardy and he joined the Dallas Cowboys in 2015 he received a 10-game suspension from the NFL which was reduced to four games during the season there were disturbing leaked photos of the domestic violence case Hardy finished the season with Dallas but was never signed by another NFL team again he was already a superstar talent then he threw it all away with a gutless and cowardly decision and instead of being one of the NFL's best defensive players of today he's just remembered as a waste of talent and a giant disgrace number 3 Ryan Leaf the Indianapolis Colts drafted Peyton Manning first overall in 1998 and the San Diego Chargers happily took the other kam miss quarterback prospect named Ryan Leaf at number 2 they traded up with the Arizona Cardinals to get their quarterback of the future and everything was looking up at San Diego but Lee's career went to waste and it was all his doing he was fine for skipping a rookie meeting got in the heated conversations reporters don't talk to me alright knock it off and became extremely unpopular in the locker room teammate Rodney Harrison said working with Leif was a nightmare you can't even imagine he reportedly played golf instead of studying film which is kind of ridiculous Leif missed his entire second year with the shoulder injury but even when he was on the field he just wasn't good Lee's tossed 14 touchdowns and 36 interceptions in his career he was released after in the 2000 season and he played briefly for the Dallas Cowboys in the one but was later cut bad selfish me first attitude a troublemaker didn't try hard enough didn't perform well this was all Riley's doing if he took it more seriously he could have been something special number 2 Lawrence Phillips the st. Louis Rams were intrigued by Nebraska running back Lawrence Phillips so much that they traded away Pro Bowler and future hall-of-famer Jerome Bettis to the Pittsburgh Steelers and turned out to be a disastrous move Phillips entered the 1996 draft was a well-documented trouble while in college he was charged with brutally attacking a 20 year old student later on he broke into a players apartment and viciously attacked one of the school's female basketball players Phillips was suspended from the football team and despite his problems off the field the Rams drafted him six overall anyway but Phillips class with coaches and became lazy skipping practices and breaking curfew in the midst of a second season in 1997 Phillips was released by the Rams who simply couldn't handle them anymore he continued to get into trouble off the field and stops in San Francisco Miami and the CFL did nothing to help after his playing career he just kept getting into trouble while in prison he was charged with the murder of a fellow inmate Phillips was found dead of an apparent suicide in January of 2016 a sad ending to what should have been a promising career and life number one Aaron Hernandez Florida tide and Aaron Hernandez was a first round talent entering the 2010 draft but teams were cautious of drafting a player who has so many problems with the law during his time of college the New England Patriots drafted Hernandez in the fourth round together he and fellow Titan Rob Gronkowski who was also drafted in 2010 became major weapons for Tom Brady who won the NFL MVP award in Aaron's first year with the her name dance also played a big part in helping the Patriots reach Super Bowl 46 where they lost to the New York Giants Hernandez had a strong 2012 season for the Patriots but in the summer of 2013 everything came crashing down for he signed a 40 million dollar extension with the team but he was arrested for the murder of semi pro football player a Louie Louie was dating the sister of Hernandez's fiancee and not long after being questioned by police Hernandez was arrested and charged with Lloyd's murder in 2015 he was found guilty of first-degree murder and sentenced to life in prison later on Hernandez was arrested for a double murder back in 2012 but he was acquitted of those charges in April of 2017 Hernandez was found dead in prison from an apparent suicide researchers found out that he had had CTE making a sad situation even more tragic Hernandez left behind his fiancee and his daughter which other wasted NFL talent should we have included on our list join us in the comment section below if you liked this video and learned a thing or two clicking the like button helps us on the time and we truly appreciate it if this is your first time coming around at CPS though subscribing is a great idea because we put out videos like this every single day but as always thanks for watching and we'll see you guys next

Ancient Papyrus – Does It Matter If Jesus Was Married?



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Bart was invited to a discussion at the Black Mountain Institute at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, in the Beam Music Center, Doc Rando Hall, UNLV. Which is an International Center for Creative Writers and Scholars. The event was open to the public, hosted on Thursday, January 23, 2014 at 7pm. Bart Ehrman, Karen L. King (Hollis Professor of Divinity at Harvard Divinity School) and Mark Jordan (Distinguished Professor at Washington University, Saint Louis) discuss the underlying question: What would a married Christ mean for the theology, practices, and politics of Christian traditions as they grapple with changing times?

In 2012, Harvard’s Hollis Professor of Divinity, Karen King, shocked the Christian world by revealing an ancient papyrus text in which Jesus refers to his “wife.” Written on a piece of papyrus now reduced to just four centimeters high and eight wide, the fragment addresses issues of family and discipleship. “This is the only extant ancient text which explicitly portrays Jesus as referring to a wife,” King writes in her scholarly paper on the “The Gospel of Jesus’s Wife.” In an interview, King emphasized that this discovery does not prove that the historical Jesus was married. This gospel, like others dated to the second century which make opposing claims—that Jesus was celibate, for example—are too late, historically speaking, to provide any evidence as to whether the historical Jesus was married or not, she says. But the fragment does suggest that 150 years or so after Jesus’s birth, Christians were already taking positions on such questions. Significantly, this new text pushes the date at which some Christians were asserting that Jesus was married back to a time contemporaneous with the earliest assertions that he was celibate.

Video discussed on Bart Ehrman’s Foundation Blog:

Bart D. Ehrman is the James A. Gray Distinguished Professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He came to UNC in 1988, after four years of teaching at Rutgers University. At UNC he has served as both the Director of Graduate Studies and the Chair of the Department of Religious Studies. A graduate of Wheaton College (Illinois), Professor Ehrman received both his Masters of Divinity and Ph.D. from Princeton Theological Seminary, where his 1985 doctoral dissertation was awarded magna cum laude.

Copyright © Bart D. Ehrman. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized use, re-posting and/or duplication of this video without express and written permission from Bart D. Ehrman is strictly prohibited. Video production provided by StudioHyperset.com.

Faces of the Texas Historical Commission



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The Texas Historical Commission (THC) is the state agency for historic preservation. We save the real places that tell the real stories of Texas.

Our staff consults with citizens and organizations to preserve Texas history through its architectural, archeological, and cultural landmarks. The agency is recognized nationally for its preservation programs.

The commission is composed of nine citizen members appointed by the governor to staggered six-year terms. Agency employees work in various fields, including archeology, architecture, history, economic development, heritage tourism, public administration, and urban planning.

The Texas State Legislature established the agency in 1953 as the Texas State Historical Survey Committee with the task to identify important historic sites across the state. The Texas Legislature changed the agency’s name to the Texas Historical Commission in 1973. Along with the name change came more protective powers, an expanded leadership role, and broader educational responsibilities.

Learn more: www.thc.texas.gov

I remember as a young child arguing with my older brother about major military battles so when I saw that the Texas Historical Commission was looking for a military a story and it seemed like a great fit I had kind of a broad base of experience and when the opportunity opened up at the Texas Historical Commission I thought well let's let's see if that might open up some doors and because ultimately I thought the Texas Historical Commission is going to be a good place for me and evidently so I've been here ever since I was getting older so I decided I need to look at my retirement and start focusing on that so I had a friend who worked for the Historical Commission and she loved it and just raved about it and so there was a position open that I applied for and so I got in I saw the job opportunity and I thought that's the job I have been working towards for years it pretty much looked like my dream job I have retired from the US Air Force so this I've not been in museum or interpretive work all of my life I was able to get a masters and heritage preservation so I'm getting to do what I love to do finally in my life this is my second career and it is everything that I would build into a career that I wanted for myself I'm really fortunate I have a good boss and I have a great staff I have employees who love their jobs who are dedicated to the site and to the mission of our site and to the mission of the see and that really makes it easy and it makes it fun our efforts inspire imagination and appreciation on the part of citizens of Texas to think back into the past and understand the the fact that we didn't didn't just show up we all came from somewhere and where we came from matters there are many aspects that that are very gratifying but of course the opportunity to to discover and learn about the archaeological heritage of Texas through investigation of sites I mean it doesn't get much better than the discovery of Lebel Lascelles ship in Matagorda Bay the agency is well respected as being the historic preservation authority people know that I work at the Texas Historical Commission that I'm working to save historic Texas downtown's and it really means a lot as far as the credibility in my field that every day is different on any given day I could be dealing with a variety of historical topics projects answering inquiries from the public so we have a lot of latitude here to direct our own work and there are so many things that interest me about working on downtown issues and I could see myself being happy here for a long time when I am conducting the orientations with new employees they will ask me at times so what do you what's good about the THD what do you like the flexibility also family has always come first I can say that when I go home at night I don't take work with me THC has an outreach component that I haven't really experienced anyplace else at the state through the Main Street program and through history programs historic sites the division of architecture and then of course there's archeology these are all arms of the agency that engage the public and the message is Texas history I really enjoy getting the community groups and organizations that I work with even more enthusiastic about what they're doing to preserve Texas and American history the travel is an amazing part of this job and there are still so many places in Texas that I haven't been and I had a list when I started here of all the cities and places that I wanted to see and I think that that's just part of working here is that sort of the endless possibilities of the work you can find yourself doing I learned something new all the time it engages my intellect my training I feel like I'm contributing when I first set out on my studies I don't I don't think I had a very good idea about how I would apply it but I'm very glad that I ended up at the Texas Historical Commission it's been a wonderful opportunity to hone skill sets that fell outside of traditional academia this agency has attracted a great great team of people not just in the archaeology division but in the other divisions as well historians and architectural historians folks that are all committed to the mission of the agency I have a hard time seeing myself being happier with the kind of work that I'm doing here anywhere else I would not give it up for Hartley I just love this site and the people that I get to meet the kids it's been wonderful I've had the freedom to be able to expand and build on what we do here and I've had the support of the state which has been wonderful you

Joan of Arc – Heroine or Heretic? – Extra History – #5



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Joan had been sold out to the English. Bishop Pierre Cauchon was determined to prove the inaccuracy of her visions and her motivations so that Charles could have no claim to the throne. But Joan held on till the bitter end.
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♪ Get the intro music here!

*Music by Demetori:

♪ Outro music: “Vision of a Martyr”
by Tiffany Román

February 21st, 1431. Rouen Castle "Do you swear to speak the truth in answer to such questions that are put to you?" asks Bishop Kishan "I do not know what you wish to examine me on." responds Joan "Perhaps you might ask such things I would not tell." "Will you swear to speak the truth upon those things which are asked of you concerning your faith?" "Which you know." "Concerning my father and mother and what I've done since I took the road to France, I will gladly swear to tell the truth But concerning my revelations from God these I have never told or revealed to anyone save only to Charles, my King and I will not reveal them to save my head." It's the first day of Joan's inquisitional trial for heresy She is both the defendant and the only witness and she's arguing for her life (Musical Introduction) Joan survived the leap from the tower landing on a soft patch of Earth But the fall had gone badly and she laid injured until her jailers collected her her voices whispering comfort But her worry came to pass their Burgundian sold her to the English and there would be a trial for witchcraft and heresy Conducted by her enemies as they prepared Joan languished in prison English and Burgundian Lords visited to leer at and grope her. She was constantly alone with male soldiers She still wore men's clothing though for it was a greater defense against assault than a dress outside her cell the inquisitional trial was taking shape at its head was Bishop Pierre Cauchon a Clergyman, who'd been a long supporter of English interests in France. In fact, he'd personally negotiated Joan's sale to the English So this trial was not exactly fair. Because you see after Joan got Charles crowned at (Crowned in Reims). The English, not to be outdone had rushed their boy king, Henry the VI, into the country in order to crown him King of France But Charles was still claiming through Joan that God supported his claim However, if Cauchon could prove in court that Joan was either a heretic, a witch, or a liar It would go a long way toward undercutting Charles's claim to the throne It was a trial designed to discredit Joan in her visions yet. Cauchon knew it couldn't be an obvious hit job Everyone knew the English and Burgundians hated Joan and expected a slanted court. Therefore the verdict must be unimpeachable Cauchon insisted on following strict procedure enlisting some of the finest theological minds in France to serve as examiner's Every questioning session, every move by the court, every piece of evidence would be recorded He wanted everyone to know how they'd come to their conclusions yet, his initial background investigation wasn't promising. An investigator sent to Domrémy to dig up dirt came back empty handed. And a group of English Nobel women confirmed Joan was a virgin meaning she wasn't lying about being a maid, but that still left the charge of heresy. Of harboring beliefs that differed from established church doctrine and if Joan refused to recant that was a death sentence. So the dance began. Joan insisted that they let her take Mass. The prosecutor for his part insisted that she could not hear Mass while dressed as a man. and Joan countered that her garments protected her. Then the questioning portion of the trial opened with Joan standing in a castle hall amid fifty or sixty churchmen. Now She had an audience Joan began sparring with the court over her oath to be truthful She agreed to answer questions about her past and her faith, but not her visions it was an argument that would repeat every day and over the next week and a half the court would probe her about her past, her beliefs, and every step of her journey since leaving Domrémy. They asked about whether she had disobeyed her parents by leaving. About obscure village folk beliefs, and of course, about her visions Her examiners were learned men versed in theology and with decades of education in canon law Joan, by contrast was an illiterate peasant who had only recently learned to sign her name on the letters she dictated. Yet She pushed back. Her voices told her to be bold to argue to challenge and though not traditionally schooled she had a sharp mind and had absorbed much in her years as a devoted Catholic. On the third day when the inquisitors asked her whether she believed she would go to heaven the court held its breath Because uh, yes Thank You Admiral. It was a trap. If Joan said no, she would be admitting a state of sin But if she said yes, she would contradict Church doctrine that humans could not truly know whether they were in grace So either way it would be an admission of heresy. "If I am not in his grace" she answered "May God put me there, and if I am may God, so keep me. I should be the saddest creature in the world" "If I knew I were not in His grace." her eloquence on the issues stunned the court questions of faith She batted away with ease that puzzled her questioners and Joan reveled in this performance, but when speaking of visions though She evaded, circled, Outright refused. And this was wise because she was not as well-versed in church doctrine involving spiritual beings and if she spoke about it might unknowingly create an opening. For days Cauchon and the inquisitors hammered at her "Who told you to wear men's clothing. Why did you do it?" "Despite the fact the old testament forbids it!" "Name the voices, convince us you've seen the saints" He urged Joan to describe her visions beyond seeing light and hearing voices Was it the voice of god, saints, or angels? If saints, did they give her a sign to convince others that her visions were real? This too was a snare. You see church doctrine held that saints and angels were beings of pure spirit And they had no corporeal bodies. So if Joan describes seeing them in the flesh… You get where he was going? He took away her audience and began questioning her in private in her cell The cracks began to show. She said the voices were the Archangel Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret And that they appeared to her, solid as her inquisitors, and she knew them by the symbols they carried And when pressed Joan described a vision she'd had at Charles's court where an angel walked into the audience hall and placed a jeweled crown on the Dauphin's head But she's still refused to reveal exactly what she'd said to the Dauphin in private and A finally Cauchon considered using torture and indeed He showed Joan the implements hoping the sight of these tools of pain would force a confession But they did not. However Joan was already ill and they did worried that if they tortured her she might die in custody So tabling torture they drew up their findings and read them to her. Twelve charges. She would need to answer them the next day May 24th, 1431 Joan stands on a scaffold in a graveyard formally charged with heresy the The prosecutors had determined that either she had fabricated the visions or they were demons Then a surprise if she doesn't answer these charges they say, they will execute sentence immediately Joan's voices had promised that they'd deliver her from captivity, but now time was up she gave in to fear and confessed The Inquisitors had not expected that, but they were delighted, after all the best outcome of a heresy trial was one where the accused recanted and was welcomed back into the church. Joan would live, just in captivity. They shaved her head, put her in the dress
she'd so resisted. But two days later. Cauchon got a message He rushed to Joan's cell. She was back in men's clothes, agitated. One story said her guards had assaulted her, another claimed they'd forced her into her old clothing. She babbled, her voices were angry that she had recanted out of fear and she worried God would turn her away A confessed heretic could live, but one who returned to their sin must die. And so the next day they burned her in the old marketplace One English soldier held across high so she could look at it as the flames consumed her, and the executioner insured that nothing was left. No bones, the faithful could venerate and finally They threw her ashes into a river. Cauchon spread the transcripts across Europe to show they've been right to convict her. King Charles, reportedly swore vengeance for her death, but he made no public statements In fact, he already had a new Holy Youth, a shepherd boy that showed the stigmata, in time the English killed him too But if the English had hoped that Joan's death would change the course of the war. They were wrong. In 1449, 18 years after Joan's execution, Charles entered the English capital of Rouen in victory. The English were well on the way to being driven out of France. where the father had been known as Charles the Beloved and Charles the Mad The son would be known as Charles the Victorious. And part of that victory was to instigate a retrial, just as politically motivated as the first, that cleared Joan in 1453 Because in the 22 years since the first trial politics had changed a great deal, With the Armagnac and Burgundian at peace Everyone was eager to rewrite history Recasting the war as one of French against English And of course Charles's continued success seemed to vindicate Joan's visions Even people who had participated in the first trial Emerged to denounce it as corrupted by politics Joan was no long a champion for the Armagnac's– this soldier from a bitter civil war was now seen as a champion of all of France and her status as a national symbol would only grow over the centuries. And in 1920 the same church that had condemned Joan as a heretic Officially declared her a saint the girl who had defended Orléans Taken the Loire castles, and failed outside the walls of Paris had made one final conquest, for now She'd stormed the gates of heaven (Musical rise) Special thanks to educational tier patrons Ahmed Zeon Turk and Joseph play (Musical Out Sequence)

The Nephilim In The Ohio Valley! – Anunnaki/Human "Hybrids" in Ancient North American Indian Tribes!



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The Nephilim In The Ohio Valley! – Anunnaki/Human “Hybrids” in Ancient North American Indian Tribes!

Edgar Cayce mentioned ancient America in 68 different readings. These readings covered migrations to America, mound builders, the Norse, and other events. In Mound Builders: Edgar Cayce’s Forgotten History of Ancient America (2001), his 68 readings on ancient America were Serpent Mound Ohioextensively analyzed. From these readings, 30 specific statements were found which could be verified by scientific evidence. Of the 30 statements by Cayce, 23 (or 77%) of them have enough support to be considered accurate. Another six statements are, as yet, not supportable by evidence, but could be verified in the future. Only one statement appears to be wrong. Thus, of all of Cayce’s seemingly impossible statements about ancient America, only 3% are definitely wrong. Of the remainder, 77% have been supported by scientific research, and the 20% that remain could be verified in the future.

Several teams of genetics researchers at prominent American universities have been conducting studies on the DNA of Native Americans. Although results from early studies showed the expected Siberian-Asian ancestry of the majority of modem Native American tribes, things took an unexpected turn in 1997 when it was found that a small percentage of modem Native Americans have an unusual type of DNA then known to exist only in a few locations in Europe and the Middle East. Subsequent research indicated that the European DNA was not the result of genetic mixing after Columbus, as the same DNA was found in the bone of an ancient American burial, confirming that people carrying this unique DNA had entered America in ancient times. This unique gene was also found in a small tribe living in the northern Gobi Desert area. The DNA research initially seemed to promise solid proof of not only where the ancient Americans came from, but also when they came.

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Michael Lee Hill is an award winning musician, filmographer and UFO experiencer. His footage of the Lake Erie UFO’s has created a Billy Meier like buzz and Michael seems to have developed an intuitive relationship with these craft. In his home state of Ohio, Michael has been cataloging video after video of UFO’s over Lake Erie.

The phenomena consists almost entirely of “Pulsating orb’s of light”—unusual lights seen changing colors, converging, and separating over the lake. Stories of the unexplained phenomena date back over 150 years to the indigenous North American Indian Tribes.

23:40 on the film “Quetzalcoatl” was painted Susanne Iles.

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most Americans have no idea that ancient cities with advanced architectures once dotted the ancient North American landscape very very few of us were conscious of the immensity of a place like monks mound at Cahokia opposite st. Louis which is bigger in his footprint than the Great Pyramid at Giza we didn't know that the knowledge embedded in these earthworks and encoded in the structure is anything but primitive it's remarkable what I've learned now is just how amazing they were in terms of their knowledge of the solar system and of mathematics artifacts of iron were found artifacts of hardened copper stone tablets with writing regular farmers just plowing their fields would really turn up literally bushel baskets of arrowheads spear points etc and these things were commonplace some people such as caleb Atwater and Squire and Davis they believe the artifact that they were finding over on these mounds and cities and earthen structures that this was representative of an advanced civilization the science of archaeology was really in its infancy at that time they're only a few people using what we would consider to be even remotely modern methods according to the scholarly Journal of the Ohio Historical Society quote no subject received more attention or stirred more controversy among archaeologists in the 19th century than the authenticity and presumed meaning of the engraved stone tablets that were periodically recovered from the mound and there are various things fueling these there were religious political and social agendas doctrine of manifest destiny allowed the United States government to classify the Native Americans as savages by their terminology and by calling them savages that would allow them to push them aside and basically claim their lands as America expanded in westward direction politically it would have been impossible for them to have taken lands away from Indians from any indigenous peoples if they viewed them as having rights even close to what they had as American citizens manifest destiny the idea the American First Nations had never achieved anything worth preserving has resulted in the wanton destruction of thousands and thousands of earth constructions mouths and banknotes figures and settlements science did tell them that there were certain races that were superior and some that were inferior we would say that's bad science where you want to discount information because it kind of doesn't fit what what you think you see and what you see is what people saw at the time were these savages who were in this pitiful State so we have lost and calculable amount of archaeological data because of no appreciation of their value for historical purposes I want to show you some things that I don't think you even knew existed it goes against everything manifest destiny teaches about Native Americans and I want you to know this part of our history because people erased it we'll get to that later on in the program erased it intentionally that's an important part of it America's history didn't begin with Christopher Columbus came over there were ancient cities with advanced architectures all across North America did you know that hundreds of years before Columbus came let us think island Indians they didn't scar the land it's a no no not true these were cities as large as any in the world at the time London or Rome they were metropolis archeologists say they have found evidence of two hundred thousand actual cities of mound like structures all across North America that were here long before Columbus but we don't know anything about them why why especially when you hear what you're about to hear I want to show you three incredible examples of these Indian mounds that were discovered but before I show you this I want to ask yourself I want you to ask these questions was Jackson right Andrew Jackson manifest destiny the beginning of that was he right that the Native Americans were savages or was Jefferson right that there was something going on here that we don't even understand maybe they were descendants of egyptians or jews or maybe they were from asia where were these people from but there weren't savages i want you to take a look at this it's going to blow your mind see this here first let me show you the Great Pyramid of Giza you've seen this one side of the Great Pyramid of Giza if you measure it it is from the bottom to the apex six hundred and six feet that's important that's an ancient unit of measurement it's referred to as the stade now I want to show you this these are the Newark earthworks they're here in Ohio yes Ohio the earthworks are made there structures that are made now of Earth that has been built up from the ground in a perfect circle here it is a perfect circle and a perfect octagon but they were built by the ancient Hopewell civilization they date back from 300 BC to 400 AD so let's look at these structures here bring this up I want to show you something if you square the inside of the octagon here's a square and here's the square if you square it this is what surveyors do when they're measuring they square the circle and then they divide that area into four equal parts or cubes and then you find that each cube is made up of six hundred and six feet six hundred and six feet six hundred and six feet six hundred and six feet six oh six it's made up of stays exactly the same now that's not interesting enough look at the angle of the Great Pyramid of Giza if you take the angle of the Great Pyramid of Giza the slope is fifty one point eight degrees let's go back to the earthworks if you measure the line that goes straight through the center of the structure right here and then you'll go true north it's fifty one point eight degrees that angle is exactly the same angle as the Pyramids of Giza it is the same math the same calculations as ancient Egyptians let me show you one more connection in 1860 David Wyrick he's a guy who surveyed the Newark earthworks he was digging into a mound near those earthworks and he found a wooden coffin made of oak they opened up the coffin and found a skeleton of a man holding a little box it was about eight point ten inches in size the box had been cemented shut here this by the way is sitting in Ohio well he opened up the box and he found a little man inside a little black stone they took it to scholars and they looked at it the man seems to be carrying something and there's writing here at first they couldn't recognize the writing is they thought in 1860 some sort of Hebrew well finally about twenty years later they found some rabbis living in the area and the rabbi's looked at that and they could read it they said it was an old old kind of block Hebrew black Hebrew and it was a rendition of the 10 commandments now this is another piece black Hebrew they said they'd never seen anything like it mainstream archaeologists at the time called this a hoax but then in 1900 or just about after 1900 in Israel they found the same block style Hebrew writing mainstream archaeologists still dismissed the findings they found it in Israel and they found it in Ohio but there was another stone that they found that they couldn't argue this is the bat Creek stone it was found during the course of an official Smithsonian evacuation the Smithsonian didn't understand the the meaning of the writing on the stone they thought it was Cherokee since it came from Cherokee country they didn't realize that it's actually Hebrew they had published this originally upside down they threw it in a box at the bottom of the Smithsonian put it in the basement many years later a scholar took it out of the box looked at it went oh my gosh it's upside down it's Phoenician ancient Hebrew so what's going on here what is that about where is that history I'll show you in a few minutes and we're gonna have a conversation I'm going to show you some more things that the Smithsonian science government Commerce colluded to erase by the way I want to thank the directors of the documentary lost civilizations of North America for bringing these stories to my attention I was blown away to find more visit the website lost civilization DVD com here's the thing we should be asking ourselves I don't know the story of these do you know that did you know that do you live in Ohio and did you know that why not were the American Indians wronged yes yes and that's what we focus on in America is we were bad to the American forget about it it's in the past the question should be the ones that the founders asked who are they what knowledge do they have can you imagine the difference we would have now if we would put our differences aside and put our past in the past and concentrate on today and say let's learn from each other what do you have what is that what is that when we come back I'm going to be joined by Peter lil back who is I've told you before is one of my favorite authors he's going to talk to me a little bit about the founders here and I'm also going to show you some documents that show how that history has been erased next this is the Smithsonian annual report 1880 to 1883 this is John Wesley Howell this is an original copy John Wesley Howell in 1789 again this is this is the I'm sorry Powell this is the director of the Bureau of ethnology at the Smithsonian Institute he said this artifacts found prior to Christopher Columbus's arrival would be considered illegitimate by the Smithsonian only the savage Indian culture would be observed and this created the artificial barrier to science only the savage science was colluding with government because of commerce and religion was involved now why do I tell you all this stuff not because I'm in Indian expert or anything else you got to do your own homework I just found out about this stuff I'm amazed by it I don't know what the answer is on this the reason why I bring it up is the stock is not bad the soup went bad but the stock is not Peter lil back dr. Peter low back how are you sir this is a this is a book that needs to be owned by every American every single American should have this book in their home it's called sacred fire these are the words of George Washington and it takes history absolutely apart apart not on somebody's opinion but on their own words on his words Peter I want to go to you and talk to you a little bit about again the stock George Washington had a good relationship our founders had a good relationship with the Native Americans right there's no question about that when they came to America they realized they could not survive without a close relationship with the Indian people the greatest story for example is the pilgrims were blown off-course 800 miles out of their destination Virginia they're in Massachusetts they land on ground and they're in the middle of nowhere no government they make the Mayflower Compact four so they have government when they land and there's no Native Americans there because a plague had gone through but one person shows up he happens be a Native American that knew English he had actually been taken captive to England he learned to English he'd gotten his freedom he came back as people were gone the white settlers are there all of a sudden and he meets them and he says welcome he speaks English they couldn't believe it the Providence of that moment is extraordinary they needed help and there was a person there to help them as he was a Native American right and that creates massachusett do i have time for one more story real quick no okay hang out because I want to come back and talk about I want to talk about William Penn because William Penn said something when he was working with the Indians that is critical to understand the truth I think about America and we'll do that next the history the history that has been erased in our nation in the particular with the Native Americans happen because it didn't fit the story they created manifest destiny it only works when Indians were savages and they had to have savages for commerce and government to expand the ancient artifacts prove otherwise why aren't we looking into those Peter li'l back is the president of Providence forum and the author of George Washington's sacred fire okay Peter I think a great place for Americans to understand the truth about Americans and Native Americans and African America and all of it it comes from William Penn tell the story great story Philadelphia the great founding city of the United States as her government began was founded by William Penn he wanted to city without walls and he determined that he would do it by making a constant commitment to justice and ethics with the Native Americans there never was an Indian war with William Penn and there's a wonderful treaty that still exists that describes the commitment they made and it says this there are good people and bad people among all people there are good and bad Indians there are good and bad Christians that's what he called them in Philadelphia and he said we must come together so that we will address these problems that will come with respect and by communication as I'm wearing a good that's where we need to be there are good among us and bad among us there are good Americans bad Americans there's good parts of America there are bad parts of America in the American story we've got to come together come together as the good people stand together and guard against the bad so we can live in a country without walls Peter thank you very much back in a minute expand our own understanding of America good bad and ugly with the civil rights movement tomorrow and Friday and then we'll see you down at the ball in Washington DC on 8 28 don't miss it history in the making from New York good night America perhaps DNA science can settle once and for all the biological question of who for example the Hopewell mound builders were we can use DNA to help us reconstruct the past and the history of different populations because your DNA is passed down from your parents from generation to generation there are certain types of DNA in particular that are very useful for reconstructing population prehistory your mitochondrial DNA is DNA that every person has and you inherit it from your mother your mother passes it on to her children men don't pass it on to their children and this type of DNA therefore gives us a measure of matrilineal relatedness I collected DNA from and analyzed DNA from a couple of different hopeful cemetery populations when we looked at DNA from these two different hopeful populations from Illinois and Ohio we found that there were five primary mitochondrial DNA lineages present these lineages have become designated by letter names in the scientific world and the ones that we see in Native American populations both living today and in these hopeful cemeteries where the mitochondrial lineages a B C D and X and these five lineages are ones that are common today in Native Americans and they were the ones that were present in these ancient Hopewell communities when we look at the distribution of haplogroup X in the Americas we see that it's present in about 3% of all Native Americans but it's more common in some populations in particular peoples who live in the Upper Great Plains exhibit much higher frequencies of half the group X sometimes up to 25 or 30 or even 50% in some samples that have been studied DNA science apparently settles the biological questions of who these ancient advanced Hopewell mound builders were but where else is this DNA found and where did it originate the form of haplogroup X present in the Americas is known as haplogroup x2a and this specific type is defined by a number of additional mutations that Native Americans who belong to half the group x share there's a lot about DNA evidence that is a controversy applix is really a fascinating story because the x-files of Native American genetics because it burst on the scene in 1998 scientists didn't want to believe it but they found a new half a group in addition to ABCD among the Indians of the Great Lakes in particular and that was half a group X and so immediately the scientist who have a kind of e de peixe in my opinion set about trying to find half a group X in Mongolia and Siberia because of course all American Indians all upstanding American Indians came across the Bering Land Bridge chasing woolly mammoths right so they weren't able to find haplogroup X in Siberia Apple group X was a Eurasian type so then they started talking about oh well maybe they got here by jumping across the ice in a circumpolar fashion okay well it kind of rested there for a while is it true that all Native Americans came from ten families that stumbled across the Bering Strait chasing woolly mammoths before the last ice age I don't think mine did too unhappy group X and on further investigation I believe I am have a group x2 a which is found in the do boy populations and soon and now a whole and a couple of more that I can't even pronounce even though I'm from this continent in North America and there are five different happy group found in North America ABCD and X yes how will your bags what if I will give X did cross over the Atlantic and not through the Bering Strait as otherwise hypothesize the reason that hypothesized by some scientists in this world is because there are very few or none traces of an x hyper group anywhere along the asian migration room which would cover from the Fertile Crescent going through those mountains excuse me I don't know all the countries to India to China through like Vietnam Asia all those countries to parent over the sea will actually up through Siberia and through the Yukon well I would call the Yukon today because I'm Canadian and down to North America but the X half a group has been linked to the Clovis point arrowheads Clovis point arrowheads is a certain type of an arrowhead that was designed and used by hunters about 70,000 years ago in and around the areas known as today we know as France Germany Norway Sweden Finland you know like those areas and they came here and they continue to survive yes perhaps for 5000 more years before other peoples the a B C's DS came more from the Bering Strait with their male counterparts and there was less female come to parts that survived than females but you'll find that throughout the world and darker reason for it anyways wasn't walk into that here and so yeah it's on X yes I think we came over the Atlantic it also shows that not just high math but these sites are lined up primarily with the lunar calendar they had high math the understood geometry and because of lunar calendar they also understood the heavens astronomy you what I've learned now is just how amazing they were in terms of their knowledge of the solar system and of mathematics and the lunar calendar comes from the Mediterranean and then they had the unit boast of measure above 606 which they call the stayed one side of the Great Pyramid from the base to the tip of the apex is six hundred and six feet if you square inside the Octagon which the surveyors like to call it's a term they used scoring scoring the circle and you divide that up into four equal parts inside of cubes you'll find those cubes are all made of 600 six foot lines per cube side the angle of the Great Pyramid of Egypt runs fifty eight fifty one point eight degrees up the slope from the base to the angle that that measurement is there and when you come off of the baseline after Newark and you run true north and then measure that angle back to the baseline what do we find 51 point eight degrees so did they have the same math as the ancient Egyptians well I gotta say yeah it sure looks like it it's as inspiring I think in its way as the the NASA program to send a man to the moon most of the Mediterranean state societies civilizations ran their calendar on motorcycle or 13-month calendar and that can be fully demonstrated with the hotel people as well again a nice parallel to the Mediterranean contact we own the Newark holy stones and these stones were found in a Hopewell bound in the 1860s and the presumption from finding them was that perhaps the American Indians were had some kind of contact with the with the Hebrews or possibly they were the Hebrews that's another idea so so we have our the museum has been interested in origins they took a to of some scholars identified that it was probably some type of Hebrew they took it to some rabbis living in the area looking at they said yes they could read it it was a complete rendition of the ten commandments they called it black Hebrew because they can never see anything written like this but they called a black Hebrew

Cleopatra’s Little Sister vs. The World (feat. Aubrey Plaza and David Wain) – Drunk History



Views:257040|Rating:4.89|View Time:10:37Minutes|Likes:12379|Dislikes:291
Cleopatra’s little sister Arsinoe outwitted her siblings as well as Julius Caesar in a bloody play for the throne of Egypt.

About Drunk History:
Based on the popular web series, Drunk History is the liquored-up narration of our nation’s history. Host Derek Waters, along with an ever-changing cast of actors and comedians, travels across the country to present the rich tales that every city in this land has to offer. Booze helps bring out the truth. It’s just that sometimes the truth is a little incoherent.

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– So hello, my name
is Lyric Lewis, and tonight we are discussing
the other queen of Egypt. Oh yes, the queen that
was scheming, thieving, thriving and surviving
off of stealing her way from the bottom to the what? To the top. The other queen of Egypt. So our story begins in 51 B.C. We're in Alexandria,
the capital of Egypt and Cleopatra has
just turned eighteen. She's like, "Cleopatra
is coming at ya". She's fresh, she's
young, she's supple. She's like, "I'm looking
fabulous and fly". And she marries her
brother Ptolemy. – I'm sorry, marries? – [Lyric] Yes, it
wasn't weird for them. They were like, "we gonna
be blood on blood on blood, stacks on stacks on stacks, chicken racks on
racks on racks". (laughs) So, now she's the queen, but their little sister Arsinoe, she's like super
butthurt about it. She's like, "yo, I know
that I'm eleven, but really, I can't be
mother(beep)ing queen? Nobody asked me if
y'all could get married. So boo to that, boo to that". She's a sneaky, thieving
ass, thriving tween. And she had a eunuch that
was just like her homeboy. Ganymedes was in the
shadows at all times. Like, you would only see
a sliver of his face, come out the corner. And he be like, "dogs,
that's what we do in Egypt". – [Derek] Dogs. – [Lyric] Dogs. So now, at this point,
Julius Caesar is kicking ass, taking (beep)ing names all
over the Mediterranean. Like, Julius Caesar's
like, "what's poppin'? "Ah (beep) it, they
can get over it". Cleopatra's in to that. Like, she's like,
"I'm feeling this". And so she's like, "hey
Ptolemy, husband, brother, we should, like,
link up with Rome. Hardcore, parkour". Like, Cleopatra's like, "yo, we should (beep) with
Rome, hard as (beep)". She's like, "Rome
is (beep)-able". Ptolemy is like, "I'm
not feeling this. We're not gonna
link up with Rome. That's it, boom, roasted". Cleopatra is like,
very upset, right? But Arsinoe is here hustling
all throughout the castle. She goes to her
brother, Ptolemy. She's like, "Yo, I know
I'm eleven, but peep this, I'm not (beep)ing with
Julius Caesar either. I don't think Egypt
should link up. Matter of fact, you
should check your wife, Because she's trying, like, she not even listening
to you dude". She's like, "you the husband
and she not listening, right?" So Ptolomy goes to Cleopatra, and he's like, "yo,
Arsinoe came to me, "told me she not
(beep)ing with it, She put some wisdom in my head, so maybe I shouldn't (beep)
with it so we not gonna do it". "And, not only that, I'm gonna
banish you from Alexandria". So Cleopatra's like
"Excuse me, like, you gon' come for
my, like, what?" So Cleopatra now is pissed that
Arsinoe came for her throne. She is set on getting
revenge on her little sister. So hmm. – Cheers. – So Cleopatra's banished. So Arsinoe's like "I'm cute
now bitch, I'm queen of Egypt". It just so happens
at the same time, Julius Caesar happens to
make a trip to Alexandria. And he was like
"what's poppin' Egypt?" So Cleopatra said to
herself, she was like "self, I can either arrange a
regular meeting with this man or I can get him
the Egyptian way". So she crept in his room
in the middle of the night and gives him the Egyptian
business right there in that hotel room. – Now that's a pyramid scheme. – She was like "oh, you gonna
be reading from the book of the dead after this
'cause you gonna be what? Dead and gone". – (beep) like an Egyptian. – He was like "well this is
some new shit", like he was like "Girl, what is you
doin' to my body?" She's like "just some
Egyptian shit, don't worry 'bout none of that,
that's what's happening to your whole body right now". Right, he like fell for her
after that one (beep)ing night and so Cleopatra was
like "I know we just met, and I give you the business
immediately, my bad. However my brother, Ptolemy,
banished me because why? Because I wanted
to (beep) with you and I need help to
get my throne back". And Caesar was like
"say no more girl, you put that Egyptian ass
on me, it's a done deal. Let's go invade some shit, yes?" And she's like "yes bitch,
go get my throne back". So Julius Caesar invades
Alexandria right, like it's like a whole
bunch of Romans and shit and Ptolemy is captured
as a political prisoner. But then Arsinoe
narrowly escapes the palace with her eunuch. Ganymedes goes "yo,
they invades the castle, let's do this bitch". So they escape from
Alexandria right? They go to the
rebel Egyptian army and the leader of
that army is Achillas. By the way, also Achillas to me, just sounds succulent,
you know what I mean? He sounds like a succulent
man, but I'll continue. – Doesn't need water? (laughter) – Shit, sure. But anyways Achillas,
he's like "damn, that's a little ass girl". And she's like "hey, I
might be 11 and a half or 12 years old but
I'm (beep)ing fierce. We need to re-invade
Alexandria, take back my throne because yo, I'm the true
queen of Egypt, okay, my sister's not the
(beep)ing queen. She's just some
bitch on the throne". Achillas is like "no bitch,
we don't know you like that first of all, second of
all you're mad young". He's like "you're
11.5 or 12 years old". He goes "we not here
for this mother(beep) like, good night". So then this little
shit, Arsinoe I told you was off the chain 'cause
she's like "oh no? Oh no, you not gonna
(beep) with me?" So then Arsinoe turns to
Ganymedes and goes "yo, (beep)ing kill this
little (beep)". And he did. Then he killed him in some
great Egyptian fashion and he assassinates
him in cold blood. It's crazy. Ganymedes goes "yo, she
told me to kill him, I killed him, don't
worry about it". And Ganymedes says to all of
us "don't worry about it". Don't ask him 'bout it. So he be gone. And he's dead. So then, I forget her name. I remembered it
the past two hours. – Arsinoe? – I've never done this in the
story, I'm very embarrassed. (laughter) High five, that's right, pew. Arsinoe takes the army and
goes back to Alexandria and she's like "I'mma take
this (beep)ing shit over". And Julius Caesar's like
"bitch, no you not bitch". She's like "yes I am bitch". So she forced him to flee,
she runs into the light tower, the pharaoh's, where she's
the 7th wonder of the world. And so Caesar's pissed at
this point because he's like "I'm (beep)ing Julius Caesar". Like he's like, "I
conquered the Mediterranean and this girl is about
to like run me, what? What is this, she's
11 and a half or 12!" He's mad, like he's surrounded
by the army and the sea. He has literally no way out. So he's like "(beep) either
I'm gonna go out there and get killed as (beep) or
I'm gonna jump out this window and be drowned as (fuck) and
hopefully swim and live". He sheds himself of his
armor and his purple cloak. Purple cloak is
iconic in Greece. People know that
it's Julius Caesar. And he jumps and
splashes into the water. Arsinoe comes up, takes his
cloak and like waves his cloak as like a victory flag
going "yes bitch". Caesar finds the boat
that is waiting for him and is like "damn,
she's very buck, she nucks if she
bucks all the time". So then Ptolemy meets
with Caesar and he's like "I'll make a deal with you, my little sister's wiling out. She's very ratchet. I will give you her if
you give me my freedom". Caesar's like "all right,
dude, I'll take it". With a sneaky look
on his face, right? So then Ptolemy goes to
Arsinoe and he's like "hey girl, hey" and she's
like "Ptolemy like, yo". And then Caesar is like "aaaah!" Arsinoe is captured, right, and Caesar's like "Sike,
Romans, kill him". So he's like "oh, this
mother(beep)er right here. What a bad friend". Then he runs to the Nile
river and he drowns, so he dies anyway. – Anyway. (laughter) – So then Caesar has Arsinoe. He's so (beep)ing happy
because she has embarrassed him and that's how fragile
his male ego was. Cleopatra's mad but
she's like "yo". She's like "yo"
like she's like "yo, take her little ass
to Rome, I'm done". So Caesar tries to bring Arsinoe through Rome and the colosseum. His plan is to
(beep)ing strangle her. And Rome is like "we're
not (beep)ing with you (beep)ing with
this little girl". And Caesar's like "I
wanna strangle the (beep) out of her in the
middle of the street". Everybody in the
colosseum was like "you're wack, you're wack". So then Caesar is like fine, just get the (beep)
out of my face". So Caesar being embarrassed, he sends her to Artemis' temple. So her life as a priestess. So we fast forward to 41 B.C.
and Cleopatra's still mad. She thinks that her sister
will get revenge on her so Cleopatra sends assassins
and she's like "yo, go kill my little
sister that is like 21". And the assassins come and they strangle
Arsinoe and she dies. – Wow. – Yeah. This girl was 11 and
overthrew Julius Caesar. At 11 she outsmarted
Julius Caesar. I think that's fascinating. Moral of the story, don't
sleep on your siblings. – Does that mean don't
(beep) your brother? – And that too, don't
(beep) your brother either. That should be a given. – It should be. – Oh my god! (laughter)

Ancient Memes – Trials Fusion w/ Nick



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can't wait to figure out what this does it even have it doesn't even have a description it's just nature's of fruitiest events fruity spell sorry I think we'll you meant loose nature's front yes events ritai hissed but just Freddy is what do you mean Freddy a threat yes it's Freddy Asturias you can't not pronounce the why is it an e SS okay so what's going on with the map in the background do we end up there or is that just extra design maybe that's like another version of the map I don't know it's like the hard one maybe interesting like incorporate a hard map into the background of a medium map very interesting odd I'm consider me extremely interested right now you're intrigued I mean by the area of intrigue rested I don't like it when jumps on maps don't like line up and then I end up just losing my rhythm like that desert map thing that we did a couple over that wait oh thank goodness I was like that ha what thank goodness that was the finish I'm just glad I could benefit from the fruits of my labor well you're about to you're very disciplined so that you can benefit from the Fred Fred iasts of your events yes Freddy Freddy is it's not fresh mass well doesn't look like it has anything to do with fruit makers fruit fruitiest events it's that's even the incentive because it's Freddy not fruity excuse me but just grittiest – this is the Suwanee giant fruit it's not okay just fell out of the gap there don't do that yeah find the gap what is going on with these trees what the hell is it a Freddy event what the hell is happening there's a the cone wait why oh yeah why is that wait no oh my god it sent me back did you hit the cone no I hit no cone there ain't no snow make sure you hit the cone what is this what is this what is this wait yeah the trees are like freaking out in the back of the map is actually weird this is the trees are sinking there's rocks falling boots minecraft minecraft blocks are falling from the sky minecraft is trying to attack me for not playing it right now it's gravel would you say and sand that's been a jostle three would you say that this is Freddy pretty Freddy well are you asking why are you asking me about to be the how do you saying Jordan okay thank orden Oh I was simply asking do you think that I'm some sort of authority on what's Freddy perhaps perhaps would you say it's I don't know if I would describe it as Freddy it was interesting difficult obstacles it was more I was like concerned with rules happening around me there was there was no moral to the story it was simply things for the sake of things happening yeah I mean I I like the minecraft blocks part though it reminded me of in the nether when you when you pull off one of the gravel sections and it falls down yeah which happened like yesterday did oh that's tricky huh what that's Freddy did that it wait what look okay just yeah mm-hmm Oh check what sick that's okay yep cool did you just you just no problem I see I'm gonna be here for a while you got another trick I don't I don't know what you did well I'm not gonna tell you did you did you sneeze it I don't you didn't see me just I didn't like fully analyze your capabilities you should have huh okay surprise you don't with the trick on this one is there a special trick it's there's not only a way to do it I'm not gonna tell you right now until I get to the second checkpoint at least I mean I know you can kind of bounce but it's not working for me oh my god would you bounce if you were gonna bounce back wheel boy there yeah okay you figured it out yeah that's right I'm trying ain't gonna hit her kin though gotta hit it correct oh my god you can do like a shoot come on mmm this is so frustrating like you don't worry the next obstacle after that you have to do the same thing but on doom onto the iron nice tire instead of a platform would you say you're growing tired of it I'm not yet but I certainly will be you hide it dang it there we come on come on there you go whoa that was a Freddy event excuse you no no no no don't don't god why does that always happen what as soon as I catch up to you oh I mean I was on this for a while do you leave me alone who is the instant I caught up is like all right time to go there we go now you know from my name out of that whoa Jesus calm down hahaha race I use I use that momentum so I guess the the meta of this map is just the back wheel bounce a it would seem like it huh okay god this is annoying yeah this is the way to practice the bouncies I'm kidding this one is hard yeah it is there's no way to like fudge it you gotta land all the way on Jesus I haven't gotten close ooh gotta close a couple times but damn man he's difficult and every time that I get the balance where it's kind of it's gotten me some good lift I end up with my front wheel underneath ah I don't know about this one this is the devil huh oh that was near nearly it not close enough though that was the first time that I oh don't don't oh my god don't actually just end my suffering enough with you would like to huh like I can only pray that the map is not this long yeah please okay I'm already at a hundred volts low I met 120 so are you saying already well yeah we're at this point of the map that's what I'm saying a little way through our faults we'll shoot more than oh yeah well I don't think it's that long I think we're gonna get it no a jump to completion here god damn it really all about saying completion today what is wrong with the word completion you twelve-year-old giggle hahaha saying to completion oh there we go there we go nice that's it boys that's okay yeah we're at the end we're good I've put you out of your severing yes I love that jump to the finish line right there he'll pass can I do this what do you are you just trying to see how fast you can falter how fast you can thrust yourself how fast I trust yourself to completion I like the I like a backwards yeah yeah thrust yourself to complete rate up belly flop now that was actually a good elegant pencil dive yeah good solid pencil though I do often that I've been shut low water I drove off of a diving board into the ocean the past weekend I off the boat mm-hmm how was that um there's cold yeah the ocean uh you coming from the Midwest you think like uh the Pacific Ocean that's been warmed it must be nice and warm you know Southern California nice and warm are you oh I didn't know I didn't know I did not know you knew I didn't know you knew I did not know I'm so sorry also I like other consistent least red means back wheel there is at least that I guess okay there we go we're good wait is it all back wheel on this one oh you better find out it appears to be all back wheel where I hit five hundred faults okay you really come on be a sport about it come on dude no no why oh I've had it there's no no more I have no more tolerance for this it's not fun it's not something I want to play I want it banned Wow what I want red links to remove these maps from the mark yeah but they're red and they link different parts of the map so don't be like that are you mate no he's mad definitely mad dude come on be a sport it's not that bad it is that bad not bad I'm already two checkpoints in and it's fine yeah we'll see see ya your two checkpoints in I still have a hundred and sixty earth there 460 wait 360 I know math bolts left come on this is it's a it's a time trial trials behind Ryles they're gonna be a new a new mode and trials rising is one friend is too mad and tries to tries to DNF himself while the other tries to complete the map that's already been an established been it's been done we're good thank God whoa I beat the fault king look at me writhing in pain was it gin – that guy raishin you didn't even try you could have done it no problem and you just gave up due to the concept of it yeah you simply refuse to support and you detestable I'm your pro very much against this is a protest I do not support it at all yeah this is a peaceful protest where I just grind my hips on the ground to completion two hundreds are complete your two faults there's one more map though dangerous rabbit oh why did you say no I thought that was the last map oh yeah but I don't know this is not a fun reel back wheel at least you don't know that you know the last wheel back wheel just looks dangerous I don't know there was a red ramp over there it looks like you see that red ramp god damn it okay I can use both my wheels on it it's fine listen you just you're not into like not using all that is offered with a bike crate you just like to be able to use all the features yeah I like good good game modes it's like when when they were against using a calculator on tests in high school and you're like but I'll always have access to calculator just like what am I ever gonna not have access to both wheels on my bicycle I that's not how my thought processes was exactly but sure don't tell me that's a mine thank you I think it's less about taking away things and it's more about it not being fun you know that you're just it's okay you can't be good at everything like me damn the silence is deafening I mean I was just I was kind of it was a joke no no I'm really bad at windsurfing yeah same no like but okay in general when it comes to shit in general when it comes to a doctor um when it comes to like sports coordinated exercises I can generally pick them up to a basic extent pretty quickly over like other family members who are older and not very athletic at all windsurfing however I was somehow worse than literally everyone into my family and could not get it to work at all like my mom at the time a 56 year old woman when 90 some odd pounds she was far better at it than I was her first time for the both of us and I was at very upset but it wasn't just her it was everyone else too and I was like why can't I win surf and I rage quit I don't even know exactly when surfing is just the surfboard with the sail on right for some reasons I've never certain not normally do yeah but my mom I don't think has ever surf normally either nor all the other members she's a pro okay why are you trying to diss your mom like you know I mean my mom is far more athletic for her age than basically most anyone of her age at the time and today but even so it's like I've skateboarded I've snowboarded I've not surf too much but I just couldn't couldn't do it that's such like you really are California born and raised and the fact that your family just comes out windsurfing no no it was on a vacation in Mexico oh okay I mean on my my dad's side of the family there is a lot of surfing and kite surfing to which intimidates the hell out of me wait which one is that the one where you like get lifted in the air well I know you're saying like parasailing kite surfing is where you are based oh no it's like this where you're holding like this like it's like yeah the kite and then you're basically on a wakeboard surfboard hybrid like people like pull themselves up right and then you have a big kite in the air it's like it's like a big parachute except you're using it to drag you around in the water and that is scary AF what do parasailing something where I don't have to do much I can yeah enjoy the experience and then think be worried the whole time that I'm gonna die I think that's kind of the case I don't know why it's like even if you fell out of the air it's still like you're gonna fall however many feet and you're gonna hit the water and it's gonna hurt why yeah I mean it's yeah unless you're really really prepared and good I think and then if you fall in the water then there's gonna be all the all the stuff on top of you and like that scares me oh you're gonna drowned by your parachute yeah I don't think about that yeah I saw that at the beginning of Jurassic Park 3 I forget the scene entirely okay god damn way of hair sailing the kid goes parasailing with his uncle and then the boat Pat's us through some fog conveniently and then when they comes out of the fog the dinosaur is eaten all the people that are on the boat oh oh but they're still parasailing yeah hmm and then do they get eaten uh the uncle does and the kid does not it is important to the plot gotcha spoiler alert for anyone the kid collects Tyrannosaurus Rex urine boiler and that's his that's his crucial new drinks Livie oh he treats does he turn into a t-rex I've read human day he says he says I there's no more my own Peter drink I have to drink this oh he doesn't turn into like instead of spider-man like t-rex man it should be a dope you owe your arm factory go there were there were scripts for before grass Jurassic world was Jurassic world they were they were potentially gonna go with human dinosaur hybrid bricks that was actually planned and there was also a basically like the show there's like I think was a cartoon yeah cartoon called Dino riders it was basically the same thing where it was like the dinosaurs were became military weapons which they sort of went down that road and I mean that's doable but a hybrid human life people were dudes were riding dinosaurs uh-huh like that yeah I mean that's fine but I was thinking like a Dino with a human hat or some crap like that oh yeah they were gonna do they were preferred to it gonna do we're gonna do that yeah they were I hope he got scrapped got bad Holly what the hell that the fourth Jurassic Park movie was in production health room hey come on and then we got two turds to go with the other two turds I still haven't seen Jurassic world to actually is that out on video like digital honey not sure but you mean you read the whole plotline you said I didn't well I didn't read it but I've watched multiple reviews and other like a long look like what like long-form discussions of the movie uh-huh so I know what why you would do that like smart notes it for yourself because I know I'm not gonna like it well yeah I know but then you still want to watch it yeah we have very different movie watching habits Jordan yeah we do Yuri watch things I hate watch things suit goddammit dude this is so difficult wait what how did you do that do what how did you even get firmly planted over there firmly grasp but urban grasp what the hell stop I just like I can the bomb will just blast me further beyond brain blast picture that Jimmy Neutron brain blast yeah further beyond there we go come on got it that's all that all that I needed was your little motivation there you're welcome thank you oh boy try to think of other movies that I've watched Oh before I went and saw because I had never seen the old version of it uh-huh before mine came out I just went on the the Wikipedia page for the book and I just read the whole thing which was I mean there were differences between the new movie in the book so thank you like isn't it the new movie is a remake it's not like a sequel so you basically just spoiled elements of the new movie – right mmm most of it yeah there are doubt there are things that were chained from the book also it's only there's gonna be two movies so oh okay so it's like the first half so you spoil the second one for yourself – yeah good because the it book the first half is like the kids add when they're kids and then the fast forwards – when there's no but the first movie was only kids yeah the second movie is gonna come out it's gonna be the the adults okay and is it still same it actor I would assume so I mean he yeah I don't know like if the clown ages or what no he's in a 12th boiler like eternal being okay I don't get don't get too much into it because I'd still like to see it oh that's not I don't think I even learned anything about like it existing you spoiled the second half of the movie then nocturnal beam no that's not even important to the movie no you can enjoy the movie without knowing they're there nods to certain things like when you see there's a part of the movie where you see without spoiling anything you see don't don't do it don't do it yeah yeah you see a part of the creature that is referenced in the book but they actually make it they don't mention it at all they just show you it in the movie and that's it so it's like if you know you know and if you don't know I mean maybe they'll explain on the second one I don't know but like so there's something that happens and you wouldn't think anything of it if and unless you read the book in Wikipedia birth there's a giant interdimensional turtle oh okay I wonder how high Stephen King was when he brought that in Stephen King has made some interesting beer watch the Langille ears movie no man what a movie I've wait let me think I've seen like one of the one of the iterations of the mist however many movies they've done of that No oh my god really that's how you don't play it and then I saw a rose read like it some TV movie that they did eight years ago and those are like all the Stephen King's that I think I've seen you should watch dreamcatcher especially the part where the guy poops out an alien wow it sounds like alien except out of instead of the chest it comes out your but it sounds constipating it was very gory how the scene was awesome that ah there's this lip on the top of this thing it just screws me up the guy poops out an alien then the alien is in the toilet bowl and he asked like he's like sitting on top of the toilet while holding it down it's fantastic well acted uh I don't know if I gets I mean I wasn't really thinking about the acting in that moment I was like oh my god there's an alien in a toilet laser I really hope that the map is not as long as the bar would suggest because this is ridiculous yeah this is the problem is I've been up there several times and you did no checkpoint oh there's no check marker I didn't at least I didn't hear anything oh I'm gonna cry oh I got a checkpoint it was not at the top of that though so do not Jesus Christ I think that is your freedom good thing I've not even gotten up there yet you will there we go okay okay I see there we go we're good we good having progress okay we had a moment of difficulty uh-huh that we did yeah we did now we're now we're moving now we're moving no obviously huh just took it on it I'm hooked on it hold on that like phonics okay the trick is the trick is to get to it before it moves in front of you probably no no wait wait wait wait wait wait wait nope okay thought I had it oh I thought I I thought I had things you deduct turns out I was mistaken not dammit he's stuck like just with my bike Oh like right haved down the middle on the thing yep that happens there we go you just all the way nice nice I made it all the way I made it all the way before and it was just like didn't want to give it to me double rainbow all the way goddamn it it means that's an that's an old old one mm-hmm my internet standards I remember when that came out I bet I bet there are kids watching this who are like a year old when that came out maybe I mean one was that those like me goes now that's like 10 years old doesn't man I think so yeah did you would have been if there any nine year olds watching this you were a year old when double rainbow all the way across the sky came out you if there any nine-year-old watching this you should probably not be watching this I've sworn to much excuse me do not deter audience okay 5 minecraft youtubers who have sworn is there at that's like a video that's actually been made right you're not the meme 5 fortnight streamers who have sworn oh is that actually like that's a it's a real video though oh yeah it's a real video and I think it's is it the same guy that does the Burger King foot lettuce meme it's just the one of those youtube channels where this fucking like teenager man was so close I see this I see the finish line right there I can't believe oh it's okay because that was the fifth map and I still got it five trials you lost to me number one me Jordan number two a do which is still on that board can they recover the lost footage of a do for that video the footage was corrupted mmm of course it was of course it was FBI is gonna help me out though good FBI please help farewell

Special Report: Historical Article 370 of The Constitution of India



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The History Of NBA 2K19 MyTEAM (Documentary)



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The History Of NBA 2K19 MyTEAM….. In this video we do the first ever mini documentary on nba 2k19 myteam. THis is going to be a video going over the history of nba 2k19 myteam. This will cover the first 11 months of the game and will cover a lot of things in nba 2k19 myteam. THiswill cover some of the biggest myteam creators, the best cards in nba 2k19 myteam, the best squads in nba 2k19 myteam as well as going over all of the relevant events that happened this year in nba 2k19 myteam

so NBA 2k 19 my team coming into it we didn't expect much the reason for that it was directly following what was the worst NBA 2k game in history in terms of my team mode to UK 18 wasn't that bad Sharia Supermax was annoying sure packing playoffs is terrible but there were a lot of good things about that game mode however promises were made in NBA 2k 19 my team that to be honest we expected him not to deliver on just like with every year 2k not really bring our promises however as someone who's played probably as much my team someone who's looked into every little bit of the game mode as much as anyone there's a lot of people that have played it a lot more to gain to me I don't think anyone's looking for the stats of players as much as I have things like that I've looked into everything I can safely say this is by far the best my team we've ever had a massive upgrade from 18 and honestly this could be a great great step if to catch one he's even better so this is the history of 2k 19 my team a 2k 19 was released on the 7th of September I think last year and it took until about an hour and a half after the game being released for people to realize how to basically cheezer's and unfortunately I'm not gonna lie probably was one of the first people to do that and to let people know that especially at this stage in the game the pick and pop reigned supreme because of the low ratings of players because obviously there aren't that many speed boosting players there wasn't that many great post players telling people great driving to the basket day one people could shoot so pick and pops completely reign supreme the Player of the Month card was the Michael family card which I think I was the first person to get in all of YouTube and this was a little bit different than previous years because previously is the Super Max rewards i day one we got another even day one after a couple of weeks we got a Marcus Camby card it was never like a viable option to get a really great card from just grinding a game day one if you wanted a great card you had spend money however in 2k 19 they gave us Mike a family who day one was the best card by a significant amount Mbit UK 19 my team a lot of people thought this is gonna be the best card for quite a while in this game which is absolutely crazy like this kind could dunk shoes and the tokens needed to get a diamond cover an insane amount some people including myself who got a lot of cards needed until like November 2nd decent amounts however we only taught that for a day this is day two so this is gonna be the first of my kind of creator showcase and this is going to be the twitch streamer on youtuber smoothie who was blowing up at the start of 2k 19 on day two yes day two he had seven diamonds in 2k 19 which is unheard of which was unheard of it's time make sure now diamonds are one to KMT you guys might think it's nothing but to get seven diamonds if you had seven diamonds within a month of this game coming out you would have one of the best team in the game however to a combination of grinding the game and putting money into the game trading this combination of everything smoothie actually managed to get these seven diamonds on day two which I just remember looking back on it at the time thinking how the hell has anyone got more than two diamonds let alone seven which was op this was one of the craziest things you guys may not remember but this is actually one of the craziest things happened this year my team solonai to get this many tokens this quickly in the second we get a game we got our first promo which was the rookie sensations promo this prom was pretty much irrelevant the only thing with this was that we thought it was gonna be a sign of things coming in the future so basically they released these packs early in the token market for I think it was 25 tokens I could be wrong could have been more Freight guaranteed one of these players so we thought that I was gonna be a cage but every Pro Pack but it was literally just a case for this pack they never did it again however one hilarious thing came from these packs the invisible Kobe Bryant so for the phrase like two days at his pack coming out there was literally an invisible Kobe Kobe didn't have a player model for OB so he was invisible and as you guys can see here he doesn't know where he is on defense my opponent I'm using him online and he put up like 30 and got about ten steals he's my opponent literally didn't know he was like it was one of the craziest glitches in my team and I know as probably was the craziest glitch in my team it's just not a lot of people did it there was many videos on it so it's not that well-known and then a couple of days later was the start of it the start of base 11 one of my favourite players for a long time amateurs Tom Gugliotta the base 11 God in this game one of the best dunkers in the game one of my skies in the game for quite a while he was released actually in September that shows how like Opie discard was the time when the best cards in the game and at the end of the month they released a pink diamond ban Wallace and all it did was basically brought forward the auction as glitch survey Skeeter was a glitch in September and if you outbid someone on a card the card would disappear from the auction so for that reason any card that went near 100 km T literally became extinct people figure this out it was actually crazy now we are on to October so in October the player of the month was done it so this card was actually released glitched every single starting the card was the same I'm pretty sure it was either 91 or 94 I think he had 91 and every single stash I don't know why I haven't what Larry Johnson as well but they literally released just a glitch a variation of dinosaurs everybody however when I actually got the card when I got a chance to do a game play with him it was just normal Donnie so he had hot zones everywhere the glitch bears and no hard sounds no badges the game is proper badges they also gave him the amateur release which was a really good release the time and while I didn't think he was good as Finley it was still great to be able to get any paint time when nobody had been times it was great to him to get a free one and then a couple of days later we ended up getting our first free amethyst so we ended up getting an amethyst award by locker code we gotten a Michael Jordan before that but again it was this was interesting it was hard to get Jerry West trust me like it was hard I didn't get it in three tries and again it was good to see two guy giving us the free cards and then the next day though the next day we got some great cards we got a budget beast in Raef LaFrentz who still to this day is one of the best Ruby and below centers in this game he can wait out that hold his own against any squad in this game and was used in a lot of the best squad best player squads including the squad that was used to win what I'm going to talk about now so to 250 K tournaments happened in October so week 1 crazily enough after an hour holy was actually number one turn up defense the ps4 champion was number two I've got no idea what happened an Xbox so I'm not even going to talk about that and actually after thirty minutes I was number one which is crazy enough however what about an hour to go gin-san Andy who was winning at all like those ended up getting a loss and luckily enough he ended up getting in the next week and then with 50 minutes ago TJ was up by about a hundred points over splash and in the end TJ disconnected as well and couldn't get in thankfully again neither those guys were effect too badly they both qualified in other weeks so the winner was in fact Locker shot who ended up losing to the fourth ranked player this week new edition flash in the first round of the tournament I'm just kind of crazy thing to happen well you're on to create a spotlight number two and this is ambush and this was probably the most impressive thing that any creator has done in NBA 2k 19 and I'm not that's not a joke it is the most impressive thing and I includes most balling descent in September and basically going like three days with no sleep ambushed managed to get Wilt Chamberlain before he check backs this was so difficult to do he managed to get all the 13th I'm bored and get 750 tokens on the 15th of October to put into perspective there was no other galaxy opal in this game until the end of December when they released Galaxy opal Chris Paul will Chamberlain was without a doubt the best card in my team at that stage one of the best cards we'd ever seen in my team at that stage this card was unbelievable and more so than anything not just the card that I wish did it by himself streaming almost every bit of this journey to get Wilt there were people that got wilt a little bit performed tour people that got wilt a little bit after him but all of those guys had two three people grinding on their accounts he did it all by himself a stream that which in my opinion is the most impressive thing that anyone did in all of two k-19 and then October was kind of a month of a lot of ridiculous things just kind of starting in two K so I was we have a friends but then we ended up getting another Center when even higher aiding a 93 3 point rating on a naked elusive itch and then they released the high-voltage packs which had fallen off they were in the premium market as Halloween from lunch and then they randomly became high voltage when they actually were created this was the first time he'd ever seen moving kara diet and at the time was one of the coolest things we'd ever seen although I'm not a big fan of flashing lights we also got Brandon Roy who was an unbelievable character and Roy was unbelievably hyped again because he hadn't been in the game before and it was also our introduction to bass ace with brown and Roy one of the best guys in the game at the time and yeah just an unbelievable card a couple of days later we got our first limitless player we got Steph Curry and it was a long time before we got a limbless player in NBA 2k 17 well a limitless parity you could actually purchase I was quite a while to get 18 but a 2k9 team he got in October and not only that a couple of days later we actually managed to get his backcourt teammate klay Thompson with a 99 three-point shot I'm an MLS range so in October we had to limitless players which was crazy so these were the best players at each position in October so the starters are the best the bench at a second best so we have a lot of fairly go players in this month Mike Steph Curry klay Thompson Granger Blake Griffin Jermaine any of that it's not about five a lot of these guys could still kind of hold their own while they're not gonna be great cards to use nowadays a lot of them could still hold their own an NBA 2k 19 my team which is kind of crazy considering October was the second month this game was out which is not sputter yeah these were only cars you could buy like you could lock in for a Moses Malone you could get all those token rewards as shown by Amish as shown by smoothy so honestly a great team in October even though it wouldn't be a good team at all now it still may be a usable team now if you're a skilled player which we've never been able to say in previous year November was a bit of a slow month in terms of my team so the Player of the Month award was Manu ginóbili this card was great like it was significantly better than done it so probably a little bit better than and Michael Finley and again was a guard pink diamond that you were able to get for free which for me anyway was on real bees I didn't have that many pink diamond cards and not how many pink Don cards I liked sure I have Blake Griffin I kinda like that but there wasn't that many great ones the next day we got the card the kick started the base 11 revolution which is what I'm gonna college sure we had Kirilenko sure we Google yada but it was the introduction of Danny Granger into my team that got people realizing how a good base 11 was Granger so when the best that's in the game six foot nine and also one the cheese releases pre shock and test patch this card was unstoppable speaking of unstoppable that Friday we got Blake Griffin the pink diamond Blake Griffin who was just I know sure he's outclassed right now but at the time have like a ninety rate a three-point shooter with a 99 to Hall of Fame and poster eyes our Hall of Fame Lob City finisher he was just able to shoot the ball really well he could dunk on everybody he had speed with ball which was fairly good you were seeing him Ron a point guard he had a wide body this was like this was one of the best guys in the game for so long but this was again a kind of sign for things to come would have Opie tides were gonna be this year the middle of the month saw something different to the base 11 revolution a locker code with a potential free base 11 card you basically got a googly eyed a clone maybe slightly better in Bob paddock while this is nowhere near the Bob had a Galaxy opal this was still a great card with phase 11 who could shoot the lights out and he was free you literally couldn't buy this card you could only get him for free later on the month we saw some weird so four days after 2k released a 95 overall diamond LeBron they announced a pink diamond LeBron but made him a 95 overall I know you guys might be kind of confused and wondering what's going on because this card is a diamond yes it is a diamond they released a pink diamond 95 overall you packed them as a pink diamond and then the next day they changed its caller from a pink diamond to a diamond not really relevant like not relevant at all but again it is kind of just a weird bit of 2k history that some you just never really would have expected that happened so November ended with the flight school packs which to be honest we're kind of the best packs we've seen so far there some one most overpowered players guys like the T Mac were beast Wayne waves beast it with dollar was incredible Sean camp is a nice reward and at the end of the month we had a lot of good players even some that I haven't talked to it yet but I will talking about in a couple of seconds this collection note was fairly good these were the best players at the end of November we had Magic Johnson and Kobe who were both part of the same 20th anniversary set we still have da scrubs from from October we managed to get a drazen petrovic in that month who was a limitless range shooter with a JR Smith released really really good John Hamm was decent decent dunker obviously Granger was exceptional we also had Kareem day which I'm not going to touch on too much B's Kareem wasn't that great a card between play be honest and then we had Dwight Howard he just dunked and everybody had some great budget cuts so December another month another glitch so the Larry Johnson player 2 month card was released with no badges and every single stat was 92 yes every stat was 92 and to be honest even without the Hall of Fame badges this is one of the worst player 2 month award so I wish they just kept everything in 92 even when nobody just because that would be significantly better than the way it out Larry Johnson ended up really not a great card but again it's free so you can't really complain too much and December was the month where people started getting Chris Weber I'm pretty sure that there were a couple people got him at the very end of November but when a lot of people the majority started getting Chris Weber it was in December so Chris Weber was at the time again one of if not the best power forwards in the game and was an unbelievable guy to get by collector Awards and guys like afro pick guys like Rossi Petrie were able to get this guy very very early at the start of that month nothing really happened then until Giannis antetokounmpo Minh was seen as the card that was gonna destroy my team and to an extent it kind of did like he was probably the best card in my team for a lot of people obviously when you watch 250k turn when he came a liability he was kind of easy to stop once you got the hang it across over but if you guys knew it a euro he was almost unguardable I was still a fantastic card however that same day we got something we never expected we got Hedo Turkoglu and this is not the Hedo Turkoglu you right now this was base 11 Hedo Turkoglu the only card that I know of in my team history to be so overpowered the 2k have had to patch the card Hedo Turkoglu how to handle he had the best leaner in the game he had base 11 and was six foot ten and had a wide body this was one of the best cards if not the best card my team and he was like 9 kmt this was the best budget card ever and then pretty much nothing happened until near the end of the month which was crazy though the end of December was crazy so we started off with Michael Jordan and this card was mad now I kind of like it was really mad like he wasn't any better than the diamond Kobe Bryant we got in from the Magic Johnson Pike's he really wasn't great stats wise for a 97 overall and to be honest the amount I paid from I paid three million for him at the time was a little bit crazy but the thing is is that this Michael Jordan wasn't just to Jordan it was the last player and 20th anniversary set 1 so me and a lot of others we got our very first ever Galaxy opal because of this Michael Jordan card and my god was this cp3 bot and I know so many you guys are like oh cb3 is great he just said no use him like I do know how to use him it doesn't mean he's good like you can't use him as a scorer you can't go to the basket with him like you can defend a little bit but he still got shot over every single time like at this stage this is before shock and test patch and he literally was impossible to use on defense and he was just so so bad and I was by now but still terrible and guys this may be the situation that was the craziest in any my team history we've had a lot of crazy things like the cache nasty spending $1,000 on LeBron James didn't exist if you guys saw the locker code and saw what happened there you guys know that this is what everyone woke up to on Christmas morning everyone woke up to a locker code for a free pink diamond LeBron James so so many people in the end like this is a bit of weird one like Los Angeles Lakers LeBron James and pink diamond know where he knew what this card was for it was from a promo and still to this day no one knows what it's for people are saying it was from the toys but that's not it nobody knows where this code came from buddy got leaked and basically everyone had this freak at can thing is is that there was already a LeBron James a diamond LeBron that was significantly better with Hall of Fame badges the diamond LeBron James had much better stats so everyone was kind of unanimously thinking okay this is actually a really good thing because one it's not game breaking I 2k you haven't just released a game breaking card even if it is a glitch even if it is a leak like 2k have not released a game breaking card so it doesn't make much of a difference and it also means everyone kinda has it go carried and we thought that this was intentional we thought that 2k we're doing this on purpose to get people into my team and almost it like it being a Christmas gift but no it was one of the crazy situations in my team history because later that day on Christmas Day the card disappeared at everyone's collections so 2k literally brought someone in to work on Christmas to take a card away from players and not even that good a card if this was Yanis if this was a 99 everything abroad understandable but this was a card that was worse than to to LeBrons we already had 2k ruined Christmas and genuinely I got messages from people saying that their little brother got the game and suddenly there LeBron card is gone and 2k genuinely ruined people some people's Christmas days from this and it is something that even though 2k did a great job of almost fixing it I don't think that for me any way they could ever really recover that much reputation why some what happened but to be fair to be fair to them 2k did what they could in terms of fixing this so they released a couple of locker codes which were kind of strange and how are they where they were literally like 1 2 3 4 5 I didn't just random letters and numbers but no locker codes were a big big help so funnily enough a lot of people got cards better than the LeBron James from the locker code and it's not even that 2k8 my people are complaining about 2k not giving back because they did 2k gave us more than enough with those Christmas locker codes those a stain Stevens day 26 of zambra locker cats they gave us more than enough to basically combat the fact that they took away our LeBron Jameses and it's not even that that a lot of people out a problem with especially me it was that they literally brought someone in to work on Christmas Day like what like there was so many glitch cards like when people got shocked for free for competing a challenge when people got Rick Barry which I'll talk about later ahem for basically free and nothing was done to stop any of them but a pink diamond LeBron James and he isn't even that good suddenly they need to take it away that's unforgivable it is on for give about but to be fair at the end of December was unbelievable because of that because to me I have to pull out all the stops because what they did with the LeBron James so 2k end up giving everyone a free pink diamond card from the 20th anniversary set the problem was was that Yanis is in the corner and the single worst pink diamond in the game at that time Ben Wallace was one beside him and then Allen Iverson so I was literally just dropping down the middle trying to get Magic Johnson and I'm ps4 somehow I dropped down the middle I got Yanis but I got magic on xbox old and for like 60 K so I was happy and then a couple of days later they actually gave us a free this day in history carriage so the disdain history cards at this stage were not great we obviously we had the base 11 Bob had it but it was a kind of a good sign 2k realized that they weren't they were kind of screwed a lot about publicity so they gave us a lot of free stuff so again it's not too bad and then we ended the year we ended the year on one of the most hyped carrots for 2k 19 like you guys may not think this at the time but coming at this you get 19 Brandon Roy and Gilbert Arenas was a huge thing we hadn't seen them in years and not only did they give us a Gilbert Arenas card they gave them BAE's 11 and not only base 11 T quickest base 11 release in the game with limitless range was the first base 11 lemonis player in the game the first one that you were able to purchase in the auction house until Antwon Jameson in July I think this card was exceptional and a great way to end 2018 and these were some of the best cards at the end of December obviously not that many great cards in terms of December's a month however Yanis was a significant upgrade from even danny granger to be honest before we figured out about phase 11 on Gilberry this was a great card so while doesn't seem like too many new additions still a couple of nice cards that month but now we're on the January where the pink diamond for the player of the month was Hakeem Olajuwon so Hakeem a fairly good card nothing spectacular but still quite good however he was straightaway trumped by Ralph Sampson who came into triple double packs treaty a couple of days later these packs weren't that relevant reveries was a great like severe budget player Ralph Sampson we've got Larry Bird is alright and the rest of the cards an upgrade Oscar Robson had a slow release so not a great card for that for that one and then we got our first ever pink diamond that was available true to this day in history set which were all locker codes which was kind of interesting George Mikan was not a bad card at all trust me described is not bad had the amateur release good shooter and I'm pretty sure he's opal is a fantastic guy just a card that I did not use on straight away after that we got our second galaxy opal whereas we had wheel chamber in the past I'm not gonna lie this one is significantly better worthy is significantly better than Wilt Chamberlain and was just an incredible incredible card worthy was like one of the first guys in this game that you were you could say we're like almost untouchable in this game he a base 11 he had strengths here the post game he had defense he had a handle like there was almost nothing you could do especially pre shock and test patch especially around the time this guy came out in January February when there was no shot contest and he would just destroy everybody he was like Kirilenko on steroids an incredible card now we are on to our next creator showcase and this is a guy who was a bit like smoothie but a little bit later this was the guy who got the first Chris Weber as well as the first Jay or Smith and it is Ross ep-3 so Ross eb3 is a twitch streamer partner streamer and also youtuber 8,000 subscribers so basically he was the first guy to get this Jerry Smith guy he's the first guy to get a lot of the cards I don't think he's the first guy to get Yanis but I think he didn't really go for first Yanis but this guy grind an unbelievable amount made sure he got every card was triple threat was grinding pretty much everything in order to get these cards as soon as possible and the fact that he did get hundreds of thousands of views in these videos was well deserved an australian youtuber a non-american youtuber like myself and was great seeing succeed so check out his channel also that month we got a Brandon Roy so Brandon Roy honestly was one of the most hyped cards I've ever seen in my team like for years for years people have an Austin Brown about Brandon Roy the diamond was alright like nothing spectacular but this pink time was another level especially the signature limited you guys got nothing to limit you guys got limitless range on him my cards almost good as the opal a fantastic card right there and all of these Brian Roy cards were beast and it was just kind of crazy that a card we hadn't seen makes eight great shooter and unreal these were the best cards in the game for the month of February so Jana Singh Danny Granger stay is the best month for words we actually just added in klay Thompson because I started using him sorry like him we got a new penny hardaway who was fairly good brown and Roy he was in there Anthony Davis in there and obviously Samson milk ask is a porzingis who all came at that month then for February we got dr. J dr. J was probably the best of all the rewards even though not a lot of people were that bothered by this specific card I very rarely came up against ox DJ and I don't think he was used I think maybe onesie amusement the 250k tournament but dr. J was definitely kind of an afterthought which was a little bit of a sad thing because he could shoot them all he was lights out I actually much too got him in my own account like day one which was kind of crazy but he was a lighter shooter could do almost everything you needed from a player in game and he was kind of out shout out for this one reason there was an opal that came out on the same day and it was Isiah Thomas and ironically enough this card when he came out was awful like it's okay now like not the worst opal but anywhere near it right now remember when this card came out it was before a shocking dispatch and six-foot-tall point guys were literally unusable anyone can shoot over them and that was the problem Isiah Thomas so everyone had all this kind of like hype about it getting a free opal on the card in turned out to be absolutely terrible which is kind of crazy then a couple days later Shaquille O'Neal came out and this one was a kind of interesting card because no one would ever use shock to dominate and some people love this some haters but this carrot I like to call the will Chamberlain check so there was very few cards could guide the open-wheel chamber at this stage there was very few good Santa's even Kareem couldn't guard him however Shaq was big enough strong enough had a wide enough body and good enough animations that Shaq could hold will champ holds on his wills however Shaq brought nothing on offense and allowed people to all fall on centers which is a kind of dangerous thing to allow players to do which is why you didn't see many people using him people that did use amuse my factory just like turnip defense and the 250 K tournament use them to guard wilt and he was able to do that effectively Shaq set screens caught lobs and was a lot better than I gave him credit for then we got the Chinese New Year's backs the Josh Smith card is fairly good it's still expensive to this day Jeremy Lin was awful yeah was math team AK was still one of the best cards in the game by a significant amount when he came out he was like 400k for quite a while we also got some unreal budget guys we got eg and Leon Myka Beasley who were incredible cards I heard it was alright then we got mudiay and Joe cheat Joe she was the best emerald cut in the game probably still is the best emerald cut in the game a fantastic card I was like the last great emerald we got in this game but arguably the biggest thing that happened in the month of February was to 250k tournament and I don't really have any clips of the qualifiers but I'm gonna talk about the entire like final tournament I'm gonna talk about that here so basically I don't know much about the Xbox side all I know is that skip came through us but on the ps4 side there was severe severe server issues games couldn't be played east versus west guys like Uncle Madi or Brown boy guys like goggles gin sanity we're lagging the entire tournament and same with guys like Valerie TJ or day it was just a bottle at him a bottle basically the ps4 side of who could play best through like I'm Fairplay to turn up defense he ended up coming through it and he dominated outside of the bracket a tough game against crime aus he beat splash in final or starting the semi filed beat Gaga's in the final but I don't even know what that tournament said because these guys were all elite players any one of those 16 could have won on any given day however in fact is we didn't even get to see who the best player of the 16 was because lag was such a big factor the fact that 2k didn't make this a LAN event was an absolute joke and then it came to the actual event itself which I think 2k put on a great great job with this final the game for 250k but there was a lot of stuff that honestly I think was just a complete joke from the fact that skips controller just wouldn't work for most of the first quarter of the game the fact that the players were playing on TVs instead of monitors and if you guys have ever played on both you guys know how big a factor that is and also the fact that it was 250 or nothing so skip obviously ended up winning it he was the 250k champion compared playing a turnip defense who ended up winning to 2k league as part of the Minnesota Timberwolves team so he may pack a lot of that money that he lost in his tournaments but at the same time like turnip I'm not sure why he got he got a gift bag and he got questioned by Ronnie and asked if he feels the crowd loved it was just a little bit ridiculous the fact that it was 250 K or nothing but again that's just where tournament was I'm just praying the 2k do a better job and it's in the future because the fact that I think there's 60,000 people at one stage watching this live stream watching these two guys playing my team against each other and I think that if they do something similar this year we're similar in 2k 20 that it could be twice as big and it could be a massive massive step and promoting from competitive my team which i think is gonna be huge I think the guys I tied idea I think guys like TJ erryday I think a lot of other guys can blow it off competitive my team as you guys may have seen from TJ with his twitch rivals he wonders which rivals turn his twitch is being buying since so I think that it's only going to go open up competitive my team they don't to put up to 250 K like for one tournament but split a couple turns throughout a year or even use that money to get fly-in people have a big LAN tournament because competitive my team is only on the way up it's only going open up and I think just at the way to 250 K to was around this year it was just a complete disaster however I don't think it was a bad idea and I hope I hope that there's something just on a bigger scale next year and if you guys want to break down and have this final and basically turn up his up one on blows a 92 rate of free throw with Andrei Kirilenko like the fact that orangie was that big a factor in 250 grand I've changed you man's money and OMG is that big a deal but turnip who's in control the whole game but fair play to skip he did come back he plays composed and he got a big shot right there with Michael Jordan which was unreal in the last thirteen and a half seconds even though you guys may think that this was quite a bad shot by turnip defense he puts up what I think is a fairly good shot why you guys may not think that leaning threes are great in this game with the way that guys like turnip time shots out is a good shot he ends up losing Game one pretty much by a missed free throw by Kara Lanka in Game two skip controlled pretty much the whole time turnip captain close but fair play to him skip all those nerve and in those two games definitely skip deserve to win on to 250 grand but in between the 250k tournament and the finals 2k they don't goofed they released a Kobe Bryant Signature Series pack or say each 20th anniversary back when literally the card was not in the game the carrot was not in the game so like obviously they took that into packs after like 20 minutes but I opened as many as I could but they released the packs they basically leaked the carrot before use in the game and they've done this multiple times no one got refunds which is kind of a bad move on to Kay's parish the fact that that happened more than once however a couple of days later the pink diamond Kobe they come out and Kobe was decent I guess like he was better than the MJ definitely didn't have limitless range which was not great and to be honest the pink diamond kobe came a little bit later is significantly better but again that's always gonna be the case the later comes out the better they're gonna be but I never you like this carrot but is by no means a bad kind however on the same day the Magic Johnson came out his magic was alchemy the best point guard in the game when he came out and was still one of the best point guards four months after he came out he came out February like this would be the best kind to get 70 and he came out in February a Magic Johnson you can get a 99 three-point shot with unbelievable stats all around and the fact that this guy came out in February just summed up the way to k-19 was going then we got the diamond ruby whatever the hell was going on with these County towns PACs Fiasco so 90 percent of people got error codes in their locker codes when they typed in this however for the people that got him it was a big picture of Diamond karl-anthony towns but in the like description has said for a chance of karl-anthony towns there was a big picture of diamond currently has everywhere and they didn't like the raw packs everyone assumed you got a diamond Karl Anthony towns and it was the real pro like 99% of people that open these packs either a their car just didn't show up or B they got a Ruby County downs who was worth 1 km t like there was so much hype at this locker code I remember I can't remember what it was I think it was during the 250k tournament Ronnie made people stay up hours for a Ruby for a Ruby then the Dwyane Wade signature packs came out and I made my sift Wayne Wade fun big he'd fun one of my favorite players of all time if not my favorite but baby release six-foot-four it wasn't great when he came out it still isn't great even the better version when Wade and we still have not seen an opal I have a feeling we may actually finish by seeing a galaxy opal Dwyane Wade as the last ever cart then was a great glitch a great glitch that they never fixed so as you guys can see there there's Rick berry pink diamond and Rick Perry also has got a Ruby card for some reason when the pink diamond Rick berry came out they literally just put him in the Ruby market in the Ruby roids so for 12 tokens I jumped on it straightaway as you guys can see I have 500 rubies at this stage I had 13 token swag 25 tokens at this stage like almost none so you guys are thinking oh I definitely don't have a pink diamond I have Rick Perry on to this day I still have Rick Barry on this account to this day I'm still not even the diamond board so a great glitch for me anyway but it's just kind of crazy that they just replace the room view at a pink diamond for no apparent reason one of the many crazy things that happen in 2k 19 then we got a galaxy opal Walt Frazier this Walt Frazier was just like James Worthy a card that would have been really good just based on his stats and just a factor with their normal animations however just like worthy they gave him base 11 so we had to base 11 opals when your alternative was a center so on while at the time it could have been debated a little bit because there wasn't that many great centers of which of the opals were great to pick I say everyone who around february/march picked up will Chamberlain right before the kind of influx of great centers kind of is kicking themselves right now when you get a lot of great players and then 2k decided after months months of not releasing dynamic duo's and is what they always do this is what they always do they don't release dynamic duo's for months at a time and then when they do they drop like 30 of them yes they'll drop like 30 maybe even more pretty sure they drop more at the dynamic ul box and this happens every single year so it's not really necessarily me complaining it's just kind of one of those things where you're like dynamic duo's are such a big part of the game and the biggest thing was at this stage dynamic duo's didn't work as far as I know I'm pretty sure it literally took until they released the next big batch of dynamic duo's for them to do anything in game I'm pretty sure didn't even work on these are the best cards I like the first of March ignored LeBron James and Scottie Pippen with the rest of these guys we're in basically we're at in February IV the Sabonis was a beast of a card called Kuzma from his all-star pocket very good Kevin Durant was really good in the all-star packs a lot of the honest icons were good but just not like absolutely Elise and then yeah so two started March March started off with proof that overall meant nothing we had the diamond Kawhi Leonard who was significantly better than the pink diamond the pink diamond Kawhi just couldn't shoot at all we got a Scottie Pippen who was a buyout straight away and was one of the best cards in the when the best defensive cards in the game said I was owner ill and then we also got a little Bron James card who was fantastic like gold limitless range felt like Hall of Fame this was without doubt one of the best cards in my team and I can't I really enjoy using at the time and not that much worse than his other pink diamonds to be completely honest this is a great great card and then we got the madness packs this was the beginning of the end this was when we got some super Opie players and I actually made a video predicting that it was going to be exactly what happened I made a video saying he's like 2k are just gonna keep outdoing themselves keep outdoing themselves and win next two months markets gonna die people were literally like going crazy at me saying like you're wrong you're wrong the market hasn't crashed where's the market crash you make the merica crash yourself I'm like no no I literally made a video saying the market is going to gradually crash every time and it did and for those who listen you have millions of empty right and he'll for selling your plays but yeah unbelieva packs and the goat thorough Bailey was also in them and another time to K for reward cards they go and change your release so Oscar absent no be locked in this guide because they thought he was gonna be terrible but 2k gave him the amateur one release I think it's called and he just became lights out Oscar Robertson's other cards had such slow releases and this was just a fantastic Oscar Robertson card could shoot the bark and do everything and an update of release man he was on the best point guards if not the best in the game and now we are on to another creators showcase and this is arguably the biggest kind of growth of anyone in NBA 2k 19 between him and Henry it is Carlos so Carlos blew up around December and just kept the momentum alive one of the biggest my team creators right now March was really the month of Carlos Torrio he was one of the first people in the world to get jana Santa to come by did a collab with Cash nasty as well as Jessie lazy uses account and it was also a time where he got 100,000 subscribers and you guys might think 100 thousands a big idea I've had it since Henry said it's in skills Amoy I'll hit it soon enough however nobody in the my team community well made just 19 videos between Colby in was 2017 and Carlos in March 2019 hit 100k showed how dead my team was and a showed kind of my team was still alive so gave guys like me hope and we've gone from that positive to a negative Hido being patched Hedo Turkoglu not necessarily saying he's about Hurley's I still love he does really still and the best guys in the game but the heater that we knew was gone the Hedo Turkoglu that was the most overpowered offensive player in my team history the base 11 hito gone but never forgotten one of the most overpowered cards in my team history the only card I've ever seen in my team to get a nerf from 2k there were a lot of players this year – you thought could have been nerfed like not giving shock an 88 3 point shot but now 2k realized the power of heat oh and they took one thing away from him but it doesn't matter he may not have faced 11 but he still has the leaner and then there was this kind of weird glitch from Jake and bag I think he's not a youtuber but I used the count for gameplay a lot other people did for some reason to give him 5 fake guys like I know the COBE existed in the end but at the time it wasn't real carry on like 99 offense and terrible defense but I'm like yeah he literally gave him 5 fake cards for some reason and I genuinely still to this day I have no idea why 2k support keep doing that then Vince Carter came out on Vince Carter is one of those cards for me that everyone loves the card I hate him I hate Vince Carter I can never use him I don't know why I'm just so so bad at Vince card but yeah this was again another super super hyped player and this was seen by a lot of people especially limited is one of the best guys in the game the limit it's still almost as good as the galaxy Opel so in fact we got a car like that in March again it kind of shows the way my team was going and it shows us how many Opie cards was gonna be and then there was two K's yearly challenge for the diamond manager nobly it seems like every year 2k just have one challenge in Duguay 70 we had Jeremy Lin dukkha 18 we attack and UK 19 we had man you please do K give more of these this was a solid but not exceptional card a really easy card to get and a guy that was used in a load of people's budget squads 2k please do more things like this this was one of the best things in the year like challenges for new players we need more of this we need more not great but fairly good players available by challenges we need more – and then later on a couple of days later we got lucky Griffin I think it may have actually been the next day Blake Griffin opal and this carat changed the game this car genuinely changed the whole of MBA – came 90 my team the landscape at all never had we seen a speed boosting dunking shooter like that with the wide body his strengths him a point guard was one of the most overpowered things I've ever seen in my team Blake Griffin was as good a card as they had ever been in my team however like there were so many better guys in it now but at the time was one of the best cards we had ever seen and even though I know there was a few other guys like Kevin Durant came out that day the biggest card that came out as well as him was Ruby Moe Bamba he was the first of the Holy Trinity of Ruby's mo Bamba especially when he was released I'm certain he was nerfed they change release but he went on greening everything from green very little I'm certain that cry was nerfed and everyone says in my comments as well but yeah so Moe Bamba was an unbelievable shot blocker he has the longest arms in the game like he literally looks like an old demigod from order to games can shoot the lights out can play a little bit inside rebound and one of if not the best shot blockers I've ever used and then yeah these were the best cards for the month of March Kevin around a really good small forward team excel in there Clyde Drexler who came out around the same time a really great card Greg Oden as well Greg Oden was just one of most underrated cards in the game for so long still is and this was kind of a month of almost the end game players then we're on the April where the Player of the Month was Wes Unseld like I genuinely didn't even talk about the players 1 through March which was Jason Williams that card was absolutely terrible but Wes Unseld I kind of wish they made him be able to speed boost because being 6 7 is too undersized for a center I know you guys might be saying that would be unrealistic but it's too gay 19 my team nothing's realistic this guy would have been really nice hello speedball unable to be boost if he could do one of those two things he would have been a solid card bought getting a bit of fun to use not the worst kind because of his release but not a great card either but again it's free so I can't complain then the first Friday of April was the Hall of Famers pack these cards were so good we had Alexander she's a beast we had Ricky friend is still when most expensive cars in the game Tracy McGrady pink diamond a beast David Robinson incredible and to be honest the reason why green is expensive right now is because the reward Kyle Malone is still to this day a beast in my team so calm alone has handles he's got strength one of the best releases in the game know you guys might be wondering why it's strength makes a difference apparently it makes it much harder to bump people and get bumps tears he had go well you could put gold limbless on him and i felt like it was almost Hall of Fame he was one of the best if not the best power forwards in the game until probably the middle of June and then straight away after that the next day was the badge glitch I don't know how it happened I genuinely don't know how it happened like apparently for like three hours Kirilenko lost base 11 but yeah so basically there was a badge glitch where people are putting the Hall of Fame badges on basically everyone I think 2k fix it on all systems including PC but as you guys can see here I've got a dining Ranger with Hall of Fame limitless range and I'm with a lot of players it was a load of like weird 20 Hall of Fame by players on the market and I still don't know how it happens but it did there's just a collation laughs people put extra bars on players throughout the rest of the month anyway like 2k released some more token wards Pettit obviously the first lemon estranged non point guard with base 11 which is unbelievable and trevor ariza was a great great budget card to KO also released the throwback playoff moments cards these ones weren't politically great Bruce Bowen was good your ass mitt was good but there were sign of things to come and then also the Kyrie Irving limited or aside a 20th anniversary 529 a risky Kyrie is most expensive card my team right now Christoph's the Beast Grant Hill unbelievable and probably the best out of all of was the Ruby thon maker like thaw maker was just unbelievable still is like offensively he's as good as any sensor in his game a fantastic release for some reason he can speed boost him he's got the Yanis crossover I'm not sure exactly what it's called but Yanis those in lots of that's what I'm gonna call it he had handles he could shoot he could do everything he'd scored the basket block shots a little bit weak but that's about it he was number 2 of the Holy Trinity of Ruby cards wit mo Bamba so we're gonna end the month on another one of the creator showcase and it is going to be one of if not the most popular series for NBA 2k9 t my team shirt or our like series get more views but they're from like million subscriber channels this was a guy you ought to tie him how like 25,000 subscribers it is HT be gaming or Henry ablation here's no money spent series has gotten him the courts of 80,000 subscribers and to be honest he fully deserves I've never seen a series worked as hard on is that the guy would spend areas on Snipes like genuinely will put wraps in the middle of the songs and I assume all you guys know years or have watched woman's videos every single episode in this series there's like 25 of them all have more views than total subscribers a whole over a hundred thousand one hundred and six thousand views which is nuts for a channel that size and the end of April was the birth of one of the biggest series in NBA 2k 90 in my team so at the end of the month these were my opinions for the best cards Penny Hardaway was coming close to Magic Johnson who kind of had a stronghold there we had Michael Jordan came at the very start in May but t-mike a little bit behind them Grant Hill Kevin Durant Karl Malone Blake Griffin RV to Simone Co kitchen already great cards and to be honest I don't know why MJ is there obviously I almost made this list a couple of days into May boy do you replace him with anyone from previous month and then we are on 2 May so the Player of the Month award was David Thompson and this was another kind of a bit of a weird one because David Tom said a lot of people were really upset about him and through all the years past everyone's hated David Thomson's release and including me I have hated it in years past however one thing I didn't take into account we are so used to using base 11 that we're all able to use as fast release as possible for this reason I was suddenly able to time his release ten times better than I have in previous years and this is by far the best I've been in a Dave Thompson since the blow by 2k 18 and actually now his 17 carats probably bad I bought this card was still a beast a really really great card one of the most underrated collection rewards and if you discount the opals could be right up there with the best of them so a really great card but the second of May was the big edition Reggie Lewis if you guys know anything about this channel you guys know Reggie Lewis was the original coach I had 5000 subscribers it was January 2017 and they released a wingman packs everyone was talking about Tracy McGrady I only used Reggie Lewis and I destroyed t Mac every single time with that card since then Reggie Lewis has always been one of my favorite guys to K I really like his release and this the best version Reggie Lewis we've ever seen a few days later we cup Michael Jeffrey Jordan and I was actually one of the I was the first person had a gameplay I was the normal version I was one of the first people to back him and the limited was a different story which is why I'm going on to a creator showcase for Shiro Gohan 5 sorry if I mispronounced that but this is a guy who Troy Don hacked his accounts he is the best pack look I have ever seen he packed I'm pretty sure he's packed all three limits like that is nuts pure goin is the guy who a lot of people used accounts I used his account to get to eliminated gameplay and he actually sold Michael Jordan for like tens of millions and this guy kind of started a debate about account sharing I personally there's nothing wrong with it and this guy has helped a bunch of youtubers and by doing that he managed to get a collab with Troy on a collab with Cash nasty and grow by over 10,000 subscribed in his first two months which is unheard of so again and another guy to look out for in 2k 20 I hunt yeah I just remember this this was not a great stream this is not a great day for my team his pictures have popped up on my screen but the Ronnie to guide Squad a great day for the DVD channel appears this video got a hell of a lot of views but yeah he just kind of summed up the way to K even the people who worked for the game play a couple of days later 2k released 9 euros and while that itself is almost irrelevant if this was the first time in the year they actually worked time she was actually worked then this was a carrot that a lot of people might think oh it's just a go card this was kind of a changing of the way they were a kites some plant cards were somewhat realistic Dave Cowens was in the 70s I don't even think I've ever seen who had a mid-range shot when looking at his highlights but 2k released him is there like marquee player one of the days and the thing is with us was not only that was either marquee player they had to make him great and no matter what stats they gave them no one was gonna use them so what they did they made him bake a base 11 player and I'm pretty sure he is still the only left-handed base 11 player in NBA 2k and ID MIT one of my favorite cards still then we ended up getting a galaxy opal PG the second polar book Alex e opal and the on I pulled him as well and I just thought that it was like man it's just another player he got to the stage where opals kind of didn't mean as much as they had previously but they were still really rare and also that day we got the last player in the Holy Trinity of budget players Jonathan Isaac the best of them all Isaac a 611 small forward who a lot of people around a point guard one of the best defensive players in the game and even pro 2k players chump boo painter literally said me he's like the only person in guide opal Yanis is Jonathan Isaac this card is incredible and a couple of days later finally finally someone used an off paint that were saying our local squad all 99 overall and it was me but it wasn't my account it took genuine till the middle of May and then opals within the next two weeks were just nothing and this was kind of stage where 2k started going crazy with locker codes so basically Carmelo Anthony was previously a million MT was the hardest player to get in the madness set and a lot of people did want the Oscar Robinson so he was around a million and two and a 2k just drop the locker code from they did the same thing with the flight school diamond Michael Jordan for Shawn Kemp and it showed they should never sit on players and cards values were never safe in this game and then the generation next packs came out my god these packs had some gray cards they're all great there was no bad guys in this set but the standards where the three-point shooting Ben Simmons which was the most ridiculous thing we'd ever seen at the time and also the guy would never play at an NBA game the rookie demigod that was Michael Porter Jr they made him a power for some reason but this guy is a demigod not even that one's worse in Simmons this was one of the best guys in the game and until they started going crazy what Opel's was my favorite card to use on ps4 was fantastic in this game then started one of the craziest weeks in terms of just how the whole game changed so first of all we got the galaxy level crane bill Jabbar so that suddenly meant the Wilt Chamberlain wasn't even a top three or four Center in the game and then we got a limitless range Center for the first time ever not that relevant but again a limitless right-center we then got Andrei Kirilenko who was already a beast suddenly optional which was crazy you need a thousand guys game previously then we got a limitless range Derrick Rose Steph Curry you go to 40 inch vertical and then we got an arguably better center than Korea bill Jabbar making will Chamberlain 750 home card obsolete and then we also the next day we got token rewards we got Clyde we got and Kevin McHale and Gary Baden and then a couple of days later we got Kobe Bryant the limited one was supposedly a lot better than the normal and galaxy opal but some reason I just could not use the limited I am NOT a big fan of Kobe Bryant cards in this game I don't know why like I should be finding him I'm not I just um there was 81 of these cards I got a game player very very quickly at him and I struggled big-time he wasn't hitting his leaners he just wasn't hitting shots he should have been hidden for a 99 overall cut and these are the best cards in the month of May I was using T Mac more and more and put him had a Michael Jordan on even the limited Kobe Bryant and then obviously this must have been two started in June considering the fact he terribly whose on this list obviously been making these lists a little bit into the months but yeah so Ben Simmons was a beast Kirilenko incredible Dave Robinson a beast and this is still agog to this day I'd say so June was the first time we got an Opel Player of the Month award one of the first free opals you could catch and it was Govan who wasn't even about Opel a fairly good car they actually updated his release so he ended up being a good card easily easily the best player in Aman care we see them to that point and I carry that I was happy to have gotten day one and next up is our Creator showcase a my league guy who seems to have completely taken over my team and honestly is my prediction for being the next my team youtuber too afraid 500k how did he do us well you're not gonna guess it he pretty much did it using marbles yeah marbles you know those things do you see in your recommended every day those marble races one of honestly the most interesting things ever to watch even though I don't know why but this guy he linked up marbles on Steam with my team and it just became an absolute revelation one half million view video which is incredible as well as a million plus views from this series he is going to blow up into great 20 trust me and then and then early in the month we got we got him we got Hedo Turkoglu they may have taken away his base 11 I'm not giving it back to him for the diamond but you know what they couldn't take away one word six letters you guys know what it is it is the Hedo Turkoglu leaner one of the most overpowered things in my team the limiters range combined with a normal for leaner means you get literally just pull from anywhere and the crazy thing was is that for about two weeks you could use not only one heat oh you could use two hitos at the same time the double heat Oh glitch the most fun I've ever had play my team was using these two guys at the same time to be completely honest and then two days later they released the game for $3 the welcome packs came out the guarantee dime is a guaranteed pink diamonds and this was the beginning of the end for my team until probably maybe the 10th of July or so this is a rough time this was a rough time a rough time people playing the game not enough a rough time for the hike because this game is hyped as ever and the servers were bad so to UK release seven Galaxy opals in one day which is we never seen the likes of that before and then you guys know what story is they released even free galaxy opal locker codes which was nice like to case content was great their servers were just broken like literally they did not work like fair enough I got this card 90% people got error codes then they released the draft day packs the draft they packed we're a complete like they were like no one we'd ever see important diamonds were the lowest tier you could get they had the pink time is where a limitless range Jason Tate who was way bad in the UM the diamond won an Oscar Robertson who was significantly bad paint I'm a hopeful Lonzo we got an opal Lunz Oh ball ad was alright like eighty was okay but Alonso is still a fun task Scott Hakeem was a beast of a kind these packs everyone want though everyone wanted to sell these cards by these cards but the thing is you just couldn't because the auction has broke the auction house broke and I don't have any videos detailing the fact that the auction house was completely broke when carriages weren't disappearing off it this may have been before or after this but you literally could not bid on a card at this stage it was absolutely crazy and for a week this happened for weeks I like you your cards were literally like you I had to actually go to hostage negotiations to try get your cards out of the options it was crazy but then even while the game was glitched and to be fair I was really happy just in terms of the youtuber but if you're just a player it is kind of frustrate you do UK released basically everything on one day they released Shaquille O'Neal they released him t-mac opal Dirk opal dr. J opal and all their word opals another Li that they give Shaq a three-point shot yes they gave Shaquille O'Neal a guy who is it one three-pointer in his NBA career a three-point shot ad a rating to be fair a dosimeter sitting on the same rating so it's not that unrealistic if you compare the Simmons and then they released so many Joker Awards so Mead I am in so many pink times so many amethyst including a Brian Scalabrine and this is just something this was just literally the most hyped day of my team history and if you guys don't believe it if you just all our YouTube channels like double their normal view count it was a crazy crazy day one of the most fun days I've had because there were so many cards Scalabrine was great and there was a lot of times I didn't want many opals I got the opals I wanted and didn't really want a lot of them so I searched you all the pain times I was going to all the diamonds trying to find all the gems it was such a fun day for me my team was some great opals like team a came as well they were cheap because so and he were opening packs and it was just such a pity that the servers were so bad because June could have been an exceptional month but the service really did take its toll and these are my opinion where the best cards that you could buy obviously the signature MJ not the other MJ LeBron was a beast Paul George is incredible KK 47 Kareem Shaq so many great cards came out and I genuinely thought I was like they can't get much better or Joe I can't be any better tired wise content-wise in June and to be honest I'm gonna say I was wrong so in July we got rudy Gay as our reward for going 12 enou and this rudy Gay again another fantastic card I personally think that the George Gervin is better but that is all personal preference rudy Gay is still brilliant really nice release really great dunker I'm one of those players I'm you see if he were rudy Gay would have much people sweater easily you know their ferret et simple hair out worst in this game and then a couple of days later that Friday they released the ultimate bikes and the ultimate products had some unbelievable cards ping time was the lowest here those cards were like 3000 empty and the unfortunate thing was was again this could have been a great great couple of days and in terms of like views and hype it was but the server's just broke again like the server's have been working for a couple of days and they just completely completely broke and it was a little bit different like sir just didn't work so as you guys can see I'm just flicking through carrots if I put my buyout price I like 9,500 MT I couldn't find anything but I had used to have to go up to like 30 and 14,000 and it suddenly tones and will come up it was a really weird thing no one knew what to sell play is fair wasn't as bad as it was in June but still not great service was still bad and then this was the day I got back from America it was the Antwone Jameson day so 2k basically gave us Bob Harris that was available in the auction house and after a couple of days he was like thirty cakes at his nine dynamic jewel box and not only that he could also play with the other Antoine Jamison who was still a fairly good card so you could roam a to hunt one James since I'm not even sure if that speaks to this day and 2k or least dynamic duo backs these packs every year to completely completely destroyed America and in fairness it's fine like they released them in the middle of July so there is no point like really complaining about that happening the mud probably the market being destroyed in the middle July is better because it means you can kind of use cards you may not have been able to use you may not have thought you're gonna be able to use so yeah this is such a significant event in the year because the market just dies we then had a scare so it was looking like drag and bender was signing for CSKA Moscow in Russia it was genuinely it was a tough day for me it was a tough day because if you guys don't know dragons to go use the goat and it was definitely definitely a relief when I found that he joined the Milwaukee books and he is going to be in 2k 20 because I'm not even sure if a 2k with our dragon banner is worth playing this guy is the goat even as a silver he can dominate against he really see dominating his emerald and below if he even had an emerald I'd still probably be using him in my squad that's how good his head of Nations higher in this game so the fan favorite packs were released by 2k and I still am in shock that there's no opal here Turkoglu I'm living in hope that they release it with whenever they release opal Wade but had I assume at this stage is not coming even though he do was in those packs but these were all great cards booting Isaac manga Isaac freakin Banga 97 overall if you guys told me it started here and we would be using an Isaac vaanga an end game and it would be arguably the second best point guard in the game I would have said you were crazy but now that's the two caves done and I am delighted videos I'm the light at the end of the year when the games kind of dead that they just released unrealistic players of people that of kinds of people just have fun using so unbelievable unbelievable few days then they release the galaxy opal Yanis so the people that didn't end up grinding for two and a half thousand tokens were able to use a card that was so more comparable to the other opal Yonex even though the two and half thousand one is so significantly better and I'm delighted by this again because as you guys know he check cards I didn't pick them up when they were impacts initially and I don't have the MD to get them right now they're literally all extinct on PC even still since they're back in packs and but again it's really kind of good it's been a really enjoyable kind of ends to my team for me anyway which is rare because a lot of years I just want to stop playing in August this year I don't even mind playing it right now and these in my opinion are the best cards you can buy an MBI 2k 19 my team share are better cards there is the Yanis that's about it the other Yanis I'd say these are better than all the token rewards and yeah so this was like my final top 5 most overpowered cards video and that's pretty much it for the year I spent the last 12 hours talking and editing this reminiscing on the past year and it's crazy how much time flies so as you guys know the opal reward for this current month is Jason Richardson who is by far better than both that he'll rewards we already have one of the best two guys in the game and he is a free card fantastic moving shot just a fantastic card and a fantastic way to end kind of my team unlimited so anyway that is the video I'm sorry if there is any kind of little bit of stuttering I'm sorry if there is some things that aren't edited perfectly again this video is taking me about 16 hours I've worked pretty much all day on this stop and yeah something I wanted to get at sooner rather than later more so than anything because it's taking up a lot of space in my computer I'm gonna have to kind of delete all the files from final code very soon to free up space so I kind of have to get this video soon but at big thank you guys just for everything the past year big thank you guys for the near a hundred thousand score – over a hundred thousand subscribers between the two channels big thanks for the 50 or so million views like it has been an absolutely incredible year and I honestly can't wait to see what 2k 20 has in store this was a video what a router made a little bit later a couple of weeks later but since I had some of the footage earlier since I had a lot of the ideas a lot of things are fresh in my head I felt it was now was a good time to do it so yeah again big thank you guys anyone who stuck through it big thanks and he understood through my videos this year sorry if I sound a bit tired it's because I am and I was always thank you guys for watching please like comment and subscribe

American Civil War The Complete History (Historical Documentary)



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American Civil War The Complete History Historical Documentary ############# documentary american experience, documentary american history, .

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Anupam Mishra: The ancient ingenuity of water harvesting



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With wisdom and wit, Anupam Mishra talks about the amazing feats of engineering built centuries ago by the people of India’s Golden Desert to harvest water. These structures are still used today — and are often superior to modern water megaprojects.

TEDTalks is a daily video podcast of the best talks and performances from the TED Conference, where the world’s leading thinkers and doers give the talk of their lives in 18 minutes. Featured speakers have included Al Gore on climate change, Philippe Starck on design, Jill Bolte Taylor on observing her own stroke, Nicholas Negroponte on One Laptop per Child, Jane Goodall on chimpanzees, Bill Gates on malaria and mosquitoes, Pattie Maes on the “Sixth Sense” wearable tech, and “Lost” producer JJ Abrams on the allure of mystery. TED stands for Technology, Entertainment, Design, and TEDTalks cover these topics as well as science, business, development and the arts. Closed captions and translated subtitles in a variety of languages are now available on TED.com, at Watch a highlight reel of the Top 10 TEDTalks at

المترجم: Mohamed Achraf BEN MOHAMED
المدقّق: Mahmoud Aghiorly حفاظا على المشاعر، لن ننتقل مباشرة إلى الصحراء. لذا، وقبل كلّ شيء، إعلان ذو طابع تنظيميّ صغير: رجاءا أطفؤوا برامج التحقّق من اللّغة الأنجليزية المثبّت في أدمغتكم. (تصفيق) لذا، أهلا بكم في الصحراء الذهبية ، صحراء الهند. إنّها تتلقّى أقل هطول للأمطار في البلاد، أدنى مستوى هطول الأمطار. إذا كنت على دراية جيدة بالبوصة، تسع بوصات، السنتيمترات، 16 بوصة.(سنتيمتر) توجد المياه الجوفية على عمق 300 قدم، 100 متر. وفي معظم الأحيان فهي مالحة، لا تصلح للشرب. لذلك، لا يمكنك تثبيت مضخات يدوية أو حفر الآبار، ولو أنّه لا وجود للكهرباء في معظم القرى. ولكن افترض أنك تستخدم التكنولوجيا الخضراء، مضخات شمسية — فهي لا تصلح للإستعمال في هذه المنطقة. لذلك ، أهلا بكم في الصحراء الذهبية. نادرا ما تزور الغيوم هذه المنطقة. لكننا نجد 40 مرادفا لكلمة الغيوم في اللهجة المستخدمة هنا. وهناك تقنيات عدة لتجميع الأمطار. هذا هو العمل الجديد، إنّه برنامج جديد. ولكن بالنسبة لمجتمع الصحراء لا يوجد وجود لبرنامج، هذه هي حياتهم. وهم يقومون بتجميع مياه الأمطار بطرق عدّة. لذا، هذا هو أول جهاز يستخدمونه لتجميع مياه الأمطار. انها تدعى "كُنْدِسْ"، تسمّى في مكان ما [غير واضح]. ويمكنكم ملاحظة أنهم قاموا بخلق مستجمعات مياه شكليّة. الصحراء هناك، كثبان رملية، وبعض الحقول الصغيرة. وهذه منصّة كبيرة منصوبة. يمكنكم ملاحظة الثقوب الصغيرة الّتي يمرّ خلالها الماء في هذه المستجمعات، ويوجد منحدر. في بعض الأحيان لا يعبأ المهندسون و المعماريّون لدينا بالمنحدرات داخل بيوت الإستحمام ولكنّهم هنا سَيُولُونَهَا كلّ الإهتمام. وسيذهب الماء إلى يجب أن يكون. و من ثم فعمقها يبلغ 40 قدما. تمّ التحكّم بتسرب المياه بطريقة متقنة. أفضل من مقاولي مدينتنا، لأنه لا ينبغي أن تضيع قطرة واحدة. إنّهم يقومون بتجميع 100 ألف لتر في الموسم واحد. وهي مياه نقيّة صالحة للشرب . تحت سطح الأرض توجد مياه شديدة الملوحة. ولكن الآن يمكنك الحصول على هذا على مدار السنة. هذين منزلين. عادة ما نستعمل عبارة النظام الداخلي. لأنا تعودنا على الحصول على أشياء مكتوبة. ولكن هنا هو غير مكتوب في القانون. و يقوم الناس ببناء منازلهم، وخزانات حفظ المياه. وهذا ما جعل المنصات تصل إلى هذا الحدّ. في الواقع إنّها تصل إلى عمق 15 قدما، و تُجَمِّعُ مياه الأمطار من السطح، يوجد أنبوب صغير، و من الفناء. ويمكنها أيضا أن تُجَمِّع ما يصل إلى 25000 في موسم جيّد. واحد آخر كبير، هذا بالطبع خارج المنطقة القاسية من الصحراء. إنّها بالقرب من "جايبور". وهي تدعى قلعة "جيغار". ويمكنها أن تجمع ستّة ملايين غالون من مياه الأمطار في موسم واحد. عمرها 400 سنة. وهكذا، ومنذ 400 سنة، فإنها توفّر ما يقرب من ستة ملايين غالون من الماء في الموسم الواحد. يمكنكم تقدير ثمن ذلك الماء. تجلب الماء عبر 15 كيلومترا من القنوات. يمكنك أن ترى طريقا حديثة، بالكاد منذ 50 سنة. ويمكن في بعض الأحيان أن تنقطع. ولكن هذه القناة ذات الأربع مائة سنة، و الّتي تجلب الماء، محفوظة لأجيال متعدّدة. بالطّبع إذا ما أردت الولوج داخلها، فإنّ البابين الإثنين موصودان. ولكن يمكن أن يتم فتحهما لمجموعة تد. (ضحك) لقد طلبنا ذلك منهم. يمكن أن ترى شخصا قادما و بحوزته اسطوانتين من الماء. و مستوى الماء — هذين الإسطوانتين ليستا فارغتين — منسوب المياه أعلى من ذلك. يكمن أن يكون موضع حسد العديد من البلديّات ، اللّون ، المذاق، ونقاوة هذه المياه. وهذا ما يسمّونه بالمياه صنف "صفر ب"، لأنها تأتي من الغيوم ، ماء مُقَطَّرٌ نَقِيٌ. سنتوقّف لفاصل تجاري سريع، ثم نعود إلى الأنظمة التقليدية. ترى الحكومة أن هذه منطقة متخلفة جدّا، ويجب احداث مشروع يكلّف عدّة ملايين من الدولارات لجلب المياه من جبال الهيمالايا. لذلك قلت أنّ هذا فاصل إعلانيّ. (ضحك) ولكنّنا سنعود، من جديد، إلى الأمور التقليديّة. لذلك، فالمياه التي تأتي من مسافة 300 و 400 كيلومترا، تصبح سريعا هكذا. في أجزاء عديدة، تغطي الزّهرة الياقوتية هذه القنوات الكبيرة، بشكل لا مثيل له. بالطبع هناك بعض المناطق التي تتوافر فيها المياه، أنا لا أقول أنّه لا يصل بتاتا. ولكن في نهاية المطاف، في منطقة "جايسالمر"، ستلاحظ في "بيكانير" أشياء من هذا القبيل : حيث لا يمكن للزّهرة الياقوتية أن تنمو تتدفق الرمال في هذه القنوات. المكافأة هي أنه يمكنك العثور على الحياة البرية من حوله. (ضحك) كانت لدينا إعلانات على صفحة كاملة، قبل نحو 30 عاما، 25 عاما عندما وصلت هذه القناة. وقالوا تخلّصوا من أنظمتكم التقليدية، فإن هذه الخزّانات الإسمنتيّة الجديدة ستورّد لكم المياه الجارية. هذا حلم. وأصبح حلم أيضا. لأن المياه سرعان ما صارت عاجزة عن الوصول إلى هذه المناطق. وبدأ الناس بتجديد منشآتهم الخاصة. وهذه كلها منشآت مياه تقليدية، لسنا قادرين على تقديمها في مثل هذا الوقت القصير. ولكن يمكنك أن تلاحظ عدم وجود أي امرأة تنتظر هناك. (ضحك) إنّهم يقومون بضفر شعرهم. (تصفيق) "جايسالمر". هذا قلب الصحراء. تأسّست هذه المدينة منذ 800 سنة. ليست متأكّدا أن في تلك الحِقْبَةِ "ممباي" كانت قد تأسّست، أو "دلهي" كانت قد تأسّست، أو "شناي" كانت قد تأسّست، أو "بنغالور" كانت قد تأسّست. كانت هذه محطّة على طريق الحرير. متصلة ، منذ 800 سنة، بأوروبا. لم يكن بإمكان أيٍّ منّا الذّهاب إلى أوروبا، لكن "جايسالمر" كانت مرتبطة جيّدا بها. هذه منطقة الستّة عشر سنتيمترا. مع مثل هذا المستوى المنخفظ لهطول الأمطار، ازدهرت حياة متعدّدة الألوان في هذه المناطق. لن تجد مياها في هذه الشريحة. ولكنها غير مرئية. يوجد في مكان ما ساقية أو غدير يجريان هنا. إذا أردت رسم المكان، يمكنك أن ترسمه باللّون الأزرق لأنّ كلّ سقف يمكنك رؤيته على هذه الصورة يقوم بجمع مياه الأمطار

Beautiful historical trail with many wild flowers, dogs had fun!



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We found this amazing trail in a dutch place called Haarzuilens.For more than 2000 years people lived here, if you take a good look, you can still see a lot of historical marks.Our dogs just enjoyed running, playing and smelling all those beautiful

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ЗАНОСЫ В ANCIENT TROY, САМЫЙ ЛУЧШИЙ СЛОТ ОТ ЭНДОРФИНЫ



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