BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg American Civil | History Documentaries 2017 – The Best D

BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg American Civil | History Documentaries 2017 - The Best D



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BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil | History Documentaries 2017 BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War .

BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War | History War Documentaries 2017 The Battle of Gettysburg was fought 1–3, 1863, in and .

This American Civil War Full Documentary Film categorized as History Documentaries and it is Full Length Non-Stop for over 8 hours This Documentary Film .

American Civil War – The Complete History (Historical Documentary) The American Civil War, widely known as simply the Civil War in the United States as well .

twenty-four-year-old Lieutenant Colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they faced down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on their luck the retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad car the rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country burr Dawes retreat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William Dawes rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just a hundred and seventy-five yards to the railroad cut who will cost Dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward DAWs loses ten men carrying the colors in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron brigade your role Eggleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private and is sent furious at the killing of his brave young comrade with a terrific blow split the skull of the rebel who had shot young Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das loses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong is streaming towards Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert Eagle II we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the North threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going out in all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up at Gettysburg was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more troops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south Lee's army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is Lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg human troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits Humiston was like so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man I hate the idea of dying here like a hawk the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle you'll replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll have the Union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. is units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go Yul's Confederate troops are spreading out for the town and it's a route for the rebels gameis Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life the Army of Northern Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat the nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that we fight every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the 270 men and Humiston regiment all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and covered them all with care by Frankie Valli and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank fault others flee as the rebels swarmed through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing has always been a male profession but during the Civil War 20,000 women sign on to care for the casualties one Union nurse Clara Barton will go on to found the Red Cross rebel soldiers go door to door looking for Union soldiers they're hiding all over town Lee has nowhere to put prisoners during the war so many are captured the North and South follow an honor system paroled prisoners taken oath not to rejoin the fight until formally exchanged Paul is simply I'm going to give you a piece of paper that says don't fight anymore and if I catch you fighting then bad things are gonna happen to you then what we're gonna do later is we're going to have men from our army and men from your army meet it at a neutral place and we're gonna trade soldiers just like kids sitting around trading playing cards you know I'll trade you three generals for four Colonels and nine lieutenants for 50 privates the punishment for breaking parole is death Amos hummus – wounded and alone in a yard in the middle of town he grasps an ambrotype a photographic image of his three children fixed in glass a present from his wife on his way to war the Amos Humiston story is going to resonate with any soldier if you go to any unit in the United States military today obviously you're going to find servicemembers with pictures of their children their wives their sweethearts because that is a tangible link to your normal life your condition in combat is not normal you're there in the service of your country to do what the nation asks you to do but the stakes are rising for both north and south on the high ground outside town Rufus Dawes and the Union Army dig in it's here that the Battle of Gettysburg will be won or lost suffering heavy losses Union troops pull out of Gettysburg leaving the town in Confederate control it might appear that the fighting on the first day for the Union was a huge weight loss really bad on the first day but the intense struggle they put up north and west of town the intense struggle that some of them put up through the streets of Gettysburg allow them to fall back to their chosen position they retreat to a nearby series of hills than peak at eight hundred feet high ground that gives the Union a critical military advantage on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes and what's left of his iron Brigade unit digging they have a new weapon to shovel they're building breastworks form of fortification dating back to the Romans some officers think defensive walls create cowards not dogs after losing half his men he wants all the protection he can get down below you'll has orders from robert e lee to take cemetery and copse hills but with the qualifier if practicable you will decides to wait for reinforcements it's a decision with critical consequences if you're looking up in your scene this great amount of work going on up there and your men are tired from the March they've just made it from the battle they've just fought something in him triggered I'm not gonna do this or I can't do this now but certainly at the end of the day he's gonna disappoint his commander I'm sure he's gonna disappoint himself the Confederacy will pay for that for the next three days this is one of the great what-ifs of the battle had you will occupied and controlled Culp's Hill in the land around it the Union Army would have simply had to leave when the battle would have been fought somewhere else maybe not so much to the Yankees advantage in the fields around Gettysburg the grim new harvest the dead and wounded from day one tending to the injured on both sides doctor Legrand Wilson Confederate deeply religious hometown Jackson Mississippi educated in the north his family owns forty slaves in Mississippi this was my first experience on the battlefield after the fighting and it was horrible beyond description if every human being could have witnessed the result of the mad passions of men I saw that night war would cease there would never be another battle the staggering level of death in the civil war is difficult to wrap your brain around the commonly use numbers for how many soldiers died during the civil wars between six hundred and twenty and six hundred and thirty thousand today that would mean that we would lose six million American lives one innovation making this war so deadly the minie ball 90% of the soldiers Wilson treats have miniball wounds hollow base and grooves stabilize its flight for better range and accuracy unhhhh in fact it flattens out causing much larger wounds than traditional musket balls the Warped bullet shatters bones that splinter tear through the body and the grooves in the bullet carried deadly bacteria leading to gangrene the only way to stop it amputation african-americans serve has stretcher-bearers some slaves use the invasion as a chance to escape by the end of the war half a million slaves flee to the north a hundred and fifty thousand will enlist in the Union armed dr. Wilson loses a family member on the first day of battle among the dead was my own nephew lieutenant George Adrian house must have been shot in the advance upon the enemy in the Bois his faithful servant Stephen came out on the battlefield and sought for and found his body and carried it back to the hospital for burial family members often serve side by side it's one reason why they fight so hard in some states a quarter or more of the military aged men were dead as a result of the war with hundreds of thousands more wounded in some cases all the young men of a town were wiped out during the Civil War the hills outside in the last year President Abraham Lincoln has fired five commandments commander number six George Meade's proud explosive West Point they're like robert e lee just three days on the job but a messenger brought the news of his promotion who thought he was being arrested but me arrives with advantage the high ground as a topographical engineer he knows how to use it he positions his troops to take advantage of the terrain placing them on Little Round Top Cemetery Ridge Cemetery Hill and calls him the defensive line in the shape of a fishhook as Confederate troops flood into Gettysburg me can move his men to answer attacks from any direction Union forces had interior lines in this defensive position that is their right flank was very close to the left flank and they could move reinforcements from one flank to another made it a perfect defensive position rebel troops in town don't notice Amos Humiston mortally wounded he prepares to die alone except for the photograph of his children how I want to see them and their mother is more than I can tell I hope that we may all see each other again the first time that I see you I will tell you more than I can think of now be a good girl so goodbye Amos Humiston bleeds to death no identification the fear of dying anonymously haunts troops on both sides some so their names into their uniforms dog tags are still 40 years away by the war's end 400,000 soldiers will be missing in action we really cannot imagine the scale of death a scale of suffering no one could have imagined carnage on that scale and Gettysburg brings more devastation and dari all-out rebel assaults at stake victory at Gettysburg and maybe the civil Gettysburg day to 12 p.m. the rebels are on the move they're planning a surprise attack by 14,500 troops their mission break the Union stranglehold on the high ground by outflanking needs fishery the goal of the Confederates on July 2nd is to find the Union left damaged destroy it and roll up it and unhinge the entire Union position and win the Battle of Gettysburg leading one rubble unit Brigadier General William Barksdale pro-slavery procession southern Patriot hometown Columbus Mississippi Barksdale was a man who took the ideas of the Confederacy and pursued them with raw aggressiveness with unfettered hatred for the Yankees but there's a problem the land ahead of him was not scouted because Lee's cavalry is missing there are 12 miles to the south raiding supplies the Calvary the eyes and ears of an army is no longer in communication with Lee Lee is blind on the battlefield and that means that he doesn't know what the Union is up to and that course is going to cripple any army without cavalry to guide them the rebel troops nearly march into plain sight of a Union position Barksdale and the entire attack have to find another route a costly delay adding two hours to their March time that lets meet reinforce his defenses people often ask me what if they had machine guns in the Civil War I always say forget all that one set of walkie-talkies could have changed the outcome of the Civil War three miles away George Meade also has a problem just three days on the job he's lost Telegraph contact with Washington DC invented 25 years earlier The Telegraph is changing the way the Civil War battles are fought President Abraham Lincoln a hands-on commander-in-chief likes rapid news from the field the Signal Corps usually runs temporary lines to his generals at the front but at Gettysburg the field equipment has it aligned and rebel forces have cut the lines during the whole thing he's got to be thinking Lee has beaten us time and time and time again and if he doesn't hear there's no one standing between him in the capital we're it he can't lose to issue orders to the front Meade uses a new innovation based on Morris code wig wag signal waving the flags forms letters like the dots and dashes of code it works made tracks the rebels movements and responds with his own meanwhile on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes waits with what's left of his iron Brigade unit yesterday they routed the rebels at the railroad cut today there with eleven thousand five hundred men defending the fishhooks right flank stretching over three miles Meade's fishhook is formidable heavy defenses along the high ground make the Union line almost impenetrable as long as troops stay in position but one Union commander isn't following needs orders Major General Dan sickles wealthy devious a row recently acquitted of murdering his wife's lover using the first plea of temporary insanity in US history believe Gettysburg even more in the toys Dan sickles was all about dan sickles if it didn't benefit or a dam sickles he wasn't very interested in it he didn't go to West Point he didn't have any military experience but he was able to use his money influence and power to raise his own regiment against Meade's orders sickles moves his third core to far forward fracturing the fishhook and leaving the flanks exposed a blunder that could cost the Union the battle and maybe the war after hours of delay the rebel force finally arrives in position but Lee's lost the element of surprise the Union knows what's coming cops Hill Dawes here's the assault begin at this hour the storm of battle suddenly broke out artillery in musketry thundered and crashed together wave after wave rebel troops launched one of the epic assaults of the civil Barksdale is about to get the fight he's always wanted but in order to hold his ground William Barksdale is ready to go he's chopping up that he has to wait a little walk the plan is to take ten Confederate brigades and attack with them two at a time one Brigade striking the enemy then fifteen or thirty minutes later the next one strikes the enemy and then the next and the next fights that are now burned into the pages of American history Devil's Den Little Round Top the wheat field the peach orchard and Cemetery Ridge Barksdale can see that sickles mistake has left the union vulnerable creating the South's best chance for victory but he is still under orders to hold his men back sixty minutes pass but Barksdale's regiments still waits the rebel yell fills the air each unit has a unique sound fierce savage tariffs [Applause] this Barksdale private Joseph lore 21 years old labor hometown big oak Mississippi [Applause] carrying the colors makes in the prize target the union sharpshooter ninety minutes after the start of the initial attacks Barksdale and his men are finally unleashed they storm into enemy fire racing towards sickles position what happens next could change the course of the war Pumped with adrenaline sure of their car when Barksdale and his Mississippi Brigade are finally attacked is 1600 men are part of a massive offensive 21,000 troops attacking Meade's line from Little Round Top to Cemetery Ridge and all-out assault to win the Civil War now Barksdale's mission break through Union defenses on Cemetery Ridge opportunity lies right in his path his daughter's Union general Dan sickles moved his 3rd Corps out of position now boner perfect targets for Barksdale if Barksdale as well as other Confederate brigades nearby are able to exploit the gap in Union line it would be calamitous for the Union Army the army would be cut into their defenses start to collapse needs entire line could be next William Barksdale his troops hit the Yankees like a hammer he rolls over those Union troops captures several hundred if not more than that of the Union troops and continues on in several directions towards Cemetery Ridge watching from Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes knows the Army of the Potomac in trouble we could plainly see that our troops were giving ground thousands were streaming to the rear our suspense and anxiety were intense the rebel mine is advancing the rebel yell was predominant Lee's offensive is working if it succeeds he could win the knockout victory he seeks mede has no choice he pulls 8,000 reinforcements from Culp's Hill to repel the rebels charging towards Cemetery Ridge Barksdale and Lloyd advance six hundred yards through a barrage of enemy fire Union commander Dan sickles isn't so lucky the direct cannonball it severs his leg one Yankee officer jokes it's bad news for sickles but good news for the Union takes barksdale's Mississippi Brigade nearly an hour but they finally break through sickles live on the run Barksdale's men approached Cemetery Ridge sensing victory but they're charging straight into more than 20 unique cards away each capable of firing two rounds an exploding bag of gunpowder rockets the 12 pound all of solid iron at 1,400 feet per second at this range Barksdale employed pieces Barksdale he's been grievously wounded during the attack he's hit in the left thigh and a very dangerous wound bleeding profusely he's asked to leave the feel refuses continuing to lead the attack he has part of his left foot shot away stays in the south continuing to lead the attack he knows the stakes enter the Mississippi Brigade comes close to cutting through Union lines and Meade's reinforcements slam into Barksdale and Lord I turn again to the front see the enemy bursting through the bushes and fires they had come out from the top of the hill and fresh and did our gallant Barksdale ride into our midst and still say forward through the bushes Barksdale's exhausted men finally break formation using their combined fire the rebel flag makes Lloyd a magnet for boats shock as if I had a rail in my left hand and one in head struck the ground the union line marches over one of them fixes a sling for my arm leaving with a wish well 50% of Barksdale's brigade are dead wounded or captured loyd almost overlooks their fallen command I hero we Cal to my right and turning to it find general Barksdale what a disappointment when I hold my canteen to his mouth for a drink of water found a ball had gone through and let it all out I took his last message to his brigade and left him with the promise to send the litter bears barksdale's battle is over his last thoughts are of his family and never have regretted the steps I have taken and although dying I do not regret those steps now God ever watch over and care for my dear wife and my boys tell them all that I died like a brave man you have to wonder if he was thinking I'm going to end the war I'm going to be the great instrument that is going to break that Union line in half and destroy the Army of the Potomac and remove it from my Army's opposition for once and forever and his troops performance there was unbelievable and very nearly succeeded these fishhook has helped this offensive is over Confederate general Longstreet will call it the best three hours fighting ever done by any troops on any battlefield sixteen thousand are dead wounded or missing on both sides but day two isn't over stave off the rebels Meade pull troops from Culp's Hill as night falls only 1400 Union defenders are left there it's an opportunity that Confederates won't miss this on Culp's Hill robert e lee spies a new chance for victory meade pulled eight thousand troops from the hill to counter the rebel assault just fourteen hundred Union soldiers remain now 4,500 rebels are moving in for the kill charging up Culp's Hill with the rebels is private Ridgely Howard 33 years old slave boy from a prominent Maryland fan hometown Bolton his grandfather fought with Washington and revolution now he's fighting to divide the nation that created the Howards discussed Maryland sided with the north Maryland was badly divided the eastern part of the state slavery was entrenched embedded rigidly Howard came from that plantation economy from the slave holding class powered in the Maryland rebels attack Union defenses dug into the hill the first test works on 400 yards it's chaos bullets and shells fly in all directions Federal's earthworks made of logs and rocks in dirt you've got to be thinking to yourself this is my last fight I'm not coming back from this how do you function like that this is this is what makes a true hero up the sides of the hill we went our line being continuously broken by the immense rocks which had to be flanked powered faces fighting so fierce one rebel calls it a slaughter pen there was not a passive position to be there were continual cries that we were firing into our own man rebel troops claw their way up lower Culp's Hill at a terrible cost surprise is worthless the on Culp's Hill aligns the Baltimore Pike the union's main supply route in line retreat if the Confederates capture Culp's Hill and control that point the Union Army has to leave after two days of battle wounded from both sides pour into makeshift field hospitals at one private Joseph Floyd is about to lose his arm Barksdale's color guard is 23 during the Civil War two soldiers will die of disease after medical care for everyone killed in battle the quickest solution to most serious limb injuries is amputation medicine is in its infancy but anesthesia is available chloroform was recently discovered and morphine administered liberally one thousand gallons of whiskey are also on hand Confederate Surgeon Legrand Wilson has been treating casualties continuously since last night the patient may either sit on a chair or lie near the edge of a bed the tourniquet is to be applied while one assistant holds the hand another is to take hold of the forearm the average amputation takes 12 minutes no antibiotics no knowledge of infection they don't even stop to wash their hands or instruments surgeons work round the clock it's the source of the term old Sawbones Lloyd will be one of the lucky ones the odds of surviving an arm amputation 77 percent [Applause] Rufus Dawes and his men are among the few Union defenders left on Culp's Hill they move down to counter-attack as we neared the breastworks the class only must get spritz out right the darkness and the suddenness of our arrival cause the enemy to fire loudly Dawes and his men win their skirmish but like day one they're the exception nearby Ridgely Howard's unit captures a cheese section of restrooms they keep advancing against heavy the Federals OPM is from front left flag and rear and the firing was terrible increasing with each step we took but still we pressed on they're just 500 yards from the Baltimore pike and the position that would threaten the entire Union line but at night an unfamiliar ground a great opportunity is lost they would be in the rear of the Union Army they could be on the flank of the Union Army but because of something so simple darkness they don't even know how close they are unable to tell friend from foe they cease firing if the Confederates had managed to carry Culp's Hill on the evening of July 2nd and breakthrough they would have captured the Union communications line on Baltimore pike all of the supply wagons were their reserve artillery was there that would have forced me to retreat and it could have been a major turning point in favor of Confederate victory as the fight on Culp's Hill dies down the Union wins a different kind they're newly formed intelligence agency the Bureau of military information is trying to discover Lee's battle plans VMI agents are interrogating Confederate prisoners and realize they have captives from every rebel infantry division but one George Pickett's he has Lee's only fresh troops Meade expects the rebels to attack tomorrow with everything they've got it's a good bet George Pickett will lead the attack tomorrow Ridgely howard will face his Maryland neighbors in a fight to the death robert e lee launched one final all-out assault tickets charge Gettysburg day 3 5 a.m. the stakes have never been higher yesterday Robert Ely is on the verge of all-out victories Confederate troops assaulted the union's left flank and nearly broke robert e lee knows he came very close but no cigar general Meade's actually a little shaken he knows it was a very close one thing barely escapes disaster now rebel troops are gaining ground a lower Culp's Hill and our position to threaten the union's rear lines Meade sends in reinforcements one Union Brigade is led by Colonel James Wallace educated wealthy also from Maryland the only Union colonel who owned slaves during the revolution his grandfather and Ridgeley Howard's fought in the same regiment today the two Marylanders will battle each other Maryland like other border states torn apart so many divided loyalties Maryland they had to decide which side they were on Maryland is one of five border states loyal to the Union but slavery is legal passions for and against slavery run haughty federal troops occupy Baltimore throughout the war to prevent the Confederate uprising on Culp's Hill Ridge Lee Howard's unit prepares to attack their target defenses held by Union troops from their home state [Applause] the men seem to feel the solemnity of the occasion and to understand the desperate nature of the charge to be made I prayed for strength to do my duty last night the rebels outnumbered Union defenders three to one now those odds are reversed it appeared to me as if the whole of my company was being swept away by the awful shower of shot and shell flying around us a demon seemed to take possession of me I had what one thought to avenge my comrades Howard takes a bullet fired by the union's first Maryland regiment I felt a burning in my thigh as if all the blood in my body was rushing to one spot it is a hard thing to say but I am convinced the Federals deliberately shot at us while we lay there helpless on the field a soldier at my left was shocked I was also struck in a hip hip wounds are almost always fatal every moment I expected would be my last so I straightened myself out folded my arms over my breast and waited for my time to come time slows as richly Howard prepares to die James Wallace won't let a fellow Marylander suffer no matter which side he's on the first Maryland Confederate met us and were cut to pieces sorrowfully gathered up many of our old friends acquaintances add them carefully and tenderly cared for I don't know how long I'll a seconds would seem to be minutes and minutes hours coming to Howard's aid the soldiers he'd least expect to help the same Union troops who shot him they asked what regiment I belong to I replied the Maryland battalion to which they made answer do you know you are fighting your own men I answered yes and we intend to fight them with a rebel assault on Culp's Hill stalled robert e lee readies one more massive attack it will be one of the iconic battles of the Civil War 12,000 Confederate troops hundreds of candidates the largest artillery barrage ever in North America is about to begin [Applause] after two days of attack and counter-attack robert e lee is about to launch the offensive that will decide the Battle of Gettysburg and the course of the war he's sending in 12,000 soldiers anchored by George Pickett's division his only fresh troops their mission attacked the Union Center and cut the Army of the Potomac me too at least pushing all of the chips to the middle of the table because he knows it's this last chance he's going to have this was a calculated decision it was well thought out it had a reasonable chance of success creating one of the rebel brigades general Joe Davis aristocratic slave owner his uncle Confederate President Jefferson Davis his hometown of Vicksburg Mississippi is under union siege to weaken Union defenses 160 Confederate cannons move into position a line of artillery two miles long against them a hundred Union candidates it's 87 degrees brutally humid it's the largest artillery barrage ever in the Western Hemisphere percussion would shake the internals the organs would actually in some cases rip apart the membranes within the ear would tear this would create blood streaming down the sides of these artillery units faces can be heard in Harrisburg Pennsylvania 40 miles Tolu early into thinking he's crippled the unions artillery Union commanders silenced their guns by 3:00 p.m. Confederate artillery also stops firing an eerie quiet reigned over the battlefield all the smoke from that bombardment still sat on the winless day the Yankees expected a huge attack from the southerners the southerners knew what they were about to do and what they went up against and it must have been an intense moment as they stared each other across the fields the Confederate command believes it's safe to send in their troops time to set in motion one of the iconic battles of the Civil War Joe Davis and his men move out part of a rebel assault that stretches a mile to reach union lines they must cross 1700 yards of open meadow that race up a hill but unknown to the Confederate leaders the Union artillery still has plenty of fire they're just waiting for the rebels to come into range Joe Davis and his men are marching into a barrage of artillery hell of course the ordinates rifle cannon made with four and a half inch strips of wrought iron invented just two years earlier they're tough and reliable designed with a 3-inch grooved bore for greater range deadly accuracy the ordinance delivers shells that explode on impact in time shells in shrapnel that burst in the air the enemy's heads can take out a 10-man being on the receiving end of one of these projectiles from the rifled ordnance would be completely devastating you don't know what's coming at you can you can only imagine and then all of a sudden the guys that you are standing next to are gone vaporize stopping to return fire an open field suicide and there's no point their muskets don't have the range Davis knows his men have to keep moving we were growing dinner at every step under this destructive fire which commanded our front and left with fatal effect the troops displayed great coolness we're welding moves steadily forward regularly closing up the gaps made in their ranks about halfway to Cemetery Ridge the rebels come into range of the older-style smooth barrel and Napoleon can the most popular artillery in the Civil War kinds men can keep going in the face of such opposition the level of courage is intense and large until Davis and his men can return fire they're just target practice for Union artillery the attack that will come to be known as Pickett's Charge is being blown to hell Lee's offensive is advancing toward enemy troops on Cemetery Ridge Union artillery is mowing them down it's the moment of truth at Gettysburg for both armies Joe Davis and his men are now 400 yards canister range canister is the most devastating weapon of the day basically tin cans packed with 28 earned balls the casing explode spring the iron balls into advancing troops at hundreds of guards per second mr. shott just made that cannon a gigantic shotgun but it would mow down up to 20 guys at a time if not more would be completely tore apart limbs heads arms legs and was so demoralizing for the other soldiers to witness such an event Davis regroups the Emmitsburg were 200 yards from the union law they're now within range of enemy muskets [Applause] one fence they're using for cover takes 836 right the brigade to the left of Davis hasn't caught up exposing his flank and opening a hole in the rebel line two men under Davis make it to the Union line and plant their flag on a stone wall a brave but futile gesture the rest of the unit under Davis cracks and retreats and a bend in the Union line rebel troops under George Pickett managed to break through and surged over the wall Union Gunners fire point-blank now it's to the point of hand-to-hand combat this is as brutal as it gets it is literally with musket butts and using fighting knives using the bayonets by themselves as rusting weapons the rebels overrun three canons but they're soon overwhelmed its Lee's last chance for victory at Gettysburg but it's not enough they almost cut the Union Army in two they almost didn't robert e lee's great moment of promise quickly turned into his greatest defeat by far the entire rebel line retreats they are compelled forced to retire across that dairy ground in which they had made this brave Galit charge more than half of the force that began Pickett's charge is dead wounded captured or missing we loses a third of his army at Gettysburg it's the bloodiest battle ever fought on American soil more than 50,000 casualties robert e lee's bold invasion of the north has failed Independence Day Rufus Dawes of the iron Brigade turns 25 what a solemn birthday my little band now only 200 men have all been out bearing the bloody corpses of friend and foe no fighting today the civil war will last another two years Gettysburg wasn't Lee's last chance to win but it was his best they'll never come this close again it gave northern people that belief that Union military High Command could in fact match robert e lee on the battlefield nobody believed that the war was near an end but many in the north they took from gettysburg solace hope that in fact this the tide could possibly turn in their favor for so many reasons this battle stands out as a pivotal and significant american event Rufus Dawes leaves the army in 1864 with symptoms resembling post-traumatic stress disorder his son Charles will become the 30th vice-president of the United States of America under Calvin Coolidge Joe Davis wakes up to learn that Vicksburg his hometown has fallen to lyses s grant he falls gravely ill but keeps his command he'll accompany lead to Appomattox for the South's formal surrender Union troops destroy Legrand Wilson's farm from the sale of his last bale of cotton he starts his own medical practice Risley Howard recovers from his wounds and returns to the war losing a leg at Cold Harbor in 1864 legend has it his ghost still haunts his Baltimore home it falls to Fanny Bueller and the people of Gettysburg to help the army care for the casualties and pick up the pieces the town of Gettysburg was overwhelmed for months by the wounded the smell of death lingered there for four weeks for months so the horrors of the aftermath of that battle were unmatched in the war a young girl finds a fallen soldier in a yard he has no identification but grasps a photograph of three children fixed in glass the picture becomes famous widely printed in newspapers the mystery of the Unknown Soldier captures the country's imagination four months later the woman in upstate New York recognizes the children and solves the mystery the soldier is Amos hummus twenty-four-year-old Lieutenant Colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they face down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on the luck retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country / dawes the treat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William dogs rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just a hundred and seventy-five yards to the railroad cut lacoste Dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward Dawes loses 10 men carrying the colors in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron brigade your role Eggleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private and is sent furious at the killing of his brave young comrade where the terrific blows split the skull of the rebel who had shot Jung Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das losses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong is streaming towards the Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert Eagle II we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the north threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going out in all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up a get his burger was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more troops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south Lee's Army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg Union troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man the idea of dying almost impenetrable as long as troops stay in position but one Union commander isn't following these orders Major General Dan sickles wealthy devious a row recently acquitted of murdering his wife's lover using the first plea of temporary insanity in US history believe Gettysburg even more notorious Dan sickles was all about Dan sickles if it didn't benefit or a Dan sickles he wasn't very interested in it he didn't go to West Point he didn't have any military experience but he was able to use his money influence and power to raise his own regiment against Meade's orders sickles moves his third core to far forward fracturing the fishhook leaving the flanks exposed a blunder that could cost the Union the battle and maybe the war after hours of delay the rebel force finally arrives in position that leaves lost the element of surprise the union knows what's coming cops Hill Dawes here's the assault begin at this hour the storm of battle suddenly broke out artillery and musketry thundered and crashed together wave after wave rebel troops launched one of the epic assaults of the civil boom Barksdale is about to get the fight he's always want but in order to hold his ground William Barksdale is ready to go he's choppin competitive but he has to wait a little walk the plan is to take ten Confederate brigades and attack with them two at a time one Brigade striking the enemy then fifteen or thirty minutes later the next one strikes the enemy and then the next and the next fights that are now burned into the pages of American history Devil's Den Little Round Top the wheat field the peach orchard and Cemetery Ridge Barksdale can see that sickles mistake has left the union vulnerable creating the South's best chance for victory but he is still under orders to hold his men back sixty minutes pass but Barksdale's regiment still votes the rebel yell fills the air each unit has a unique sound fierce savage terrified [Applause] with Barksdale private Joseph Lord 21 years old labor hometown big oak Mississippi [Applause] carrying the colors makes in the prize target the union sharpshooter ninety minutes after the start of the initial attacks Barksdale and his men are finally unleashed they storm into enemy fire racing towards sickles position what happens next could change the course of the war Pumped with adrenaline sure of their car will Barksdale and his Mississippi Brigade are finally attacked 1600 men are part of a massive offensive 21,000 troops attacking Meade's line from Little Round Top to Cemetery Ridge an all-out assault to win the Civil War battle Barksdale's mission break through Union defenses on Cemetery Ridge opportunity lies right in his path against orders Union general Dan sickles moved his third core out of position perfect targets for Barksdale if Barksdale as well as other Confederate brigades nearby are able to exploit the gap in Union line it would be calamitous for the Union Army the army would be cut into their defenses start to collapse needs entire line could be next William Barksdale his troops hit the Yankees like a hammer he rolls over those Union troops captures several hundred if not more than that of the Union troops and continues on in several directions towards Cemetery Ridge watching from Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes knows the Army of the Potomac in trouble we could plainly see that our troops were giving ground thousands were streaming to the rear our suspense and anxiety were intense the rebel line is advancing the rebel yell was predominant Lee's offensive is working if it succeeds he could win the knockout victory he seeks mede has no choice he pulls 8,000 reinforcements from Culp's Hill to repel the rebels Sarge found his body and carried it back to the hospital for burial family members often serve side by side it's one reason why they fight so hard in some states a quarter or more of the military aged men were dead as a result of the war with hundreds of thousands more wounded in some cases all the young men of a town were wiped out during the Civil War last year President Abraham Lincoln has fired five commanders Commander number six George Meade's proud explosive West Point are like Robert Lee just three days on the job but a messenger brought the news of his promotion he thought he was being arrested but me arrives with advantage the high ground as a topographical engineer he knows how to use it he positions his troops to take advantage of the terrain placing them on Little Round Top Cemetery Ridge Cemetery Hill and calls him the defensive line in the shape of a fishhook as Confederate troops flood into Gettysburg me can move his men to answer attacks from any direction Union forces had interior lines in this defensive position that is their right flank was very close to the left flank and they could move reinforcements from one flank to another made it a perfect defensive position rebel troops in town don't notice Amos Humiston mortally wounded he prepares to die alone except for the photograph of his children how I want to see them and their mother is more than I can tell I hope that we may all see each other again the first time that I see you I will tell you more than I can think of now be a good girl so goodbye Amos Humiston bleeds to death no identification the fear of dying anonymously haunts troops on both sides some so their names into their uniforms dog tags are still 40 years away by the war's end 400,000 soldiers will be missing in action we really cannot imagine the scale of death a scale of suffering no one could have imagined carnage on that scale and Gettysburg brings more devastation and a dairy all-out rebel assault at stake victory at Gettysburg and maybe the civil get eaten day to 12:00 p.m. the rebels are on the move they're planning a surprise attack by 14,500 troops their mission break the Union stranglehold on the high ground by outflanking needs fishery the goal of the Confederates on July 2nd is to find the Union left damaged destroy it and roll up it and unhinge the entire Union position and win the Battle of Gettysburg leading one rubble unit Brigadier General William Barksdale pro-slavery procession southern Patriot hometown Columbus Mississippi Barksdale was a man who to the ideas of the Confederacy and pursued them with raw aggressiveness with unfettered hatred for the Yankees but there's a problem the land ahead of him was not scouted because Lee's cavalry is missing there are 12 miles to the south rating supplies the Calvary the eyes and ears of an army is no longer in communication with Lee Lee is blind on the battlefield and that means that he doesn't know what the Union is up to and that course is going to cripple any army without cavalry to guide them the rebel troops nearly march into plain sight of a Union position Barksdale and the entire attack have to find another route a costly delay adding two hours to their march time that lets meet reinforce his defenses people often ask me what if they had machine guns in the Civil War I always say forget all that one set of walkie-talkies could have changed the outcome in the Civil War three miles away George Meade also has a problem just three days on the job he's lost Telegraph contact with Washington DC invented 25 years earlier The Telegraph is changing the way the Civil War battles are fought President Abraham Lincoln a hands-on commander-in-chief likes rapid news from the field the Signal Corps usually runs temporary lines to his generals at the front but at Gettysburg the field equipment hasn't learned and rebel forces have cut the lines during the whole thing he's got to be thinking Lee has beaten us time and time and time again and if he doesn't hear there's no one standing between him in the capital we're it he can't lose to issue orders to the front Meade uses a new innovation based on Morris coat wig wag signal waving the flags forms letters like the dots and dashes of code it works made tracks the rebels movements and responds with his own meanwhile on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes waits with what's left of his iron Brigade unit yesterday they routed the rebels at the railroad cut today there with the 11,500 men defending the Fish Hooks right flank stretching over three miles Meade's fishhook is formidable heavy defenses along the high ground make the Union line up here like a halt the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle Ewell replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll as the Union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. is units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go mewls Confederate troops are spreading out for the town it's a route for the rebels Amos Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that we fight every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the two men and Humiston x' regiment all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and cover them or with care by Frankie Valli and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank vault others flee as the rebels swarmed through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing has always been a male profession but during the Civil War 20,000 women sign on to care for the casualties one Union nurse Clara Barton will go on to found the Red Cross rebel soldiers go door to door looking for Union soldiers they're hiding all over town Lee has nowhere to put prisoners during the war so many are captured that North and South follow an honor system paroled prisoners taken oath not to rejoin the fight until formally exchanged coral is simply I'm going to give you a piece of paper that says don't fight anymore and if I catch you fighting then bad things are gonna happen to you then what we're gonna do later is we're going to have men from our army and men from your army meet it at a neutral place and we're gonna trade soldiers just like kids sitting around trading playing cards you know I'll trade you three generals for four Colonels and nine lieutenants for 50 privates the punishment for breaking parole is death Amos hummus – wounded and alone in a yard in the middle of town he grasps an ambrotype a photographic image of his three children fixed in glass a present from his wife on his way to war the Amos Humiston story is going to resonate with any soldier if you go to any unit in the United States military today obviously you're gonna find servicemembers with pictures of their children their wives their sweethearts because that is a tangible link to your normal life your condition and combat is not normal you're there in the service of your country to do what the nation asks you to do but the stakes are rising for both north and south on the high ground outside town Rufus Dawes and the Union Army dig it it's here at the Battle of Gettysburg will be won or lost suffering heavy losses Union troops pull out of Gettysburg leaving the town in Confederate control it might appear that the fighting on the first day for the Union was a huge waste they lost really bad on the first day but the intense trouble they put up north and west of town the intense struggle that some of them put up through the streets of Gettysburg allow them to fall back to their chosen position they retreat to a nearby series of hills than peak at 800 feet high ground that gives the Union a critical military advantage [Applause] on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes and what's left of his iron Brigade unit digging they have a new weapon to shovel their building breastworks form a fortification dating back to the Romans some officers think defensive walls create cowards not dogs after losing half his men he wants all the protection he can get down below you'll has orders from robert e lee to take cemetery and copse hills but with the qualifier if practicable you will decides to wait for reinforcements it's a decision with critical consequences if you're looking up in you're seen this great amount of walk going on up there and your men are tired from the March they've just made it from the battle they've just fought something in him triggered I'm not gonna do this or I can't do this now but certainly at the end of the day he's going to disappoint his commander I'm sure he's gonna disappoint himself the Confederacy will pay for that for the next three days this is one of the great what-ifs of the battle had you will occupied and controlled Culp's Hill in the land around it the Union Army would have simply had to leave when the battle would have been fought somewhere else maybe not so much to the Yankees advantage in the fields around Gettysburg a grim new harvest the dead and wounded from day one tending to the injured on both sides dr. LeGrande Wilson Confederate deeply religious hometown Jackson Mississippi educated in the north his family owns 40 slaves in Mississippi this was my first experience on the battlefield after the fighting and it was horrible beyond description if every human being could have witnessed the result of the mad passions of men I saw that night war would cease there would never be another battle the staggering level of death in the civil war is difficult to wrap your brain around the commonly use numbers for how many soldiers died during the civil wars between six hundred and twenty and six hundred thirty thousand today that would mean that we would lose six million American lives one innovation making this war so deadly the mini-mall 90% of the soldiers Wilson treats have miniball wounds hollow base and grooves stabilize its flight for better range and accuracy unhhhh in fact it flattens out causing much larger wounds that traditional musket balls the Warped bullet shatters bones that splinter tear through the body and the grooves in the bullet carried deadly bacteria leading to gangrene the only way to stop it amputation african-americans serve has stretcher-bearers some slaves use the invasion as a chance to escape by the end of the war half a million slaves flee to the north a hundred and fifty thousand will enlist in the Union or dr. Wilson loses a family member on the first day of battle among the dead was my own nephew lieutenant George Adrian house must have been shot in the advance upon the enemy in the morning his faithful servant Steven came out on the battlefield and sought force in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron Brigade men your parole Egleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private andersen furious at the killing of his brave young comrade with a terrific blow split the skull of the rebel who had shot young Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das losses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong and streaming towards Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert evilly we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the North threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going on to all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up a get his burger was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more 24 year old lieutenant colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they faced down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on the run retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad car the rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country / dawes retreat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William dogs rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just 175 yards to the railroad cut it will cost dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward Dawes loses 10 men carrying the color hoops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south these army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg Union troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits Humiston was like so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man I hate the idea of dying here like a hawk the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle you'll replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll as the union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. his units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go mewls Confederate troops are spreading out for the town it's a route for the rebels Amos Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that Lee fights every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant Amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the 2007 man and hummus tins regimen all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and cover them or with care my Frankie Ali and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank vault others flee as the rebels swarm through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing

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