Making "Lost Cause" pt.2 • Full documentary movie (French w. English Subtitles)



Watch how a wacky band of Canadian indy film-makers made a feature-length film with just 15,000$!

Watch the French version without subtitles right here:
Watch “Lost Cause” (full movie) here:

VIDEO TIMING
0:00 Production: A Retarded Plan
5:18 Production: Just Shoot Me!
——————–
In the other parts…

Part 1:
Beginning: The Origins of Lost Cause
Pre-Production: Let’s Get to the Beezness
——-
Part 3:
Production: Cine-Cucina (The Kitchen Studio)
Production: The Good, The Bad, and the Spaghetti
Production: That Kung-Fu Ninja Shit!
——-
Part 4:
Post-Production: That’s Art, Man!
The End: Future of a Lost Cause
——-
#documentaryfullmovie #comedy #englishsubtitles

[Musique] vu qu'on avait jamais fait dans le long métrage puis vu qu'on savait que c'était impossible de bouquets toutes nos amis tout non lieu en deux ou trois semaines on s'est dit ok mon reprendre la technique des courts métrages on va leur faire un petit de temps en temps exemple si on tourne la scène cinq ans et cinq semaines lol le film devient la scène 56 on se concentre uniquement la fin quand il ya un petit morceau ça nous a aidés à c'est moins stressant on avait moins par faire des gaffes qui au début c'est comme si on oublié quelque chose on peut faire venir dans deux semaines pour tourner le petit bob cone au maroc et puis ça nous a permis de gagner en confiance en faisant des petits seaux pleins de petits sauts au lieu de faire comme un gros soupe de se présenter mais admettons il faut qu'on se serait planté mais c'est bien moins un parent de force en petits morceaux que le choix d'une chute merci c'est historique c'est fantastique donc dans trois ans sur macdiarmid a parlé d' amis mais moi j'avais l'impression que ça prendrait justin et et je pense que c'était quand même ce début je me disais que dans le dos non à l'infini ça a pris deux ans à tourner mais si on rajoute l'écriture au début la post production à la fin puisqu'on fait présentement c4 est cette fois que nous aurons même si au départ on planifiait tourne à toutes les fins de semaine bah ça marchait pas ou même que l'on tournait pas à toutes les deux semaines sont en règle générale c'est une fois ou trois semaines maintenant contourner fait durant ces temps là on l'avait toujours le temps de revenir sur le scénario reid et de la fille les choses le scénario avec le temps ces raccourcis un petit peu des scènes qui ont été épurés des saints qui ont été détruites et écrire des nouvelles scènes et ça va quand même évolué sur 2 1 puis en même temps ça nous a permis en tant que comédien qui sont pas vraiment des comédiens ils sont deux à onze on est devenus de mieux en mieux pour nous placer dans ceux consentis futur c'est un vainqueur dans le temps passé dans le temps d'évaluer un petit peu tu vois le projet qui prend forme sur deux ans à ce jour pendant le temps où on tournait pas moi je pourrais faire du montage dont je peux prendre ce qu'on avait déjà tourné puis l'assemblée puis voir un résultat concret il partagé avec le 2big pour nous aussi ça nous permettait de raffiner notre technique puis d'anticiper des problèmes sur les prochaines fois qu'on a détourné était est-ce qu'on est obligé de faire plus de plaire ou moins de place que l'on réalise bien est-ce qu'on joue bientôt retourner sur longtemps ça nous a permis de repenser à tous les niveaux devenir meilleur c'est évident que tourner longtemps comme on le fait sur la porte certains des avantages surtout dolls dans le plat de la continuité toutes ces affaires le fallait que tout le temps que je garde mes cheveux un certain certaine longueur parce que c'était les personnages de bob effet y en a pas fallu que je mange trop de gardes ou que je devine ultra faire non plus et c'est ces gens d'affaires que oui et échelonné sur deux ans faut faire attention à ce qui est déjà arrivé des fois que ça pouvait mal tourner comme ans qui l'ont retourné là ça fait au moins qu'on n'a rien fait affirmé face aux pêcheurs sont trop courts les parrainent d'essayer de mettre quelque chose fabre et dames erreur parce que ta coupe de cheveux est pas pareil quand même la capote c'est qu'un certain moment donné il y avait tellement plus de notion de temps de restriction de temps que j'avais l'impression d'aller tourner pour la vie parce que 10 c'est pas comme si tu as une restriction et créatif genre de 24 jeunes qui sont finies pour nombre de films de monstres les choix 8 tu coupes des trucs parce que l'on pouvait juste tout autre à 11 42 plants faire aujourd'hui pour les frappes au fait qu'on voit les jeux super une autre jolie tournage de plus près en bois dont une journée totalement différente même chose à la voiture et préfère exactement la même appareil – honore les morts je sais que oui c'est le démotiver des gens mais mois estivaux ont noté des moteurs certains points parce que qui dit ça va se finir s'était fait mal à se suicider de tout ce que je trouvais un but dommage qu'à la balle si on avait fait ce projet là comme en 30 jours en 24 jours d'affilée il ya comme une espèce de sentiment des arts le fait qu'on est arrivé au bout tandis qu l'heure on en est venu à manager car il m'en veut mourir pour garder les gens motivés par un montant quoi faire à part le dit écoute c'est le fun je compte en dessous ici merci beaucoup merci beaucoup et puis justement tu es nourris ou données de la bourse les plus souvent possible on la remet entraînez-vous différents pour qu'ils voient l'évolution du projet prend girl in potro temps pendant le tournage que dans la paix dans la postproduction juste de garder tout le monde au parfum de ce qui se passe les gars d impliquer une plus possible c'est pas mal je sais qu'on faisait pour garder motivés parce que quoi d'autre que je vous demande quoi d'autre oyez ben comme ça [Musique] lorsqu'il tombe en dessous ils vont travailler pour toi t'en tenir à 749 la reprise de action en tant que réalisateur dans un film était responsable de tous décident avec le directeur photo très mal éclairée joie et la shoah va être fréquemment qui veulent placer une qui tue adéquat que l'intensité était en charge de garder toujours l'histoire du sumo en tête parce que chaque petit détail compte c'est le producteur donc tu penses toujours ou budget je pense toujours à l'horaire a quant à elle sera menée l'équipement est ce que tout le monde est content ce que tout le monde est à l'heure donc ce fait 8000 tâches en même temps et en plus tu joues notons firme fait que c'est un plaisir à tous ces problèmes le sur le dos de foot je pensais bien joué à te rappeler de temps après portant la taille fait de le faire à deux avec caro meilleure chose au monde ok c'est impensable de pau avoir quelqu'un globale de la caméra qui dit ce quelque chose ce serait mauvais entoure la première femme avec quelques [Musique] [Applaudissements] pas de faire la coupure entre les deux c'était assez difficile parce qu'un temps en avant de la caméra si tu diriges toi même quand tu joues quand tu joues avec lord pearson se regarde comment que l'autre personne joue puis dans ta tête tu la dirige dans ta tête pour être capable de personnes quoi faire quoi changer sa vie automatiquement quelqu'un gameiro fermer le tourment qu'est-ce qui t'arrive et le cadrage et technique s'est tu moi je sais que je tiens vraiment tout tout tout tout tout est une actrice là je prendrai slash this way à chkouk c'est sur la forme mais si c'est plus compliqué que juste à être honorée de caméras c'est ce qu'a fait on découvre alors on est 200 m la caméra tourne tout seul présentement le cas au pinceau demain le plus de personnes connectées sur le plateau le plus de techniciens et en même temps ça a été je pense six blessés on compte technicien myopie caveau parce qu'on réalise au fait que ç'a toujours été des petites petites équipes alors fait qu'ils prendront c'est l'arbre n'est merveilleusement bien micro et se plaignait jamais cédé par facebook comptera deux mois qu'est ce que je vois sur un micro qui donne à la main de quelqu'un qui opère la caméra par les crs du coup d'arrêt perles ça fonctionnait bien c'est juste que tout est un peu plus lent le directeur photo il ya pour 4 go pour l'injecter tabriquet one man show oui au niveau des désavantages nous a fait tous et sur le niveau de l'équipement il ya quand même eu je te dirai il ya eu des moments où du dessin effort de fait on avait quand même l'éclairage qu'il fallait malgré que ce soit c'est une petite caméra hd c'est les psy ces tops d'éclairage des petits trucs mais je pense que la nature du projet et à cinq ans pour espérer ça que ça et là de londres donc clair une scène de nuit avec une sao paulo avec une 63 points 40 watts pouvez-vous donner à ces professionnels afin tout avec deux bâtons de popsicle d'une chandelle mais ça sent bien [Musique] il ya un moment où ça doit vraiment lui le son que je me suis toujours et il sait martha lisez sur l'internet retourner dans le vieux port un dimanche matin je pense ce n'est pas vraiment le nom dans le centre du dieu pardon vaudra d'être tranquille au programme monde où c'était c'est résister un peu traumatisant liées ont promis une fanfare et sa voix [Musique] il ya aussi un véhicule et en chine tiens qu'on ne voyait pas ce genre demi heure des touristes dont dario de des petites filles qui m'ont rendu fou exprès pour choisir quelque chose qui les sports puis cech désolé je n'ai justement je pensais que ça faisait plus importante il que ce dramatique [Musique] et donc ils voient la direction artistique film c'est à dire tout ce qu'ils décors costumes tous que dans l'univers visuel du film ça allait être accompli par tout le monde vous avez personne qui dit moi je suis directeur artistique saint jean avec une grosse partie de tous puisque lui et comme le pire c'est lui qui est arrivé même avec l'idée de faire une table avec des boîtes des choses comme cela parce que les cavs 65 et iphone sont des bois qui pensent pas subir ou le monde réalise post évident cuisine nous devons répondre au téléphone ont assuré qu'un camion bien que montant de boîte ben ça reste c'est assez drôle de répéter plusieurs fois parce que chacun on était quelque chose comme quatre dents saines à aller prendre des voix des amplis comme il faut mais tu as bien ci-dessus plus steve revenus vont à vérité très fins de copie de coop on a travaillé sur des enfants avait dit il comme quoi voler litres qui lui font envie de vivre ça mais ça donne un résultat on va faire flotter un livre d'enquêté legault s'il était capable de go c'est grâce à n'importe quoi ils prenaient pas le malin et plaisait à gas electric jours [Musique] 4 on aime les effets spéciaux mais on a pré budget pas confie t on pas de caméra de votre moto du sac qui va rentrer à travers huit noms savez je sais le cercle flop la cuisine faut que les effets spéciaux soit croyable mais qui soit drôle en même temps c'était ça notre philosophie un peu le fait partie gros ce que sinon ça c'est de faire quelque chose de malade avec du feu du 3d puis ça va ça va finir par se savoir un épisode de capitaine par les années 80 très juste un autre studio quand même eu le temps de faire le fantôme du vieux paul c'est devenu un petit peu plus compliqué on a loué ce qu'on appelle un cours maths ça nous permet de faire du green screen sauf que au lieu d'être comme un carton vert qui est dans l'erreur de thouars l'écran vert a marre de toi c'est une couverte grise qui réfléchit la lumière puisse être le merlot provient d'un anneau qui a tranché après la caméra avec ça on obtient les seuils de win win [Musique] pour les personnages du vieux paul on voulait avoir quelqu'un de connu dans ce rôle là et puis on le fait on l'a tourné les scènes avec jantes l'heureux la comédie qui fait passe montagne juste jusqu'à la fin du tournage d'un combat avec ideo pour savoir si on arrive droit de servir de sa performance qui même s'ils lui voulait faire du d'ailleurs les points qui fâchent mais on sait pas à qui on a fait les mêmes versions de ses seins de l'homme est avec moi dans le rôle du fantôme aussi part aux effets spéciaux y avait beaucoup de doutes au sein de l'équipe à savoir ça fait marcher ce que voulait faire ce que vous avez capable d'avoir laissé un ordinateur j'étais un peu le jeu tend un peu je dois dire que j'étais comme s'ils croyaient pas taxe mais en même temps oui mais peut-être pas si je comprenais pas tout la structure la chose ça computer pas dans mon salon danger le doute ouais mais ces ambassades d'allemagne à trois du marché [Musique] [Applaudissements] [Rires] au niveau de la marionnette moi je me disais qu'un jour je vous pour en faire un film onf aussi essayer de le faire autre chose on entend que chaque américain compte non mais c était la fin d'un équipement comme comme projet suscitait pas été couché à terre avec mon brouillon d'un sac à dos pour faire le phare de marionnettes la place au sein de voix beauté noire poteau puis vous senti mon brevet sakho dévissé puis selon les lignes ou si c'est juste je savais pertinemment que c'est quelqu'un d'autre qui à la fin de vos rêves fallait quand même je fais les lignes en même temps aussi même si c'est pas ma voix mais juste pour au moins donner donner le timing qui donne essayé de donner la bonne expression va combattre [Musique] [Rires] j'étais très sévère parce que j'avais lu le scénario et puis je y avait des idées vraiment saugrenue de banvit de l'autre qu'après que c'est steve kimba roux était d'abord de l'autre qui faisait ligne les mouvements nécessaires à ce qu'on comprenne bien ce qui se passe [Rires] [Musique] ça arrive c'est un club c'est juste drôle du tout très malin avec les making of du test or une bonne fin et forêts

Wendy Williams Is Producing Her Own Biopic and Documentary



Wendy Williams talks about her Ritz Harper book series and her plans to produce a documentary and biopic about her life.
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Wendy Williams Is Producing Her Own Biopic and Documentary- Late Night with Seth Meyers

Late Night with Seth Meyers

-What I like about your show
is it's very honest. It's this kind of thing.
You don't lie to your audience. And they know that.
-I was talking to Eric Holder behind the scenes back there.
-Yeah. -He's coming out a little later.
-Yeah. -So, he was like, "Oh, my gosh. You're like you are
on your show." I was like,
"Well, what do you want?" -Yeah.
-Nobody has time to act. -Yeah. Also, this —
I would — It would be very — I feel like you can only be you.
Is that accurate? -Seth.
-Yes. -Believe me.
-Yeah. -I can only be me.
-Yeah. And I'm so glad. What is this? Season 11?
-11. -Amazing.
Congratulations on that. -I never thought
it would last, honestly. -Yeah, 11 is a big deal.
-It is. Well, it's not — I mean, 10 is a good number.
11 is kind of a weird number. -Well, don't make me feel bad
about saying 11 is a big deal. -But 11. Yeah. Yeah, yeah. -You also — I don't think
people fully appreciate how multitalented you are. You've written a series of books
before you had your show. -Yes.
-Ritz Harper was the character. And I feel like Ritz Harper
was maybe slightly based, inspired by Wendy Williams?
-Certainly. -There was "Ritz Harper
Goes to Hollywood." -Well, that's me posing as Ritz.
-Yeah. -Mm-hmm. [ Laughs ] -This is another
Ritz Harper book. "Drama is Her Middle Name." -That was the first one
of the Ritz. That's correct. -I got to say,
this made me laugh so hard. -Okay.
-I haven't stopped laughing. -That is me with
ketchup sprayed around me. -And the title of
this Ritz Harper book is "Is the Bitch Dead or What?" [ Laughter ] [ Cheers and applause ] I mean —
-The thing about Ritz — Ritz is a fabulous New York City
disc jockey who happens to get a talk show. -Oh, wow.
So it's really close to home. -But — And so I have this —
I'm in bed with Lifetime. Not in bed, nut, you know.
-Yeah, yeah. -With Lifetime right now. And I would like to see Ritz
either as a series or a movie. But my first project is
going to be my own life story. -Oh, you're going to do a
Lifetime movie about yourself, your life story?
-Oh, believe me you. -Are you gonna — Is it
gonna be a documentary or is it gonna be a narrative? -Okay. Okay, okay, okay.
Okay, okay. They're doing two hours
for the movie and then two hours
for the documentary. -Oh, my God. So who's going to
play you in the movie? -Four hours of me.
-Yeah. -On Lifetime. -Are they — How can they cast
Wendy Williams? Are you going to play yourself?
-No, no. No. I'm producing.
-Yeah. -I got no time to act.
-Yeah, of course. Hands off. -Yeah, yeah.
But here's the thing. No. I want to hire actors
that no one knows. Because, really, you know,
there's a message in it. I mean, we can laugh
and joke all day, Seth. -We can, yes.
-But in actuality, I've been doing this — I've had
a microphone for over 30 years. -Uh-huh.
-You know what I mean? And I've done the best I can
with what I had. And what I have is, you know, my parents don't come
from, you know, nepotism, you know, like, making a phone
call, getting Wendy in the door. I've fought for everything.
And I've never been MeToo'd. You know, I —
Respect to all the girls who, you know,
are going through that. I've never done that.
I don't even know what that is. You know,
I fight, punch, hustle. Even right now, you know,
going through a public divorce while I'm still a big mouth
doing hot topics. I'm talking about people
when I'm being talked about. It's me against the world. -Well, I feel as though the
world is getting a beating. You've been doing great. Congratulations
on all your success. And let me tell you,
it is always such a pleasure to have you here. -You're kicking me out?
-I'm kicking you out. Wendy Williams, everybody.

From rainforest to charcoal | DW Documentary



Huge areas of tropical rainforest are being destroyed to make charcoal for barbecues. The global deforestation is leading to growing problems. Nigeria and the DRC Congo – two of Europe’s main charcoal suppliers – are also affected.

Every year, Europeans use approximately 800,000 tons of charcoal for barbecuing. Seventy percent of the charcoal comes from outside the EU, and the bags often contain remnants of tropical woods. Officially, tropical woods are subject to strict import conditions. But when it comes to wood charcoal, these do not apply.
Worldwide, 2.7 billion people cook and heat with wood or charcoal. The related emission of greenhouse gases is enormous. 55 percent of global wood is used as fuel per year, and much of it is cut illegally in Africa’s bush and tropical forests. Nigeria produces most of its charcoal for export. Especially during dry periods, local Nigerian farmers use coal production as a lifeline to make money and feed their families. At the same time, charcoal mills travel the countryside in family groups, charring all the trees they can cut down. The consequences are hair-raising. Nigeria lost 36 percent of its forests between 1990 and 2005. At present, twelve percent of the country is still covered with forest – but charcoal production continues to rise, eating up 350,000 hectares of fertile land here every year. According to the UN, charcoal production is one of the main causes of deforestation in Africa, which in turn is closely linked to massive deterioration in soil quality and a growing risk of crop failure. But African legislation has been slow to respond to the problem. The coal business is highly lucrative business, and rakes in some 7.4 billion US Dollars a year. According to recent estimates, the current illegal trade in charcoal is worth almost three times as much as the trade in illegal drugs.

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put this on South Korea hardly anyone knows how non-transparent this market really is for that one ton of charcoal requires five to ten tons of wood this has an enormous impact on the environment done the way the wood comes from there's often terrible human rights abuses there's poverty this deforestation is desertification in places of Africa alas no go it's completely unacceptable that tropical rainforests are being destroyed just to produce cheap charcoal this shouldn't be happening it's madness Nigeria with 186 million inhabitants it's the most populated country in Africa this is where most of the charcoal imported to the EU comes from it's a huge business not only in Nigeria Paraguay in South America is another big global player according to the UN over half the trees cut down worldwide are burned to produce charcoal with severe effects to the climate Nigerian merchants praised the high quality of charcoal derived from tropical wood it's particularly durable and its embers last much longer but these traders don't have to certify where they get their charcoal the wood could be from one of the few sustainable plantations for tropical timber in Africa or it could have been illegally logged in the rainforests Kingsley a canoe specializes in export ready to be filled with choco merchants who want to import tropical timber to the EU have to certify its origins the process is strictly regulated but those guidelines don't apply to charcoal 88% of the charcoal used in Germany is imported Nigeria alone supplies 31,000 tonnes a year but most consumers have no idea what they are using to grill their sausages these goes to Germany in part on packs the Germany when it'll be forming into yeah yeah aggressive Jeremy hey fill up one container all these feel about 40 feet container charcoal from Nigeria made in Germany made possible because there are no restrictions on importing charcoal made from tropical timber to the EU the spoke Agard and trade fair in Cologne this is where the outdoor grilling industry comes together many distributors can't see any problem with charcoal from the tropics the trade association however would rather not comment yeah Olivier what's her from France has been fighting against imported tropical charcoal for years he works for the NGO the forest trust or TFT they want charcoal to be processed only from sustainably cultivated forests and for consumers to easily see if they're buying charcoal from native or illegally logged tropical wood there is no transparency to tell what is the real prediction because some importers pretend to be producing but we are producing are not there we can create a European working group on that part because if we don't do that it will not be clear so for the crystal it is actor Bob Dora Mae MC the detector for a cast there are distributors who keep importing but the market will force their hand the moment we changed the market everyone who wants to carry on as usual will be left in other choice in France TFT has already managed to change the market most buyers for large retail chains have come to reject charcoal from tropical forests Peola VA is meeting a belgian who imports african charcoal the man is convinced of his products quality and even has a seal to prove it's been produced responsibly he can't understand the concern about tropically sourced charcoal you have to realize that there are also sustainably managed tropical forests I don't see why these products should be banned you can't forget that the charcoal market is helping feed thousands of people in Africa we'd be making things too easy on ourselves if we suddenly decided to just ban everything sourced from Nigeria we need to actively deal with the problem in Nigeria it's true that many people depend on the charcoal business in places where qualified jobs are hard to come by there they often live in the humblest conditions people like Kobi he and his family make charcoal for a living they travel across the country as nomads and log trees wherever they can in the wild not unsustainable estates the process is simple enough the wood is stacked covered with dirt and then lit these so-called kilns seal off most oxygen allowing the wood to burn down slowly in about 11 days it's reduced to charcoal 500 cuts that are strong it can produce about 200 dogs within a month we don't enjoy the work to BCCI we don't enjoy the work is a hard job it's a hard labor most times when you come back you're retired and that's why most of us use drugs after coming back from the work you know that to regain your strength for one ton of charcoal the workers need up to 10 tons of wood most of the energy escapes as excess heat exhaust leaks from the piles and the surrounding soil is contaminated with toxins deforestation is a huge problem in Nigeria a study by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization found that four hundred and ten thousand hectares of forest were cut down each year not only does that have a major impact on the climate it also leads to erosion and the forming of new deserts but the forests aren't being destroyed just to make charcoal they're also being cleared for farmland and yet 87% of all trees logged in Nigeria are used for firewood or charcoal Harry Hoffman is a scientist for years he's been concerned about the charcoal production in Africa to some it's the only way they can make a living during the dry season or towards the end of the dry season before they return to their fields there's nothing left to pay for school so they go to the forest and cut down trees to make charcoal they can sell on the street corner even if it is illegal when they do they risk their fields drawing up back to Germany Johannes sannen is a wood specialist at the World Wildlife Fund today he's brought bags of charcoal to the TuneIn Institute in Hamburg he too wants trade restrictions for charcoal and he's backing up his arguments with facts if it were up to him importing illegal timber into the EU would be banned as with the charcoal produced from it so gay I'd call and his colleagues want to see just how much wood from tropical forests these bags contain there's a lot of pressure from consumers not just for these products coal in particular is almost a cultural asset for Germans finding a legal wood in their charcoal would leave a bad taste in their mouths businesses can't afford that a few months or years ago this product wouldn't have gained such broad attention some consolation forum to date importers don't need to show that the wood for their charcoal was legally sourced and any product information on the bag doesn't show the country of origin either for kaha is one of Germany's leading specialists in determining wood he can't say where the charcoal is from but he can discern which type of wood it was made from even if it isn't printed on the bag he instantly recognizes some native tree species before before I put it under the microscope I do a pre examination sometimes I use a magnifying glass to determine what type we're dealing with the Scottish moss I've already dug a bit out from the bottom of the bag and as you can see what makes charcoal so special is that unlike wood it's brittle when I break it up it creates these clean edges I can look at those with my magnifying glass here for example we have an ash tree this bag doesn't contain any tropical timber but other bags do women in the tungsten encircles kulikov do you swing by the nearest gas station to pick up a bag of charcoal of course you have no idea how far it has traveled already and what ecological footprint it has left behind the entire forests are being cut down in countries like Nigeria or in Eastern Europe sometimes even protected forests are being plundered when that has an immense impact on the ecosystem or biodiversity and on the climate overall we need to act here we have briquettes here we have a product that we're looking at yes WWF this is pure charcoal here we have a different product with the slogan for the sake of the environment that's the co2 neutral Foca hog inspects 20 bags of charcoal that johannes sanan had bought in various hardware and grocery stores in many cases it's evident the wood isn't native before I've had a look at the man to the microscope I can't say for sure these samples are definitely of tropical origin it's not that simple but I can say that the ones I've looked at are definitely not from regular wood so we know for certain that it isn't oak ash Elm birch or Beach compressed briquettes are especially hard to examine they consist mostly of coal dust and starch but even here the expert is able to find traces of wood amid totem identifying wood species is called wood Anatomy we identify types of word based on their anatomical structure people have been examining plant structures for two or three hundred years what's important is to have reference material the island that's why the TuneIn Institute of wood Research stores thousands of samples of various trees but instructor mahes illness structural features we can see here we can definitely say this wood is not from a temperate or even boreal region that a boy we are in swinish dumps that means this charcoal was definitely tropically sourced eight of the 20 bags they examined did contain wood from rainforests that amounts to 40% of their samples five bags even contained red list species of endangered or restricted wood the findings are upsetting for Johannes Sonnen of the World Wildlife Fund not the omission Sophie this has been a topic for so many years us to find such catastrophic results here in Germany with shopkins it can't go on like this many distributors won't take responsibility for their products origin sustainable cultivation Environmental Protection labor laws none of it matters production costs are much much lower than operating a Congaree here in Germany so that makes it attractive transporting it over the ocean from Nigeria to Germany or Europe is a fairly small portion of the total cost most Germans have no idea that their charcoal is sometimes produced with people's bare hands and Kobe would never have guessed that his charcoal was used to grilled German sausages many industry make use of charcoal apart from hookahs there are some industry to them make use of it like those people that have a poultry farm they also make use of charcoal also people take it from different industry but I don't know what they use it for but we just produce it for them and they take it to town Kobe and his workers get $3 for each bag of charcoal even in Nigeria that's not a lot of money but the supply chain in Africa is long transporters sorters distributors everyone wants to turn a profit the jobs are highly sought after most jobs provided are at the urban level at a city sentence what charcoal the Chuckle does is one of the few jobs and actually brings jobs down to the rural areas to the local women through people who order otherwise they have no education I have nothing to fall back to they have nothing for them here is a lifesaver there's really no major industry here they cry they call me the same boss bring bring charcoal let us walk we need to work because there's no other thing and this sector is growing one study estimates the market could be worth up to 12 billion dollars by 2030 with 12 million people working in it that's a shadow market most of the money made in that sector will stay with the powerful distributors the money isn't made in Nigeria it's made in Europe over here we have the products we're ready to ship to places like Poland this is ready whenever the container comes in we ship it out in 2015 alone exports from Nigeria to Poland grew by 51% and buyers from Africa most times they repackage and then sell to other European countries here supalen is a very big hope they buy a lot of Nigerian markets the charcoal is shipped to Europe in containers the TFT organisation has seen to it that less Nigerian charcoal is imported to France but exports to Poland are on the rise here conservationists say charcoal from tropical wood is simply repackaged and distributed throughout Europe peer only ba what turn continues his search in Poland we're here to see if this factory really does produce charcoal we want to know if all the wood was locally sourced and processed on our previous visits to Poland we learned that some only pretend to be producers actually import charcoal repackage it and then sell it and then they claim it was produced here in their factory today prae and his colleagues are visiting europe's largest charcoal producer the company greece gand has three factories that produce fifteen percent of all the charcoal consumed eu-wide the managing director is guiding a tour through the facilities the conservationists want to find out if all the charcoal is truly produced here in Poland or if it's mixed with charcoal from tropical woods for kog the most important clue is a look in the business books he's interested in the amounts of charcoal and wood coming and going so far he's been acting on behalf of French chains that have committed themselves to offer only sustainable charcoal the forest trust checks that no tropical wood finds its way into the bags their biggest difficulty is figuring out how many tons of wood the company needs to produce one ton of charcoal based on the method employed the amounts can vary greatly now it's ple B's job to estimate how efficiently the plant works and compare the wood purchases with the charcoal sales competition in this sector is fierce as is the temptation to cheat with illegal African charcoal its countries keep production costs down and companies managed to buy raw material from dubious sources who presume they can earn higher profit margins on import and trade important hunter if a demon while importers pay very little for their raw material European producers must dig deep into their pockets for the wood producers traders everyone looks to cut corners to make sure that they can meet those price reductions that are forced onto them by the market by consumers in fact and unfortunately that often leads to the cheapest wood the illegal wood getting into the system the largest producer in Europe states that its wood is purchased from native forests that's a big cost factor there's lots of wood what's important is that the wood is actually from this region cultivated sustainably and it's so that it can be labeled as responsibly produced charcoal shovel boss boss native wood from responsible forestry that means the amount of wood that can be logged is limited to how much can regrow european foresters have known this principle for centuries that's how they responded to the massive clearing of forests in the early 18th century they call it sustainability to make sure the charcoal is as sustainable as the managing director said it was their next appointment is with the Forester again ple bhx the production the books and the woods origins he makes sure the forests are large enough to supply the amount of wood the manufacturer needs he takes careful note of the numbers of hectares the age of the trees and the amount of wood extracted cut down from the forest the plant or he hasn't found a bug in the system yet but he keeps asking the manufacturers Quality Manager and the Forester both take all his questions unlike in Africa the amount of woodland in the EU is growing in Poland it went from eight point eight million hectares in 1990 to nine point four million hectares in 2015 that only works with truly sustainable methods PL on TV what time is very pleased with what he's seen here so I'm prone to stone for it's just for these don't count they have a forest cultivation plan set up for ten years with a registry for each logging so that way they know exactly how much wood they're allowed to take from each plot this means traceability right back to where it was felled and we know they've been cultivating sustainably for years this wood here for example is 60 years old biomes acidity working space on top would four guilt-free charcoal thanks to traditional forestry guidelines modern technology and careful documentation this forest will continue supplying as much wood as it does today for centuries to come this naturalness Fidelma there's plenty of wood right here in Poland you don't need to buy it in Africa that add there's enough deciduous trees to cover the demand for charcoal Pia Olivier hopes to someday find charcoal in supermarkets that is only produced from sustainable wood but in Europe there aren't many sustainable manufacturers like this one in Poland and companies that produce charcoal and electricity are the exception to the rule and so he sets off for France one of the most modern charcoal factories in the world is here in the Champagne region the region is also home to vast deciduous forests and yet France still imports most of its charcoal this manufacturer wants to prove that producing charcoal in France can in fact be profitable what it lacks in size the business makes up for in innovation the French government supports it with subsidies the managing directors were even invited to the world climate conference in Bonn in 2017 to talk about eco-friendly charcoal production at home and in developing countries here comes from the forest buggies so son thanks to modern technology they only need 2 and a half tons of wood for each ton of charcoal they produce that means they can preserve 40% of the wood in comparison the earth mounds in Africa only have an efficiency rate of about 10% meaning their kilns require four times the amount of wood the charcoal is dried in huge baskets with the excess heat given off during production here is proof that we're able to make renewable charcoal all it takes is sustainable forestry and today's technology using this method we can produce charcoal electricity and heat three products at once from one single resource that's what makes this product competitive and profitable in Europe this site provides 10,000 homes with steady electricity the tropical charcoal producers can only dream of having such a modern plant worldwide we're experiencing the deforestation of several million hectares each year that is so much in so relevant that it makes up about 15% of manmade carbon emissions consumed by Tate satellite images reveal that 30 percent of Africa's oldest national park has already been destroyed the national park is very old and has been particularly affected by people illegally extracting wood to produce charcoal the Virunga National Park lies in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo the charcoal produced here isn't exported 97% of the people in the region use it for cooking and heating the areas surrounding the National Park have already been cleared according to the World Wildlife Fund ninety percent of the trees felled here are used to produce charcoal four years ago this whole area was full of trees now four years later all the trees have been cut down and not only that even the roots have been pulled out of the ground the World Wildlife Fund foresters are shocked the demand for charcoal is so high in this region that even digging up and charring tree roots is worth the effort nearly three billion people on the planet cook with wood and it's not just cooking they use wood for heating – it's essential to them and there's no way of replacing it producing wood sustainably requires space space they don't have the population in Africa will quadruple by the end of the century capacity limits are often exceeded now one big problem is the lack of infrastructure only three percent of the people living in the huge city of Goma and its surrounding villages have access to electricity cooking with gas would be easier healthier and more eco-friendly but charcoal is often the only source of energy they have people need to be certain that they'll have gas when they need it otherwise they can't cook it's a crucial source of energy for many people and it will be for a long time to come the last 10 years have seen huge forest areas vanish the WWF workers are certain the ongoing political conflicts in the region are contributing to the deforestation here this all used to be forests monkeys lived here now there aren't any left to save the national park the WWF workers want to turn around their charcoal market and are reaching out to all parties involved even the transporters they ride their bikes 30 kilometers to the next city here they say it costs $20 and in Goma it costs $23 we asked them if they produced the charcoal themselves but they just buy it to resell it in Goma it's legit boo alle vongole mo the destruction of the V Rangga National Park is immense the region is one of the most densely populated in all of Africa the conflict in neighboring Rwanda have only made matters worse countless refugees are seeking shelter and using charcoal for cooking the World Wildlife Fund in Goma is very engaged in the topic of charcoal chili Lesage and his team hoped for lasting peace in order to save the national park since 1996 this region has gone through a lot of unrest before that there were the looting wars from 1992 onwards and then came the first liberation war in 1996 that forced many to flee all that had an impact on the environment in Goma the number of residents has nearly doubled in the last seven years especially due to the many refugees who have come only eleven kilometers separate the city from the national park so it's no wonder that 80% of the charcoal used here is illegally sourced from Virunga like in most places in Africa the charcoal business here is also a shadow market the dealers by their charcoal in villages and then sell it here the price range depends on how old the tree was that's used to make the charcoal charcoal from young trees costs 20 US dollars the older the tree the more energy it supplies and the higher the price nike lawyer can I be retailers prefer cheaper softer charcoal because they can sell it in small portions some households buy the higher quality tougher charcoal and I personally delivered to the wholesale dealers just as in Europe here too it makes a difference where the wood for charcoal is from but it's also just as important to reduce the charcoal consumption the men and women of Goma stove are contributing to just that with direction from the WWF they conducted several tests and studies that helped them develop a particularly energy-efficient oven it only uses half as much charcoal as a traditional oven under the metal plating is a clay core that is baked the first time the oven is used a la première the first juste should be for something that needs to be cooked for a long time that's the case for most things cooked regularly here such as beans zombie or corn fufu that long first use bakes the clay core the demand for efficient cooking is huge Goma stove has produced and sold more than 80 thousand ovens since 2009 they've even delivered their product to the capital Kinshasa we produce a lot we used to make seven ceramic inserts today now it's 30 35 even hundred fifty this customer just bought her second Goma stove the savings have made a noticeable difference in her household budget the oven manufacturers smart marketing water over straightaway Muscovy demonize some households were uncertain about how they would cut their coal consumption in half zowie ask them how much they used with their traditional stove they'd answer two bags so we told them to go and buy two bags and when they do we give them our stove as a credit and tell them to use it and pay us at the end of the month to use then by the end of the month they realize they still have one bag of charcoal left bread em what you know Gloria stuck it in my color one bag lasts a month each family can save one and a half tons of charcoal over the two-year life expectancy of the stove and it's affordable the cost can easily be paid off in a month at the end of the month families are left with more money with efficient cookers it's possible to drastically reduce per capita charcoal consumption sustainable charcoal production on the other hand is more difficult outside of the national park hardly any trees are left and inside armed rebel groups from Rwanda have a tight grip on charcoal production they wouldn't dream of giving up this critical source of income papow Houston lives in a small village on the edge of ruin ganash '''l park he still clearly remembers when the Rwandan rebels came into his village and turned everything upside down they invaded the park and cut down all the trees since then the environment has been out of balance we don't have any rivers or streams and then the dry periods have become longer well that's when we decided we need to plant trees and we started looking for partners who would help us Felicia she taught a part in a 2v2 stem as a companion a separation bosie palooka became their trusted world wildlife fund partner he's a forester and knows what it takes to create a plantation you need to keep a close eye on the seedlings LaPlante so they reproduce at the right time tree must be planted at the beginning of the rainy season if you miss your window even by just a few days your plantation might not survive the WWF support plantations across the region with their eco makalah project Busey knows the people here well and understands that close contact with local chieftains and mayor's is just as important as a tree nursery FASTA is also an advocate on the hills this will help us fight erosion water there flows down the slopes and destroys our fields it even tears houses down the advantages are already visible after just a few years the WWF was successful now 100 tree nurseries 13 thousand hectares of plantations and nine thousand farmers have joined the project Jeff village chief is also convinced of the advantages ever since the project began he's been working to persuade the six thousand seven hundred families in his tribe to plant trees in order to secure the villages future at the eco makalah plantations they taught us a different way to cut down trees and build kilns that way we can produce higher quality charcoal that we can sell in Goma for a higher price so we have charcoal we can cook with ourselves we can sound chunko and that will pay for our children's education and the medical treatment and also for food today he's showing others how to plant trees to protect the fertile soil from erosion and landslides in five years these little saplings have become fully grown trees perfect for producing charcoal when they're ready for harvesting they provide a clean legal alternative to trees from the National Park lafon so this we can save the Virunga National Park if we plant more trees and at the same time we reduce our consumption our use of charcoal do you it like oh so much improve methods for coal making have doubled the amount of charcoal we can produce combine that with our improved stoves and we're saving on both ends on the one hand we're improving charcoal yields while on the other we're using less charcoal so basically we're raising supply and lowering demand demand the charcoal makers have learned that drawing the wood for two months before charring it is more effective this dense pile will be covered with dirt later and set on fire ventilation shafts to light the pile and a chimney made of old barrels will double the amount of charcoal this kiln can produce in addition the quality will be much higher fifteen percent of the charcoal used in Goma is sourced from the WWF's eco Makana project the long-term goal is to raise that to 30 percent the farmers have already begun to notice positive effects on the environment the proposed ever since the project started we've noticed an upward trend for example the times for planting used to be messed up as we risked losing our crops thanks to the plantations we planted with the Eco McCullough project we've seen the ecosystem restoring we can now go back to planting based on the old calendar a donkey lucuma saw respectfully calendar paratha but 30% is all this plantation can cover anymore wouldn't leave enough room for farming the project has helped slow down the destruction of the National Park but it can't stop it altogether further solutions still need to be developed and new energy sources tapped into back to France the charcoal pioneers are working on making their method more attractive for developing countries lower wood requirements reliable electricity and quality charcoal together these three things might be able to save the Virunga National Park the charcoal visionaries and Pia LED owatta are convinced that all it would take is enough political will to reach a sustainable solution for africa's charcoal problem without the correct circumstances however they don't want to introduce their method no Graham Duplantis plantation programs are a necessary condition for setting up the factory like ours in Africa Mayor Victor for growing schedules supported by the government or local groups would make that absolutely possible one particular advantage is that they'd not only have charcoal but electricity – too many people in Africa charcoal is a necessary energy source in Europe it's central to the grill culture efficient production and sustainable forestry can make charcoal a renewable resource only the combined efforts of governments businesses and consumers can stop the destruction of our tropical forests you

KPEL Transformers Corporate Film|Brand House|Corporate Video Production in Hyderabad|South Films



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India is Vols third largest producer and fourth largest consumer of electricity growing population along with increasing electrification and per-capita usage to drive growth in power consumption rapidly energy is lifeline for any developed society and transformers are critical components delivering reliable and continuous path to its users it is this criticality that drives Kenya copper initially engineering limited to continuously develop and manufacture highly reliable and efficient transformers that gives peace of mind to its users we all know that transformers are the heart and soul of power supply in modern world knowing the significance of them we have established Kanaga permission Engineering limited in 1983 to act as a one-stop destination for all power distribution equipment solutions despite being a new company in the competitive industry under the leadership of mr. Raja Rao gamba Kenyatta perimetry engineering Limited has become one of the most sought-after name in the manufacturing of transformers and electrical equipment mr. Laxmi Khan gumpa for the greater good of people we produce electrical equipment we do what's best for transformers since we are manufacturing them Chanukah is an organization where every employee is empowered to take decision-making and enabling us to take big decision and prompt action we welcome you to do business with Kanaka having two world-class facility units to manufacture them our transformers are being utilized in significant number of rural electrification networks urban electrification of both residential and commercial buildings across India which we have the capacity to make a pretend megawatt and 33 kilo watt class we specialized in making amorphous core transformers which are 80 percent more efficient than to conventional transformers and we make that cold in-house to ensure the best quality while we believe in technology the advanced vacuum drying and vacuum oil filling facility makes our transformers more reliable with optimum inputs and at wast automation tools and 3d simulations ensuring precise and timely production to our clients as becoming the first and foremost once tolerated efficiency transformers manufacturer in India Kenya copper misery engineering Limited believes innovation in technology having expert personnel in technological adaption and advances we have and always will create state-of-the-art equipment over 1 lakh 50,000 units of transformers are in satisfactory service across the country and steadily growing today the company is able to deliver more than five thousand transformers per month and we are able to satisfy our customers both on timely delivery and quality by all means moving forward globally we sustain innovation service and quality in the process of productivity

Hawaii's Hidden Darkness (Conspiracy Documentary) | Real Stories



Hawaii was an independent nation until January 17, 1893. That day, the archipelago and its monarchical government were overthrown illegally by the United States. Since then, the USA has taken over Hawaii illegitimately, turning the island into a military base that threatens world peace, while sovereignty groups organize to rescue its legitimacy.

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[Applause] [Applause] Hawaii and we think of Hawaii we think of paradise coral sand beaches coconut palms gently swaying in the ocean breeze waterfalls rainbows Hawaii is all these things and many more in fact Hawaii has a deep dark little secret a secret the US government wouldn't like you to know about the American agenda tonight a most significant presidential apology at the White House yesterday President Clinton signed a formal letter of apology to the people of Hawaii he was apologizing on behalf of the US government for the government's involvement a hundred years ago in removing the independent Hawaiian monarchy by force and on the agenda tonight Hawaiian identity Native Hawaiians who say give us back our country in touristic Hawaii hundreds of people demonstrate and a president apologizes the reason the United States government that considers Hawaii the 50th state of the union has in fact had mitad that a century ago it committed an abuse in 1993 the US government passed a law this was approved by the Congress the Senate and ultimately signed into law by President Clinton and this was a confession flatout public law 103 150 was a confession and in that confession the United States admitted to all sorts of crimes and it further admitted that the Hawaiian nation never relinquished its rights but if Hawaii is the 50th state of the Union since 1959 why is it that in 1993 President Bill Clinton apologized for the user patient the original inhabitants of the archipelago were victims of to understand the situation let's do some history Hawaii is an archipelago formed by eight islands situated in the middle of the Pacific Ocean they were probably populated by immigrants from faraway lands they created a socially and politically advanced society Native Hawaiians are Polynesians they come from a land they call keshiki which is the home land and many believe that to be Tahiti or the Marquesas and perhaps we're here as early as 100 BC perhaps a little bit later than that 2 way voyage incants enture II Hawaiians were living here pretty much on their own and developing a much more stratified society and that led to the development of different island kingdoms here amongst the chains we had an IR rather a kingdom of kawaii a kingdom of Oahu kingdom of Maui and of Hawaii Island its founding King Kamehameha the great unified the societies of the archipelago their soil began to yield food for the inhabitants of Hawaii however the Hawaiian Kingdom would not be alone for long by the same sea from where the original inhabitants of why came from visitors from other lands would arrive contact with foreigners of European or American descent comes in 1778 with the arrival of Captain Cook it is speculated that there may have been other encounters prior to that but it's not documented Captain James Cook a British explorer and sailor established contact with the inhabitants of Hawaii in 1794 the British explorer George Vancouver gave the court of King Kamehameha a Union Jack as a token of friendship from King George the third the Hawaiian Kingdom added the Union Jack to its own flag as an act of recognition for the gesture of British friendship in spite of the foreign presence in Hawaii mainly Britain at the time as well as other ethnic groups king kamehameha gave his kingdom its own identity he gained international recognition 1843 the Kingdom of Hawaii was indeed recognized as an independent nation state as a member of the family of nations through treaties with the United States Great Britain and France and I believe about 20 other nations of Europe and this was meant to secure the sovereignty of the nation through those treaty agreements that would been made and so from that point on 1843 the kingdom of Hawaii is indeed recognized as an independent nation state as the monarch consolidated the archipelago as a sovereign state the Kingdom of Hawaii also created a society of citizens with its own identity an independent state in the 19th century the term Hawaiian was an indicator of citizenship or membership to the Hawaiian Kingdom which throughout the 19th century was an independent country independent state beginning in 1843 the Hawaiian Kingdom was actually the first non-european territory in the world to become an independent and recognized as a sign of recognition of Hawaii's independence several members of the Hawaiian royal family travel all over the world on official visits they were welcomed by kingdoms and Republic's as the true representatives of a sovereign Kingdom in the mean time Western immigrants continued to arrive in Hawaii by the start of the 19th century a few American settlers were already living in the archipelago so as the the American settler population continued to grow there began and their interest in business continued to grow they oftentimes were pressuring the Monarchs pressuring the government to develop things for the government to develop and the economy to a develop in a way that these settlers would find most comfortable a group of settlers mainly American formed an organization of landowners they controlled the production of sugarcane their economic power ensured that their influence in the affairs of the kingdom increased so when we get to 1893 by that time these foreign settlers many of them who were invested in the plantation economy were were very strong in their opinions about how the government should continue and when litleo Oh Kalani he was the queen of Hawaii in 1893 when she proposed to bring forward a new constitution a group of 13 businessmen calling themselves the annexation club and the Committee of Safety they took it upon themselves to overthrow the Queen or to remove her from the government and they did this in conjunction with the approval it would seem of the u.s. minister to the Hawaiian Kingdom Minister Stevens and so he was totally misrepresenting his position by essentially conspiring with this group to take over the Queen's government in the Constitution Queen Liliuokalani only gave the right to vote to those citizens who were considered natives of Hawaii the settlers feared that they may lose their political and economic power on the 17th of January 1893 US troops landed in Hawaii arguing that they were there to protect the rights of the settlers Queen Liliuokalani was arrested and taken to the Royal Palace of lolani she was forced to abdicate because of the military superiority of the invaders the conspirators took advantage of the end of the monarchy to take control of the archipelago they created the so-called Republic of Hawaii however the inhabitants of the islands did not accept such a position and took action this is when the people of Hawaii gather together in a couple of huis or groups that protest against annexations with a petition asking that the United States recognize that the people of Hawaii who have signed this petition do not want to be a part of the United States do not wish to be annexed and we believe that some 38,000 people in total signed these petitions out of a Native Hawaiian population that was close to 40,000 the petition did not succeed on the 12th of August 1898 in a ceremony that took place in front of the lolani palace the old residence of the Hawaiian monarchs the flag of the kingdom was taken down an American flag was raised the annexation of Hawaii brought a process of Americanization in the local society this process included the imposition of an educational system that marginalized the values of the local population the local language was replaced by that of the settlers in 1896 under the authority of the Republic of Hawaii a law was passed that stated that all public school instruction must take place in English so they didn't outright ban Hawaiian but in effect they did because they said to everyone you must learn English you must use English and only English in your schools and so parents became much more reluctant to use Hawaiian language in their homes and certainly in the schools many children were reprimanded for using Hawaiian language when they were expected to be using English is with a us to go by our education there it when they took our language they took our land it took our identity and nearly succeeded in taking our will to live at the same time the United States passed a law which determined who was and who was not a Hawaiian around 1920 you start to see this legislation being passed in US Congress that kind of begins to define legally through US law what is considered a native Hawaiian in that bill the u.s. congressional law you have for the first time this understanding and blood-quantum that Native Hawaiians are legally defined as those that possess half native blood or 50% native blood so you can really start to see American racial logic being institutionalized with him within Hawaii and that that lasts for a very long time even till the even till this day right these terms Native Hawaiian or Hawaiian are now defined through US law within the context of blood quantum 1/32 of broth is still Hawaiian but they say all according to the law you have to have 50% boom taking ever loss we don't need them coming over here and telling us what to do and what not to do so my company concerned I'd see they committing genocide big time Big Time this process of Americanization and the imposition of rules that were alien to the local culture led to the violation of native sacred land the place they call a Walmart on chemical Street and makalah Street it just happened that my family had ownership papers to eight and a half acres and that's where they put their their store on they found 66 sets of bones they were buried on that on that property grounds and it took seven years to get through all the mitigations and war whatever for us to put the bones back in the ground and all we try to do is respect our own ancestors you know what do we be really interesting if some of us went up to punch bowl where the American veterans are buried and go up there and tear out some of those graves and put up a fancy building the United States did not settle for the annexation of Hawaii the suppression of the local language and the desecration of hallowed lands they wanted statehood they wanted to turn away into a new State of the Union on the 12th of March 1959 the US Congress overwhelmingly voted in favor of statehood Hawaii became the 50th state becomes the state of the United States in 1959 of course if if annexation were or was illegal and overthrow was illegal then many believe statehood is also an illegal event so you do you certainly continue to have debate here in Hawaii as to whether or not Hawaii is a state but officially according to United States in 1959 it is not surprising then that President Bill Clinton sanctioned a law whereby his government apologized for the dispossession the local population had been victims of the law recognized that the people of Hawaii had not voluntarily relinquished their rights nor had they accepted the abolition of their kingdom you don't need to be a lawyer really to understand if the criminal admits to committing a crime against you and further admits that you never relinquished your rights ie your property was stolen and you never relinquished your rights to the property you don't need to be a lawyer to understand that according to that that the Hawaiians have one of the best claims if not the best claim for independence once again so that bill really should have apologized to the national population but that wordage of seeing national population would would kind of throw off right the political intent of that bill it's a kind of sidestep or kind of erase that history that history that it was a kingdom why did the Americans do it that was the first question I asked when I heard about the apology bill it was an intent to defraud the Hawaiian nation Hawaiian people even further the apology bill was followed by several resolutions proposed by a senator for hawaii daniel Akaka to be implemented by the year 2000 his intention was to pass a law that would give Native Hawaiians federal recognition the same strategy was used for the Native Americans in 2009 Congress passed the so-called Native Hawaiian government reorganization Act also known as the Akaka law according to this law the descendants of the original habitants of the archipelago could form a government but within the US federal structure they could not reclaim the rights they had lost before the overthrow of the monarchy in 1893 or their status of sovereign nation and I believe the people that were involved in the Akaka bill this trying to continue to deprive us were absolutely on the track of imposter rating our claims and and and at the end of it all first of all naming us Native Hawaiians which were not needed we Nationals okay so imposter ation started not knowing this then the imposter issue for Native Hawaiians were coming and then the next step would be that the imposter Asian was that they now becoming the Native Hawaiian Pacific Islander Asian foundation and and most of all people who notice yet we're on a different boat here a lot of people like to compare us with American Indian per se well in our in our situation we're fortunate enough to have a government that actually had the treaties with the US that actually have never been dissolved so you know um if anything it'll show America's true colors if they want to be a good big brother or not but both in a century the United States has been working to establish the image of Hawaii as a tourist destination behind a facade of paradise hides a history of usurpation and dispossession this history has given rise to several pro sovereignty movements which have demanded their right to be an independent nation Captain America don't need a sweater but you imagine me remember I was stolen last this Orion Superman it's warning it back give back the like I build America give back to like I better never go cappen by your policies are we one in sovereignty it's so hard to theory pro sovereignty movement activists have started a process to recover their language and art at the same time universities are researching the history of Hawaii by dusting up old newspapers from the 19th century all written in the local language the apology bills strengthen the prose sovereignty movements they started to explore the possibility to recover their own government the one that was in place before the annexation to the US in 1893 the lawful Hawaiian government is part of that process my name is Henry norm okay I'm the elected prime minister for the reinstated lawful Hawaiian government the lawful Hawaiian government was formed March 13 1999 and it actually reinstated the former government offices that was in existence prior to January 17 1893 the day that we got overthrown our government was overthrown so what has happened since that day till now is that basically there was actions taken by the by the conspirators who are the United States government to try to justify or even validate their actual existence here and their authority that they exercised here in Hawaii the lawful Hawaiian government which has been in place for more than a decade is not legally recognized by the United States however it is not simply a symbolic gesture of sovereignty but it has its own structure it legislates and governs on the basis of strict rules we have a House of nobles also representatives and an executive branch which includes Prime Minister Minister of Foreign Affairs Minister of Interior and a Minister of the Treasury are currently we are engaging in land Reclamation's we realize that we would have to be able to get our people yeah to unite under this government so we've done a lot of educational programs to get these to get our own people to understand listen the government still exists and it's been in a band since it's been absent all these years all we needed to do was put it back bring back the government which is what we are able to accomplish the second thing that we educate our people to is now we need to put power to the government and the only way that can happen is if we as a people participate in that government and begin to do to build the government the functional bodies of that government the executive the legislative the judicial branches all of the departments that come to functional government has to be real has to be reset of which we have actually accomplished those things in its annual convention known in the local languages Manukau can Hawaii the lawful Hawaiian government and delegates from all the islands got together to discuss issues related to land evolution the structure of his government and to appoint new authorities across entire island chains get together of a won't Ivanov alone and we initiated a process to reinstate the former offices of that it's been a long process so for my understanding the Hawaiian government has actually the reinstated lawful government has progressed to a point where now things are gonna start to become would come to exist on that individual spot to fix an injustice to understand who you are and you have the perfect right to step forward and try to we've been talking about how we're gonna do things but now we're applying ideas that we've been bringing up at the table at the monocle kind of wise for the last 30 conventions and it's gonna pan out pretty good I think it's been a long time coming to get to this point where we're at today where we can actually reclaim land and issue Awards we did a lot of preparations to get to this point and now that we're actually here it's it's little overwhelming exciting we have built a case that it's hard to argue with you know so if we know we're dealing with the de facto government backed by the United States and so we're up against some heavy hitters we know that so our case has to be solid Oh it has never been inside that I know in our history that we not have we have not worked to regain what is rightfully ours say this all those that have dedicated their time Mahama because you cannot get attention if you don't put the work into it whereas we're at that stage where tomorrow I believe and this weekend woman takes on the store two steps we have legislated resolutions in our constitution we brought our constitution to modernity from 1893 and brought it forward to modernize it that was our kick a lot of the language was archaic we had to modernize it first of all so we did as little as possible it's another thing that happened was that the legislators who were elected were charged with creating a constitutional convention in the year 2001 to modernize the Constitution and to really to really decide what style of government to implement [Applause] the lawful Hawaiian government's legislative branch is divided into seven districts each one as a representative and a noble according to the ancient traditions of the archipelago in this branch young and old take part without distinction look at it is being ahead of the curve in a sense you know there are a few other members of the government itself that may be my age or younger however I guess what it comes down to is well having been called old for my age for some time I guess I know there's a lot of folks my age who have a basic understanding of the issue I mean I guess I guess in a sense I'm by myself ahead of the curve in comprehending the moral obligation that in companies you know the historic facts now you're gonna see more of our generation getting involved with a little Hawaii and moving our culture and getting involved with the politics just in different pathways I think and then on the flip side I think outside of the Native Hawaiians within our education and how they view us it has become more of a sport I think and how anxious it is a cool place to come and work for two years and get their get their thrills and then they why I'm doing what I'm doing here today this is the most this is the day we waited for a long long time and we've always said it only on the god stop where we we do this well today is God's time where are we gonna put the people back on our land is this very spot 13 years ago uncle Robert and I sit in his car and we ask God to help us and the rest our prime minister at that time was the organizer of our our Hui everybody was waiting for us to bring one Kanata to that bTW this is when we was gonna put the government together and we asked God right here at the very spot where we sit help us help you know why am i so elated today so in Hawaiian we say the word fall being elated it Holly Holly Nui happy very very happy because we're getting to put our people back on the land that the US had come through the Sheep know whatever you call it took our people and drove us to be the destitute and a problem that we're having is that they're not fulfilling their obligation they're continuing to ignore deny us and that's one of the most difficult things when we're the victims of this hypocrisy but the people on the payroll continue denying us access to our lands that they say they gave us all back which we never received yet to the monies that they say they given us we don't even receive and this has been going off 120 years Hawaiian nationals know that there is a process that were were conducting or were providing to reclaim lands national lands during the lawful Hawaiian government's convention Prime Minister Henry Noah gave land titles to groups of ten people for them that simple ceremony means the beginning of a new chapter in their lives because such land is situated in an area affected by volcanic activity in fact it does not belong to anyone it is barren land where ten settlers and their families will build up their future now we have Allen so instead of going for up the hill miles away from home we can just walk here oh it's a house war on your Tod time well this this one lab this is for a community center where a community can meet you know you can come and have the kupuna or the elders do crafts have the younger ones learn etiquette you know Hawaiian etiquette learn how to make medicines learn how to how to do medical techniques learn language skills and you know every anything that the community needs any kind of education as a whole they can come to this hot spot and then of course tourists who are walking through they can always visit anybody who like wants to know they're welcome to come [Applause] one of the activities of the lawful Hawaiian government is poverty relief Hawaii's image of prosperity with its luxurious shops and expensive cars in the most expensive state of the United States exists in stark contrast with the poverty in which hundreds of people live the 2010 census found that 33% of families was children under five years of age live in a state of poverty the postcard image of Hawaii contradicts the everyday reality of the inhabitants of the archipelago what you see here around me is a homeless village there was established in 2009 this is adjacent to Waianae a pokai Bay boat harbor the boat harbor is right here this campsite is right here what these people have been able to do is stay out of the public parks which their presence in occupying public parks seems to interfere with the tourists and the government does not like interference with cash flow in any sort so this area here is called pokai Bay and we're going into the forest adjacent sort of to the harbor on this I heard that this is where a majority of the homeless people that got out stayed from the beaches have relocated to this area here we've had a history of these homeless people been in there has been increasing large numbers I came here in 2010 in 2009 is actually when we became houseless I will not say homeless because we're not homeless we how is our home this ayah is our home we became house this in 2009 was a greenhorn at it only knew how to go camping and that's what I took and from there kind of we hit recession back in 2009 seven incomes five loss couldn't continue our home gave up our home back then we began living amongst the hostess people and we learned a lot and from there we got swept in at all Ahava back in March 2010 most of these people that's here started from here from this camp going that way have been here for a while where this tree is right here this very tree is there's a no pile or in there but they're cleaning up they're trying to clean up and stuff yeah a lot of us are we understand that we are gonna get swept so a lot of us are doing spring cleaning right now sort of people who come down and do the sweep and sweep everybody out of here is it as a police department or the Sheriff's Department basically what about basically what happens is okay this from what we understand and what was told to me was it the state is not in the business to do sweeps but the state will go ahead because of the least they have to go ahead and do a lot of the what is required by law which is to clean all the land before they lease it right now I've deal with the sweepers nobody has nowhere to go the next we're moko to the mountains but the denial of their rights the poverty and the marginalization under which they live are not the only problems faced by Hawaiians there is a threat that hangs above their heads that puts in jeopardy their very existence war for the United States Hawaii is not only been an archipelago with commercial and economic interests these islands in the middle of the Pacific Ocean are part of a strategic military structure on August 16th 1898 four days after Hawaii became a part of our nation the United States Army became an important part of the island community since then under the impact of two world wars in the Korean Conflict the Army in Hawaii has expanded enormously today the Hawaiian Islands represent a multi-million dollar base of operations for American defense forces in the Pacific Ocean area in fact the United States discovered the strategic and military importance of Hawaii long before its settlers managed to get at annexed in 1893 Major General John Schofield arrived on Oahu in 1872 his mission was to find a military use for the island seaports general Schofield found the seaports were perfect for the growing United States Navy and that the land between the Waianae and Kola mountain ranges was ideal for ground forces the American Spanish war for the control of Puerto Rico Guam and the Philippines sped up the annexation for the Americans Hawaii was a crucial stronghold for his military campaign Pearl Harbor built in 1900 became the main United States naval base in the Pacific during the Second World War on the morning of the 7th of December 1941 the Japanese air force exposed the vulnerability of Hawaii I was nine years old when the troll avos happened when Japan came by and bombed Pearl Harbor that was a very memorable day for me particularly I didn't find out the instructions after everything was said and done where when I went home to my grandparents home I seen all the holes in the roof where the planes came over and straight the united states military presence in hawaii constitutes a constant danger for the very existence of the archipelago Hawaii is a military outpost it's got every branch of the US military Army Navy Air Force Marines and there are unknown amounts of nuclear weapons you've got nuclear submarines you've got nuclear aircraft carriers you've got nuclear silos with intercontinental ballistic missiles those missiles are directed at targets all around the world there are literally billions of people under threat from the missiles that are based here in Hawaii literally right here is Pacific Command which is one of the Keystone's one of the one of the major bulwarks of the American Empire the Pacific Command in its own mind has jurisdiction over half of the world this includes China Russia Asia most all of the Pacific South America Central America this is a huge section of the human population that has nuclear missiles and nuclear weapons that are directed at them from Hawaii if we were to enter into a third world war and if nuclear weapons are launched there is absolutely no doubt whatsoever that Hawaii will be majorly targeted targeted by America's enemies specifically China and Russia directed at Hawaii because of American presence but it's a significant number and rest assured there's no question that if there is a nuclear war and missiles are sent here there will be so many missiles that there will be nothing left of Hawaii the importance of the American war machinery in Hawaii is not only strategic in reality the economy of Hawaii depends a great deal on the United States military structure according to the Rand Institute of Defense studies the military economy of Hawaii constitutes at least 18 percent of its gross domestic product more than 12 billion dollars a year military industrial complex is the number-one economy here in Hawaii entity entity of our economy everybody thinks tourism is number one but I believe that the military industrial complex is actually at the top it's not the two tied together there so that's what drives our economy so it's very difficult to even have a discussion about withdrawing some of that military presence because our economy is so dependent upon it for so many people the United States takes advantage of valleys mountains and seas to use them as a training camp for its truth at the same time the United States offices hawaiians Enclave for the training of foreign troops the American military presence in Hawaii has caused serious damage to the environment of the islands according to the Pacific health dialogue there are 768 contaminated sites in Hawaii this contamination is caused mainly by the deterioration of ammunition the presence of mercury led napalm radioactive rubbish and radioactive fuels in 2008 Colonel Howard Killian admitted that there was enriched uranium in Hawaii but he argued that it was no danger for the population of the archipelago is my name Hawaiian's are against the US military presence because it goes against the desire to remain neutral they demand independence and also the withdrawal of the military from the islands the military abs absolutely needs to go I mean for one thing it compromises our neutrality you know we made it a point to stay out of the rest of the world's conflicts because I mean who has a problem with them what with the Hawaiians for one thing I mean from my personal perspective ideally what I think it should be is that a hoist should be a neutral buffer zone between the Chinese power and the American power military buildup here is certainly something that's discussed a lot by many people it's almost become so normal though that I think some people don't realize how prominent the military is in Hawaii poverty high living cost cultural alienation and military threat are the direct result of the presence of the United States in Hawaii despite all of that those Hawaiians who have decided to reclaim what was taken from their ancestors more than a century ago are not prepared to surrender my efforts for being involved with this process of reinstatement is I'm trying to get back to being a lawful person to the law that you see here today is a charade it's a it's a big old Hollywood production that's what is going on and Hollywood does real well in fabricating identities and whatever else they do I guess what it comes down to is all for me personally having been aware of all the wrongs that were perpetrated Hauer like oh well over a century ago part of it has to do it for me making sure that you know that the torch stays lit I think you're gonna get mixed feelings for sure but it's hard I think that as this movement grows there's going to there's going to be that shift and I hope instill some sort of hope of I can participate in something that is a gift to my generations to come and it can be it can be not in that space of anger I think we got the body in place we're going to demonstrate that we're real here in Hawaii and now we're gonna take this realness to the world and let them know this is why we executing to reclaim what is rightfully ours which is sovereign Authority and reclaiming our land putting substance to our sovereignty process oh I see a free independent Hawaii once again will be a reality because we're gonna make that possible true law and the military the US military can leave and just go back to North America follow their rules exert their rules or Nayland you may remember I was strolling it back governed by your policies are we one in sovereignty it's so hard to be rain this is boba aunty sleeping under palm trees it's a shame – lions are moving away the ocean for promotions and wages I think it's safe to say that a Wagga unique is doing better in their battle Las Vegas Captain America told me this matchup but you mention that remember all the stolen last be so why did Superman you you

"ICO Starting Point" – EPISODE 1 – ICO Documentary | DocuSeries – Kimera | Artificial Intelligence



Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) will rewrite what it means to live on planet earth, and Kimera wants to see that within our lifetimes. To achieve this, we are traveling the world to share our vision and bring people together.

TOKEN SALE IS NOW LIVE:

Kimera Systems is an advanced artificial intelligence company that has developed the world’s first Artificial General Intelligence. AGI is different from other artificial intelligence, because it can think and reason the way humans do. During Kimera’s travel around the world, we will promote our Initial Coin Offering (ICO) to help bring this technology to the world.

To learn more visit

An ICO Documentary | DocuSeries

think it's that actually not an easy question because you don't know where is that artificial general intelligence is going to rewrite what it means to live on planet Earth and we won't experience that within our lifetime to achieve this goal we have set up an ICO and are traveling the globe to share our vision and bring people together ever since I was a kid I always really dreamt about how life could be for everything with super intelligence the fact was after 60 years of AI research we were nowhere close to general intelligence technologies just a tool to change stuff the question was why are you changing my gut feeling says it was economics has to change then I realized ok it's not companies that change their world is people people talking to each other people meeting and that was the beginning of me starting to think about well maybe this big idea as possible the claim that cámaras built a working AGI is a very bold claim we have the algorithm we have the data that proves it's working we just need more of that and to be able to tell it in a way that can really bring the most skeptical person on board I was fortunate enough to meet Monier and Nick Gilman about six years ago while I was working at Intel and even in a company with the deep pockets that Intel has it's amazing how much budgets and resources control the amount of work you do or don't do it started with Bob decoding asking me weren't we doing ICL and this was about when the file coin I finished air ICL a week later James Whitley texted me and goes why aren't you doing an IC L so I just replied back we don't have the technical expertise to do it reality was I had a bad gut feeling about the ICS I didn't know enough about him then in November I flew back to Norway my was at the end of his life losing against cancer and Steph them emailed me and said when he come back to the u.s. I need to talk to you once I came back I had a chat with him he said that he's been working on a lot of blockchain in the RC 20 contracts and he was very comfortable with the whole blockchain and setting up tokens and all that kind of stuff he was wondering why aren't we doing an IC L that actually got me talking through experts talking to people in the IC o—- world and then I brought a few of those expert to our board meeting everyone on the board agreed that this is the route to take Nick we're talking on the phone he says funny there was kind of a garbled message and I thought he said do you know what and I don't know is and I was like what I thought it was a drink or something menator dice is IC o—- I figured out fairly soon that you know was this cryptocurrency funding model and that Camaro was pursuing it and that was a real game-changer started looking at how much money to have to raise to kind of start this IC not the presale stuff but just put the foundation in place and we realized we needed about a couple hundred thousand dollars within 24 hours we had commitments for half of that by that point I feel really good Viraj was the first investor to sign us after agreements that was a interesting little trip so it's 1:45 p.m. we're trying to close our first investor to fund this ico process he's leaning on vacation tomorrow so we have to close him today now the paperwork from the attorneys in it I was supposed to have this morning has not arrived yet and we're meeting him in 30 minutes they're on our way right now to me enough I'm nervous if he leaves without signing those papers he's not gonna be back for two or three weeks and that's not good for us yeah so we're at the Starbucks next to the AT&T store right Oh wrong one will we'll head over to that Starbucks we we wait at the Starbucks hoping that doctors Wolfram and Psyche just Colorado but nothing well that didn't work out paperwork from the lawyers I have to get going to our board meeting the investor was nice enough to meet up late tonight not a good day I'm still an optimist but man I wish I wish women and that paperwork was in my inbox you know I'm literally just sitting waiting for these these documents to come in and I'm sweating because still nothing less than five minutes before the board meeting was over it finally came in so that we're meeting is over and I just got the email from our attorneys the three other guys who are as part of the first hundred thousand all around they could sign anytime but I needed Rogers signature before he left at Friday morning if we had closed less than hundred thousand dollars she will just be sitting in the bank collecting dust because no it wasn't enough money to do anything with the ICO the initial investors now realize there was a very novel form of funding that would actually help leverage their initial investment got to keep the lawyers happy right absolutely so we flew down to Palo Alto first met with a couple of guys in the ico world before the investment bank and they were telling us about how certain law firms down there literally helped I SEOs word their white papers in such a way that they could avoid security compliance and based on everything that's going on today with with SCC and not only going after icos but also after tourneys for helping ICL's avoid security I'm really glad we were working with iMix because I think they did a phenomenal job of creating a strategy that doesn't break any security law many times we'll be in the middle of a meeting phone rings he picks it up and he just bolts out of the room and he does a lot of pacing I kind of just try not to think about is that going good is that going badly I just try to focus back in the work and when Moe comes walking back in the room and when he's got a smile on his face like oh I just talked to ROG the money's coming in I think okay all these ideas all these videos all this infrastructure all these roadmaps all this product planning I'm doing guess what the odds of it coming to life just went up it's just like go cámaras what I feel I had a meeting with Kartik Otto his specialty is AI and FinTech and he teaches about the subject at Stanford University and I told him about how we believe that in the future if machines started automating jobs there has to be a new or a different kind of economic model that we live by his response was he's written a book about it he argued for the same thing and when I realized that I was like we need you in Portland artificial general intelligence is to rewrite what it means to live on planet earth and we won't experience that within our lifetime to achieve this goal we have set up an ICO and are traveling the globe to share our vision and bring people together

Journey Inside Chernobyl’s Exclusion Zone | Short Film Showcase



Christiaan and Kseniya Welzel ventured into Chernobyl’s exclusion zone on the 27th anniversary of the plant’s nuclear disaster and documented their experience. “Beautiful Ghost: A Filmmaker’s Look at Chernobyl” attempts to capture the location’s eerie beauty and convey the feelings the Welzels felt there. “Yes it’s scary, it’s a little eerie, but at the same time it was very peaceful,” Kseniya says.
30 Years After Chernobyl, Nature Is Thriving:
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Journey Inside Chernobyl’s Exclusion Zone | Short Film Showcase

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when we first walked into that room the first thing that we picked up was the sound of dripping water you can see it first dripping from the ceiling large puddles accumulated on the floor and there's a sense of fear that comes from that because they tell you that if there's anything you should stay away from do not touch the water there is nothing that is more irritated than the water itself what was some going through my mind is is how did this mask get to those rooms it was really shocked and just to see so many of them because he walked into the room and we didn't know what to expect and you kind of you know he turn around and see of these masks and it was terrifying I think that you'd expect when you create footage like this that you want people to feel somewhat depressed or you want people to feel like that there's a place that time forgot or you even want them to feel sorrow for the people in a subject matter that happened in general and that's not what I'm aiming for I'm actually aiming for the opposite so I want them to find the beauty in the apocalypse I want them to find the beauty in the dilapidated and the derelict I thought the place would feel really sad to me it would feel really eerie I didn't want to have expectations I just wanted to see for myself and have the feelings once I get to the place and once I got there yes it's scary it's a little eerie but at the same time it was very peaceful it was very nature is starting to take back the buildings and I didn't feel that I needed to be sad think bad things have happened but if anything it just seemed very quiet and very peaceful and just yeah nature taken everything back you

Young Jeezy – A Hustlerz Ambition (Documentary)



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Music video by Young Jeezy performing A Hustlerz Ambition (Documentary). ©: The Island Def Jam Music Group

Max Miller – 40 minutes BBC Documentary



Max Miller – 40 minutes BBC Documentary 1989 – I Like the Girls Who Do – written and presented by Gerald Scarfe Thomas Henry Sargent (21 November 1894 — 7 May 1963), best known by his stage.

Here’s the brilliant Heroes of Comedy documentary about the great comedian Max Miller circa 1995. Long-running documentary series looking at some of the . Max Miller – 40 minutes BBC.

Documentaries on the documentary makers + The Documentaries themselves.

Part two is at Most comedians from the Music Hall days sound as funny as a station announcement by today’s standards – but a precious few come up.

Sudan’s Secret Hit Squads Used to Attack Protests – BBC Africa Eye documentary



These are images Sudan’s government does not want you to see: teams of masked, plainclothes agents chasing down protesters, beating them, and dragging them off to secret detention centres in Khartoum.

Who are these hit squads? Where are these detention centres? And what happens inside their walls?

BBC Africa Eye has analysed dozens of dramatic videos filmed during the recent uprising, and spoken with witnesses who have survived torture at the hands of the Bashir regime. Some of these protesters tell us about a secret and widely feared holding facility – The Fridge – where the cold is used an instrument of torture.

Investigation led by:
Benjamin Strick
Abdulmoniem Suleiman
Klaas Van Dijken
Aliaume Leroy

Produced and Edited by:
Suzanne Vanhooymissen
Tom Flannery
Daniel Adamson

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These are images the Sudanese government does
not want you to see… …teams of soldiers and secret agents chasing
down protestors in the streets of the capital, Khartoum… bagging them over the head… beating them… …and dragging them off to secret detention
centres where they are held without charge, and in some cases, tortured. Sudanese activists fear these hit squads. In this film, we’ll show you who they are… …how they operate… …and what happens inside the walls of buildings
like this. Sudan’s uprising began in December 2018. At first, people were protesting a hike in
fuel and food prices. But the demonstrations quickly turned into
a revolt against President Omar al Bashir. Crowds chanted slogans from the Arab Spring
revolutions of 2011 The government has responded with violence. Security forces have used live ammunition. According to human rights groups, they have
killed more than 50 of their own citizens. But they’re not just dispersing protests. Sudanese activists have recorded dozens of
videos that show the abduction of individual dissidents. We have now analysed more than 200 videos
from the uprising. In order to protect the people who filmed
them, we cannot share the exact locations at which they were recorded. But we can use them to show you the hit squads
in action. This is what they look like: teams of around
six men in white Toyota pickup trucks… …sometimes with the number plates removed
or covered up. Some are in military uniform. Others in plain clothes. Many are wearing masks and carrying weapons: from automatic rifles to crude lengths of plastic pipes used to beat protestors. So who are these masked, plainclothes agents? Sudanese activists describe them as low-ranking thugs in the pay of the National Security and Intelligence Services, or NISS. This video doesn’t look like much, but it’s
important because it corroborates that view. We see soldiers in military fatigues, policemen
in blue uniforms, and plainclothes agents all working together. The clip also captures six of the white pickup
trucks, and a building that is easily identified: the al-Kalakla police station in the south
of Khartoum. This evidence, in combination with the footage
of these men in action and the testimony of Sudanese activists, points towards the obvious
conclusion: the plainclothes agents are part of the government’s security forces. These squads have been deployed since December
to clear demonstrators from the streets. Here’s an example of one crew in action… …filmed by a group of demonstrators who kept their phone recording even as they came
under fire. The agents are working around this block,
clearing away protestors . Notice the plainclothes agent at the front… … and the man in red in the back. Around the same time, just around the corner,
someone else captured the same team in action. Here’s the man in red… and here’s what looks like the same lead agent, firing at protestors. But this is not just crowd control. These crews target one person… on the streets… or at home. The victims are beaten…. …dragged into the car… …and disappear. We do not know where all these people end up. But some of them, at least, are brought to
a secret holding facility here, just south of Asia hospital. How do we know this? On January 11, this photo was posted to social media. The post claims that the street contains a
detention centre run by state security. Since the 1990s, local activists have called
these places "Ghost Houses" because people disappear behind their walls and because when detainees are tortured, you can hear the screams. We confirmed that the photo was taken here. A second activist told us about a detention
centre in the same neighbourhood. When we asked him to show us the exact location,
he sent us this screenshot, which also places the Ghost House just south of Asia Hospital. The same source took these photos, which can
be located precisely. We have since spoken with eight different
witnesses who said they were detained in a building close to Asia Hospital. Five of these witnesses said that protestors
were beaten so badly that they could no longer walk. Some told us that people’s hands were broken
as they attempted to fend off the blows, and that the floor was covered in blood. But the Asia hospital Ghost House is not their
final destination. Two sources told us that this is just a holding
facility where detainees are interrogated and sorted. Many activists deemed to be a threat to the
regime are transferred to a larger detention centre here, just north of Khartoum’s Shandi bus terminal. We have no photos of this place. One witness told us that you cannot get anywhere
near this block with a phone or a camera. But we spoke to seven former detainees and asked them if they knew
exactly where they’d been taken. Using their phones, they marked up screenshots, identifying a row of four buildings as a torture centre
run by Sudanese security. One of our sources added a crucial detail
– an arrow pointing to The Fridge. Activist said that The Fridge is a series
of chilled holding cells in which the cold is used as an instrument of torture – an instrument
that leaves no marks on the body. We also spoke with a second person who had
been detained here. The Fridge is not new. We spoke with one dissident who was held in
a cold cell as far back as 2009. Activists who have been detained here also
describe being beaten, sleep deprived, and held in stress positions. We put these allegation to the Sudanese authorities. A government spokesperson denied the existence
of secret detention centres, and told us that nobody in the security services had ever heard
about The Fridge. He said that Sudanese law prohibits the beating
or torture of detainees, and that police are forbidden from pursuing protesters into narrow
streets or into their homes. He said the protests had not been approved,
and were therefore illegal. He also claimed the protesters were not peaceful,
that some had used firearms, and that the police had to defend themselves. On January 29th, Sudan’s security chief, Mr Salah
Ghosh, ordered the release of all detainees held during the recent protests. Some detainees – including people we are in
touch with – have been released since then. But many remain in detention. And other demonstrators are still being targeted. A week after Ghosh’s announcement, protesters
were back on the streets of Khartoum, calling for freedom. This man raised the Sudanese flag. He was still holding it ….even as he was
hauled away.

Permaculture The Documentary: How it started



This short film is part of a bigger film being produced Permaculture The Documentary, produced by Dogs Go Woof Productions.

This is a first reveal of the footage that has been shot with David Holmgren as he recounts how a chance meeting with Bill Mollison sprouted the idea of Permaculture; where it all started.

The next chapter is to shoot Bill’s story in Tasmania, where Permaculture began and discover how this simple idea evolved into the most sustainable design system that reconnects human culture with nature in an evolving world.

For information on donating or the film please visit:

I'm David holmgren and I'm best known as the Co-originator of the Permaculture concept in the 1970s with Bill Mollison. Sometimes there's two stories that are
told about how the idea of permaculture really came about. One story is that
Mollison was my supervising academic and I was just some technical assistant
who worked with him. And then there's the opposite of that which is; I was the
brilliant student and he was the academic who stole my work.
Which neither of those are true. I mean for a start, he was my mentor while I was working on
that Permaculture manuscript. But, if it had been left to me the Permaculture
manuscript would have just moulded away in a draw. It was Bill who was like, no
we're going to take this to the world. The core of the idea of permaculture
really came about when I was coming towards the end of
my first year in Environmental Design And my interests were gravitating around
ecology, agriculture and landscape design. And I could see how to of it is connected,
but I couldn't see anywhere Where the three crossed over and intersected,
so I wanted to look at that. At a seminar about
how land is owned and controlled there was a bloke there who
said some really interesting things. He pointed out that the rabbit problem in Australia could have been solved by
rabbit trappers, but they had no incentive to do so,
because they didn't benefit from the land being in better condition from
there being less rabbits. So what did they do? They farmed the rabbits on the
farmers land. So, he was pointing out that the
ownership of the land Had this really adverse effect
on the sustainability of the land. I thought,
"Gosh, this guy thinks just completely different to
the academic ecologists I'd met." And that was Bill Mollison. I got chatting with him afterwards and I
said well I'm interested in this intersection between ecology, agriculture
and landscape design And how systems could influence that. And, he said,
"How about this for an idea then…" If most places on the planet, nature
creates a forest why doesn't our agriculture if not look like a forest,
function something like a forest? Why is our agriculture all composed of
only annual plants That grow and die in one year? Where as in nature; there's a diversity. And that's exactly in that intersection. By understanding how nature designs things We can create permanent agriculture and
permanent culture in everything we do. And, that became Permaculture. it comes from two Latin words "permanens" to persist through time and "culture"
an activity that supports human existence. so put those together:
it's a persistent system that supports human existence. So, Bill was my mentor, we were
developing the first Permaculture garden on the fringes of Hobart and persuaded
me that we should publish it But, I didn't have a lot of the experience in
all the different fields that underpinned Permaculture and so, my passion was about
doing those things and building Melliodora here. Whereas Bill was ready for a
larger stage and taking permaculture to the world was his next agenda. and he developed the beginning
of the Permaculture Design Course. and that mechanism
was really how permaculture spread
not just in Australia But, around the world. So although I was Co-originator of the
Permaculture concept Bill was the father of
the Permaculture movement. Hey guys, thanks for watching the video hope you enjoyed it. That's just a small taste of what I've been shooting with
David holmgren So, that's about a third of the film now a shot and done. And, it's all thanks
to your donations and the support for the film. So, everyone who has
donated, thank you so much. You guys have made that possible. So, the next chapter
now is to go over to Tasmania. And that's where bill and David basically came up
with Permaculture And also tell Bill's side of the story. So we need to raise
some funds to go over to Tasmania and start shooting that part of it. So, if you'd like to support
the film Share this video and also donate at our website. So thanks for watching
and don't forget to donate.

06 – Circlemakers: Interview to Rob Irving (a documentary by Matthew Williams)



This interview is part of a documentary by Matthew Williams:

The whole documentary (3 hours) has been transcribed into english and translated into italian by Francesco Grassi and other collaborators.
You can listen to the interview switching on the english or italian subtitles.

Francesco Grassi is the author of a new book about crop circles.
Here you can see the booktrailer and other details:

To buy the book, please email Francesco Grassi:
[email protected]

The song of the booktrailer “Painting circles in the corn” has been written by Jim Chorley. Jim is the son of Dave Chorley who started making circles with Doug Bower around 1978 so creating the crop circle phenomenon. This song is dedicated to his father Dave who left us in 1996. The album is “All in good time”:

Italian notes
————————-
Per acquistare il libro scrivete un’email a Francesco Grassi:
[email protected]

Il portale dell’autore è:

Titolo del libro:
——-
Cerchi nel grano: Tracce d’intelligenza
UFO, Alieni e Incontri Ravvicinati del 2° Tipo
——-

Dal retro di copertina:
——-
I cerchi nel grano sono sicuramente un fenomeno incredibile. Chi lo segue in maniera superficiale oppure non è molto addentro non può riuscire a comprenderne le mille sfaccettature e i paradossi logici che esso continua a proporci fin dalle prime formazioni documentate intorno al 1980.
Arte o burle, believer o circlemaker: c’è veramente un confine fra gli elementi in gioco? E se sì, qual è? In un perverso gioco circolare, ciò che può essere chiaro se osservato di notte, col chiarore del giorno invece diventa molto oscuro. Ma allora è possibile dipanare in qualche modo questa matassa di corda così ingarbugliata?
Forse, ma farlo non dipende da altri perché lo strumento principale è nelle vostre mani, in questo momento.
Tutto ha inizio con un UFO, l’anno è il 1966.
——-

Descrizione del libro:
——-
Formato 15×21, interamente a colori per un totale di 530 pagine con più di 170 fotografie, immagini e disegni. Nel libro l’autore spiega fra le altre cose, l’arte e i trucchi del circlemaking (come si fanno i cerchi nel grano) raccontando inoltre come creare opere ritenute impossibili. Ad esempio la famosissima formazione di Milk Hill del 2001.
Il libro contiene tutta la corretta ricostruzione e visione storica del fenomeno con fotografie e documenti inediti, fonti storiche, indagini scientifiche, 3 ore di interviste a circlemaker trascritte (le interviste video con sottotitoli in inglese e italiano saranno disponibili gratuitamente sul canale YouTube dell’autore), esercizi per aspiranti circlemaker nonché il capitolo finale in cui viene raccontato nei minimi dettagli l’intervento dell’autore al Convegno di Volterra del CICAP dal 5 al 7 ottobre 2012.

Edizioni STES

Collana Red Pills of Mystery

——-

La canzone del booktrailer “Painting circles in the corn” è scritta e interpretata da Jim Chorley. Jim è figlio di Dave Chorley, il mitico Dave che insieme a Doug Bower dette vita alla storia dei cerchi. La canzone è dedicata al padre Dave venuto a mancare nel 1996. L’album da cui la canzone è tratta si chiama “All in good time”:

Le splendide tavole presenti nel booktrailer e nel libro sono state appositamente disegnate da Paolo Vallerga e Giacomo Rinaldi:

Video editing di Marco Morocutti:

well the word hoaxes is is a bit of a misnomer hoax implies somebody wanting to go out and deceive to other people deceive other people and I don't think that it's I think it's misused in that context the thing is we we have we've set up this black and white thing where where you see the hoax tour it's genuine and if it's genuine that implies it's some sort of unknown force aliens or or some some aspects of the invisible world and if it's not that then it's hoaxed and i think that's a completely wrong language to use so I don't think I've ever really hoaxed I've made I've made crops but I've never really hoaxed originally my interest was in finding out who was making circles I I decided that it was most probably people so in the process of finding out who it was involved hanging around in a lot of wheat fields and it it it seemed sensible at the time to try it oneself hmm so I once once that stage had been gotten over it became quite compulsive but it became more more to do with the creative compulsion well they require trouble they the the the size and designs you you choose to make require trouble they take a lot of effort and that's the effort that needs to be put into it I in a very arbitrary so very arbitrary way I tend to regard the the products of people who don't go to the same trouble as as hoaxes I tend to be dismissive of that word but the people who do go to that a button and take that trouble to me they're there they're the the product they come up with is a genuine product in the same way as a painting would be if you if somebody had gone to a lot of trouble creating a painting there would be no question of its authenticity or that he would have some respect for it and as the language we're using is genuine or fake or hoax then to me that's that's genuine and there's no question of it it's it's a better answer would be well conscientiousness that's why we go to all that trouble because it requires trouble because it inspires people it because it's the nature of creativity it requires to be done in the same way as anybody anybody creating anything is required to be done and some people are prepared to do it and some people perhaps aren't well ask me it again I insist because it's required to be done of course I think the world would be a better place if the circle makers made a bit – – but but there again they do and you know it doesn't know doesn't anger me at all well the thing is there's no joke being played it's it's as far as we're concerned we're creating new new aspects of the same thing yes it in the same way as you I mean somebody somebody said once the that an artist paints the same painting over and over again writes the same book over and over again and sure you're you're making circles over and over again but you're not really making the same designs yeah it just it just needs to be done every year well well I guess it doesn't really but but but some might think it does because it's it's good that it does it's it's it's beneficial that it does to admirers of the landscape that's me why the sky is blue grant because it's required it's required that it's blue am i perpetuating a myth yes but it's not my myth it's other people's myth so so to me I'm perpetuating something else you know I mean you might ask if it is it important that there's a mystery that would be a very interesting question to ask and yes it is important because because of the the values and the meanings people place on these things they decide that it's rubbish if it's man-made and it's brilliant if it's genuine so mystery does play a fairly crucial element in how it's valued the I hate to live in a world where there was no mystery I would suggest that there was some somewhere if someone said there wasn't phantom hitchhiking you know people who are seen on the side of roads and later reported Hispanic MIB visitations I mean I you know I've been described as that you know purely from existing somewhere you know how your scene I've been sitting at home watching telly in London and have been seen in wheelchair as this somehow paranormal phenomenon so so there is this tendency of people to contribute to other people's expectations which which is a side of the paranormal which needs to be looked at do I do I write and have credits for my writing yes what I mean and do I insist upon a credit for my photographs of course but do I crave publicity no I don't think I would say no I circlemakers tend to shy away from publicity being a retired circle maker I feel immune from any such questions I mean I have no control over whether people pull the wool over their eyes or not I certainly wouldn't I don't relate to the question right I'm used to seeing them do it no I don't enjoy I find it kind of boring a lot of the time I don't really I can't say that I enjoy it I mean we live in a world where you know internet access and everything and I I'm on the internet and I read about this and that and not sometimes it involves me and and I don't go away thinking oh I've enjoyed that I kind of think the word sheesh a lot an internet thinking God you know so no I don't enjoy it I tend to sort of get quite disgusted by it because it's not the phenomenon isn't owned by anybody so I can't control what other people what meanings and values other people place on it so so so just because people say that it's made by aliens it's not my fault they think it's made by aliens you know so I'm not controlling it and all I'm doing is giving people the opportunity to see I guess to think what they like you know I was the risk of being prosecuted and being caught for trespass worth it wasn't it was never really a risk to be frank I mean there was never really a risk of being caught I mean there were a lot of threats made but but there was never any risk I mean obviously if played percentages you didn't you didn't put yourself in a risk situation if you saw somebody walking into a field you'd make off the other way I mean there was no risk about this you can't you can't keep pressing home the same point I mean that lasts maybe a month or two months and you realize that people aren't going to actually that the key to all this is that people aren't actually looking for answers they're not interested in answers and once you realize that they're interested in a sort of a social habit you know if there was an answer then they wouldn't be able to come – it would be no reason to come to the barge every year you know so once you've got the gist of that then then it becomes something else and you wallow around for a little while and then it becomes art you think ah Charles SAR cheese into this stuff yes that's that's a good way of looking at it it's art and III wholeheartedly believe now that it is art it fits the complete criteria of of art in the sense that artists is supposed to fill people with experience and people are supposed to get an experience of what their their observing or looking at or or being in and yes it fits that criteria perfectly so yes one becomes an artist and it's brilliant I have absolutely no right or I'll give you another answer I have every right in the world I'm decided which one year besides of threatening mail the physical threats the abuse no not no no no not much trouble be that the damage to cars the the hassle you know they all seem to phone up when I'm watching a good football match apart from that no trouble at all the the the most common which I've also experienced a bright bright flashes of light in the in the direct vicinity of your activities the other ones have been mental more mental I thought I've made a circle and I've made an avenue and then I'm down at the bottom of the Avenue and and as I'm making my way up back up the Avenue I think what if there's a devil sitting in the circle you know and I'll start doing my head in a little bit and I'll get there and there isn't one so so I realized well maybe that's why sit people see Devils you know oh oh well that's something interesting to think about over par from that no occasional meteor odd meteorological anomalies I would say bright flashes or a bit of a mystery there talked about amongst circle makers in pubs over beer let's make a circle a couple of people large pictogram 400 footer one and a half hours and do you feel you can do this in complete darkness full moon makes it very very difficult you'd call something off it's too bright so yeah people would say yeah sure yeah because people eyes are just to the line everyone everyone who lives in the country knows this so a lot of people say possibly do this five hours of dark Nursing well a lot of people say a lot of things but they you know I mean the objects of this exercise with me initially was to try it and once I've tried it you found that a lot of the these statements are not true to people following order I would say lately in the last year or so you've had more than two people working on and I would say often it goes wrong yeah I mean there was a very large formation in this vicinity last year very large probably the largest one you can think of which went wrong and if you look at it from a purely aesthetic point of view didn't go wrong if you look at the photograph if you look at it from the position of being there you can see how it kind of did go wrong most of these jobs are done by 2:00 in the morning and people are at memory service station by 3:00 there's a obvious sense of denial somewhere and I get accused of having a strong sense of denial and that's that explains skepticism the skepticism is denial because these things are true and from my point of view the denial is on the other side I mean evidence has been put forward bla bla bla this that and the other and still seven years later you get people saying well people couldn't do this because and to me that's a sense of denial to me it's all about it's this weird twisted kind of wrangled thing about human potential yeah how how I say yes people can do this people can go out and they can create this thing and there's a bit ok there's they go off in secret and it's dark and there's a big mystery about it and that is to me as humor potential but there's this other side which says that's denial saying that human potential is about communicating with these things and and believing in this kind of invisible world that that no one can kind of quite put their finger on and and there's the there's the line you know who's right I think this is it's very interesting the the line I like looking at the line well I I come here and apparently I do walk it to me I'm just coming in for a drink and Here I am do you feel like being part of the phenomenon is actually helped perpetrated yeah yeah I kept it going for a few years during a sticky period but I mean 91 between 91-94 we're kind of myself and a few others kept it going when it was like there was a feeling during 92 93 that the thing needed to be kept going after the debacle of Doug and Dave and it was a good phenomenon it needed it needed to be continued and then was that a bit of that feeling and looking back I think that's probably true if you do feel like some parts of it are I think they come from somewhere you can't explain I think that if if you assume for a moment that they're all doesn't matter how they get there if they're all say they're all man-made all of them experiencing things and being healed and feeling good that that to me is very very interesting and needs needs investigation science doesn't look at that so even at its basest level if you strip the form if you strip the phenomenon down to nothing you know to complete numbness you know no kind of paranormal reasons that things are appearing the fact that people are interacting with them in a way that they do is I think very interesting very important and and there's a lot to be learned and I would say that that that as it stands is you know sufficiently paranormal so I mean you can you can kind of have me or not have me you know my you know and it's still paranormal I think that's interesting the effect people don't people have got to complete the wrong idea of art I think they think it's something they viewing in terms of objects but it should be viewed in terms of experience if you look at a painting it's not the painting that's got any value it's the experience you get from it which is which is the art it's the value and the meaning mother died because they have this completely false way of placing value on stuff and it's all coming out isn't it about what's fake and why you know it's ridiculous it art is about the experience you get from something so therefore art could be anything in theory anything that you get an experience from and there's nothing greater than a massive formation that even as a bonus symbolism attached to it you know it's in the shape of something but even just a simple circle you know larger the better much as you can manage in a night it's gonna create it's gonna be like this temporary sacred site and you're gonna get more bars than you understand I mean I'm not complete kind of Philistine when it comes to understanding that because they seem to say that they a lot of people will say what what what suits and because I I am I am I embody a threat to them because they're trying to place their own meaning in their own value on something and they are all trying to be important you know you'll notice a lot of people in this industry a lot of the people in this part we're all trying to be it's all about how important they are you know but I'm just proving each other here in disproven arguing rubbish well you're asking you're asking some sort of leading questions I mean there is well I'm interested in questions because because the way you ask them mean something when you say to me why is it that you felt the need I mean you're assuming that I did feel the me well that's not true I didn't I didn't but it's not true because I didn't feel it interesting question yes but but my my publicness isn't down to me it's down to what other people have imposed upon me to me whether they publish I don't write and send anything people ask me to write things yes I mean I mean somebody somebody's just asked me to write the potted history of crop circles for the for a well-known newsstand magazine now you ask me why they ask me I don't know why do they ask me the best story let me think well it was a great one about I don't know the the shootout at the ok wagon and horses I mean that was when there was all this sort of photography about other people I think I think the best one was when the police came around to my house demanding to know information about circle making and and and Jim and I were about to publish a story in the independent magazine about circle makers and we kind of felt that we knew who was this was years and years ago we felt that we we knew who was kind of doing these jobs and that let's slip and the police came around and I had to explain to the police that it was really a it really needs to be sorted out journalistically rather than legally you know it was a police problem it was a journalistic it required some understanding of how some young people were desperately trying to communicate with aliens and there was not really anything not only kind of rule of law about that and there's nothing that they should be troubled with that was a good one and I found up Pusey police station and they said I don't want to get into a philosophical argument about this mr. earthy so that was

欅坂46 『The Documentary of 欅共和国2018』予告編



欅坂46 DVD/Blu-ray「欅共和国2018」2019.8.14Release!!

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Peter Lindbergh – the supermodel photographer | DW Documentary



Peter Lindbergh was the only German in the select group of photographers who have found international acclaim in the worlds of fashion and advertising. His black and white photographs are highly distinctive. His snapshot of models in white shirts was named the best photograph of the 1990s by Vogue magazine. But few people know who Peter Lindbergh actually was.

Peter Lindbergh was inspired by expressionist German films of the 1920s and the free dance of that era. He combined avant-garde aesthetics and a down-to-earth stance to create something new and distinctive – what he called a “verité approach.” Peter Brobeck, as he was then, was born in today’s Poland in 1944 and grew up in the Ruhr region after being forcibly displaced. He started off working as a shop window dresser, but then – more than 40 years ago – he bought a cheap secondhand camera to take snaps of his brother’s children and discovered his love of portraiture. His first pictures appeared in the cult magazine Twen and in Germany’s national news magazine “Stern.” Then suddenly international magazines such as Vogue, Rolling Stone and Vanity Fair became interested in the German view. We talk about Peter Lindbergh with film director and photographer Wim Wenders and photographer Jim Rakete.

——————————————————————–

DW Documentary gives you knowledge beyond the headlines. Watch high-class documentaries from German broadcasters and international production companies. Meet intriguing people, travel to distant lands, get a look behind the complexities of daily life and build a deeper understanding of current affairs and global events. Subscribe and explore the world around you with DW Documentary.

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Steve Jobs Seen as Brilliant and Brutal in Gibney Documentary



Four years after his death, Apple co-founder Steve Jobs still fascinates the public, with two major new films this fall analyzing his life and career. For award-winning documentary maker Alex Gibney, it is also time for re-assessing the hard-driving perfectionist who revolutionized the way people communicate but whose treatment of friends, family and co-workers was sometimes rife with contradiction. But it contrasts the man who once aspired to be a Buddhist monk with the businessman who initially denied paternity of his first child and presided over a company that paid Chinese iPhone makers a pittance and pared back its philanthropic programs while reaping billions in profits. “He kept talking about values, the values of Apple.

This video was produced by Wochit using

coming we're going to make some history together today four years after his death Apple co-founder Steve Jobs still fascinates the public with two major new films this fall analyzing his life and career for award-winning documentary maker alex gibney it is also time for reassessing the hard-driving perfectionist who revolutionized the way people communicate but whose treatment of friends family and co-workers was sometimes rife with contradiction but at contrast the man who once aspired to be a Buddhist monk with

Second World War photo thriller | DW Documentary



A box full of photos from the Second World War serves as the starting point for a historical thriller. It was found by a Polish filmmaker whose grandfather had served in the German army. But what does it mean for Michal Wnuk’s family history?

The photos show prisoners of war in France and Russia – and the Warsaw Uprising of 1944 from a German perspective: Snapshots of the war in black and white. On closer inspection, however, it becomes apparent that Michal Wnuk’s grandfather could not have taken the photos himself, because he never served in those theatres, so Michal sets off to find out where they came from. He discovers that the box belonged to his great uncle, who was in the Polish Home Army. How did he get them? Booty? Evidence? And the films are also puzzling, showing an excursion in the summer of 1939. But who are the people in the pictures? Michal’s search finally takes him to Germany. This German-Polish co-production is a historical thriller, full of riddles and surprising twists, as a hoard of private material turns into a sounding board for great historical events.

——————————————————————–

DW Documentary gives you knowledge beyond the headlines. Watch high-class documentaries from German broadcasters and international production companies. Meet intriguing people, travel to distant lands, get a look behind the complexities of daily life and build a deeper understanding of current affairs and global events. Subscribe and explore the world around you with DW Documentary.

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let me introduce myself I'm McAuliffe nuke a polish filmmaker my grandfather was an ethnic German from Silesia I recently found a small treasure trove in our house in Katowice and it changed my life that's my grandfather alloys couldn't store we had a special relationship he was an obstetrician in fact he brought me into the world there was one thing about his past that really fascinated me he served four years in the vert mock during World War two in school we heard about the atrocities committed by German soldiers and every Sunday I ate potato soup was one of them it all started when I found this orange box 120 old aqua photos and two rolls of film I thought these must belong to Grandpa and I wondered what secrets they might hold I decided to talk to my mother Anna she is a Louise's daughter she's a doctor like everyone in our family did you see all his photos from the war or just the ones with him yeah not just the ones with him group photos with other soldiers standing next to cars and maybe a tank and there was a photo of a field hospital I want to find out what grandpa did during the war what do you think about that you know I don't know maybe some people need to do something like that but I certainly don't I didn't pester my parents with questions about the past well my mother maybe but not my father he hated that that's not unusual my mother belongs to the generation that was raised to not ask questions about the war he didn't talk about it much and when he did it was usually after a few strong drinks traumatic experience and it really affected his character I think that if you start digging up the past it could be a sobering experience maybe it's just better to forget it but if you really are that curious and then you'll just have to go ahead doc Tula jabo systems at Oh peach well then I'll have to do it on my own my grandfather pasted most of his photos neatly into an album but not these why what's the story behind these pictures here's a list of the places where he served during the war and a 1939 map of Europe French helmets a field hospital it says here surgical training in France why did he photograph this Russian girl did he like her or was she the first prisoner of war he saw a rabbi being taken away Jewish gravestones as tank traps a burning synagogue images of war and war crimes I can see why he didn't put these into the family album there are nearly 60 pictures of the Warsaw Uprising in 1944 but Alois could not possibly have been in warsaw at that time he was in a military hospital 600 kilometers away recovering from shrapnel wounds that's confirmed in a letter that his mother sent him My dear son I have sent you a rosary because you have lots of time to pray now may the mother of God heal your wounds and give you comfort because your own mother cannot be there with you my father's family is polish some of them refused to come to his wedding they'd fought against the Germans and now my father was marrying one he's kept track of the family history on both sides when Grandpa signed up for his military disability pension my father helped him with the paperwork did you and Grandpa talk about the war sure I think I was the only one you talked to about it have some photos from Poland in France which photos nothing it's the ones in the orange chocolate box what are you talking about octa box there's nothing to do with your grandpa on toys belongs to my family for life Otsuka Wow I got it completely wrong this is my great-uncle at leadership on ski Alec for short he's my father's uncle he fought on the Polish underground the kind of hero that we read about in school the uncle who fought the enemy who sent secret messages and bravely led his troops his codename was care or heart like in a game of cards snapshots from the war from the German point of view but what do these photos have to do with Alec did he steal them did he take those photos from a German didn't steal them I don't know how he got them just about to find out fortunately Alec sister Christina is still alive my father calls her and tells her I want to meet her at all maybe she knows something about the photos and can tell me more about Ellen she lives in Czestochowa the city was occupied by the Germans just two days after they invaded Poland Alex resistance group was based here I think I'm on the right track now some of the photos were taken here I only see great-aunt Christina had family weddings and funerals this is the first time I have been to her house my hips hurt I've got sciatica and my back is killing me just get harder bones and I go Shay Richard and Christina my father said I should come talk to you the chiyan know movie photos my sister Kristen oh yeah yes I'd like to talk to you about Alec what he did during the war his main task was to keep track of the parachute drops that were organized by the Polish government in exile in London he'd get the time and place usually a forest and then organise the pickup look here's a piece of one of the parachutes the materials had great colors we used to make clothes out of what was it like back then yeah he doesn't once I was on the way to school it was a secret school set up by the underground Polish Home Army I was crossing the square and suddenly the Germans showed up it was a raid they shoved me into a truck and took us to the old school Anya's in the Gorka street they were going to deport us to Germany as forced laborers I cried my eyes out I was 14 years old and I was being sent to Germany I cried like a baby one of the Germans took pity on me he brought me to another room and told me to stop crying he said they wouldn't take me away they'd make me a waitress at the Gestapo canteen yeah coke America door dog s dog estoppel and are you and then naive dot then my brother gets me for the home army I kept the aprons as a souvenir they're all faded a tailor made them for me because you couldn't buy things like that anymore dummy I've still got a few days when you worked at the Gestapo canteen and you kept track of the prisoners after the Germans arrested someone I tried to find out as much as I could incredible my great-aunt was forced to work for the Gestapo at the same time she was working for the Home Army and she was just 14 Cristina told her like what she could about the prisoners he passed along the information encoded messages less yaks denis suave Morosky Ches wofe news in ski Henrick Alec also sent his sister on missions through the city carrying messages or weapons if she been caught she could have been executed which it is I came here to talk to you about this box of photos so when you need to give the inch a Samba I know when Alec was in the resistance he lived with a married couple who'd agreed to hide him the man called Stefan offski worked in a fotomat he took the photos and develop them so Stefan Oskie worked with ellic in the resistance 75 years ago this was the largest photo store in Czestochowa everyone had their photos developed here including the Germans Stefan offski and a man named Feder ski made unauthorized copies of their photos and passed them along to LA now I'm going to meet shredder skis grandson pavel statelessness this photo which the rabbi is from the Chester Homer ghetto this is the school on your snag Orchestra Brian it's taken in the same place that you have this photo to write yours and this one's mine look there's an X marked on the back of both printed on the same paper they're both a bit overexposed this one's over developed see my grandfather used to make two sometimes three copies for the German customer for himself and for the resistance what is this Russian girl thinking and did this woman realize what was going on around her the rabbi looks afraid probably for good reason this classroom was converted to a jail cell on the wall there's a quote from Hitler's Mein Kampf in an age of racial poisoning a state that preserves its best racial elements will one day become master of the world the box has pictures from all over year I figured out that this is the school in yashna corsica Street police battalion number 310 from Iranian Bork was stationed there but they were not traffic cops they were there to impose German law and order with deadly results I did some research on the web and then decided to visit the police college at Oranienburg just north of Berlin Berlin makes– is an expert on battalion 310 that looks like Russia maybe he can tell me more about the photos yeah that's an input that's definitely a police officer you can see that German eagle insignia rings by oak leaves that's just a big question I'm trying to find out how this box and up my family and how it survived the war and why as they think of me up fine there are lots of photos of prisoners and detainees and scenes of deportations that's one scene that's why I think the photographer was recording events for posterity that would give information to the relatives about the person's fate document en void and then these photos document war crimes and the unbelievable destruction that took place perhaps they were intended to be used later as evidence and to help bring the perpetrators to justice Batali's bond should have foreign to him why did he take these photos why he collected them knows we're using I have no idea the ones that show the Germans deporting people from Warsaw are valuable as evidence but 7 if they shipped people off to the camps boozing and a lot of them never came back after some new Japan Jena novice MK IV genius was never cheated on you german troops both SS and ver mark put down the Warsaw Uprising in just 63 days more than 200,000 people were killed 100,000 were deported for forced labor and 60,000 were sent to concentration camps somewhere in this crowd is my grandmother Hanyu my mother's mother her brother was killed in August 1944 just after the uprising started in an air raid in September her husband was shot and killed in October she was deported after the war she married Heloise my grandfather Elek was just 30 years old when the war ended younger than I am now there was something else in that box besides the photos I still haven't been able to watch the two rules of 16-millimeter hog for film I've taken it to a photo lab to see if they can help me I wonder what the film will show amateur pictures of German soldiers scenes from the war its marked agfa 1939 which means it was probably developed in that year but it doesn't show wartime scenes these pictures may have been taken in the summer of 39 shortly before the war started four minutes one second snapshots in time who are these people why are they smiling and what are these pictures doing in Alex collection I'll show them to aunt Kristina and see whether she knows this is from Alex two rolls of film I don't recognize any of these people I don't know who shot this film the film end up in the box maybe he took them from a German possibly my aunt has lost none of her secret agent skills let's see if we can make out the license plate number that could tell us who owns the car my license plate starts with SK s for Silesia and K for Katowice 75 years ago in Germany it would have been I K the original vehicle registration lists no longer exist but there are copies at the National Library in Leipzig there are probably thousands of registrations with the Silesia prefix the number I'm looking for is I K 7 8 6 0 I found a copy of the list but everything is filed by the registration date finally I find it the car was owned by the Schroeder brothers they lived at brow plots one here sparing the car was an 8 cylinder horse a pretty cool car at the time today here sperg is called Yelena Agora I still can't confirm that the photos were actually shot there and I still don't know why elack had this roll of film I need to do some more research evil aberrated she is the director of the National Archive here that's the old posture tosser it's not far from here these days it's called Home Army Street obviously on a trip of some sort it's a Czechoslovak bunker in the mountains near torn off built to protect against the German attack the Germans annex the Sudetenland in 1938 later took over the rest of the country and the bunkers ended up his tourist attractions and he thought of the invincible-attack co-decision that's an unusual development but I still want to find out who those people were and what they were doing there is a Elizabeth II the Germans annex the Sudetenland and turned Western Czechoslovakia into a protectorate so those people are visiting the new German territory are these the Shorter's I want to find out what happened to them after the summer of 1939 evil helps me to track down the construction files for bra plots once we've got a blueprint and his sketch for building a toilet the so like it's a pub that adjoins the city brewery some of the shredders owned hershberger we can't find any more documents after the war a lot of East German territory went to Poland including hair sparrows now Eleni agora avoid if the shirt hers survived the war and wanted to hold on to their brewery they'd have had to become Polish citizens but I wonder whether either of the brothers applied for citizenship I didn't find an application for them so I looked at some documents filed by others we Fritz and Clara of barska Strasse hereby apply for polish citizenship as my last name indicates my ancestors were of Slavic origins and joined the Nazi Party in 1937 he says he signed up only because he had a government job and was never an active member he adds that he has no polish blood the authorities gathered information about the applicants by interviewing neighbors both German and Polish this application was rejected not as yet there are no files on the shorter brothers it seems that they had to leave their property behind probably in 1946 the poles had vivid memories of the atrocities carried out by the Germans and they were in no mood to forgive Yentl poo style German civilians leaving Poland let him back up their things and go back home get the key we put heaters in their trucks and gave them blankets and our food we were taught me to do it good rings second ominous upset what would have happened if my grandfather had not been granted citizenship in Poland he would have had to leave the country he'd never have met Hana the young woman from Warsaw and he never would have delivered me I wonder whether the shooters have ever come back to visit their brewery today bra Platz one is broach not one and today 10 families live here instead of just one took a coin I'm trying to find out what happened to the people who lived here in 1945 oh you know idea I've only lived here for 20 years one of the neighbors might know recognize anyone that one over there maybe I don't remember much from that time I would let the shredders in no because they spoke German what do you mean back then when people heard German they thought Hitler was just around the corner yeah the doorbell rang see an interpreter asked whether I'd mind talking to a couple of Germans who used to live here I said okay and invited them in so it was a man and his wife they brought me some trousers I still have them a pair of black trousers yes I'm Vanya but that isn't fucking each other the problem is that the shooters did not leave a forwarding address so how can I track them down I've decided to try the German federal archive and by roit Germans who were driven out of the eastern territories after the war could qualify for compensation if they renounced all future claims they had to fill out an application and provide an address Stephanie Yost works at the archive maybe she can help me as a mother mm-hmm I've seen him in Nagoya okay okay says he owned a car a horse it was a used car he bought it in 1937 for 3,000 high marks he says the veer mocked confiscated it five years later here's a list of everything he says he lost we've seen that car in the film so maybe we can find a record of the car here in the file does thisis Otto oh yeah and you know in the documents he describes the cars he owned it could be that the Shwetha bet family went with one of the family cars into a weekend trip even with friends or relatives or whatever but the other possibility is of course that there was it was not their own card so and and you know the car is quite prominent in this little film so maybe they made the film because they were so proud of the rented car damn a rental car so it may not be the Schroeder's in the pictures after all but Stephanie keeps looking there is no further biographical information I should say but there's a name up here this is deep man and this is really interesting the 18 year old son is named he's named with Itamar yeah it makes sense yeah Dima didn't appear in any other files and there is a kind of logic in it because because he would have been too young at the time in 1945 or 46 he would have been 10 years old he has no property so he didn't fill out an application so this might be your missing link to your person that's the one mm-hmm if deep Marsh order was 10 years old in 1946 he still could be alive maybe I'll be able to find him online I'll see if he has any other relatives the files show that deep Maher was born in bod farm brunt today it's called chip Lisa a district of yelling Agora I've managed to track him down the date and place of birth match perfectly that is definitely deep Marsh shirt he's an artist hello my name is Michal fluke your deep Marsh shirt I'm looking for the shorter family from here speck I have something that may belong to your relatives I'd like to show it to you if I could is this finally the family I'm looking for nice to meet you say marry that's incredible amazing did you stop for a second so I can see the people yes right there those are the deepest ein relatives I can't really identify any of those people they're really much too small for me to recognize and besides he was pretty young at the time that the film was shot this could indeed be you – whoooaaa but I can't say for sure she gained more weight later on but it could be her she bought the brewery and his back was huge and old there were two vaulted cellars they bought the brewery and my grandmother and uncle and some other relatives lived there in front there was a park and the taxis and buses used to park there I made a lot of money didn't have enough my family but the hairs backside after the war all the shorter 's left Silesia you have a family photo album nobility here this here we are in the mountains that's me my dad my mom the war had ended by that yeah we spent a year under occupation unclick beef cheeks first the Russians then the poles that was our collective fate things were pretty bad I had no idea why this was happening to us I was just a kid so I didn't ask mine gate to Lois I just ordered us out of the house hands up and we had to find a new place to live with Danny Tanner a year later in 1946 they went through the district street-by-street and order all the Germans to come out and so they loaded us onto a train I thought it was a great adventure if I'd ever seen anything like it it was a freight train I said right up front Isis was hanging out over an iron bar the Train moved really slowly and I just watched the scenery I thought it was quite a pleasant trip bother me at all a lot of people are really sad some were crying there was just straw to sleep on the sanitary conditions were appalling then we cross the nicer river we were still wearing the armbands that the polls had ordered us to where we took them off and through the Moy we were going to the West Loida he bowline or the local farmers and residents didn't want us to stop there they told us to go back where we came from we slept outside for a while and then found a place to stay stall in the barn after that things got a little more normal deep Mars family had to leave my family wanted to like many with German roots in the 1980s it took a long time to do the immigration paperwork and then the iron curtain came down so we stayed where we weren't tomorrow I'm going to meet deetmore sister hon assured her Powell maybe she can identify the people in the film better late than never surely I'm late sorry I'm really sorry I'm late she was ready to leave but I trusted Iran okay okay so I'm gonna explain to you the story of why I'm here baby oh oh no Hitler no that's not Hitler it is not Hitler at a different nose just that's in mind you think so it's a dead ringer there's no doubt about it Miss Austen off Stan he was from from this we can see that he was in nsdap Nazi Party out the shorter is party members they weren't interested in politics my father joined the party because he had to he worked for the state he wasn't a true believer just a member but nice gamma-gamma and he kept asking my mother to join but she refused my dad's money motel in deep attacking she had more courage than my father did my no madman would command father what sort of car is that a horse oh right yeah yeah and an IKE a license plate for Silesia hmm yes those with the shorter brother's cars it was their company this film was shot while they were on a trip to the mountains in 1938 or 39 you know who owned the camera yeah they always had the latest high-tech gear absolutely they were obsessed with their toys demands of the profession do you recognize anyone yeah return please what's tinder look at that it seems Martha you can see it or more clearly here no doubt about it you host with that high forehead she was always having headaches so it's Aunt Martha who had a high forehead and suffered from migraines a real person not just an anonymous figure in a brief film clip Hana and deep Mars suggest that I visit their cousin dieter who lives in the Vassar uplands region he's the last surviving shorter from the brewery the horse car belonged to Deiters father I think I finally solved this case here is this there's this post office in the capital cinema was just a few steps away yeah right I still remember 70 years he certainly can remember the old part of Harrisburg his Aunt Martha even their phone number at the time have you ever been back there four times the last time was three years ago mine's on my side want her to see the place so off we went my wife comes from the so we visited by snow here sparingly and there we think about mountains this is beautiful it's my homeland I felt at home again right away so it's a lot of fun though it's time for me to head back home I've solved the aqua puzzle it started with a simple family story and turned into a German Polish polish German saga a complex history full of sorrow and personal loss the shorter brothers survived the war but they were forced to leave their homeland there were many victims in my family too after the war the Communists took over in Poland and started eliminating potential opponents keep going straight here's the house where he was killed there's the gate do the secret police had a jail here he was arrested for being an anti-communist he tried to escape to the courtyard and they shot him which cemetery is straight ahead that's meant that we'll be there in a minute Alexander le gosh lieutenant of the Home Army codename cure born in 1916 murdered August 2nd 1945 by the Polish State Security Bureau actually it was August 6th they got the date wrong I still can't believe the grave is empty they never told us where they buried him he just disappeared the file on him is closed so you can't search for him we spent long days and nights at the cemetery whenever they buried someone my mother would take a look to see if it was Alec doughnuts they never gave the body back to us we don't know where they buried him please it may be here maybe they're all we can do is guess favor the fact of the matter is but he's gone they mostly showing up Oh Shiva said you should you

Circlemakers pt2 of 18 (3 hour) documentary



Circlemaking in the UK has been going on for many years. Hear from Circlemakers why they make circles and why some of them believe circles attract strange effects and stranger people.

Circles cropcircle UFO,Conspiracy Paranormal Hoaxing Wiltshire Stones Megalith
check out my site… www.truthseekers-uk.org Matthew Williams

Cropcircle crop circle wiltshire ufo conspiracy croppie barge inn paranormal reg presley steven greer colin andrews cloverfield transformers sex

it's a marks on them when they're photographing crop circles they tried to consume to marry the two together so quite honestly I think it's all all imagination and it's just to make things that it sound a little bit more important than they are there was one stranger happening one night when we were doing a pictogram on top of telegraph hill and dave was over one side of the pattern doing his little bit and I was doing mine and suddenly I was knocked unconscious and only for a short time of course something hit me on the head and I immediately thought that the farmer or the farm workers were approaching us and they thrown a stone at me or something but anyway the next thing I knew David was kneeling over me and he's saying what's the matter you know what what's the trouble and i said i don't really know i said something hit me on the head he said well there's nobody about but then i started feeling what I thought was blood running all down the back of my neck and all my hair was full of blood but of course we didn't know that it was blood because we had no torch we couldn't use torches of course otherwise we'd be seen and dave says I think we better get back to the cars and no we must finish the patterns we can't leave in half finished but anyway I came to quite well after a bit and we had about three quarters of a mile journey back to the car and I said well we can't see what it is I said until we get back to the car park and switch the headlights on and anyway when we got back to the car and switch the lights on my god he says what a mess your heads in I was covered in green like green slime and plenty of other things that intermixed with it and I said well we'll get off home now but of course when I reached home I open the door and I had to call him a wife and I said don't be alarmed when when you see me I said but I've got some nasty stuff I said all over my head and anyway she had to look at it and my god it was really terrible but what what had happened it was a chunk of ice it's fallen from an aircraft that was going over and how on earth the millions of chances to one of her hitting me on the head I don't know but as it was a warm evening by the time it hit me it was just a soft piece of sludge but it was just enough to knock me out for for a minute or two and and of course the air people from Heathrow completely deny any anything falling from aircraft but as you know that there's plenty of reports since of lumps of ice falling through people's roofs and into their living rooms but thank God it was only just a small soft piece that hit me that night and it was of course the chemical toilet way yes it was yes yes well although I'm an artist myself it's a totally different art to what we created in the fields as I say the fact that it was circular to start with and and UFOs were circular that was the whole idea behind it and it's which what's come of it as the years have gone by but the recognition that we've had I suppose we left their mark and sadly my friend dave chorley has passed away now he's creating circles up in the sky we should talk to each other when we're doing was it but all it is is flattened corn if you walk in you flattened it the only difference was the shapes we love the shapes because of its artistic value but I mean what these people have made of it was there a business I mean it's just become a big big laugh as the years go by but I'm still here I'm not creating circles any anymore unretired now haha and you can believe that or not but as an artist I create watercolors and oil paintings and also in the fields it's the largest canvas that we've ever we've ever had and as I say it pleases me to think that it's given pleasure to a lot of people well I was hoping to be knighted one day by by the Queen but I can't really see that happening because I suppose the National Farmers Union will create a bit of a fuss then but never mind sir Doug he'll carry on as long as he can and taking an interest in what other people are doing well time and time again I've told people how these lots of people say how on earth could these two men create circles all around the world well the answer to that is very simple because I've said it no end of times but no one seems to take any notice of what I say not that they want to anyway but let's take for instance if we did a Sorak all up on dirty head new Winchester of an evening we will go up the next evening to have a look at their handiwork and there will be anything up to fifty to a hundred people up there viewing it which pleased us no end and of course we would then rub shoulders with them and they would be from all different parts of the world on holiday there would be people from Canada America Germany France and we used to get into conversation with these people and they used to say to us when we get home from holiday we're going to do a circle or two and there you are they've gone back to America they gone back to Canada Germany likewise Japan and they're they're turning around just the same as we did and there you have the circles in all parts of the world not from Doug and Dave but from the people that came over here on holiday viewing the circles that we made and then they're having a go themselves you're still doing it today only yes when we used to go out to view what we've done the night before as I say the only people that we we knew were researching this was battleguard Oh Colin Andrews busty Taylor who was flying over and Richard Andrews and we used to get into conversation with these and I mean they they must know even to this day that we were frequenting up there and talking to them all the time and I always remember one one of wednesday afternoon at longstock I took my wife up to longstock to have a look at the circle that we made previous and I met Colin Andrews up there and he said there was some connection between a bit of a rubbish dump there in the circle that was Aidan field and he gave me his business card and he said if you hear of any circles round about he said perhaps you could let me know I said yes I will because I travel around quite a bit because I'm a a wildlife sound recordist and of course Dave and I used to do a circle one evening and then ring him up the next morning and said I'll Colin there's a circle at such and such and use of cell thanks very much thanks for the information which which made it all the fun well this is a little bit of a mystery attached to this although we've had a lot of fun out of making the circles over the years when when we started reading reports that some of our designs and patterns that we were creating had a connection with the Hopis Indians in America Mongolia aborigine tribes cave paintings etc and what mystifies me most of all is where is the connection of this why is it that I could sit down and in half an hour create a pattern on a piece of paper it was just as if my hand was being forced round with the pen to do this pattern I don't know where it came from but then then you read afterwards in just newspapers and magazines that it seems that there's a connection between what I drew their evening and what we were going to create in the fields that the with them with the Hopis Indians and Aborigine people and it seems to me that it could be a connection between languages but that mystifies me very much because it makes me feel as if that there is something unknown to us that we know with no knowledge of at all we're looking back at it all now after all these years I come to the conclusion that it'll never

Joe Rogan Media Strikes Brendan Schaub Documentary



Beige Frequency’s documentary masterpiece: I’m Not Surprised – The Brenda Schlob story has been blocked by CBS then by Bent Pixels, Joe Rogan’s media company.

Documentary Mirror here:

bass frequencies Brendan Schaub documentary yet I haven't because you can't yeah it's on Vimeo I'll send you a link I just finished watching it today but that's neither here nor there bass frequencies a guy who does documentaries he he did a great like was a 12-part thing on Anthony ku Mia he stunts Amy Schumer one was fantastic he put up the the Brendan Schaub one and he added it all first it was hit by CBS well and then this happened guys for the audio quality there are about a million cicadas outside right now it's summer unless I record at 2:00 in the morning they're gonna be making noise so I just have to kind of deal with it right now because I wanted to get this video out relatively quickly this is different than my normal videos and I want to keep this one pretty short and sweet so it's easy for people to understand and you know get out there and share if they want to do it yesterday I uploaded a video that I've been working on the video being I'm not surprised a Brendan Schaub documentary I would say within 20 minutes of that video being up it was hit with a copyright block because of a manually detected clip 24 seconds from Conor McGregor versus Floyd Mayweather now again look he may even make a point here in a second where there's there's longer clips on YouTube of it like there's there's 13 minutes of the fight there's 2 minutes of the fight there's 3 minutes of the fight so this isn't like something you can't find on YouTube however remember this was CBS now CBS is the person people who did the fight Showtime right the Showtime pay-per-view someone who did the fight CBS on Showtime Brendan Schaub special was on Showtime Annie as a show on Showtime there are multiple copies of this clip on YouTube some have been up for over a year so the fact that my video was taken down within 20 minutes to half an hour I don't remember the exact timeframe definitely says something that this was more than just an attempt to you know control copyright of a pushing two year old boxing match it was a targeted attempt to censor my video because I spoke ill of Brendan shop but I went back to the drawing board I went back into premiere I edited out the clip from show time of Conor McGregor vs. Floyd Mayweather I also edited out the clips of Brendan Schaub talking tomorrow or now though about the fight before it happened and then I reloaded it to YouTube but once my video is back up on YouTube and slightly edited fashion it remained up for 17 hours and in that timeframe it got 50,000 views in 17 hours that's very impressive I know he's doing really well which is which is pretty crazy my channel only had 20,000 subscribers at the time I uploaded the video and I've just hated present shopping around people that yeah so this was for example you know who definitely saw this video Brendan Schaub kidding you know who else did Joe Rogan oh yeah you better believe it over 1000 subscribers during that 17 hour window and also the video was mentioned in the top comment on Joe Rogan's recent video with Brendan Schaub top comment so his video was the top comment on the Rogen thing less than me at Java until it was deleted because of course it was because Joe Rogan is a hypocrite so for a little while I thought it was kind of saying this isn't the first time Joe Rogan's deleted comments he's done it before think the video is going to be taken down again but then earlier this afternoon I get an email saying that the video has once again been blocked worldwide this time because of a claim from bentpixels what bentpixels do you know what bentpixels is right that would be Joe Rogan's whatever production media company yeah yes means that's his media company I've been pinched before pen trips been pinched before yeah particularly paying trip because pink trip gets he gets hit with the monetization claims now all the time so that's why he has a patreon because every time pink shirt makes a Rogen video it's like Ben pickles but bentpixels has claimed this video so which if you don't know is the the multi-channel network that handles Joe Rogan and this time the claim was for again another 20 odd seconds of video from the fighter and the kid now in my opinion this is two separate claims coming from two different companies this is clearly attempt to censor the video from multiple angles it's premeditated and it's really nothing but pure censorship all the clips are used in my video meet the criteria for fair use one fair use covers criticism commentary education comedy and parody to the clips that I used in no way would infringe upon or replace the content from the fighter and the kid using a 20 second clip does not in any way affect them they are not gonna lose subscribers or views or money or anything no no no no no no it's because and I know you haven't seen it yet my buddy because you're making him look bad he in making him look poor barest him yes he embarrassed him because I use this clip it doesn't replace their content however that's not how you Tues copyright system works so YouTube does not get involved with fair use they're not arbiters of what constitutes fair use and companies can just copyright claim something and take it down and it's up to you to file a dispute then it's up to the company itself who owns the copyright to decide whether or not they want to rescind their claim and you can go to court if you really want to but as far as my reading and understanding of fair use goes my usage of the clips is completely covered and to take the video down because I use a few seconds of video here and there purely to illustrate my point as evidence that in my opinion is infringing upon free speech and for this reason I want to call out Joe Rogan specifically here because Joe Rogan is the main channel associated with bentpixels yep and Joe Rogan has used bentpixels multiple times to censor content that criticizes him makes fun of him or just otherwise negatively reflects upon him he basically uses it like a truncheon to beat people and so this was he's he used it for this video this is a little bit ago the ultimate sob compilation a hundred and twelve minutes of Brendan Schaub isms which is just a bunch bunch of fucking up or being stupid bentpixels blocked it now remember this isn't a Scottish thing cuz you know some companies have auto auto block it they're set up this is manually because if you put up a Rogen clip and you're talking good about him no problem we've played we've played on this show we've played video of of what is the sting in the Bing or being in the bong ring in this thing there it is King and the sting which is the Ovid and Brendan shot Joe we play that addition we've never had a problem why we call it the mullet in the gullet the mullet in the color there it is chin who expose him and criticize him or expose Brendan Schaub and criticized Brendan shop which to me is complete and total hypocrisy how many people has Joe Rogan had on his podcast that are part of the so-called intellectual dark web and how many of those people are Jewish oh no I'm sorry I was asking my own question he already asked how many members is being electrified on he already covered both of those people who have supposedly had their free speech and fringed upon how often does Joe Rogan claim to be a proponent of free speech yet he uses his multi-channel network to censor people who speak ill of him who criticized him and make fun of him or his friend that is pure 100% hey man we just have to have a conversation you know like I just want to sit down here and like have conversation you know free speech is really important in this country you know man can I just can I just to quote the enigma report it's a quote rich this is just unabashed J word ism and censorship and hypocrisy and maybe you can say that Joe isn't the one behind this I have no proof that Joe said go take that video down but I highly doubt that he is not aware of it being done and if by chance he isn't aware he should be made aware of it now and he should talk to the people behind the channel and tell them that it's wrong to censor people a page I'm gonna tell you something right now it was him Joe Rogan doesn't have 20 people working for him Joe Rogan has two people working for him it's not it's not a bit there's not a big group there you know what I mean he knows and of course he knows because you don't just arbitrarily choose what videos to take down though because there's plenty of clips of other people talking about Rogen other people talking about you know Theo Vaughn's podcast other people talking about that hold that whole orbit all the Rogan orbiters there's plenty of videos of people talking about these guys and they're not taking down and they're not block world tonight sometimes you get monetized that does happen happens to ping Tripp but but you ting Tripps videos are very neutral like they're not really mocking Joe Rogan nor are they praising Joe Rogan he's just using the source material to make bizarre videos but that be they'll claim that but yeah if you criticize Joe you're gonna get hit or part of his his little clique of boys yep using the copyright system if he has any integrity Joe should do this but I don't think he will and I don't think he does have any integrity because as we all know Joe Rogan is a repeat offender of deleting and censoring comments and like I said he uses this company to censor people in banks upon the fact that nobody is going to call him out and that nobody who does try to take him on will gain any traction or at least enough traction that a light will be shined upon the fact that he uses he underhanded tactics to censor negative information about him now I have thought about filing a dispute but as I said it's up to the copyright holder to rescind their dispute and I don't think they're going to do that the only reason I think they would rescind the copyright is if they look worse now I'm gonna help you beige I'm gonna trust because we're experts at this did this we know this very well Feld Entertainment and stuff like that fighting they're not gonna sue you there there's no way do you understand the terrible publicity that would happen yeah but this isn't this is uh what do you call it they with this with this new system they don't have to go to court like the mammalogy video covered that if they claim it and then you say no that's not copyrighted and they go yet is no that's the end of youtube's process that's but it is but then you move into the same region one Feld Entertainment then it becomes a court case thing you could say file a dispute they then have 10 to 14 days depending on the jurisdiction to sue you and if not the videos the videos are unblocked but that's that's why then why are they there have been other cases we're videos were just just stayed taken down because biggest can identify back that's all it is people are afraid and and for a lot of reasons people are afraid to fight back and we've talked about this on this show with the felt thing because you have to then when you're fighting back when you're saying no this is fair use like you know that we've sent those out a couple times this is fair use you have to give your personal information and a lot of people go fuck it I'd rather the video stay down I don't want to give my personal information now that's what it is and then if they shoot that they don't need to win a lawsuit by the way they just need to show YouTube that they enacted some sort of legal process that you've been served if they could prove that then then it then it stays blocked until the court case is decided if they don't respond within 10 days the videos unblocked so that's how it works I think your computer's unmuted by the ocean by censoring my video than the video itself would have made them look and the only way to accomplish that is by exposing them by sharing this video if you like my channel if you like my videos if you like to Brendan Schaub I do hers even if you didn't for it personally though I don't care if a beige frequency I think he's a little mean and he says mean words about people it was dude dude he he dish he destroyed him it was very very well done at he point he the stuff that really blew me away and I here I'm gonna give you the link guys in the Vimeo link I love all the people that are like man I wouldn't Doc's myself what fucking I gonna do Doc's you yeah how many of you people out there worried about being doxed like it's easy to find I could find any one of you people right now if I wanted to and you couldn't stop me and I could do whatever I wanted to you know now like well I'm gonna say something I'm gonna try to give advice here without me see how I word this correctly you can okay if somebody wanted to how about this if somebody wanted to fight one of these things and they they tell you you have to put your correct information but unless they try to sue you nobody knows you don't necessarily have to be 100% forth can they tell you you do but probably 99% chance they're not gonna check that address or that name just so you guys know I don't know I'm not telling you to do that am I telling you subvert the system or anything I'm just saying that is that is weird because I don't see anybody checking on it and I'm I'm gonna post I'm gonna post a link right here here's the again the link to the to the Vimeo where he married it and that's the entire documentary I'll put that in D live for you guys – there it is I I really I really recommend watching and so they said yeah you could use a lawyer to file for you but why would you pay a lawyer to file a motion for you on a website that doesn't want to pay you anymore it does one right of course right I can account taken away tomorrow like it's not worth it like fighting for your rights on YouTube it's just not worth it anymore like we're just we're just around here skimming as many fucking viewers of theirs as we can so when we just when we do eventually go away hopefully people will follow us to wherever we're going right what's worth fighting for this isn't fucking five years ago YouTube where there was money to be made no you're right D live dot TV slash revenge of the system of the way that's a reminder now regarding Rogen this is somebody found remember when you brought it up to me actually when people were like you were told me you know Rogen doesn't go live anymore he pre records his stuff wait a minute remember when this was right around the time he started not going live anymore yes you want to know why and he started premiering streams re-recorded him is this the UH cuz remember this Tim Poole Jack doors live but remember this was the one that disappeared for a while and everybody went where did that go and then it was back up but it was edited right now oh no did we get something and I love this time and this is good it's not super juicy but you're gonna see why he's not going live anymore assists that's what I want to see it's gonna happen whether we like it or not any last thoughts no I just want to thank you Joe has been great and Tim thanks for your few this is the end of the show this was lawyer thank you I really appreciate you guys thank you jack Jake you made a mess things I think we've said it all that's a wrap folks no more ear beatings good night everybody that was awesome thank you thank you thanks for for for talking I really do appreciate it they worry me the you mentioned an auntie fuck out that Doc's policemen can you please just been that wrong bitch ly / auntie between fit dot ly / antifa sweet and then um would you di mean I'll follow you would you DM me neither they accounts that you said threatened you know I believe in minimizing harm and if I so when a tree well how about this I won't take action on it but I want to understand why you didn't take action on them and I can't learn from that and I won't take action on it so so when Lawrence elder got banned from a tree on hold on a lot of people were does it do without his his streaming program froze and it was still alive so that's the if you want to know the reason why Rogan doesn't go live anymore that's the reason why and that that's happened like I've had my obeah I've had my OBS freeze on me and it's a because now now it's gonna this is gonna be for Rogan it's gonna be you you peaked you're not gonna get bigger than you've been and now you're going too slow people are gonna slowly start losing interest you think people like oh it's not live anymore and it's not anonyme it's too sanitary and it's to pre-record so it's yeah man it's just weird so yeah it stated recording and I think ever since then that's the reason I guess somebody what else must have sniped it hey listen Tim guy who's now part of the inner circle could you give me a list of these people and don't worry we'll get them for you to be fair no into Tim's defrag he's like you know we by the way people could say you're phony but he didn't know he was lying didn't know I was gonna say didn't know he was live so that's not cool you know fucking putting on a front cool for the pun that he was literally hey can you give us a list of the people in her ass even though yeah I got look you gotta give me that much that that is at least a man who is principled because even offer he was like no I'm not a snitch yeah I know dog snitch I know snitch dog know Tim was that gangster yeah I didn't know either but that's the reason ever since that Rogen hasn't been home Rogan hasn't been going live because of that little abstract with the ivory because when she was looking you give me loose no I was waiting from be like you're like no no no it's not happening all right ah Mike quick update I just wanted to read a quick quit up quick update from our president about the gun laws how much are we giving Israel today it's not that in this case I never thought I'd say this I wish that's what it was serious discussion this is the Donald Donald Trump the president United States serious discussions are taking place between House and Senate leadership on meaningful background checks I have also been speaking to the NRA and others so that their very strong views can be fully represented and respected guns should not be placed in the hands of mentally ill or deranged people I am the biggest Second Amendment person there is yes Mike I don't believe you but we all must work together for the good and safety of our country and this word remember this is this this next this net these next two words are what this is the literal Democrat talking no no no this is a literal Obama Biden talking exactly common sense things can be done that are good for everyone like taking guns away from people we deem not good without due process see they take the guns first remember member no we're gonna have rapid due process remember mmm remember remember remember when he sat down anyway and that he was caught saying can we just can we just take the guns away and worry about to practice later remember that and everyone was like uh eat him he must have messed up he didn't mean that he was just goofing around it was just no he's just no goofing guys and here we are

Wildlife of the Galápagos Islands



Views:1685|Rating:4.69|View Time:2:49Minutes|Likes:15|Dislikes:1
Explore more travel videos from around the world by subscribing to The Planet D travel channel
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Dave and Deb of The Planet D visit the Galapagos Islands of Ecuador and experience the amazing wildlife. From swimming with sea lions, Marine Iguanas and sharks, to walking with the famous Giant Tortoises , a visit to the Galapagos truly is a one-of-a-kind experience!
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VIDEO TRANSCRIPT:

Hey everybody we’re in San Cristobal
and the jumping off point
to go and explore the National Park

Check out the Galapagos Iguana

We’re here at Sleeping Lion Rock
and you know what?
There are sharks right below me
check it out

Martin Scorsese and Ron Howard open TIFF festival with a music documentary | AFP



Produced by Martin Scorsese and Ron Howard, ‘Once We Were Brothers: Robbie Robertson and the band’, a documentary about the legendary canadian band that became an ‘enigma’, opens the 44th Toronto International Film Festival.

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National Geographic Documentary – Full documentary 2017 – Animals Mating Amazing Wildlife



Views:43117|Rating:4.34|View Time:47:6Minutes|Likes:53|Dislikes:8
National Geographic Documentary – Full documentary 2017 – Animals Mating Amazing Wildlife

the driving force of life its sex every animal on earth has descended from a four billion year dynasty of successful breeders urge to breathe comes from genes that compel creatures to fight and even die for sex the evolution of sex has been the driving force behind the history of life it's a battleground where only the sexiest will triumph many of nature's bloodiest battles are fought for the sake of sex the reason for this passion is obvious but if I do so many creatures suffer so much for sex the benefit is not the act itself but continuing the family line sex is life's gateway to the future a way for genes to pass from one generation to the next and these genes drive both males and females to behave in extraordinary ways this quest for immortality can be life's ultimate challenge [Laughter] but in pursuing this quest one sex usually pays a higher price than the other often females are burdened with bringing up a babies while for the male's the only chore seems to be the act of sex itself sex aside it often seems that females could raise families on their own it's often the females that do the work and take the greatest risks who you hunting is always dangerous even when caught pre can still injure the hunters but sometimes it's the male rather than the female that makes the ultimate sacrifice this male Redback spider has found a female's lair but will she see him as a potential suitor or her next meal his footsteps vibrate the wave in a particular way that he hopes will identify him she gets the right message and stays still tentatively he maneuvers into place one false move and he'll be dead the spiders palps are packed with spelled he drums them against her abdomen as they play Lou to an extraordinary sexual act he plunges the pulp into the female and begins to transfer sperm but then he makes a bizarre move he flips his body over into the females jaws he forfeits his own life all for the sake of sex but there's method to his madness while she eats he continues to inject spam and more sperm means more babies to carry on his genetic line genetically it makes perfect sense he has to die sometime and by trading in his life early he ensures a bigger stake in the next generation amazingly suicidal strategies such as this are not uncommon in this river sockeye salmon are reaching the end of their lives over the past few weeks they have swum 1600 kilometers upstream from the ocean instinctively driven in search of sex it's the journey of a lifetime finally they reach the very gravel bed were they themselves first hatched but alone that exhausted by the struggle they have one last mission they must know compete for mates Emile's jostle one another for the chance to fertilize a females eggs the stakes are high those that win will breed and their genetic line will continue while those that lose are destined to evolutionary oblivion every salmon will die but some will live on through their offspring within each egg lie the blueprints of life genes inherited from both parents instructed by those genes a shapeless egg turns into a baby salmon a salmon with the genetic pedigree to breed successfully the secrets of breeding success are also passed from generation to generation within these genes but there are easier ways to pass on genes ways that don't require the sacrifices of sex these sea anemones can reproduce without a partner they don't need sex the anemones simply split themselves down the middle to create two identical animals clones to the it's a very effective way to breathe there's no need to expend time searching for meat and the process itself is quick in just a few hours one anemone can divide into babies able to reproduce in exactly the same way the young anemone is a perfect clone of its pimp sharing identical genes and cloning as a means of rapid reproduction is a method also used by more complex animals in the wake of a tropical cyclone a raft of vegetation drifts in the ocean on board is a small passenger a female gecko the raft runs aground Noren more thailand it's a safe haven but there are no other geckos here so no chance of her finding a mate but this gecko is no average castaway isolation isn't a problem for her it's an opportunity because she's fully equipped to reproduce alone once in the shady interior of the island she wastes no time and starting her own colony she lays eggs but she doesn't need a male to fertilize them the embryos that develop inside each are identical to the mother perfect clones several weeks later their baby geckos hatch that all female and can also lay eggs without needing to meet soon the island will be crawling with geckos all descended from a single mother in this species that are no meals breeding without sex might work well on an isolated island but it can be a perilous strategy elsewhere in the world where predators and disease are rampant in the Australian outback cloned geckos have a much tougher time they must be constantly on the lookout for danger the guana is one of the predators to avoid but other threats are much harder to hide from tiny parasitic mites are on the geckos I suck her blood unseen diseases can also kill them and if one gecko falls ill the whole population of identical clones is at risk like their Island relatives these geckos multiply rapidly each gives birth to numerous female clones but here cloning is a double-edged sword if a parasite finds a weakness in one gecko it can infect all the others the population can crash even faster than it grew but living alongside the clones our other female geckos that do peer with meals and multiply through sex the process takes twice as long since the male's don't have babies but sexual reproduction has a distinct advantage it mixes genes and creates unique offspring each with its own unique defense against infection parasites have a tough time spreading through this population by shuffling their genes during sex these geckos are better equipped to survive this key advantage helps explain why sex is so widespread but the advantages of sex may extend far beyond merely shuffling genes sex revitalizes the genes themselves the two sets of genes that come together during sex each have their own imperfections because genes get damaged from time to time sex actually repairs these faulty genes by replacing them with good copies from the other partner with sex constantly rejuvenating genes each generation becomes stronger than the last genes have been intermingling throughout the two billion year history of sex and it's the new combinations that result that propel evolution forward the amazing diversity of creatures on our planet today is a direct result of sexual evolution sexual animals must swap genes when they breed and in the mating game the challenge is to find the best this is how Alberto si do it after spending months apart alone at sea the birds are now compelled by their sexual urge to spend hour after hour in this ceremonial dance but this is not frivolous flirtation this is how they pick sexual partners Oh the female already carries a single large egg a rare and valuable contribution towards the next generation but a male produces millions of sperm tiny inexpensive packages of genes this difference in size is key to the evolution of sex for two billion years ago when it first evolved sex was a simple matter cells simply bumped into each other and then swapped genes but for an average cell living in a big ocean this wasn't always easy smaller more agile cells were better at finding partners enlarger fatto sells well stocked with energy were more easily found combining their talents these odd couples paired off faster than the rest soon the seas were filled with fills specialized for sex large eggs and tiny sperm were here to stay today the difference in size between eggs and sperm can reach amazing extremes from the outside the female Kiwi looks almost identical to her male partner but inside is a truly enormous egg she'll only produce a few in her lifetime the male on the other hand produces millions of sperm every time he mates enough to fertilize every female Kiwi on the planet quantity versus quality meal versus female each sex as its part to play in this game but some curious creatures play on both sides some of the animals here on Australia's Great Barrier Reef are hermaphrodites both male and female these flat worms produce both eggs and sperm but they don't fertilize themselves they need new genes to mix with their own so they search for partners just like any other creature but when they meet they first need to determine which will play the male and which the female they do this by penis fencing each flatworms stands at the other when it's harpoon-like penis trying to pierce the other worms skin the rules of this battle are simple the first worm to successfully stab the other wins and gets to flee the meal these flatworms even have two penises twice as effective in battle and capable of injecting all the more spam their sperm are small and they're plenty to spare while they keep their large valuable eggs in reserve but in this contest there's triumph and defeat the eggs from this union will be fertilized by the sperm with the winning genes and asset to the next generation for male animals spreading their genes is cheap and relatively easy the hard part for some is finding females in the first place like when they live in the vast tangled swamps of Venezuela here all eyes are on the lookout for a dangerous predatory female she's an anaconda the largest hunter in the swamp she can eat a caiman or a capybara with ease she's five and a half meters long and weighs almost a hundred kilograms and the larger she is the more young she can have her fertile body acts as a beacon to male anacondas she doesn't need to make any effort to find them niall anacondas are tiny in comparison at a quarter of her weight but he's sleek and agile and up to the all-important challenge of locating the female eventually he finds her but she's not alone eight other male anacondas are already wrapped around a female sometimes they remain entwined like this for more than a month each male has a pair of mating Spurs he uses to stimulate the female and persuade her to mate the male's wrestled to be the winner in this serpentine battle for sex the big female seems passive but her job is simply to attract the males while they fight amongst themselves she conserves her energy for later tuna her eggs female marine iguanas are sharp eyed and on the lookout from mates they choose partners based on the territory they possess so the larger males compete for the best spots until clear winners have emerged eating rather than mating is the females priority foraging is best when the tide is out and the females all race for the shoreline but for males food is off the agenda if they want sex they must stay and fight these often bloody battles sort out the men from the boys important information for females looking for strong mates but for now the females gods themselves on fresh seaweed food is vital to nourish the eggs growing inside them no matter how hard it is to reach the battles between males continue through the heat of the day eventually the winner will take center stage ready for the females return as the females travel up the beach they are watched by smaller meals not strong enough to win fights their tactic is to jump on passing females but this female wants a male that has proved his strength and battle she continues on towards the rocks a winning meal welcomes the females onto his patch he sniffs them to see if they're ready to meet but even this is no gang T of sex the male's still have to wait until the females accept them female iguanas pick their partners from a crowd of meals but how do other females pick the best when they only meet one meal at a time surprising answer has been found in the woods of Ohio in spring wolf spiders start to look for mates the female stays hidden wary of predators but she leaves a trail of silk for males to find when one locates it he detects the presence of a potential mate she senses his tapping signal then sees his waving legs but why does she choose this meal above all others something about him attracts her he has long bristles on his front legs Tufts that seemed to serve no practical purpose and he shows them off by giving her a weave could it really be his hairy legs that catch the female spiders eye to find out the spiders viewing habits have been analyzed on videotape a mini TV screen plays life-sized images of courting males to a female but this male has no hair Tufts on his legs and the female is unimpressed but when she sees a male with normal leg tufts she's interested and if he has huge leg tops she gets very excited if females by in theory leg sexy so will the daughters and they'll also have sons with hairy legs for these spiders healy legs are here this day battles between males have led to extreme displays of flamboyance especially among bards you and throughout the board world females carefully choose the best meals they can find but for some females the search continues even after they found a meat blue-footed boobies live in densely packed colonies they mate for life but that doesn't mean they're sexually faithful each female has a regular partner she can depend on to feed her chicks but when he's away she's not averse to a new romance when a female is home alone other males are more than happy to keep her company and file her mates away she's free to play the field infidelity makes sense she already has a committed partner but he may not have the best genes it's possible that another meal might have more to offer their brief courtship leads to an inevitable end like all meals this one's trying to spread his genes far and wide and the real bonus of this affair is that you won't have to bring up chicks meanwhile for regular partner goes on fishing in blissful ignorance but on his return he reclaims his partner it's to his advantage to do so repeated mating will keep his sperm in the race to fertilize her eggs competition amongst males often breeds dirty tricks and to further his own cause a male can use all manner of cunning ploys in the mountain meadows of Poland another male does more than cheat a few rivals he can exclude all his rivals it's the Apollo butterfly the males appear before the females ready to mate quickly when the time comes down below a female is about to emerge from this pupa she'll be mated just once by the mail fast enough to beat the competition as soon as she emerges something probably has sent alerts males to her presence and the race to find her is on before she's even taken her maiden flight she's discovered by this male but how can he make sure that he's the only lead she will ever have after successfully mating he fits her with the insect equivalent of a chastity belt to ensure that his will be the only genes she receives and then he leaves victorious no other male can mate with this female because he has sealed off all access with an impenetrable spiked plug that has now set hard the female had little choice in this meeting game but sometimes females have a surprising amount of influence this harem of female elephant seals has been won by a single male known as the beachmaster and it would seem that the females have no choice in the matter but the females discriminating tastes will soon be revealed when a visitor approaches the harem sneaking in from the sea a young bull is looking for an opportunity yes he's intent on seduction but the females raise objection to his advances [Applause] the commotion wakes the beachmaster who chases off the upstart bachelor [Applause] clearly size does matter but it was the females protests that led to his eviction [Applause] these females won't settle for second best the Hadean master is dominant but only because he gets a helping hand from his having of winning concubines female lions are also the willing subjects of powerful males females do the hunting but males defend the pride against attack from other lions if the males 'no pride die the females and Cubs are left extremely vulnerable there are always rolled males on the prowl ready to take control and an invading male will kill any Cubs he finds you you the death of the Cubs may seem brittle but it is not senseless killing the new male does it to make sure he won't be wasting his time protecting Cubs that aren't his own the female will soon bear his own young and he'll stick around to protect them from other marauding males in doing so he also protects the females new family despite their conflicts males and females must cooperate they need each other to bring their genes together in a vital combination a renewal of life and then tomorrow all around us live the descendants of a four billion year battle for survival at the heart of that battle is sex despite its cost and its complexity sex is here to stay new life is born every minute equipped with the right combination of genes from both parents ready to survive in an ever-changing world the triumph of the mating game is the future of life Oh ah Oh

Flat Earth Clues Full Documentary Movie 2015


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303-494-6631

Are we inside a Truman show enclosed world, thousands of miles wide? This is part of a series of videos that shows not only is it possible, but likely.

The Flat Earth awakening is the biggest story to hit this world in Millennia. I am humble to be just a part of this massive force of truth, one that’s going to change the world and how you live forever. This new site is dedicated to everything that is real and true about the place where you live, a place that has until now, been hidden from you. Join me in rediscovering the awesome power and potential of our civilization. Together we can take back the secrets and knowledge, and become great again.

George Orwell
Tribune, 27 December 1946
Most people, if asked to prove that the earth is round, would not even bother to produce the rather weak arguments I have outlined above. They would start off by saying that ‘everyone knows’ the earth to be round, and if pressed further, would become angry. In a way Shaw is right. This is a credulous age, and the burden of knowledge which we now have to carry is partly responsible.

Secretary’s Desk

I live in a Magic Show with many Creative Forces Hiding God but I am in it for The Long Haul because I am more than another Soul in the System I have Depth Perception and New Eyes. I visit the Empty Theaters and admire Byrd Wall and all of the misguided Map Makers inhabiting the ol Status Quo when we are all truly dreaming of Shell Beach.
😉

Harlem by Langston Hughes | Poem Meaning and Critical Analysis in Hindi #AfterReading



Views:8745|Rating:4.77|View Time:5:38Minutes|Likes:269|Dislikes:13
This poem teaches us to create the atmosphere of equality for everyone so that everyone can achieve their dreams and goals in a happy society.

Screaming Eagles – Battle of the Bulge – Sabaton History 026 [Official]



Views:64048|Rating:4.99|View Time:14:37Minutes|Likes:5486|Dislikes:14
When the Germans launched their last western offensive through the Belgian Ardennes in the winter of 1944, it was up to the American 101st Airborne Division to defend the key city of Bastogne. Surrounded by camouflaged German soldiers and endless artillery bombardments, the 101st, a.k.a the Screaming Eagles, endured.

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Hosted by: Indy Neidell
Written by: Markus Linke and Indy Neidell
Directed by: Astrid Deinhard and Wieke Kapteijns
Produced by: Pär Sundström, Astrid Deinhard and Spartacus Olsson
Creative Producer: Joram Appel
Executive Producers: Pär Sundström, Joakim Broden, Tomas Sunmo, Indy Neidell, Astrid Deinhard, and Spartacus Olsson
Maps by: Eastory
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Sound Editing by: Marek Kaminski

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An OnLion Entertainment GmbH and Raging Beaver Publishing AB co-Production.

© Raging Beaver Publishing AB, 2019 – all rights reserved.

Jeg er Hannes fra Sabaton og jeg er Freddie Mercury og dette er Sabaton Historie! "De Skrigende Ørne" Du ved, ørne skriger faktisk ikke det er mere sådan et "Ourhhg Ourhhg" Og vores sang "Screaming Eagles" handler om enheden "101st Airborn"
og kampen ved Bulge Jeg ved godt, at folk kalder enheden 101st men af hensyn til flowet, vil jeg kalde dem One'O'First så jeg kan fortælle historien
mere flydende Humøret var højt,
blandt de almindelige tyske tropper mens de bevægede sig forbi geledder af tanks, kugler og ammunition, på Deres vej mod frontlinjen i Frankrig og Belgien i de tidlige decemberdage i 1944. Det havde været et katastrofalt år for
Værnemagten udsat for nederlag efter nederlag
på alle fronter, men pludseligt, blev der samlet
en stor hær i vest klar til at gå i offensiven
endnu en gang. Målet; intet mindre end at rive de
allieredes tropper fra hinanden i vest i et skeldsættende fremstød. Det føltes som 1940
endnu engang. Men, dette var ikke den samme tyske hær som var blevet sendt i krig i Polen, Frankrig eller Rusland 4 eller 5 år tidligere. I den tidlige vinter 1944, bestod den tyske hær delvist af kamphærdede tropper, og delvist af helt unge og gamle mænd som var tvunget ind i den nu,
så hårdt prøvede krigsmaskine Det tredje Rige
skrabede bunden af tønden med hensyn til rekruttering af
nye soldater og logistik Forsyninger havde altid været den tyske hærs svaghed men i 1944, manglede den helt tydeligt de nødvendige motorkøretøjer, brændstof og ammunition,
til at forsyne et fremstød som det nye tiltag i vesten. De pansrede mandskabsvogne,
var et sammensurium af forskellige modeller,
det samme gjorde sig gældende for artelleriet. Enkelte "Panzer" og Jagdpanzer" men mest "Panzer IV" og modificerede Halftracks.
(forhjul og larvefødder) Men "Pansergranat troperne"
kørte på tankene faldskærmstropperne var forstærket af unge mænd fra flyvevåbnet og Volksgranadiers tropper bestod af splittede enheder. Så på trods af det imponerende antal tropper så hæren ud til at mangle de egenskaber som det krævede at fuldfører Adolf Hitlers ønske
om at bekæmpe sine fjender. Så da angrebet endelig startede,
d. 16. december fejlede de ret hurtig i,
at nå deres mål. Den 6. Panzer enhed,
som skulle lede angrebet blev stoppet af ihærdigt amerikansk modstand ved St. Vith, Malmedy og Elsenborn
bjergkamme. Selvom hovedangrebet havde fejlet havde den supporternede tyske
5. enhed betydelig succes længere mod syd da den havde fundet en svaghed i de
amerikanske forsvarsværker i Arden Planerne ændrede sig på stedet. Den 5. enhed skulle presse hele vejen til floden Meuse og indtage byen Bastogne undervejs. Bastogne var ikke kun et trafikknudepunkt men også hjemsted for de allieredes brændstofdepoter og opbevarede næsten 11,4 mio liter brændstof. En værdigfuld ressource for de tyske tropper
hvis de blev erobret men selvom det blev ødelagt,
ville det sætte en stopper for en amerikansk offensiv til foråret. Hvis Bastogne blev erobret hurtigt ville der måske stadig være mulighed for at
avancere forbi Meuse og videre mod Namur Før offensiven, blev området omkring Bastogne regnet for at være, en ret stille sektor af frontlinjen
af den amerikanske officerstab. Den lå mellem de operative sektorer af "1st army" som havde kæmpet sig igennem et skovområde og "3rd army" syd for Luxemburg som kæmpede imod de tyske fæstningsværker ved
Sigfried linjen. Så Arden var anset for at være et hvilested for slagne enheder, eller et øvelsesterræn for nye enheder, som skulle bruge erfaring fra de små ildkampe, som fandt sted. For at angribe Bastogne
ville tyskerne være nødsaget til at sende et stort antal pansrede enheder, gennem den tæt bevoksede Arden, med kun et fortal veje tilgængelig. En sådan manøvre, blev anset for
usandsynlig af de Allierede især i vinteren. Jeg mener, et overraskelsesangreb
gennem Arden hvem havde kunne forudset det? Det var selvfølgelig præcis det, tyskerne gjorde i 1940,
man da ikke igen, vel? Så Arden sektoren var kun let bevogtet af 3 amerikanske divisioner da den tyske pansrede spydspids
viste sig i området. De overløb hurtigt de amerikanske enheder. Elementer af 5. panser hær,
skyndte sig at udnytte den splittede front De vidste, at de kun havde et lille vindue måske 4-5 dage, før de allierede ville sende forstærkninger. De amerikanske i Arden, havde ingen muligheder
for at stoppe den tyske fremfærd, men kunne i det mindste forsøge at tage brodden af de tyske styrker,
og stjæle kostbar tid Så i et kæmpende tilbagetog forsinkede de tyskerne med anti-tank
og bazookaer. De forårsagede trafikkøer ved at ødelægge den
forreste tank på de snævre skovveje. Generalløjtnant Omar Brandley,
med det overordnede ansvar for sektoren var blevet lovet store forstærkninger,
men det ville tage tid. De eneste tilgængelige tropper i nærheden var "82nd" og "101st airborn" enheder. P.t. i en genudrustningsface ved Reims efter deres dyre angreb,
ved Operation "Market Garden" Enheden 82nd blev sendt mod nord til St.Vith blev 101st "Screaming Eagles" sendt til Bastogne. "101st" var et hærdet kompagni, men de havde ikke tilstrækkeligt vinterudstyr og heller ikke rigtig nok tungt skyts. Efter 2 dages kamp mod
det tyske angreb ved Arden var det amerikanske tilbagetog totalt, og tropperne strømmede tilbage mod Bastogne, væk fra de tyske tanks. Vejene mod Bastogne var frie, men vejret var blevet værre. Det var skift for amerikanerne, da regn og tåge,
holdte det amerikanske luftvåben på jorden. Ved Bastogne klargjorde
mændene deres forsvar. Feltartilleri og M7 selv fremdrevne Haubits kanoner, forskansede sig i en halvcirkel, mens ingeniører gjorde byen til et fæstningsværk. D. 19. tonede tanks frem i udkanten af byen. De amerikanske tanks der var til rådighed,
kørte ud for at møde dem, og forsinkede den tyske fremrykning endnu engang. Den nat, ankom "The Screaming Eagles" endelig til Bastogne. Det samme gjorde den tyske eliteenhed
Panzerlehrdivisionen Den næste dag, var "The Screaming Eagles"
midt i kamphandlingerne. Mens de tyske tanks og anti-tank kanoner angreb og ødelagde de flygtende eller fastklemte styrker lige udenfor Bastogne, angreb "101st" de tyske infanteri enheder. Med støtte fra feltartilleri kæmpede "The Screaming Eagles"
for udkanten af byen og lokale landsbyer, og belejrede ovenikøbet et gammelt chateau og skød de tyske "Panzergranadier" som
kæmpede sig frem, for at tvinge dem ud. Denne hårde modstand, kostede tyskerne
endnu mere tid og det var ikke før d. 22.
Bastogne langt om længe var omringet. Hitler gav ordren: Bastogne skal indtages, koste hvad det vil! På den dag, blev to tyske officerer fra Panzer Lehr
med bind for øjnene, ført til hovedkvarteret for Anthony McAuliffe, som havde det overordnede ansvar
for de forskellige tropper, som var fanget i byen. De tyske officerer
bad amerikanerne om at overgive sig Konfronteret med tilbuddet,
udbrød McAuliffe: SLUDDER Korrekt; Bastogne var omringet men de seneste dage
havde tyskerne i flere forsøg prøvet at trænge ind i byen og var gang på gang blevet presset tilbage. Og lad os bare indrømme:
At være omringet var nærmest en del af jobbeskrivelsen for "101st Airborn". Af mangel på bedre ord, skrev McAuliffe også bare SLUDDER på
overgivelses dokumenterne. Til de undrende tyskere som spurgte: "Hvad skal det her betyde?" Svarede amerikanerne blot at de skulle:
Skride af H til og at alle tyskere,
som forsøgte at trænge ind i byen ville blive dræbt. Så de tyske tropper forstærkede sig endnu engang forstærket af endnu flere hærdede
"Panzergranadiers" fra Italien og flere tanks og anti-tank kanoner. Men himlen klarede op,
og det amerikanske luftvåben kunne igen sørge for forplejning
til den belejrede by. "101st" havde Juledag forskanset sig
i skovene mod nordøst for byen. At grave skyttehuller i den frosne jord var vanskeligt men hvert eneste skyttehul kunne redde liv når de tyske granater slog ned,
overalt omkring dem. I den isnende kulde, infiltrerede tyske Panzergranadier i hvid kamuflage skovene, men blev mødt af riffel og maskingeværskud og de fremadstormende tanks blev mødt
med bazookaer og Haubits. Bølge efter bølge,
angreb de tyske soldater fra forskellige retninger men gang efter gang, jog faldskærms-
og glidertropper angrebene væk, i en række grusomme kampe
gennem skove og landsbyer. Inden længe faldt specialammunitionen
"Træ smadrer" over de tyske positioner og flåede modstanderne med træ- og granatsplinter. Det tyske angreb i julen
var en katastrofe med store tab af mænd og tanks. Belejringen fortsatte,
men den største trussel var overstået d. 26. lykkedes det endelig
dele af Patons "3rd army" at etablere en korridor ind til Bastogne. Det ville dog stadig tage flere dage
at sikre den, da tyskerne forsøgte at afskære den igen. Små kampe fortsatte, men ikke engang nyligt tilkommende SS divisioner, kunne genetablere en ny belejring. I januar, af frygt for at miste grebet over frontlinjen, beordrede den tyske højkommando, et fuldt tilbagetog. Den overordnede strategiske initiativ i vesten tilhørte nu amerikanerne. På nuværende tidspunkt kunne det
amerikanske luftvåben endnu engang angribe og d. 12. januar da nyheden om en sovjetisk
vinteroffensiv kom frem brød Hitlers sidste gambling i vesten sammen. "101st Airborn" hvad er der med dem? Vi besøgte "101st Airborn" ved Fort Cambell Og først og fremmest til dem der var der, og alle dem
der er i "101st" og ved Fort Cambell, tak for at I tog jer
så godt af os. Besøgte I også Bastogne? Ja det gjorde jeg, vi så den dejlige "Sherman" tank de har i centrum
-Jeg har aldrig været der. -Har du ikke?
-Nej Det kan jeg anbefale.
Skovene udenfor Bastogne hvor alt det vilde fra nåh ja – "Kammerater i Krig", kan man se der. Fortæl os om sangen, hvordan opstod den? Faktisk, en smule anderledes med den her. Jeg sad, helt alene, i vores gamle studie og jeg skrev musikken, og jeg havde ingen anelse om hvad sangen skulle handle om på det tidspunkt For at være ærlig;
Jeg ødelægger måske nogens illusion, om sangskrivnings processen Jeg var så tosset og sur på mig selv, for jeg havde skrevet en masse til
albummet "Coat of Arms" og jeg havde endnu ikke fundet den der "spark røv adrenalin pumpende" sang endnu. Formentlig, kl. 1 eller 2 om natten sagde jeg bare "Fuck det her lort, nu
skriver jeg en sang, og går ikke hjem før den er færdig Og i det tilfælde,
blev den aggression jeg havde mod mig selv kickstarteren til den intro og som også blev til omkvædet: Et guitarriff og jeg var helt "ja sådan, der er den – Næste" – Cool
– Og jeg gav bare ikke mig selv chancen for at sætte farten ned,
og over tænke det og lavede sangen fra begyndelsen til slutningen og kl. 7 eller 8 om morgenen var den færdig. Så det er faktisk et af de hurtigst skrevne Sabaton sange, du ved, fra sangskriver synspunkt. Og naboerne ringede og sagde at de var rigtig glade – Ja, ja de nød det
– De nød hele processen, – Vi glæder os til at hører jeres nye album Fortsæt med at arbejde om natten,
det kan vi li' Men hey! Noget du sagde tidligere
som jeg gerne vil tilbage til. – Du nævnte "Kammerater i Krig"
– Ja
– Jeg elsker "Kammerater i Krig" Det samme gør jeg det virker måske oplagt for mange
som elsker historie at alle har set serien De ved måske ikke at "Kammerater i Krig"
handler om de her gutter. Ja undskyld, serien handler om "101st Airborn" og der er også en fantastisk bog
som hedder "Band of Brothers" af Stephen Ambrose hvis jeg ikke tager helt fejl. Men serien "Kammerater i Krig" Den er næsten 20 år gammel nu,
og det er noget jeg tror man måske har misset hvis man er under 25
eller måske under 30. Du bør ikke misse den. Hey folkens,
hvor fed er "Kammerater i Krig"? (Jubelråb i baggrunden) Og de jubler ikke bare fordi de skal, for vi kan altid
tilføje en masse skrig efterfølgende Vi bliver nødt til at tilføje nogle skrig, for de var ikke entusiastiske nok! Vi vil også have folk til at tro vi har et kæmpe crew! Er det ikke sandt Sergey, George, Heraldo Men helt seriøst, så er "Kammerater i Krig"
helt fantastisk hvis du vil have en ide om, ikke blot kampe,
men hvad der sker i en soldats liv på alle områder så bør du unde dig selv at se "Kammerater i Krig" Ja perfekt sammenblanding af dokumentar og Hollywood film 10 afsnit af 1 time Ja de lavede også serien om Stillehavs krigen,
som jeg ikke har set -HVAD?
-Nej ikke endnu Den er fantastisk Den første gang jeg så den, synes jeg ikke den var
ligeså god som "Kammerater i Krig" men anden gang, tror jeg faktisk jeg bedre kunne lide den. – OK, det var det for "The Screaming Eagles"
– Og det var alt for i dag! OURHHG OURHHG Jeg ender i helved Okey allesammen, husk at tjekke vores Patreon husk at tjekke disse videoer,
"Time Ghost" og WWII og også på gensyn

Wolf Warrior 2 Trailer #1 (2017) | Movieclips Indie



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Wolf Warrior 2 Trailer #1 (2017): Check out the new trailer starring Wu Jing, Frank Grillo, and Celina Jade! Be the first to watch, comment, and share Indie trailers, clips, and featurettes dropping @MovieclipsIndie.

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In this action-packed sequel to the 2015 blockbuster hit, China’s deadliest Special Forces operative ​​(Wu Jing) must emerge from his quiet life to deal with a sadistic band of mercenaries terrorizing innocent civilians, culminating in a climatic battle with the mercenary leader (Frank Grillo, ​Captain America: Civil War​).

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Ancient Mesopotamia – The Sumerians – Full Documentary



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General Knowledge History Quiz:

Mesopotamia is considered the cradle, or beginning, of civilization. Here large cities lined the rivers and many advances took place. Mesopotamia at first glance does not look like an ideal place for a civilization to flourish. It is hot and very dry. There is very little rainfall in Lower Mesopotamia. However, snow, melting in the mountains at the source of these two rivers, created an annual flooding. The flooding deposited silt, which is fertile, rich, soil, on the banks of the rivers every year. This is why Mesopotamia is part of the fertile crescent, an area of land in the Middle East that is rich in fertile soil and crescent-shaped.
The Sumerians were the first people to migrate to Mesopotamia, they created a great civilization. Beginning around 5,500 years ago, the Sumerians built cities along the rivers in Lower Mesopotamia, specialized, cooperated, and made many advances in technology. The wheel, plow, and writing (a system which we call cuneiform) are examples of their achievements.

for nearly 5,000 years the scorching sands of the Iraqi desert have held relics of the oldest known civilization the Sumerian our world owes the Sumerians everything they invent in writing and the wheel they divided time into minutes and seconds they tamed nature and built gigantic cities they loved culture and the arts their caravans crossed the desert opening up the first trade routes their stories inspired our founding myths and their memory lives on in the old testament they wrote the history of the birth pangs of mankind yet 4000 years ago this brilliant civilization died out for a long time it's very existence remained a mystery but today the desert sands are at last yielding some of the secrets of this fascinating civilization and a river went out of Eden to water the garden and from thence it was parted and became into four heads the name of the first is Pisan and the name of the second river is Jehan and the name of the third river is Tigris that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria and the fourth River is Euphrates and the Lord God took the man and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it in southern Iraq a crushing silence hangs over the dunes the temperature is around the 50 degree mark the climate has not changed for thousands of years yet men and women once lived here sandwiched between the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf is the region that the Greek historian Polybius called Mesopotamia the country between two rivers it was irrigated by the Euphrates and the Tigris in the mid nineteenth century all we knew of ancient Mesopotamia was what we read in the Bible French and British archaeologists competed to discover more and their finds were amazing they uncovered an unsuspected buried past Mesopotamia had once been the cradle of a civilization but what was so special about these fines and why did a civilization develop in that part of the world at all so keyed exceptional nada covered receives a sincere Mesopotamian a key the sofa codepen sake let me Fabiano upon conscience circuit exceptional seeker OC top equipo de semana que si si si de mood extra more diversify extrema develop a iki Oh phone Ave experiment a deja vu coup de madhuri beaucoup de experience social Danza univer Kanu no Konishi oppa loss avian oppression co2 c'mon say avec les obsession wreck yo set apeksha KO la ville calcio shows evo a cassette album Ave you nephrons souvenir Dora's de la civilisation a repo classic lestrade de la serda socio Mesopotamian correspond Ottoman yoga fixico Mesopotamian cetera domain key drain a palette of flavor latigo elephant Mia yeah Auto Show cenepa supremo Lupo level Oh por aquí te lo paula zahn setosa low pour etre SPO eso Sunday domain razaaq's de flavour Sun divinities actual it has poor in Ossipee come namizo pata me ooh Illya the production agriculture may will ya da cunha fundamental multiple Hmong the play omok did demeanor a metallic las navas Boswell on walls on quiver if yeah it does Abby come Selena Lafleur that the veneer lacks a little Sport privilege or to do the man the economy difficulty compliment ale our journey begins in the mountains of Armenia where the Tigris and the Euphrates both rise fed by melting snow from the high plateaus the rivers tumble down the mountain slopes tearing away tons of silt as they go they run parallel for over 2,000 kilometers then merge to form the Shatt al-arab waterway the rivers are calmer in the wide desert plains to the south they deposit fertile soil all the way to the Persian Gulf but the Tigris and the Euphrates could also be a terrible enemy the spring floods would sweep away everything in their path how were people able to settle a land that was so vulnerable to the whims of nature that question takes us to Baghdad the Iraqi capital on the banks of the Tigris in the narrow streets of the old city the visitor is steeped in the scents of the Orient dense crowds and a cheerful tumult are all around in the colorful bazaars Iraqis display their ancient talent for commerce the heritage of the Sumerian civilization is everywhere Oh the markets have sold the same varieties of fruit and vegetables for thousands of years in the call of the arcades you can buy pomegranates from northern there are and the yoghurt that the Mesopotamians were specially fond on on street corners there are earthenware pots of drinking water the water beads on the surface of the jar and in evaporating keeps the water within cool a Sumerian invention 5000 years old but who were the Sumerians where did they come from on the Fertile plateaus of Anatolia several thousand kilometers from Mesopotamia archaeologists have solved one part of the Sumerian puzzle they discovered what made it possible for the population to expand and found a civilization it was einkorn wheat which grows wild throughout eastern Turkey people have lived in this fertile region at the crossroads of great migration routes since time immemorial tribes of hunter-gatherers found everything here that they needed for their survival the Kurds keep up the age-old traditions every day the women cook such Acme a weak pancake that forms the whole family's staple diet [Applause] in 1958 archaeologists discovered the nine thousand year old ruins of the village of Chora new 3500 years before Sumer people settled on this fertile land they didn't yet make ceramics but they were builders their houses had mud brick walls on dry stone foundations one day the people of China made a discovery that would change the world los gayo sucre vera gas mill Ave Oh Jared daun ceragem deca Lindo Sarah John Doe low fat ass oh not really los que Sucre you said situation play particular typically : deceleration Segundo sin Kamini so var Kiva permit Azam dosa Delta se set even Minnelli more extreme on oovoo Corazon de cuerpo Sangamon upon VZ n grin keep over T DT DZ k a basic tool enormous otar conserve a la conservation repoed really Montara Azria whole essence el parque zoológico arruda to Bushido Guatemala Nicaragua pay our Hobbit in bed via improver Sudhir : Ave pop we saw so many Oklahoma dough reserve divorce whaa me ah potatoes nominally conditions or a lung condition conky la SOPA de la bestia gotetsu padre monotony so padrino's record gamma motor proceed lani me on paypal transport a infra con la recoleta full gardeners Isetta stock ful protégé so stoic officially soto de ve lo Porto don't Lhasa dr. haddassi Oh Sophia mama Donna Dorsett razuna poon recent retail prices CD la cosa version dystopia Motel you know public art a ansata vamos lá B&O todas las Primera's we evolved on immortal Oh Oh Papa Lido deck avert accidental aquacadets Prima issue comes Tomasulo des observations shielded I covet exceptional in foie de fois repete serene horshack's decks Picasso's phenomena Cisco Momo alica publié par women Delhi Ola into real easy quelque chose de nouveaux a second sake and Allegra to do as I set about mastering their environment these first farmers were full of invention they developed their tools they bettered their daily lives and they left behind a legacy of immense importance writing cereals were the main source of wealth for the Sumerian civilization this alabaster vars more than a meter high depicts the Sumerians gratitude towards nature it also expresses their religious further the vegetable and animal worlds are represented as ears of wheat and herds of sheep the procession of men bearing offerings approaches the sanctuary of Inanna the goddess of heaven and earth the pilgrims are welcomed by the high priest in his robes thanks to these successes in agriculture the population grew the first groups began to colonize land along the rivers all the way to the Great Plain of Mesopotamia the main preoccupation of the farmers was finding ways to boost their production of crops this clay tablet shows a device for more economical sowing the seeds are deposited via a funnel that ensures regular even distribution in the furrows the Cimmerian secret lay in taming they're unpredictable sources of water for in Mesopotamia the balance between man and nature could easily tip against man to take control of their water the Sumerians invented the wheel and they dug hundreds of kilometres of irrigation canals reservoirs and dams irrigation was the mainstay of the Cimmerian civilization by subduing the turbulent waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates they turned the power of nature to their own use the farmers reap the benefits with bountiful crops from hundreds of thousands of hectares of fertilized land in some areas wheat millet and barley were harvested twice a year in the oases along the irrigation canals millions of palm trees grew as far as the eye could see it's the same when the Tigris and the Euphrates merged to form a single body of water the shut arab waterway on each side of the Shatt al-arab an agricultural province prospers thanks to the bountiful water from the two great rivers only barges can reach the heart of this maze of tall reeds the Sumerians built fishing villages here the people still live as their ancestors did they still build reed huts just like the one seen in ancient bar relief the huts stand on a foundation of layers of soil interlaced with braided reeds the floor roof and walls are made of interwoven stalks the supporting columns and beams very strong are made of tightly packed Reed bundles five thousand years ago forty thousand fishermen and farmers and entire people lived in the marshland around the port city of Earth in their frail Reed boats they had made a huge area habitable one meter at a time and they said one to another let us make brick and burn them thoroughly and they had brick for stone and slime had they for mortar and they said let us build us a city and a tower whose top may reach unto heaven the first archaeologists to see the ruins of Earth must have been speechless before them lay narrow streets squares and the remains of houses granaries and temples five thousand years ago when Western Europe was still in the Stone Age this was a city of 34,000 people when they built cities like her the Mesopotamians were shaping the world in their own image lattice for monsieur de modo de la fille homo parlays a bitola Mesopotamia Etta phenomen fundament an incessant possible cantata decreed evil are ESOL plotted a Sunday Cuchillo Paris with a Lepik de Ville so some picante delicious see de Ville ESO a menage elevation a la mode to Vicki so develop a editor Madhavi the domination planet u.s.a secure castle to the fetanyl most part to rule isn't terminal learn that you to carve a Alamut oh service deluxe over he made to last with fire bricks covered in tar the ziggurat of ur is impressive it's estimated that it took 1,500 men 5 years just to build its base farmers up to 20 kilometers away could see the house of their God drawings done by the British archaeologist Leonard Woolley in the early 20th century help us imagine what I looked like four thousand years ago this immense city was surrounded by 4,000 hectares of cereal fields traders from the Persian Gulf sailed into its harbor and exported food to the Arabian Peninsula several thousand kilometers away the daily life of the cities centered on the temple weather people prayed and political and economic decisions were taken behind an 8 meter high city wall the houses were haphazardly piled up the streets were narrow winding and unser word garbage was burnt outside the house when it wasn't simply left on the road three-story buildings jostled with single storey ones and none of the houses was aligned with its neighbors their facades have no openings just low doors and a few air vents in order to keep the interior cool and to keep the dust clouds out you for a long time little was known of life you know leonard woolley had spent years excavating the ruins when in 1926 he discovered what was dubbed the death pit it was the tomb of Queen puabi and of more than 20 servants and soldiers who were sacrificed and buried with her in order to serve her in the afterlife among the skeletons covered in gold and silver Willy found this the so called standard of Earl it's mother-of-pearl figures show sumerian fishermen slaves and soldiers walking for eternity against the sky of lapis lazuli you like stills from a movie it's amazingly detailed panels show war chariots crushing the enemy or the frozen smile of a scribe having a drink with friends in the arid desert that now surrounds the site the traces of the past are still visible when they found the ruins of Sumerian dams on this barren land several kilometres from the rivers 19th century archaeologists faced an enigma how had people lived in this desert so far from the source of water the desert city of Nepal 250 kilometers south of Baghdad the ruins of a temple rise above the dunes it was during excavations of this site that archaeologists found the key to the enigma this clay tablet is a map of Nepal it shows the exact locations of the temple and the city wall the Euphrates ran to the west of the wall it had been diverted to supply the city with water the cities had therefore been built beside the water but changes in land form and the sheer force of the floodwaters changed the course of the rivers satellite images helped us reconstruct the map of this part of the world as it was 5,000 years ago Nepal Luke EW and all the main cities of the Cimmerian civilization evolved in a vastly different landscape at that time the Tigris and the Euphrates ran through much of Mesopotamia as a single River they separated only downstream from Nepal sunrise over ancient earth it is midsummer and the day will be scorchingly hot slowly the city comes to life people slept on their rooftops which were much cooler at night than the small rooms of their houses ancient texts listing real estate sales show that the houses floor space was less than 70 square meters in the early morning people come onto the streets merchants try to entice the passers-by they try to do business while the day is still cool a new nigga in the courtyards of some houses men relax and drink beer through strong several ancient texts refer to the Sumerian temperament the Sumerians exposure to the hazards of nature made them conscious of the brevity and fragility of life you in the streets men often wear Canucks wraparound sheepskin skirts that go from the waist to the knees or ankles depending on the season and fashion the wives of dignitaries wear colorful lighter garments both men and women wear jewelry earrings bracelets and necklaces archeologists have discovered that forgers operating in the walled city could replicate gold and turquoise people who couldn't afford real jewelry could buy and wear fancy fakes this neighborhood was home to merchants shopkeepers and traders the homes of the scribes Mason's and carpenters and the slaves houses were all within a short distance of the temple you the treasures discovered in our are enormous ly important for archaeologists they revealed Sumerian customs and they demonstrate the quality of the craftsmen work Sumerian Goldsmith's had mastered the techniques of chiseling and soldering gold the Bulls head on this harp has eyes of lapis lazuli turned towards eternity the harp itself is decorated with shells and precious stones for their last journey with their queen the servants wore a spectacular diadem of gold bands and precious stones a braiding of beech leaves covered the brow and above the head Rose three golden flowers the gold used also in cups and ceremonial weapons as well as the lapis lazuli and turquoise all came from the east the mother-of-pearl and the shells came from Bahrain the raw material used to make this billy goat shows how prosperous I was and how thriving its trade archeologists have traced the origins of some of its materials to get the lapis lazuli the Sumerians sent their caravans 3,000 kilometres to the Braxtons mountains in what is now northern Pakistan beshal wa the merchant city in northern pakistan this rough lapis lazuli has been shipped from Afghanistan splashing water on the stones brings out the intense blue that fascinated the Cimmerians archeologists have established that the lapis lazuli trade began with a Sumerian civilization 3500 years before Christ 3,000 years before the Silk Road the Sumerians had opened up the trade routes that crisscross the East with the development of trade the Cimmerians invented the concept of the contract cylindrical stone seals were carved and finally engraved with a negative ba relief when a contract was entered into or goods needed to be identified the cylinder was rolled in clay the market left on the clay sealed the transaction that was also how the Sumerians who held contracts in great esteem began to make laws very few legal texts from the Sumerian period have been found but in the early 20th century in the Persian city of suzhen archaeologists discovered the stone of Hammurabi king of babylon it had been seized as a trophy by the illa mites who went on a rampage through Mesopotamia in the 12th century BC Hammurabi had the legal code that bears his name drawn up in 1694 BC it enshrined all of some areas laws and all 282 articles were carved on the stone they mostly relate to aspects of everyday life to commercial transactions marriages and inheritances as a judge the king ordered investigations protected the people from abuse by officials and oversaw a great public works the Code of Hammurabi proves that the Sumerians were precursors in many areas on the back of the stone article 196 warns and eye for an eye a principle repeated in the law of Moses to build their Garden of Eden the Sumerians roamed the world in search of commodities they lacked for example there was no wood in the Mesopotamian desert to get this rare commodity which they used exclusively as a building material the Sumerians ventured to Syria Turkey and the mountains of Lebanon today cedar forests a few and far between after the Sumerians all the ancient civilizations used cedar and gradually they cut down almost all the cedar trees legend has it that some Cedars are over 4,000 years old and grew in civilizations now vanished they could testify to the efforts of the Sumerians bar reliefs found in temples show Sumerian loggers felling hundred-year-old Cedars and loading them onto their ships before sailing down the Euphrates these expeditions lasted several months and show the enormous achievement of the people living in a hostile environment some discoveries made by the Sumerians 5,000 years ago are still used by Iraqis today tar for instance is used for waterproofing boat hulls and sealing the roofs of houses this is hate a small town on the banks of the Euphrates six hundred kilometers from the Cimmerian city's tar and sulphur erupt from the earth here tar floats and archeologists believe the Sumerians could have collected tar from the riverbanks as it floated down the Euphrates the people have hate still collect our by methods that haven't changed for thousands of years before taking the tar out of the water you have to cut your hands in sand the Sumerians too used tar for waterproofing boats but they mainly used it for sealing bricks and for waterproofing the foundations of public buildings this precaution reflected a major event in their lives floods George Smith a 19th century Londoner who studied Sumerian tablets in the British Museum deciphered some legends about devastating floods the wickedness of men so displeased Enlil the supreme god that he decided to swallow man up in a huge flood Enki protector of men pleaded with him but in vain so Anki decided to preserve a remnant he asked sue sudra to build an ark and to take animals in pairs on board with him after six days and nights of storm the world was submerged on the seventh day the storm abated Zeus Sutra released a dove that finding no resting place returned to him on the eighth day he released a raven that never returned mankind was saved you new niveau Auto V limit Mesopotamia CUDA PA paper de siècle Dali text Chianti debt over a particular bibliothèque de Nieva poor Claire de Luz sorry le t to to Lhasa recession Occidental to location is moxie totally terribly detector public aid omelet extra public Illya demet give Ian direct amount amount Mesopotamia a total Estrada christianism proxy Dalton Idomeneo paho cemet concrete pecan pre reinterpret observable pas Santi potato doll significant some poor food color Accord le seems a bit only Mesopotamia Mason Missoula a eurozone complete Malini the gods instilled fear and respect they symbolized the Cimmerians mistrust of nature each divinity in their pantheon played a role each one ruled over a city Enlil god of wind ruled over air and earth in the city of Nepal Enki god of water and the world was worshiped in era do-do-do god of justice and truth was worshiped in lhasa inanna known to the Babylonians as the fertility goddess Ishtar was worshiped in ruk she inspired both love and war to the Greeks she was Aphrodite and to the Romans Venus the smooth curves of this alabaster statue reflect the skill of the Sumerian artists their art and their religious devotion are highlighted by the statues finish and their expressive faces SOT Emily Judy Mesopotamia see geckos KGC rescission no – hallelujah the top no7 paratext de meat no Devon divest well today ho sake few accompli Lord o tell you tell ceremony may los últimos oh ho a tremolo Quneitra Malik's preemie yeah down whenever Mesopotamia concept a general dope reasons Davina Ella divorce allama a to service disposal dois de faire avec l into a composite of akela set religion which in religion the lung Oh service did you say service sexiest Rao's own existence Oh cotillion Sidonia Maugeri Dena blog called Pedrosa Cronus a derivative avec des Beaux vet mongrel te llamas a statue de medical headless olvido genres from Rijo Peter zoton solid you know the confetti Loma not available Eva found a seizure a year prior Vienna so top sin regard only fetid glory cannula whole resume is about the Mian Sita professor prayer was part of daily life for the Cimmerians the upkeep and ceremonies of the temple required a large body of priests and other staff and every day the faithful brought their offerings the archives of the city of Uruk described the daily meal of its four main gods as follows 250 loaves of bread a thousand tarts fifty sheep eight lambs two oxen and one calf celestial food that was offered to the gods and later fed the temples 1200 priests and staff the scribes recorded the hopes of the Sumerians in exchange for the devotion their virtue and their respect for the established order the Sumerians hoped for eternal life in the next world the neverending struggle to tame nature made them conscious of the fragility of life and inspired their most beautiful myths gilgamesh v king of Uruk in the third millennium BC was a historical figure he was the sumerians hero and the stories of his adventures were famous throughout Mesopotamia they sum up the history of the Sumerian civilization Gilgamesh was a just king and a great builder who also challenged the gods he tamed savages and he went to the distant forest to fragrant cedar to confront the fire eating monster Humbaba during their fight Gilgamesh cut off the monsters head he returned to orc in triumph to punish him the goddess in Anna sent the celestial bull to destroy the city the bull dried up the meadows and rivers and opened deep crevices into which people fell to their deaths so the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth and they left off building the city the Sumerians vision was prophetic after ruling Mesopotamia for 3,000 years their civilization attacked from all sides collapsed the pomp of their cities was over and so was their influence the irrigation canals gradually dried up the walls of the houses collapsed the temples themselves collapsed under the combined assault of the Sun the rain and the wind the clay of the bricks turned to dust leaving only a shapeless mass above the dunes the last vestiges of a civilizations grandeur how can we explain the complete disappearance of such a brilliant civilization or the decadence of a people who left behind only ruins and the remains of a looted temples es como parle de dikhhla dodging satin Maggiore me potato puto Deus clay hos trot segunda 8 reales a paha le rendez-vous Catalan millionnaire Dhokla passe G so concrete is Paha de manifestation chorizos dezadore ricardo de religion – taeho's la evil a view elongation on sap xwiki Lea de mas Amedda Liberty possible don't Lex patientís at Inova – rose par example la Mesopotamia yet Athena Moberg diva prefer floors Oh Oh twas a millionnaire coup oh poor me milady Casey space vatos overdose on said a grand affair low ferritin a tool effectual Pacifica's creep we're a parsec I cut em professor de travail immense avant Oberto preferred a day application Cochrane impose don't set a name elevation may love even more Lama Zopa Tammany Parish affair a problem de saucé Vasa Posey packs cry forever cuckoo one epic oosik o leary junkie on human rate fair wounds where whole book before cuz lamb is a pata be for almost a century in the tablets archived in the temples scribes patiently recorded the decline of crop yields from 2350 BC wheat production fell by 40% only barley production remains stable how could a people who had developed such advanced techniques be powerless to keep their resources from dwindling for decades archaeologists poured over texts for an answer but the answer lay in the field the irrigation system made the Sumerians powerful but it also contributed to their destruction as 3,000 years of irrigation water evaporated the salt buried deep in the land rose to the surface in the end of white cover of salt hardened by the Sun made the soil sterile and the wheat could no longer grow the local people are still plagued by this problem today in some areas the earth is cracked it resembles uncultivated desert this is what the great fields around the cities look like faced with climate change and desertification Sumerian farmers could find no solution but can one speak of the decline of a civilization Paulo da declare de Paco Hecht Satan presses key KC develop a insipid seok TV us o for assault Irma aunt oh no de Patri SuperVeloce a pas de cette pase el mapa TV set in Passaic Eva at trois miss Lily gray clip X key so Mendes integrity become completion de Mesopotamia Ribicoff a certain categories a Tanzanian Voe trans-med sets a slow ciose cosmetics agua es se Vasu Ferro particular planet olio direction Monica a paramour Greg Sabah so hot we de la méditerranée atoll basa méditerranée da l ET de set civilization Mesopotamian mesa prefer reference absolute as a former men decisions the weakened Sumerian cities were unable to face the economic competition from the large cities to the north of Mesopotamia other civilizations inspired by the Sumerian example planted their standards on the conquered land by 2004 BC Sumer was finished the Assyrians dominated Mesopotamia the epic of Babylon could now begin beneath the pitiless Sun the Sumerians wealth returned to the dust it's their story that the Bible tells like the builders of the Tower of Babel the men and women of Sumer were scattered upon the face of all the earth the water the Sumerians feared brought on their destruction having controlled the floods of the Tigris and the Euphrates having drawn their life force from their waters the Sumerians were swept away by history and disappeared they left mankind the legacy of their wealth traces of their creative genius and a sense of the extraordinary fragility of civilizations Oh

New Documentary Depicts History of Cancer



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Known primarily for his epic historical documentaries, Ken Burns has produced a new film for PBS that explores both personal and collective struggles against cancer.

The three-part documentary — titled “Cancer: The Emperor of All Maladies” — aired this week and followed the stories of those living with cancer, as well as the doctors and scientists doing their best to fight it. Based on the best-seller by Siddhartha Mukherjee, the film was directed by Barak Goodman.

The Minds of Men | Official Documentary by Aaron & Melissa Dykes



GET $5 OFF when you order the DVD, use code SUBPROJECT119 @ TheMindsofMen.net (includes extras: extended interview, deleted scene, behind the scenes featurette and trailer).

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Copyright Disclaimer Under Section 107 of the Copyright Act 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing. Non-profit, educational or personal use tips the balance in favor of fair use.

9 PERSONALITY TESTS AND LOGIC PUZZLES



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Enjoy this unusual set of personality tests, crime riddles and logic puzzles. These riddles and brain games will nicely exercise your brain, improving your logic and giving you a lot of food for thoughts. If you dare to test your logic and at the same time learn the truth about yourself, then let’s start right away:

00:14 – A nice ‘crime riddle’ that has to be solved before Christmas! (or Santa won’t bring any presents to this house)🎅 You will have to question all family members, and I bet they have already come up with good alibis! Pay attention to the smallest details to bring the culprit down; he or she will have to make another Christmas dinner instead of the one eaten and I believe they will invite you to share it😉
01:38 – Who is the killer? Hard crime riddles that are not that hard if you turn on your logic and observation skills. The evidence is right there, just open your eyes and brain.
03:11 – This crime riddle is extremely difficult because the crime scheme was being elaborated carefully for a long time. It’s almost impossible to reveal the way the murderer managed to get rid of one brother without doing any harm to the other one, but there is nothing impossible for a brilliant Detective! Maybe one of the brothers is poison-resistant? Or he just pretended drinking? Who knows… You’re the only one to solve this case and make the murderer suffer the consequences!
04:40 – Will you dare to answer these tricky questions and share your results? I will understand if you won’t, really😉 This personality test will make you look deeply into your soul and you’re likely to be afraid of what your will see there!
07:06 – Sherlock, it’s time to investigate the next case! The picture puzzle awaits your brain to spot the evidence and solve this detective riddle!
08:05 – Do you believe that our subconscious can give us signs and messages we can’t understand sometimes? If you do, try this short implicit association test (if you don’t, try as well) to check what your subconscious needs to tell you about yourself. You’re likely to be surprised a lot!
09:08 – A fun warming-up riddle to test your common sense and the ability to find the shortest way out of a situation. If you can come up with at least one solution for this short riddle, then you’re a creative and at the same time rational person and use your mental power in the most efficient way! Try this short riddle with answer can help you understand how to train your creativity.
10:28 – These picture puzzles will turn your mind upside down and blow it away for sure 😈Share your ideas in the comments, let’s see who is the smartest alec here! A tough visual test to stretch your mind😜
10:56 – Who lives with parents? Let’s see what your choice reveals about you.

TELL me IN THE COMMENTS your answers: who lives with parents?

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ANCIENT ASTRONAUTS: The Cygnus Mystery – FEATURE



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Go on a voyage of discovery that leads from the oldest known temple in the world to a prehistoric cave map, to a common belief shared by key ancient cultures, all of which were aware of the star system Cygnus’ unique place in the cosmos – and it’s significance as the spirit path to heaven. Most surprising is the fact that the Ancient Advanced cultures of the past were aware of cosmic rays emanating from Cygnus, and for their being the spark which ignited evolution – the same spark which continues to alter our DNA right through to the present day.

NOW ON DVD: The Cygnus Mystery, Cat# U679, Go to

Jaguar Cubs Fight for Food | Jaguars Born Free | BBC Earth



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As the jaguar orphans grow from cubs to adults, they must learn to fight, hunt for prey, and guard their kills.
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Jaguars Born Free
Brazilian jaguar expert Leandro Silviera has run the Jaguar Conservation Fund from his remote ranch for the past 25 years. When he was given three orphaned jaguar cubs after their mother was shot down by cowboys, he nursed them back to health and filmed their remarkable recovery on camera. After teaching them how to live in the wild, he is releasing them back into the jungle. How will they cope on their own after forming a strong bond with their human foster family, and will Leandro be able to stop the cowboys from creating more jaguar orphans? Natural World tracks the trio’s upbringing over a tremulous 18 months.

Welcome to BBC EARTH! The world is an amazing place full of stories, beauty and natural wonder. Here you’ll find 50 years worth of entertaining and thought-provoking natural history content. Dramatic, rare, and exclusive, nature doesn’t get more exciting than this.

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yeah we know that there's a carcass around that's already good sign Sharansky the gentle giant is trying to establish his dominance as the male see interesting that Yvonne she has taken over the core cast Kira is trying to approach me but see she's respect and she's giving him the space jagged of solitary hunters and defeat solitary Maya's wailing Kira is waiting for savage to finish his turn on it usually the male eats more than female he gets larger and the more dominant he becomes so he ends up eating first oh right now they all have enough on the space and they're waiting to see who's giving up and now all I see now my starting to feed but savant and Kira haven't decided yet like because I want you stirred to her Jaggers don't like physical contact that position is very clear that they are very very tense right now that is deadlocked where I think one is hoping for the other one to give up who really can start eating but none of them wants to give up look at that Kira is in a advantaged position because she's under Nisha much now and now she got a position at least she can breathe better now look good bad after 10 minutes the stalemate is finally broken Maya walks away from the fight she's still the smallest and can't compete with her more aggressive siblings eventually Kira proves to be the cleverest of all she chews through the rope and claims the prize all for herself with her praise secured Kira becomes extremely protective it's the first time one of the Jaguars has issued such a clear threat and even at this age Kira could easily kill the Android we have to leave leave her alone she's too aggressive and we should leave the cloaca Kira is losing her bond with people and developing the aggression she needs to live in the wild it's good to see that she's having that behavior that means she's confident she's growing but it's the right time to be outside of the enclosure

Documentary Film Maker Hash Info "See Thru My Eyez"



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Breaking Bad "Yeah Mr. White! Yeah Science!" Scene



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From episode seven of the first season titled, “A No-Rough-Stuff-Type Deal”

American History: The Greatest Speeches (1933-2008)



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America’s major events told through the words of its leaders, since the widespread adoption of the film camera as a communication tool.

Through the speeches of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to Martin Luther King, Jr. to Barack Obama, a look at the major moments that have defined the modern history of the United States.

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Watch the full speeches:
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
March 4, 1933
“The Only Thing We Have To Fear Is Fear Itself”

FDR
December 8, 1941
Pearl Harbor, “A Date Which Will Live In Infamy”

Harry Truman
August 6, 1945
The Bombing of Hiroshima

Dwight Eisenhower
January 17, 1961
The Military Industrial Complex

John F. Kennedy
January 20, 1961
JFK’s Inaugural Address

JFK
June 26, 1963
“Ich Bin Ein Berliner”

Martin Luther King, Jr.
August 28, 1963
“I Have A Dream”
youtube.com/watch?v=n82rgdbM9G4

Lyndon Baines Johnson
March 15, 1965
LBJ’s Voting Rights Speech

LBJ
January 12, 1966
Vietnam War

MLK
April 3, 1968
“I’ve Been To The Mountaintop”

Robert F. Kennedy
April 4, 1968
RFK Announces MLK’s Passing

Richard Nixon
August 9, 1974
Nixon Resigns Amid Watergate

Ronald Reagan
January 28, 1986
Challenger Disaster

Ronald Reagan
June 12, 1987
At the Berlin Wall: “Tear Down This Wall”

George H.W. Bush
January 17, 1991
The Gulf War Against Saddam Hussein and Iraq

Bill Clinton
January 27, 2000
The 2000 State Of The Union

George W. Bush
September 14, 2001
9/11

Barack Obama
November 4, 2008
2008 Grant Park Victory Speech

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protest tyt election china fox news

[FDR]: So first of all, let me assert my firm
belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself. Nameless, unreasoning,
unjustified terror which paralyzes needed us to convert retreat into advance. Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the
United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and
air forces of the Empire of Japan. A short time ago an American airplane
dropped one bomb on Hiroshima and destroyed its usefulness to the enemy.
That bomb has more power than 20,000 tons of TNT. The Japanese began the war
from the air at Pearl Harbor, they have been repaid many-fold. And the
end is not yet. With this bomb, we have now added a new
and revolutionary increase in destruction to supplement the growing
power of our armed forces. We have been compelled to create a permanent
armaments industry of vast proportions. In the council's of government, we must
guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence—whether sought or
unsought—by the military-industrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of
misplaced power exists and will persist. We must never let the weight of this
combination endanger our liberties or democratic process. I do not believe that any of us would
exchange places with any other people or any other generation. The energy, the
faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavor will
light our country and all who serve it. And the glow from that fire can truly
light the world. And so my fellow Americans ask not what your country can
do for you, ask what you can do for your country. My fellow citizens of the world, ask not what America will do for you, but
what together we can do for the freedom of man. And there are even a few who say that it's true that communism is an evil
system, but it permits us to make economic progress. Lasst sie nach Berlin kommen—let them come to Berlin. [Cheering] All free men—wherever they may live—are
citizens of Berlin and therefore, as a free man, I take pride
in the words ich bin ein Berliner. I have a dream, that my four little children will one day
live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color about skin, but by
the content in their character. I have a dream today. Let freedom ring and when it happens, we allow freedom ring, when we let it
ring from every village and every hamlet, from every state and every city, we will
be able to speed up that day when all of God's children—black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics—will be able to join hands and
sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "free at last, free at last, thank God Almighty, we are free at last." There is no constitutional issue here. The command of the Constitution is
plain. There is no moral issue. It is wrong, deadly wrong, to deny any of your fellow
Americans the right to vote in this country. To know war is to know that there is still madness
in this world. They are poor to be lifted up, and there
are cities to be built, and there's a world to be helped. Yet, we do what we must. I'm hopeful—and I will try, best I
can, with everything I've got—to end this battle and to return our sons to their
desires. Yet as long as others will challenge America's
security, and test the dearness of our beliefs with fire and steel, then we must
stand or see the promise of two centuries tremble. All we say to America is be true to what you
said on paper. But somewhere I read of the freedom of assembly. Somewhere I read of
the freedom of speech. Somewhere I read of the freedom of press. Somewhere I read that the greatness of America is the right
to protest for rights. [Cheering] And so, just as I say we aren't going to let any dogs
or water hoses turn us around, we aren't going let any injunction turn us around. I don't know what will happen now. We've
got some difficult days ahead. but it really doesn't matter with me now
because I've been to the mountaintop. [Cheering] And I don't mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long
life. Longevity has its place. But I'm not concerned about that now. I just want to do God's will. And He's
allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I've looked over, and I've seen the promised land. I may not get there with you, but I want
you to know tonight, that we as a people will get to the promised land. [Cheering.] So I'm happy tonight, I'm not worried about anything, I'm
not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord. [Cheering] I have some very sad news for all of you,
and I think sad news for all of our fellow citizens and people who love
peace all over the world, and that is that Martin Luther King was shot and was
killed tonight in Memphis, Tennessee. Martin Luther King dedicated his life to
love and to justice between fellow human beings, he died in the cause of that effort. For
those of you who are black and are tempted to be filled with hatred and mistrust of the injustice of such an act against all white people, I would only say that I can also feel in
my own heart the same kind of feeling. I had a member
of my family killed, but he was killed by a white man. But we
have to make an effort in the United States. We have to make an effort to
understand, to get beyond—or go beyond— these rather difficult times. My favorite poem—my favorite poet was
Aeschylus—he once wrote 'Even in our sleep, pain which cannot
forget, falls drop by drop upon the heart until in our own despair, against our
will, comes wisdom through the awful grace of God.' What we need in the United
States is not division, what we need in the United States is not
hatred, what we need in the United States is not
violence and lawlessness, but is love and wisdom and compassion
toward one another, a feeling of justice toward those who
still suffer within our country, whether they be white, or whether they be black. Throughout the long and difficult period
of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to persevere. To make every possible
effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me. In the past few
days however, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough
political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort. Therefore, I shall resign the presidency
effective at noon tomorrow. Vice President Ford will be sworn in as
president at that hour, in this office. Today is a day for mourning and
remembering. Nancy and I are pained to the core over the tragedy of the shuttle Challenger. We know we share this pain with all of
the people of our country. This is truly a national loss. We've
never had a tragedy like this and perhaps we've forgotten the courage it
took for the crew of the shuttle. But they, the Challenger Seven were aware of the
dangers and overcame them and did their jobs brilliantly. We mourn seven heroes. And I want to say
something to the schoolchildren of America who were watching the live
coverage of the shuttle's take off. I know it's hard to understand, but
sometimes painful things like this happen It's all part of the process of
exploration and discovery. It's all part of taking a chance and
expanding man's horizons. The future doesn't belong to the
faint-hearted. It belongs to the brave. The Challenger crew was pulling us into the
future and we'll continue to follow. There is one sign the Soviets can make
that would be unmistakable, that would advance dramatically the cause of
freedom and peace. General Secretary Gorbachev, if you seek
peace, if you seek prosperity for the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, if you
seek liberalization, come here to this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, open this gate. Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall. Just two hours ago, allied air forces began an attack on
military targets in Iraq and Kuwait these attacks continue as I speak ground forces are not engaged this
conflict started August second when the dictator of Iraq invaded a small and
helpless neighbor Kuwait a member of the Arab Lee and a member of the United
Nations was crushed its people brutalized five months ago sediment
saying started this cruel war against Kuwait tonight that battle has been
joined this speaker mr. vice president members of Congress honored guests my
fellow Americans we are fortunate to be alive at this moment in history never before has our nation enjoyed at
once so much prosperity and social progress with so little internal crisis
and so few external threats never before have we had such a blessing
opportunity and therefore such a profound obligation to build a more
perfect union of our founders dreams we begin the new century with over 20
million new jobs the fastest economic growth in more than
30 years the lowest unemployment rates in 30
years the lowest poverty rates in 20 years the lowest african-american and Hispanic
unemployment rates on record the first back-to-back surpluses and 42 years and
next month America will achieve the longest period of economic growth in our
entire history good evening just moments ago I spoke with George W
Bush and congratulated him on becoming the 43rd President of the United States
and I promised them that I wouldn't calling back this time now the US Supreme Court has spoken let
there be no doubt while I strongly disagree with the court's decision I
accept it I accept the finality of this outcome
which will be ratified next monday in the electoral college and tonight for
the sake of our unity of the people and strength of our democracy I offer my concession this nation stands with the good people
of new york and the jersey and connecticut as we mourn the loss of
thousands of vs I can the rest of the world hears you and the
people and the people who knocked these
buildings down will hear all of us yeah yeah yeah and all those watching tonight from
beyond our shores from Parliament sand palaces to those who are huddled around
radios in the forgotten corners of the world are stories are singular but our
destiny is shared and a new dawn of American leadership is at hand to those to those who would tear the
world down we will defeat you to those who seek peace and security we
support you and to all those who have wondered if America's beacon still burns
as bright tonight we proved once more that the true strength of our nation
comes not from the might of our arms or the scale of our wealth but from the
enduring power of our ideals democracy Liberty opportunity and
unyielding hope yeah that's the true genius of America that
America can change our union can be perfect what we've already achieved gives us
hope for what we can and must achieve tomorrow this election had many firsts and many
stories will be told for generations but one that's on my mind tonight's about a
woman who cast her ballot in Atlanta she's a lot like the millions of others
who stood in line to make their voice heard in this election except for one thing and Nixon Cooper is
a hundred and six years old she was born just a generation passed slavery a time
when there were no cars on the road or planes in the sky when someone like her
could vote for two reasons because she was a woman and because of the color of
her skin and tonight I think about all that she's seen
throughout her century in America the Harding and the hope the struggle and
the progress the times we were told that we can't and the people who pressed on with that
American creed yes we can at a time when women's voices
were silenced and their hopes dismissed she lived to see them stand up and speak
out and reach for the bailout yes we can when there was this fair and
the Dust Bowl and depression across the lamb she saw a nation conquer fear itself
with a new deal new jobs a new sense of common purpose yes we can when the bombs fell on our
Harbor and tyranny threaten the world she was there to witness a generation
rise to greatness and a democracy was saved yes we can she was there for the buses
in Montgomery the hoses in birmingham a bridge in Selma and a preacher from
Atlanta who told the people that we shall overcome yes we can a man touch down on the moon a wall came down in Berlin a world was
connected by our own science and imagination and this year in this
election she touched her finger to a screen and
cast her vote because after a hundred and six years in America through the
best of times and the darkest of hours she knows how America can change yes we
can America we have come so far we have seen
so much but there's so much more to do so tonight let us ask ourselves if our
children should live to see the next century if my daughter should be so lucky to
live as long as an mix and Cooper what change will they see what progress what we have made this is our chance to
answer that call this is our moment this is our time to
put our people back to work and open doors of opportunity for our kids to
restore prosperity and promote the cause of peace to reclaim the American Dream
and reaffirm that fundamental truth that out of many we are one that while we
breathe we hope and where we are met with cynicism and doubt and those who
tell us that we can't we will respond with that timeless creed that sums up
the spirit of a people yes we can thank you God bless you and
may God bless the United States of America yeah

Why The Romans Were So Effective In Battle – Full Documentary



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General Knowledge History Quiz:

The Roman Army was a highly effective war machine that constantly adapted and evolved in order to defeat new rivals and conquer new territories, ensuring Rome remained the dominant superpower for many centuries.

it may have been the greatest army of all time conquering and controlling an empire that stretched across the ancient Western world it was ruthless disciplined and feared by all not just by his enemies who died in their millions but by its own Empress who often paid the price of the Army's wrath and yet these soldiers were builders as well as destroyers helping to spread a culture that became the bedrock of Western civilization what was it that made this army so dominant how was it able to rule reshape the classical world and why did it eventually fall this is the story of the Roman warship the glory that was Rome was built largely upon the power of its army until it discovered how to wage war Rome was just another small Italian farming settlement but there was something different about the Romans they had a unique ability to turn themselves into a political and military power without equal the city that would dominate the ancient world for centuries began as early as 1000 BC archaeologists have found the remains of dwellings from that period on Rome's Palatine Hill for many centuries later the Roman emperors built their palaces early Rome was dominated by a neighbor the Etruscans from what is now Tuscany to the north Etruscan Kings took control of Rome around 600 BC and ruled it for a century before the Romans expelled Rome then began creating the political and military system we recognized today Rome became a republic with the Senate and two chief executives the consuls who were elected for one-year terms to handle important matters including the military Rome had to learn how to fight because it occupied an important trading crossroads on the Tiber River and it was always skirmishing with envious neighbors as early as 500 BC Rome had an army of 6,000 been called a legion from the Latin word meaning conscription but this was a far cry from the professional Roman army that would later dominate the world they are citizen soldiers they are part-time soldiers they get recruited for the campaigning season they leave their fields their work to go off and fight in the army at the end of the campaign they're back bringing the harvest bringing in the vintage buying the fields every year able-bodied Roman men were summoned by trumpet to report for enlistment but not all men only landowners were trusted to fight for Rome because they had something to protect service was regarded as a duty and an honor and a must for any Roman seeking political power the Roman people are reluctant to vote for people who cannot show their war rooms them many stories of people standing for politics in the forum ripping their clothes to show their wounds to demonstrate that they have fought for Rome in battle Romans had to provide their own armor and weapons so the wealthiest the officers had a helmet armor a spear a sword and a shield while the poorest the front ranks had no owner and had only slings and stones for weapons the early Roman army was modeled on the Greeks especially the basic tactical formation the Greek army used the so called phalanx a tight-knit rolling infantry formation which came at the enemy like a forest of Spears your whole army lined up facing forward in lines and then the first few ranks would hold out their spears and their shields and the army would move forward and mass the object was to simply push aside the enemy and in in the course of it kill as many as possible Roma's first major victory was against his old nemesis the Etruscan a Rome conquered the nearby city of AE in 396 BC but the Romans didn't have long to celebrate six years later they met an entirely new kind of enemy when Celtic warriors on the north swept down upon Rome the Celts were people linked by language culture and style of warfare and Celtic tribes were spread across Europe from Ireland to France and Switzerland and 390 BC a Celtic army thrashed the Roman legion and over an ro [Applause] the Celtic method of fighting was very disturbing to them the Celts simply ran at you with hundreds and thousands of men yelling shouting banging on metal objects blowing their horns they really terrified the Romans the Celts left the city only after the Romans bribed them with gold this was Rome's wake-up call it needed to rethink its whole military strategy if it was to survive that one way was through training Roman soldiers had to go through the toughest training in the ancient world there were four long hard months of basic training and anyone who couldn't stand the pace was either discharged or put on rations of foul-tasting barley until they got it right basic training began with marching and plodding up soldiers had to be able to march more than 20 miles in five hours carrying a full pack in weapons training recruits were given dummy swords shields and javelins that weigh twice as much as the real thing is to build muscles the Romans I think in this early period should really be seen as the the zulus of the Mediterranean world they are highly militarized society and like the Zulus they don't let no warriors have sex so when they come into battle they're very tough as the army gruel Armour became standardized for all soldiers and provided by the state I'm wearing a male shirts for body protection and you can see it's made of small individual pieces of metal which are fashioned into rings and then linked together it's biggest advantage of course is to take slashing blows across because the male links all sit together if an enemy hit me with a sword in a slashing way it would actually take the blow the disadvantage of male was that it doesn't in fact take a stabbing at all if you stab through the male the point of the sword will actually pierce the rings beginning in the 1st century AD the Romans also used segments and plate armor held together by leather straps it was so much more complicated than male armor that soldiers needed help to put it on you can see all the protections on the top rather than round the legs and things and the reason for that is that when you've got D the counts fight in you their long slashing swords needed all that protection up on the top rather than bottom they also give you a chance to run the Roman helmet gradually redesigned over the centuries aim to give maximum protection without blocking the sensors you can see it's a round bowl protecting the top of my head round because it's got very good glancing blow action a square helmet would take the blow words a round helmet the blow would glance off large cheek pieces to protect the side of my face and a small neck guard at the back to actually take an over hand below protecting the back of my neck now obviously you can see there's no covering on my face or on my ears in fact and the Romans decided that it was a lot better for a soldier to be able to see around him and hear orders very vital in back further protection came from the Roman shield smaller and round and early times developing later into a bigger rectangular one it was made of layers of wood glued together bound and covered with leather and but think about the Roman shield is it is curved not flat like most shields at the time this gives me protection all around my body and if I coming at you in battle it's not only a defensive weapon it's an offensive weapon I can smash you in the face and then while you're off pilots draw the sword and pin under your ribs when it came to offensive weapons the first one the Roman soldier would use in battle was the javelin the great thing about the Roman javelin is when you threw it the enemy couldn't throw it back these are delivered in volleys of hundreds as they rain down the hard iron tent will punch through the armor the weight of the handle will bend this soft metal shank it'll be useless and can't throw it back the shield is useless you probably hurt you're in big trouble but the weapon that won the Empire and cabinet was the Roman sword once the Germans have been expended the Roman legion would then move in with probably the most vicious of his weapons the short sword or Gladius in Latin very much a close quarter weapon it's much shorter than you will envisage a sort of a medieval broadsword today because it actually is much shorter it's designed with a very broad base tapering to a very very sharp point and the idea of this weapon was purely to stab the soldier was trained to actually stab into an enemy soldier mainly in the stomach area because of course there's no bone for it to actually get jammed in and of course a quick stab when withdrawls put him out of action one way or the other now the soldier was trying not to use an overhand blow but purely a stabbing action in the modern wire sole use the bayonet really the thing about this Roman swords is shortened to the point that issues for stabbing rather than slashing barbarians this or don't like hours and long and broad and it's all an ego trip on the battlefield sloshing around above their heads all style that's all it is and while they're doing that it's up and under stabbed into the ribs remember so we make them into me to the barbarians the Roman army was ready to use their weapons and training to build an empire and the first victims were their fellow Italians the basic unit of the Roman army was the Legion and over time it became highly structured eventually the Legion evolved into a unit of 4,800 soldiers it was divided into ten cohorts of 480 men each which in turn contains six centuries not 100 men that he won't expect but 80 soldiers each century had ten groups of eight men who shared a tent a legionary commanders were usually political appointments Roman nobleman doing service as they climbed the political ladder their military ability varied greatly and so much of the real running of the army felled the officers beneath them the most famous of these was the Centurion and charge of a century of soldiers as Rome's Empire rule Centurions became career soldiers working their way up through the ranks Centurions usually had at least 15 years experience it was their job to train the men discipline them and lead them in battle because they'd seen so many campaigns they understood the traditions of the army they knew how the army could actually solve particular problems which he might encounter in future campaigns so they were very much the living essence of the Roman legions I mean the equipment of a Roman centurion you can always immediately tell the Centurion because his crest goes across his helmet in this case the crest is made of horsehair although sometimes they were made of feathers and if he'd been given military awards you can see they're worn on a harness on the chest Centurions were career officers who took the term literally Centurions Demma had to retire we find some cases people over 80 is still serving so this of course helps to secure uniformity of standards and training and so on throughout throughout the empire you see careers of the Centurions who've been all over the place in their very long lifetime Centurions could make a soldier's life hell they demanded bribes to excuse soldiers from the less popular duties and used their vine staffs to deliver punishment one Centurion Luke Ilyas was nicknamed give me another for his practice of breaking his staff over soldiers backs it was later murdered by his own men after its early defeat by Celtic warriors in 390 BC the Roman army changed its battle tactics they did away with the rigid phalanx formation it had borrowed from the Greeks and used smaller fighting units called men apples or handfuls highly maneuverable groups of less than 150 men this allowed the the Roman army to operate more effectively perhaps on on rather rougher ground but also it allowed them to move groups of soldiers around to the flanks and to the rear of enemy armies well the basis of the Roman army was its infantry the foot soldier each Legion also had an attachment of up to 300 cavalry the Romans were not natural horses so they adapted tactics and gear from their enemies including the Celts one example was the military saddle saddle on top of it is a very odd-looking Beast to most people now it doesn't look like a modern saddle at all the most obvious feature other four horns on it and the four horns are there because of the thing that is obviously missing there are no stirrups at all the Romans didn't ride with stirrups the saddle that developed after they'd fought with the Celts had this these horns as a very significant feature if you've got no stirrups as I said you can't lean out sideways very safely on a flat saddle these horns in Abele to do that the saddle looks sure compared to a modern saddle because the back horns press against your backside the front horns go under your thigh and you can lean out probably to about 45 degrees with relative safety part of the Cavalry's job was to harass the enemy and the riders carry special light javelins for that purpose as you pass that enemy you can lob several of them at them they're not going to do a huge amount of damage but your purpose isn't necessarily to do a lot of damage it's to make the formation break up so the infantry can get in and win in battle the cavalry lined up on the wings of the legions the infantry formed three horizontal lines so they could take turns at being the frontline until the battle was won as the Romans formed up to start the pathway they bang their swords against their shields now frightening drumroll until the order came to charge as the two sides closed in on each other the Roman foot lions would launch their javelins disrupting the enemy formation the infantry would form wedges to break up the enemy lines and allow close-in fighting that was when the short Romans stabbing sword would come into its own the fighting itself might be only twenty minutes or so sometimes it was a lot longer but it was very difficult to fight for a great length of time and this massive weight of armor that Roman soldiers and often their enemies wore part of the reason for Roman success in in battle was undoubtedly to do with training once an enemy cracked the Romans did not surround them instead and usually left an easy escape route so that the cavalry could come in and cut them down as they fled by 270 BC Rome controlled much of the Italian peninsula but unlike many ancient powers it did not simply pillages defeated neighbors it turned them into allies sometimes offering them Roman citizenship that way as Rome expands the people human conquerors are integrated all part of the Roman army and become the troops for the next wave of conquest out so it's a cumulative process and then I think key to the success and the growth of this Empire Rome's expansion made a clash inevitable with Carthage another Mediterranean superpower and when that clash came it would produce the most horrendous war the ancient world had ever seen Rome's expansion in the 200s BC brought it into conflict with another empire across the Mediterranean the city of Carthage in baden-baden easier commanded an empire stretching across northern Africa in 264 BC Rome and Carthage began fighting over control of Sicily / Carthage had colonies and Rome found itself at a disadvantage Carthage had a great Navy and Rome had almost none Rome began building one the most of its soldiers had never sailed so they practiced on dry land pretending to row in unison to get a feel for it and when it came time for the real sea battles Rome had a trick up its sleeve it developed a kind of gangplank called a Corvis that hooked onto Carthaginian ships so that the Roman soldiers could board them turning naval battles into more familiar land battles and that way Rome routed the Carthaginian fleet Rome won Sicily Corsica and Sardinia but Carthage did not accept the defeat in 218 BC Carthage hit back under one of the most feared warriors Rome would ever face Hannibal and this time the target was Rome itself Hannibal was a man clearly with tremendous determination a great personal hatred of Rome which he'd inherited from his family who'd fought the Romans before and it's also very clear that he had great personal magnetism Hannibal marched his army through Spain and France and across the Alps into Italy accompanied by three dozen elephants most of Hannibal's elephants died on journey over the Alps in fact his elephants played absolutely no role in the subsequent campaign I nevertheless they represent the skill and boldness that Hannibal portrayed in coming over the Alps so early in the campaigning season and surprising the Romans but the help of Celtic warriors who joined him on the way Hannibal won early victories against Roman legions said to meet him then in 216 BC came a major showdown at Cana in southern Italy Hannibal had about 40,000 troops while the Romans and their allies had nearly twice that number but Hannibal was a master tactician when the Roman legions made the usual thrust towards his Center Hannibal let them advance then encircle them it was a disaster for the Roman army some fifty thousand Romans and allies were killed there was panic and Rome but cries of Hannibal is at the gates but Hannibal was never able to capture role because Rome's ingenious policy of creating allies paid off once again what defeats had over the fact that the Romans have got eight nine ten times as many men able to be impressed into the army as Hannibal has got they can lose fifty thousand men in a day and they keep on fighting because they've got the manpower and no other state in the ancient world could ever achieve anything like that Rome practice total war against Hannibal as an emergency measure they called up every available man even slaves and set legions to Carthage held Spain to stop supplies and reinforcements from reaching Hannibal the wars on on this scale are fights for survival literally for survival if you lose these kind of wars in the early period your city is destroyed your women and children are dispersed across the Mediterranean world that's the end of it all societies are destroyed if battles are lost it took fifteen years of fighting before Hannibal was forced out of Italy he returned to Carthage to defend it against the counter-attack by the Romans who finally defeated Hannibal in 202 BC but despite the victory rome maintained a paranoid fear of Carthage and provoked a third war in 149 BC it took the Roman legions three years to breach Carthage's huge city walls and then the Romans slaughtered unknown thousands of Carthaginians and so of 50,000 survivors into slavery finally the Romans leveled the city crowded into the ground and according to legend sowed it with salt so that nothing would ever grow there again any Roman army was capable of extreme brutality particularly in the sack of a city which had resisted them which they then managed to break into under those circumstances it seems to have been normal Roman practice almost policy to slaughter absolutely everybody in everything including animals everybody was just chopped to pieces absolute carnage after defeating Carthage Rome also added Greece as a province after destroying the city of Corinth many other conquests followed so that by 100 BC Rome was undisputed master of the Mediterranean the Romans justified their expansion in a way that many modern-day politicians would understand they always convinced themselves that they fight defensive Wars no Roman war no matter how offensive or imperialist it might look to us to the Romans it was always a matter of defense always fending off an attack so in a sense that's how they justified a Mediterranean conquest as rulers of a rapidly expanding Empire the legions had to get used to a lot of travel and that meant travel on foot when Roman soldiers marched they carried up to 50 pounds of equipment on their backs including weapons armor cooking utensils rations and tools for building a temporary camp most armies relied on natural defenses if the Romans carried the tools to build a new camp wherever they were a new one each day if necessary they dug a defensive ditch around the whole camp five feet wide and three feet deep then built a palisade with the snakes they carried with them it was as though the Romans had their own fortified city wherever they went the primary purpose of a Roman marching camp is psychological rather than military it's the idea that in enemy territory every night you make a small city in what is not your territory and the enemy look on seeing their territory pockmarked by the advance of Roman armies the camps were a classic example of the Romans passion for order every camp had an identical plan each leather tent was put up in the same position each time so that the soldiers knew exactly where they were the soldiers had a great sense of security during the night they knew exactly where their officers were and the fact that their comrades work were guarding them as well the Roman obsession with order extended to the discipline of the troops cab sentries who fell asleep to be stoned to death for having endangered the whole regiment it wasn't as exceptional as it might sound given the general background of what Roman society was like people were used to flogging they were used to fairly frequent public executions so the Roman army was indeed pretty draconian but not as different from the rest of society as badly I think one infamous form of harsh discipline was decimation the killing of one men in 10 of regiments that showed cowardice in battle the men were selected by luck and clubbed to death by their comrades roman obedience was based on fear if a Roman soldier was faced by a crisis in battle that Roman soldier that unit of soldiers would stand their ground because they were more likely to survive a desperate fight in battle than to survive if they ran away one famous case of decimation came when Roman legions suffered several defeats during a revolt led by an escaped gladiator a warrior called Spartacus the Roma Norway was so busy conquering and building an empire on foreign soil that it had no standing army back home in Italy and that left it open to surprise attack that's just what happened in 73 BC in a revolt led by a foreign slave named Spartacus who had been forced to become a gladiator conditions for all slaves were relatively cruel and brutal and particularly for gladiators who were kept chained in barracks and were brutally treated Spartacus led a revolt by fellow gladiators against their conditions and was soon joined in the uprising by slaves in the countryside millions of slaves were brought back into Italy a lot of them were prisoners of war a lot of them were ex warriors and therefore although many of them were kept in barracks and many of them are trained to be gladiators they were a potential security risk because there were no legions stationed in Italy at the time new legions had to be quickly raised and trained but Spartacus said his men using guerilla tactics defeated each Legion centimetres and his band remained at large in Italy for three years the roman senate finally gave the nobleman marcus crassus the power to quell the revolt the show he was serious he began by decimating two of the legions that had lost the Spartacus then raised six new legions and met the Spartans in open warfare their tactics were so unconventional they refused to give battle until the very end in a conventional way they confounded the expectations of the generals and the army is sent against them in a sense their mistake and what lost them their final battle was to behave like Roman soldier the fighter conventional pitch battle had they stuck to guerrilla warfare their revolt might have been even more effective than it was the legions defeated the rebel army and killed Spartacus and then Crassus lined the Appian Way outside Rome with 6000 crucified sparticles a lesson to anyone who opposed Rome and her army in the early days of the Roman army soldiers were called away for only a few months at a time between spring and harvest but the expanding Empire that long campaigns overseas and for property owners he only been eligible for the legions military service became an ever-increasing hardship by 100 BC Rome had about 130,000 men in uniform one Roman man and eight was a soldier and he was required to do up to six years of service in one stretch and a maximum of 16 years over his lifetime the legions needed a bigger pool of manpower to draw on and the man who made it possible was the Consul Marius himself a great general twice he had saved Rome from invasion with victories over German tribes in the fields near XR Palace and southern France and 102 BC Marius army killed so many Germans one hundred thousand by one account that farmers had bumper crops for years afterwards because of the blood and bones in the soil as console marius decided to throw the ranks open to all Roman citizens whether they owned land or not this meant poor Romans could volunteer for a secure and prestigious job with good pay and trap they could become career soldiers the Roman army was now on its way to becoming a full-time professional force but volunteers still had to meet strict requirements they had to be tall preferably literate and have good character references certain professions were preferred including blacksmiths and hunters those incident not suitable included Weaver's and tavern keepers new recruits had to pass an interview and a medical exam and then had to take an oath to perform whatever they were commanded for the Roman state and to not shrink from death they were then given three gold pieces and sent to the provinces for training but many of these new Torah soldiers were already looking beyond three gold pieces as the army kept adding new conquests soldiers were increasingly focused on the spoils of war the amount of booty are over to bring back from cities like Corinth in 1 4 6 BC so enormous that I think it did encourage massive greed and an increasing level of brutality among Roman soldiers increasingly soldiers turn their loyalty from the Roman state to their own generals who could make them rich and the generals being Roman aristocrats saw their legions as tickets to wealth and power intimately related as the general and his army the general promises his army land booty settlement after the war has finished and the army promises the general not only success in conquest but votes back in Rome afterwards this led to a new class of super generals all the political ambitions there was Maria's himself a consul for many years his rival sulla who won victories in the eastern Mediterranean and became dictator of Rome for a time Pompey the great for conquered Syria and Palestine and the most famous general of all Julius Caesar Julius Caesar represents as close as I think you can get to naked ambition in the first century BC there's a famous story of Julius Caesar age 31 in further Spain coming across a statue of that great Conqueror Alexander the Great and suddenly bursting into tears and his entourage say why Caesar are you crying and he says this man by my age had conquered most of the world and I have done nothing within a few years the world would know that Caesar had done a great deal of all Rome's great generals none created more fame bloodshed loyalty and hatred than Julius Caesar he was a nobleman who worked his way up the political ladder and used his military command in Spain to pillage enough booty to buy votes in Rome he was made a consul and formed a political alliance the triumvirate of the rival general Pompey and Marcus Crassus the richest man in Rome Cesar then had himself made governor of northern Italy and southern France which made him commander of several legions he was anxious for more conquests and his chance soon came in 58 BC a Celtic people the helvetii II asked Caesars permission to migrate from Switzerland to western France across Roman Allies territory in what was then called goal instead of agreed Caesar decided to attack the Caesar of course is a cynic he needs a war he needs the booty derived from that to finance his political campaigns before he goes on campaign in Gaul he is deeply in debt Gaul will provide the booty for repaying his creditors Caesar said six legions against the Helvetii is three hundred and sixty thousand men women and children more than half the haveli was slaughtered and the survivors forced to return to their homelands it was a part of the political struggle at Rome in the late Republic Pompey his great rival was Rome's best general so Caesar competing against Pompey he has to be a better general after dispatching the Helvetii he Cesar said after a German tribe that had crossed the Rhine and marched his troops 120 miles in five days to the Alsace region again the Romans slaughtered thousands Caesar then turned west towards Belgium and repeated the dos against the tribe there ceases political foes in Rome decried his actions but both Romans cheered him on because he was defeating goals the very same Celtic people who'd sacked Rome in 390 BC the Romans fear of Celtic people's like the goals was more than historical it was also physically partly the sheer size of the Celts the Italians were fairly small people and compared them the goals for example were haps enormous you know some of six-footers that the Italians weren't used to for example we're told that Julius Caesar was tall for a room when he was only 5 foot 6 to the Romans anyone who didn't speak Latin or Greek such as the Celts was looked down upon as a barbarian because the language sounded like sheep baa baa the Romans have a very particular view of themselves and that is to see themselves as people who've developed the powers of the mind to control the body barbarians on the other hand are people who are led by physical desire sex and drugs and rock and roll they don't have a proper education so they go for the nearest thrill but the Celts that Caesar was fighting at gold but far from barbarians as we know the Germans they lived in organized towns like this reconstruction in France and there were master iron workers who probably invented the chainmail armor that the Romans adopted and the Celts artwork was anything but barbaric it still regarded as one of the great artistic traditions of Europe as warriors the so-called barbarians were no match for seas as well-trained legions Celtic warriors did not fight as a unit they fought for individual glory the big men like to show up dressed in fancy shiny armor stand at the front and engage in warfare that was no doubt fairly brutal but was fairly small scale they couldn't plan total war in the way that the Romans could plan they didn't have fully trained legions they didn't have logistic backup also the Celts were up against a brilliant commander and Julius Caesar he was ambitious hungry for victories and used daring and original tactics he was noted for the speed and surprise of his movements and he really brought those techniques to perfection in using his legions on the other hand he was a little reckless part of his daring and he often got himself in terrible scrapes but he was so quick and so perceptive of the enemy's intentions that he was always able to get himself out from the word go he was prepared to adapt I mean coming up against the Germans for the first time in his first campaign enormous sums of cavalry he had virtually none no problem he simply gets in horses and tells one Legion right boys your organ recovery suddenly has 5,000 calories Cesar knew he asked a lot of his soldiers and so he went out of his way to cultivate an intense loyalty from he didn't ask them to do anything that he didn't do and he often dismissed his bodyguard and had his horse led away and actually stood in the ranks with the troops and his troops were very loyal to him not surprisingly these loyal soldiers were also becoming wealthy soldiers throw booty and slaves the spoils of war were often won through great brutality Caesar himself boasted that his campaigns in Gaul left a million dead and a million enslaved Cesar just carried out what I've called actually a big-game hunt he took his legions back and forth across call slaughtering troops pillaging towns killing women children the Romans were terribly cruel on the Celts defeated enemies were often made into slaves slavery was tremendously important to Rome 40% of the Italian population were slaves the same percentage as the American South before the Civil War slaves are fundamental to Rome's war effort essentially slaves free this Roman citizen to fight in the army without slavery it would have been impossible for Rome so effectively to initiate these wars of conquest caesar's wars of conquest went on for nine years he was the ultimate example of everything the Roman army had become in its first 500 years dedicated ambitious ruthless and caesar would not stop with foreign conquests with his army behind him he would conquer his enemies in Rome and take the title of dictator for life

Mathematical modeling – Functions – Mathematics- Pre-university Calculus – TU Delft



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This video shows the cycle of mathematical modeling using the Nuna solar car as an example: A real-world problem is described mathematically using functions. Equations help to solve these problems in order to make predictions in the real-world. This video is part of the edX course: pre-university Calculus (Calc001x)

Hello! Welcome to the first week of the pre-university
Calculus course! Do you remember this from our course promotion
video? The World Solar Challenge. A race for cars using only solar power to
cross Australia. Racing three thousand kilometers from Darwin
to Adelaide. Students of the Delft University of Technology built the Nuna7 and won this
world championship of Solar cars. How are mathematics like Calculus, important to building a winning car? The students of the Nuon Solar team have a
clear challenge: Design a solar car that can drive the long
distance as fast as possible, using only the sun as a power source. This is what we would call a real-world problem. In terms of energy:
you want to build a car that maximizes power input and minimizes power loss. The first step with such a problem or challenge
is analysis: You try to break down the question in smaller
and more specific questions, like:
how much power can you harvest from the sun? What is the influence of power losses like
air friction, roll friction and battery loss? Here starts the modeling cycle that is used
in science, design and engineering. You have a real-world problem and you try
to formulate it in terms of a mathematical model. A mathematical model describes the relation
between the different parameters that are of influence in this real-world problem. Such relations are described by mathematical
functions. Just a small example of such relations.
The power input of the Nuna car is described by a function relating the efficiency of the
solar cells, the area of solar cells,
the height of the sun and other quantities. Power loss depends on roll and air friction,
which both depend on speed and other parameters, and loss of electrical power. Once you modeled your problem in terms of
functions, you can start making calculations. This often involves solving equations. In particular if you try to find an optimal
situation. For example:
what is the highest speed the Nuna car can attain given certain weather conditions? After solving the mathematical questions,
you have to interpret the results to predict how a design or phenomenon will work in real-life. And,
ultimately, you will have to test your predictions and
see whether they are correct, or whether you need another or more refined
model. This cycle of mathematical modeling is used
in medicine, economics,
science and engineering to tackle real world problems. Think of questions like:
What is the optimum dose for this medicine? How can you maximize the profit of your company? How can you design a thrilling roller coaster
ride? How can you reduce energy consumption? In particular,
it shows how important it is to have a thorough understanding of mathematics if you want to
be a scientist or engineer. This starts with understanding the building
blocks of any model: mathematical functions. In first two weeks of this course we will
review the standard functions like polynomials, exponential functions and trigonometric functions. You will have lots of opportunity to practice
with these functions, their properties and their applications. Have fun!

History of Kenworth Trucks | Truck History Episode 7



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You may have seen our first episode of Truck History where we talk all about the legendary W900L model… well today we are here with the full history of Kenworth Trucks, starting all the way back in 1912! Take a deep dive with us back in time with one of the best-known truck brands to date. Enjoy!

If you liked this video give it a thumbs up and check out our other videos by subscribing to our channel and be sure to follow us on social media and remember… “If your rig don’t shine, you don’t know Jack!”

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HD documentary || Space Mysteries – Alien Safari HD – Documentary Films



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Class- 50 ||#RRC GROUP D / MTS || Maths || by Mohit Sir || Mock Test-5



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Class- 50 ||#RRC GROUP D / MTS || Maths || by Mohit Sir || Mock Test-5

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BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg American Civil | History Documentaries 2017 – The Best D



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BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil | History Documentaries 2017 BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War .

BBC Documentary 2017 | Battle of Gettysburg – American Civil War | History War Documentaries 2017 The Battle of Gettysburg was fought 1–3, 1863, in and .

This American Civil War Full Documentary Film categorized as History Documentaries and it is Full Length Non-Stop for over 8 hours This Documentary Film .

American Civil War – The Complete History (Historical Documentary) The American Civil War, widely known as simply the Civil War in the United States as well .

twenty-four-year-old Lieutenant Colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they faced down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on their luck the retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad car the rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country burr Dawes retreat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William Dawes rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just a hundred and seventy-five yards to the railroad cut who will cost Dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward DAWs loses ten men carrying the colors in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron brigade your role Eggleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private and is sent furious at the killing of his brave young comrade with a terrific blow split the skull of the rebel who had shot young Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das loses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong is streaming towards Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert Eagle II we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the North threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going out in all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up at Gettysburg was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more troops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south Lee's army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is Lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg human troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits Humiston was like so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man I hate the idea of dying here like a hawk the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle you'll replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll have the Union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. is units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go Yul's Confederate troops are spreading out for the town and it's a route for the rebels gameis Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life the Army of Northern Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat the nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that we fight every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the 270 men and Humiston regiment all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and covered them all with care by Frankie Valli and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank fault others flee as the rebels swarmed through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing has always been a male profession but during the Civil War 20,000 women sign on to care for the casualties one Union nurse Clara Barton will go on to found the Red Cross rebel soldiers go door to door looking for Union soldiers they're hiding all over town Lee has nowhere to put prisoners during the war so many are captured the North and South follow an honor system paroled prisoners taken oath not to rejoin the fight until formally exchanged Paul is simply I'm going to give you a piece of paper that says don't fight anymore and if I catch you fighting then bad things are gonna happen to you then what we're gonna do later is we're going to have men from our army and men from your army meet it at a neutral place and we're gonna trade soldiers just like kids sitting around trading playing cards you know I'll trade you three generals for four Colonels and nine lieutenants for 50 privates the punishment for breaking parole is death Amos hummus – wounded and alone in a yard in the middle of town he grasps an ambrotype a photographic image of his three children fixed in glass a present from his wife on his way to war the Amos Humiston story is going to resonate with any soldier if you go to any unit in the United States military today obviously you're going to find servicemembers with pictures of their children their wives their sweethearts because that is a tangible link to your normal life your condition in combat is not normal you're there in the service of your country to do what the nation asks you to do but the stakes are rising for both north and south on the high ground outside town Rufus Dawes and the Union Army dig in it's here that the Battle of Gettysburg will be won or lost suffering heavy losses Union troops pull out of Gettysburg leaving the town in Confederate control it might appear that the fighting on the first day for the Union was a huge weight loss really bad on the first day but the intense struggle they put up north and west of town the intense struggle that some of them put up through the streets of Gettysburg allow them to fall back to their chosen position they retreat to a nearby series of hills than peak at eight hundred feet high ground that gives the Union a critical military advantage on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes and what's left of his iron Brigade unit digging they have a new weapon to shovel they're building breastworks form of fortification dating back to the Romans some officers think defensive walls create cowards not dogs after losing half his men he wants all the protection he can get down below you'll has orders from robert e lee to take cemetery and copse hills but with the qualifier if practicable you will decides to wait for reinforcements it's a decision with critical consequences if you're looking up in your scene this great amount of work going on up there and your men are tired from the March they've just made it from the battle they've just fought something in him triggered I'm not gonna do this or I can't do this now but certainly at the end of the day he's gonna disappoint his commander I'm sure he's gonna disappoint himself the Confederacy will pay for that for the next three days this is one of the great what-ifs of the battle had you will occupied and controlled Culp's Hill in the land around it the Union Army would have simply had to leave when the battle would have been fought somewhere else maybe not so much to the Yankees advantage in the fields around Gettysburg the grim new harvest the dead and wounded from day one tending to the injured on both sides doctor Legrand Wilson Confederate deeply religious hometown Jackson Mississippi educated in the north his family owns forty slaves in Mississippi this was my first experience on the battlefield after the fighting and it was horrible beyond description if every human being could have witnessed the result of the mad passions of men I saw that night war would cease there would never be another battle the staggering level of death in the civil war is difficult to wrap your brain around the commonly use numbers for how many soldiers died during the civil wars between six hundred and twenty and six hundred and thirty thousand today that would mean that we would lose six million American lives one innovation making this war so deadly the minie ball 90% of the soldiers Wilson treats have miniball wounds hollow base and grooves stabilize its flight for better range and accuracy unhhhh in fact it flattens out causing much larger wounds than traditional musket balls the Warped bullet shatters bones that splinter tear through the body and the grooves in the bullet carried deadly bacteria leading to gangrene the only way to stop it amputation african-americans serve has stretcher-bearers some slaves use the invasion as a chance to escape by the end of the war half a million slaves flee to the north a hundred and fifty thousand will enlist in the Union armed dr. Wilson loses a family member on the first day of battle among the dead was my own nephew lieutenant George Adrian house must have been shot in the advance upon the enemy in the Bois his faithful servant Stephen came out on the battlefield and sought for and found his body and carried it back to the hospital for burial family members often serve side by side it's one reason why they fight so hard in some states a quarter or more of the military aged men were dead as a result of the war with hundreds of thousands more wounded in some cases all the young men of a town were wiped out during the Civil War the hills outside in the last year President Abraham Lincoln has fired five commandments commander number six George Meade's proud explosive West Point they're like robert e lee just three days on the job but a messenger brought the news of his promotion who thought he was being arrested but me arrives with advantage the high ground as a topographical engineer he knows how to use it he positions his troops to take advantage of the terrain placing them on Little Round Top Cemetery Ridge Cemetery Hill and calls him the defensive line in the shape of a fishhook as Confederate troops flood into Gettysburg me can move his men to answer attacks from any direction Union forces had interior lines in this defensive position that is their right flank was very close to the left flank and they could move reinforcements from one flank to another made it a perfect defensive position rebel troops in town don't notice Amos Humiston mortally wounded he prepares to die alone except for the photograph of his children how I want to see them and their mother is more than I can tell I hope that we may all see each other again the first time that I see you I will tell you more than I can think of now be a good girl so goodbye Amos Humiston bleeds to death no identification the fear of dying anonymously haunts troops on both sides some so their names into their uniforms dog tags are still 40 years away by the war's end 400,000 soldiers will be missing in action we really cannot imagine the scale of death a scale of suffering no one could have imagined carnage on that scale and Gettysburg brings more devastation and dari all-out rebel assaults at stake victory at Gettysburg and maybe the civil Gettysburg day to 12 p.m. the rebels are on the move they're planning a surprise attack by 14,500 troops their mission break the Union stranglehold on the high ground by outflanking needs fishery the goal of the Confederates on July 2nd is to find the Union left damaged destroy it and roll up it and unhinge the entire Union position and win the Battle of Gettysburg leading one rubble unit Brigadier General William Barksdale pro-slavery procession southern Patriot hometown Columbus Mississippi Barksdale was a man who took the ideas of the Confederacy and pursued them with raw aggressiveness with unfettered hatred for the Yankees but there's a problem the land ahead of him was not scouted because Lee's cavalry is missing there are 12 miles to the south raiding supplies the Calvary the eyes and ears of an army is no longer in communication with Lee Lee is blind on the battlefield and that means that he doesn't know what the Union is up to and that course is going to cripple any army without cavalry to guide them the rebel troops nearly march into plain sight of a Union position Barksdale and the entire attack have to find another route a costly delay adding two hours to their March time that lets meet reinforce his defenses people often ask me what if they had machine guns in the Civil War I always say forget all that one set of walkie-talkies could have changed the outcome of the Civil War three miles away George Meade also has a problem just three days on the job he's lost Telegraph contact with Washington DC invented 25 years earlier The Telegraph is changing the way the Civil War battles are fought President Abraham Lincoln a hands-on commander-in-chief likes rapid news from the field the Signal Corps usually runs temporary lines to his generals at the front but at Gettysburg the field equipment has it aligned and rebel forces have cut the lines during the whole thing he's got to be thinking Lee has beaten us time and time and time again and if he doesn't hear there's no one standing between him in the capital we're it he can't lose to issue orders to the front Meade uses a new innovation based on Morris code wig wag signal waving the flags forms letters like the dots and dashes of code it works made tracks the rebels movements and responds with his own meanwhile on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes waits with what's left of his iron Brigade unit yesterday they routed the rebels at the railroad cut today there with eleven thousand five hundred men defending the fishhooks right flank stretching over three miles Meade's fishhook is formidable heavy defenses along the high ground make the Union line almost impenetrable as long as troops stay in position but one Union commander isn't following needs orders Major General Dan sickles wealthy devious a row recently acquitted of murdering his wife's lover using the first plea of temporary insanity in US history believe Gettysburg even more in the toys Dan sickles was all about dan sickles if it didn't benefit or a dam sickles he wasn't very interested in it he didn't go to West Point he didn't have any military experience but he was able to use his money influence and power to raise his own regiment against Meade's orders sickles moves his third core to far forward fracturing the fishhook and leaving the flanks exposed a blunder that could cost the Union the battle and maybe the war after hours of delay the rebel force finally arrives in position but Lee's lost the element of surprise the Union knows what's coming cops Hill Dawes here's the assault begin at this hour the storm of battle suddenly broke out artillery in musketry thundered and crashed together wave after wave rebel troops launched one of the epic assaults of the civil Barksdale is about to get the fight he's always wanted but in order to hold his ground William Barksdale is ready to go he's chopping up that he has to wait a little walk the plan is to take ten Confederate brigades and attack with them two at a time one Brigade striking the enemy then fifteen or thirty minutes later the next one strikes the enemy and then the next and the next fights that are now burned into the pages of American history Devil's Den Little Round Top the wheat field the peach orchard and Cemetery Ridge Barksdale can see that sickles mistake has left the union vulnerable creating the South's best chance for victory but he is still under orders to hold his men back sixty minutes pass but Barksdale's regiments still waits the rebel yell fills the air each unit has a unique sound fierce savage tariffs [Applause] this Barksdale private Joseph lore 21 years old labor hometown big oak Mississippi [Applause] carrying the colors makes in the prize target the union sharpshooter ninety minutes after the start of the initial attacks Barksdale and his men are finally unleashed they storm into enemy fire racing towards sickles position what happens next could change the course of the war Pumped with adrenaline sure of their car when Barksdale and his Mississippi Brigade are finally attacked is 1600 men are part of a massive offensive 21,000 troops attacking Meade's line from Little Round Top to Cemetery Ridge and all-out assault to win the Civil War now Barksdale's mission break through Union defenses on Cemetery Ridge opportunity lies right in his path his daughter's Union general Dan sickles moved his 3rd Corps out of position now boner perfect targets for Barksdale if Barksdale as well as other Confederate brigades nearby are able to exploit the gap in Union line it would be calamitous for the Union Army the army would be cut into their defenses start to collapse needs entire line could be next William Barksdale his troops hit the Yankees like a hammer he rolls over those Union troops captures several hundred if not more than that of the Union troops and continues on in several directions towards Cemetery Ridge watching from Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes knows the Army of the Potomac in trouble we could plainly see that our troops were giving ground thousands were streaming to the rear our suspense and anxiety were intense the rebel mine is advancing the rebel yell was predominant Lee's offensive is working if it succeeds he could win the knockout victory he seeks mede has no choice he pulls 8,000 reinforcements from Culp's Hill to repel the rebels charging towards Cemetery Ridge Barksdale and Lloyd advance six hundred yards through a barrage of enemy fire Union commander Dan sickles isn't so lucky the direct cannonball it severs his leg one Yankee officer jokes it's bad news for sickles but good news for the Union takes barksdale's Mississippi Brigade nearly an hour but they finally break through sickles live on the run Barksdale's men approached Cemetery Ridge sensing victory but they're charging straight into more than 20 unique cards away each capable of firing two rounds an exploding bag of gunpowder rockets the 12 pound all of solid iron at 1,400 feet per second at this range Barksdale employed pieces Barksdale he's been grievously wounded during the attack he's hit in the left thigh and a very dangerous wound bleeding profusely he's asked to leave the feel refuses continuing to lead the attack he has part of his left foot shot away stays in the south continuing to lead the attack he knows the stakes enter the Mississippi Brigade comes close to cutting through Union lines and Meade's reinforcements slam into Barksdale and Lord I turn again to the front see the enemy bursting through the bushes and fires they had come out from the top of the hill and fresh and did our gallant Barksdale ride into our midst and still say forward through the bushes Barksdale's exhausted men finally break formation using their combined fire the rebel flag makes Lloyd a magnet for boats shock as if I had a rail in my left hand and one in head struck the ground the union line marches over one of them fixes a sling for my arm leaving with a wish well 50% of Barksdale's brigade are dead wounded or captured loyd almost overlooks their fallen command I hero we Cal to my right and turning to it find general Barksdale what a disappointment when I hold my canteen to his mouth for a drink of water found a ball had gone through and let it all out I took his last message to his brigade and left him with the promise to send the litter bears barksdale's battle is over his last thoughts are of his family and never have regretted the steps I have taken and although dying I do not regret those steps now God ever watch over and care for my dear wife and my boys tell them all that I died like a brave man you have to wonder if he was thinking I'm going to end the war I'm going to be the great instrument that is going to break that Union line in half and destroy the Army of the Potomac and remove it from my Army's opposition for once and forever and his troops performance there was unbelievable and very nearly succeeded these fishhook has helped this offensive is over Confederate general Longstreet will call it the best three hours fighting ever done by any troops on any battlefield sixteen thousand are dead wounded or missing on both sides but day two isn't over stave off the rebels Meade pull troops from Culp's Hill as night falls only 1400 Union defenders are left there it's an opportunity that Confederates won't miss this on Culp's Hill robert e lee spies a new chance for victory meade pulled eight thousand troops from the hill to counter the rebel assault just fourteen hundred Union soldiers remain now 4,500 rebels are moving in for the kill charging up Culp's Hill with the rebels is private Ridgely Howard 33 years old slave boy from a prominent Maryland fan hometown Bolton his grandfather fought with Washington and revolution now he's fighting to divide the nation that created the Howards discussed Maryland sided with the north Maryland was badly divided the eastern part of the state slavery was entrenched embedded rigidly Howard came from that plantation economy from the slave holding class powered in the Maryland rebels attack Union defenses dug into the hill the first test works on 400 yards it's chaos bullets and shells fly in all directions Federal's earthworks made of logs and rocks in dirt you've got to be thinking to yourself this is my last fight I'm not coming back from this how do you function like that this is this is what makes a true hero up the sides of the hill we went our line being continuously broken by the immense rocks which had to be flanked powered faces fighting so fierce one rebel calls it a slaughter pen there was not a passive position to be there were continual cries that we were firing into our own man rebel troops claw their way up lower Culp's Hill at a terrible cost surprise is worthless the on Culp's Hill aligns the Baltimore Pike the union's main supply route in line retreat if the Confederates capture Culp's Hill and control that point the Union Army has to leave after two days of battle wounded from both sides pour into makeshift field hospitals at one private Joseph Floyd is about to lose his arm Barksdale's color guard is 23 during the Civil War two soldiers will die of disease after medical care for everyone killed in battle the quickest solution to most serious limb injuries is amputation medicine is in its infancy but anesthesia is available chloroform was recently discovered and morphine administered liberally one thousand gallons of whiskey are also on hand Confederate Surgeon Legrand Wilson has been treating casualties continuously since last night the patient may either sit on a chair or lie near the edge of a bed the tourniquet is to be applied while one assistant holds the hand another is to take hold of the forearm the average amputation takes 12 minutes no antibiotics no knowledge of infection they don't even stop to wash their hands or instruments surgeons work round the clock it's the source of the term old Sawbones Lloyd will be one of the lucky ones the odds of surviving an arm amputation 77 percent [Applause] Rufus Dawes and his men are among the few Union defenders left on Culp's Hill they move down to counter-attack as we neared the breastworks the class only must get spritz out right the darkness and the suddenness of our arrival cause the enemy to fire loudly Dawes and his men win their skirmish but like day one they're the exception nearby Ridgely Howard's unit captures a cheese section of restrooms they keep advancing against heavy the Federals OPM is from front left flag and rear and the firing was terrible increasing with each step we took but still we pressed on they're just 500 yards from the Baltimore pike and the position that would threaten the entire Union line but at night an unfamiliar ground a great opportunity is lost they would be in the rear of the Union Army they could be on the flank of the Union Army but because of something so simple darkness they don't even know how close they are unable to tell friend from foe they cease firing if the Confederates had managed to carry Culp's Hill on the evening of July 2nd and breakthrough they would have captured the Union communications line on Baltimore pike all of the supply wagons were their reserve artillery was there that would have forced me to retreat and it could have been a major turning point in favor of Confederate victory as the fight on Culp's Hill dies down the Union wins a different kind they're newly formed intelligence agency the Bureau of military information is trying to discover Lee's battle plans VMI agents are interrogating Confederate prisoners and realize they have captives from every rebel infantry division but one George Pickett's he has Lee's only fresh troops Meade expects the rebels to attack tomorrow with everything they've got it's a good bet George Pickett will lead the attack tomorrow Ridgely howard will face his Maryland neighbors in a fight to the death robert e lee launched one final all-out assault tickets charge Gettysburg day 3 5 a.m. the stakes have never been higher yesterday Robert Ely is on the verge of all-out victories Confederate troops assaulted the union's left flank and nearly broke robert e lee knows he came very close but no cigar general Meade's actually a little shaken he knows it was a very close one thing barely escapes disaster now rebel troops are gaining ground a lower Culp's Hill and our position to threaten the union's rear lines Meade sends in reinforcements one Union Brigade is led by Colonel James Wallace educated wealthy also from Maryland the only Union colonel who owned slaves during the revolution his grandfather and Ridgeley Howard's fought in the same regiment today the two Marylanders will battle each other Maryland like other border states torn apart so many divided loyalties Maryland they had to decide which side they were on Maryland is one of five border states loyal to the Union but slavery is legal passions for and against slavery run haughty federal troops occupy Baltimore throughout the war to prevent the Confederate uprising on Culp's Hill Ridge Lee Howard's unit prepares to attack their target defenses held by Union troops from their home state [Applause] the men seem to feel the solemnity of the occasion and to understand the desperate nature of the charge to be made I prayed for strength to do my duty last night the rebels outnumbered Union defenders three to one now those odds are reversed it appeared to me as if the whole of my company was being swept away by the awful shower of shot and shell flying around us a demon seemed to take possession of me I had what one thought to avenge my comrades Howard takes a bullet fired by the union's first Maryland regiment I felt a burning in my thigh as if all the blood in my body was rushing to one spot it is a hard thing to say but I am convinced the Federals deliberately shot at us while we lay there helpless on the field a soldier at my left was shocked I was also struck in a hip hip wounds are almost always fatal every moment I expected would be my last so I straightened myself out folded my arms over my breast and waited for my time to come time slows as richly Howard prepares to die James Wallace won't let a fellow Marylander suffer no matter which side he's on the first Maryland Confederate met us and were cut to pieces sorrowfully gathered up many of our old friends acquaintances add them carefully and tenderly cared for I don't know how long I'll a seconds would seem to be minutes and minutes hours coming to Howard's aid the soldiers he'd least expect to help the same Union troops who shot him they asked what regiment I belong to I replied the Maryland battalion to which they made answer do you know you are fighting your own men I answered yes and we intend to fight them with a rebel assault on Culp's Hill stalled robert e lee readies one more massive attack it will be one of the iconic battles of the Civil War 12,000 Confederate troops hundreds of candidates the largest artillery barrage ever in North America is about to begin [Applause] after two days of attack and counter-attack robert e lee is about to launch the offensive that will decide the Battle of Gettysburg and the course of the war he's sending in 12,000 soldiers anchored by George Pickett's division his only fresh troops their mission attacked the Union Center and cut the Army of the Potomac me too at least pushing all of the chips to the middle of the table because he knows it's this last chance he's going to have this was a calculated decision it was well thought out it had a reasonable chance of success creating one of the rebel brigades general Joe Davis aristocratic slave owner his uncle Confederate President Jefferson Davis his hometown of Vicksburg Mississippi is under union siege to weaken Union defenses 160 Confederate cannons move into position a line of artillery two miles long against them a hundred Union candidates it's 87 degrees brutally humid it's the largest artillery barrage ever in the Western Hemisphere percussion would shake the internals the organs would actually in some cases rip apart the membranes within the ear would tear this would create blood streaming down the sides of these artillery units faces can be heard in Harrisburg Pennsylvania 40 miles Tolu early into thinking he's crippled the unions artillery Union commanders silenced their guns by 3:00 p.m. Confederate artillery also stops firing an eerie quiet reigned over the battlefield all the smoke from that bombardment still sat on the winless day the Yankees expected a huge attack from the southerners the southerners knew what they were about to do and what they went up against and it must have been an intense moment as they stared each other across the fields the Confederate command believes it's safe to send in their troops time to set in motion one of the iconic battles of the Civil War Joe Davis and his men move out part of a rebel assault that stretches a mile to reach union lines they must cross 1700 yards of open meadow that race up a hill but unknown to the Confederate leaders the Union artillery still has plenty of fire they're just waiting for the rebels to come into range Joe Davis and his men are marching into a barrage of artillery hell of course the ordinates rifle cannon made with four and a half inch strips of wrought iron invented just two years earlier they're tough and reliable designed with a 3-inch grooved bore for greater range deadly accuracy the ordinance delivers shells that explode on impact in time shells in shrapnel that burst in the air the enemy's heads can take out a 10-man being on the receiving end of one of these projectiles from the rifled ordnance would be completely devastating you don't know what's coming at you can you can only imagine and then all of a sudden the guys that you are standing next to are gone vaporize stopping to return fire an open field suicide and there's no point their muskets don't have the range Davis knows his men have to keep moving we were growing dinner at every step under this destructive fire which commanded our front and left with fatal effect the troops displayed great coolness we're welding moves steadily forward regularly closing up the gaps made in their ranks about halfway to Cemetery Ridge the rebels come into range of the older-style smooth barrel and Napoleon can the most popular artillery in the Civil War kinds men can keep going in the face of such opposition the level of courage is intense and large until Davis and his men can return fire they're just target practice for Union artillery the attack that will come to be known as Pickett's Charge is being blown to hell Lee's offensive is advancing toward enemy troops on Cemetery Ridge Union artillery is mowing them down it's the moment of truth at Gettysburg for both armies Joe Davis and his men are now 400 yards canister range canister is the most devastating weapon of the day basically tin cans packed with 28 earned balls the casing explode spring the iron balls into advancing troops at hundreds of guards per second mr. shott just made that cannon a gigantic shotgun but it would mow down up to 20 guys at a time if not more would be completely tore apart limbs heads arms legs and was so demoralizing for the other soldiers to witness such an event Davis regroups the Emmitsburg were 200 yards from the union law they're now within range of enemy muskets [Applause] one fence they're using for cover takes 836 right the brigade to the left of Davis hasn't caught up exposing his flank and opening a hole in the rebel line two men under Davis make it to the Union line and plant their flag on a stone wall a brave but futile gesture the rest of the unit under Davis cracks and retreats and a bend in the Union line rebel troops under George Pickett managed to break through and surged over the wall Union Gunners fire point-blank now it's to the point of hand-to-hand combat this is as brutal as it gets it is literally with musket butts and using fighting knives using the bayonets by themselves as rusting weapons the rebels overrun three canons but they're soon overwhelmed its Lee's last chance for victory at Gettysburg but it's not enough they almost cut the Union Army in two they almost didn't robert e lee's great moment of promise quickly turned into his greatest defeat by far the entire rebel line retreats they are compelled forced to retire across that dairy ground in which they had made this brave Galit charge more than half of the force that began Pickett's charge is dead wounded captured or missing we loses a third of his army at Gettysburg it's the bloodiest battle ever fought on American soil more than 50,000 casualties robert e lee's bold invasion of the north has failed Independence Day Rufus Dawes of the iron Brigade turns 25 what a solemn birthday my little band now only 200 men have all been out bearing the bloody corpses of friend and foe no fighting today the civil war will last another two years Gettysburg wasn't Lee's last chance to win but it was his best they'll never come this close again it gave northern people that belief that Union military High Command could in fact match robert e lee on the battlefield nobody believed that the war was near an end but many in the north they took from gettysburg solace hope that in fact this the tide could possibly turn in their favor for so many reasons this battle stands out as a pivotal and significant american event Rufus Dawes leaves the army in 1864 with symptoms resembling post-traumatic stress disorder his son Charles will become the 30th vice-president of the United States of America under Calvin Coolidge Joe Davis wakes up to learn that Vicksburg his hometown has fallen to lyses s grant he falls gravely ill but keeps his command he'll accompany lead to Appomattox for the South's formal surrender Union troops destroy Legrand Wilson's farm from the sale of his last bale of cotton he starts his own medical practice Risley Howard recovers from his wounds and returns to the war losing a leg at Cold Harbor in 1864 legend has it his ghost still haunts his Baltimore home it falls to Fanny Bueller and the people of Gettysburg to help the army care for the casualties and pick up the pieces the town of Gettysburg was overwhelmed for months by the wounded the smell of death lingered there for four weeks for months so the horrors of the aftermath of that battle were unmatched in the war a young girl finds a fallen soldier in a yard he has no identification but grasps a photograph of three children fixed in glass the picture becomes famous widely printed in newspapers the mystery of the Unknown Soldier captures the country's imagination four months later the woman in upstate New York recognizes the children and solves the mystery the soldier is Amos hummus twenty-four-year-old Lieutenant Colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they face down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on the luck retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country / dawes the treat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William dogs rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just a hundred and seventy-five yards to the railroad cut lacoste Dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward Dawes loses 10 men carrying the colors in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron brigade your role Eggleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private and is sent furious at the killing of his brave young comrade where the terrific blows split the skull of the rebel who had shot Jung Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das losses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong is streaming towards the Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert Eagle II we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the north threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going out in all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up a get his burger was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more troops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south Lee's Army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg Union troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man the idea of dying almost impenetrable as long as troops stay in position but one Union commander isn't following these orders Major General Dan sickles wealthy devious a row recently acquitted of murdering his wife's lover using the first plea of temporary insanity in US history believe Gettysburg even more notorious Dan sickles was all about Dan sickles if it didn't benefit or a Dan sickles he wasn't very interested in it he didn't go to West Point he didn't have any military experience but he was able to use his money influence and power to raise his own regiment against Meade's orders sickles moves his third core to far forward fracturing the fishhook leaving the flanks exposed a blunder that could cost the Union the battle and maybe the war after hours of delay the rebel force finally arrives in position that leaves lost the element of surprise the union knows what's coming cops Hill Dawes here's the assault begin at this hour the storm of battle suddenly broke out artillery and musketry thundered and crashed together wave after wave rebel troops launched one of the epic assaults of the civil boom Barksdale is about to get the fight he's always want but in order to hold his ground William Barksdale is ready to go he's choppin competitive but he has to wait a little walk the plan is to take ten Confederate brigades and attack with them two at a time one Brigade striking the enemy then fifteen or thirty minutes later the next one strikes the enemy and then the next and the next fights that are now burned into the pages of American history Devil's Den Little Round Top the wheat field the peach orchard and Cemetery Ridge Barksdale can see that sickles mistake has left the union vulnerable creating the South's best chance for victory but he is still under orders to hold his men back sixty minutes pass but Barksdale's regiment still votes the rebel yell fills the air each unit has a unique sound fierce savage terrified [Applause] with Barksdale private Joseph Lord 21 years old labor hometown big oak Mississippi [Applause] carrying the colors makes in the prize target the union sharpshooter ninety minutes after the start of the initial attacks Barksdale and his men are finally unleashed they storm into enemy fire racing towards sickles position what happens next could change the course of the war Pumped with adrenaline sure of their car will Barksdale and his Mississippi Brigade are finally attacked 1600 men are part of a massive offensive 21,000 troops attacking Meade's line from Little Round Top to Cemetery Ridge an all-out assault to win the Civil War battle Barksdale's mission break through Union defenses on Cemetery Ridge opportunity lies right in his path against orders Union general Dan sickles moved his third core out of position perfect targets for Barksdale if Barksdale as well as other Confederate brigades nearby are able to exploit the gap in Union line it would be calamitous for the Union Army the army would be cut into their defenses start to collapse needs entire line could be next William Barksdale his troops hit the Yankees like a hammer he rolls over those Union troops captures several hundred if not more than that of the Union troops and continues on in several directions towards Cemetery Ridge watching from Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes knows the Army of the Potomac in trouble we could plainly see that our troops were giving ground thousands were streaming to the rear our suspense and anxiety were intense the rebel line is advancing the rebel yell was predominant Lee's offensive is working if it succeeds he could win the knockout victory he seeks mede has no choice he pulls 8,000 reinforcements from Culp's Hill to repel the rebels Sarge found his body and carried it back to the hospital for burial family members often serve side by side it's one reason why they fight so hard in some states a quarter or more of the military aged men were dead as a result of the war with hundreds of thousands more wounded in some cases all the young men of a town were wiped out during the Civil War last year President Abraham Lincoln has fired five commanders Commander number six George Meade's proud explosive West Point are like Robert Lee just three days on the job but a messenger brought the news of his promotion he thought he was being arrested but me arrives with advantage the high ground as a topographical engineer he knows how to use it he positions his troops to take advantage of the terrain placing them on Little Round Top Cemetery Ridge Cemetery Hill and calls him the defensive line in the shape of a fishhook as Confederate troops flood into Gettysburg me can move his men to answer attacks from any direction Union forces had interior lines in this defensive position that is their right flank was very close to the left flank and they could move reinforcements from one flank to another made it a perfect defensive position rebel troops in town don't notice Amos Humiston mortally wounded he prepares to die alone except for the photograph of his children how I want to see them and their mother is more than I can tell I hope that we may all see each other again the first time that I see you I will tell you more than I can think of now be a good girl so goodbye Amos Humiston bleeds to death no identification the fear of dying anonymously haunts troops on both sides some so their names into their uniforms dog tags are still 40 years away by the war's end 400,000 soldiers will be missing in action we really cannot imagine the scale of death a scale of suffering no one could have imagined carnage on that scale and Gettysburg brings more devastation and a dairy all-out rebel assault at stake victory at Gettysburg and maybe the civil get eaten day to 12:00 p.m. the rebels are on the move they're planning a surprise attack by 14,500 troops their mission break the Union stranglehold on the high ground by outflanking needs fishery the goal of the Confederates on July 2nd is to find the Union left damaged destroy it and roll up it and unhinge the entire Union position and win the Battle of Gettysburg leading one rubble unit Brigadier General William Barksdale pro-slavery procession southern Patriot hometown Columbus Mississippi Barksdale was a man who to the ideas of the Confederacy and pursued them with raw aggressiveness with unfettered hatred for the Yankees but there's a problem the land ahead of him was not scouted because Lee's cavalry is missing there are 12 miles to the south rating supplies the Calvary the eyes and ears of an army is no longer in communication with Lee Lee is blind on the battlefield and that means that he doesn't know what the Union is up to and that course is going to cripple any army without cavalry to guide them the rebel troops nearly march into plain sight of a Union position Barksdale and the entire attack have to find another route a costly delay adding two hours to their march time that lets meet reinforce his defenses people often ask me what if they had machine guns in the Civil War I always say forget all that one set of walkie-talkies could have changed the outcome in the Civil War three miles away George Meade also has a problem just three days on the job he's lost Telegraph contact with Washington DC invented 25 years earlier The Telegraph is changing the way the Civil War battles are fought President Abraham Lincoln a hands-on commander-in-chief likes rapid news from the field the Signal Corps usually runs temporary lines to his generals at the front but at Gettysburg the field equipment hasn't learned and rebel forces have cut the lines during the whole thing he's got to be thinking Lee has beaten us time and time and time again and if he doesn't hear there's no one standing between him in the capital we're it he can't lose to issue orders to the front Meade uses a new innovation based on Morris coat wig wag signal waving the flags forms letters like the dots and dashes of code it works made tracks the rebels movements and responds with his own meanwhile on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes waits with what's left of his iron Brigade unit yesterday they routed the rebels at the railroad cut today there with the 11,500 men defending the Fish Hooks right flank stretching over three miles Meade's fishhook is formidable heavy defenses along the high ground make the Union line up here like a halt the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle Ewell replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll as the Union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. is units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go mewls Confederate troops are spreading out for the town it's a route for the rebels Amos Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that we fight every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the two men and Humiston x' regiment all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and cover them or with care by Frankie Valli and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank vault others flee as the rebels swarmed through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing has always been a male profession but during the Civil War 20,000 women sign on to care for the casualties one Union nurse Clara Barton will go on to found the Red Cross rebel soldiers go door to door looking for Union soldiers they're hiding all over town Lee has nowhere to put prisoners during the war so many are captured that North and South follow an honor system paroled prisoners taken oath not to rejoin the fight until formally exchanged coral is simply I'm going to give you a piece of paper that says don't fight anymore and if I catch you fighting then bad things are gonna happen to you then what we're gonna do later is we're going to have men from our army and men from your army meet it at a neutral place and we're gonna trade soldiers just like kids sitting around trading playing cards you know I'll trade you three generals for four Colonels and nine lieutenants for 50 privates the punishment for breaking parole is death Amos hummus – wounded and alone in a yard in the middle of town he grasps an ambrotype a photographic image of his three children fixed in glass a present from his wife on his way to war the Amos Humiston story is going to resonate with any soldier if you go to any unit in the United States military today obviously you're gonna find servicemembers with pictures of their children their wives their sweethearts because that is a tangible link to your normal life your condition and combat is not normal you're there in the service of your country to do what the nation asks you to do but the stakes are rising for both north and south on the high ground outside town Rufus Dawes and the Union Army dig it it's here at the Battle of Gettysburg will be won or lost suffering heavy losses Union troops pull out of Gettysburg leaving the town in Confederate control it might appear that the fighting on the first day for the Union was a huge waste they lost really bad on the first day but the intense trouble they put up north and west of town the intense struggle that some of them put up through the streets of Gettysburg allow them to fall back to their chosen position they retreat to a nearby series of hills than peak at 800 feet high ground that gives the Union a critical military advantage [Applause] on Culp's Hill Rufus Dawes and what's left of his iron Brigade unit digging they have a new weapon to shovel their building breastworks form a fortification dating back to the Romans some officers think defensive walls create cowards not dogs after losing half his men he wants all the protection he can get down below you'll has orders from robert e lee to take cemetery and copse hills but with the qualifier if practicable you will decides to wait for reinforcements it's a decision with critical consequences if you're looking up in you're seen this great amount of walk going on up there and your men are tired from the March they've just made it from the battle they've just fought something in him triggered I'm not gonna do this or I can't do this now but certainly at the end of the day he's going to disappoint his commander I'm sure he's gonna disappoint himself the Confederacy will pay for that for the next three days this is one of the great what-ifs of the battle had you will occupied and controlled Culp's Hill in the land around it the Union Army would have simply had to leave when the battle would have been fought somewhere else maybe not so much to the Yankees advantage in the fields around Gettysburg a grim new harvest the dead and wounded from day one tending to the injured on both sides dr. LeGrande Wilson Confederate deeply religious hometown Jackson Mississippi educated in the north his family owns 40 slaves in Mississippi this was my first experience on the battlefield after the fighting and it was horrible beyond description if every human being could have witnessed the result of the mad passions of men I saw that night war would cease there would never be another battle the staggering level of death in the civil war is difficult to wrap your brain around the commonly use numbers for how many soldiers died during the civil wars between six hundred and twenty and six hundred thirty thousand today that would mean that we would lose six million American lives one innovation making this war so deadly the mini-mall 90% of the soldiers Wilson treats have miniball wounds hollow base and grooves stabilize its flight for better range and accuracy unhhhh in fact it flattens out causing much larger wounds that traditional musket balls the Warped bullet shatters bones that splinter tear through the body and the grooves in the bullet carried deadly bacteria leading to gangrene the only way to stop it amputation african-americans serve has stretcher-bearers some slaves use the invasion as a chance to escape by the end of the war half a million slaves flee to the north a hundred and fifty thousand will enlist in the Union or dr. Wilson loses a family member on the first day of battle among the dead was my own nephew lieutenant George Adrian house must have been shot in the advance upon the enemy in the morning his faithful servant Steven came out on the battlefield and sought force in a matter of minutes finally the Confederate flag is within the reach of his iron Brigade men your parole Egleston sprang forward to seize it and was shot and mortally wounded private andersen furious at the killing of his brave young comrade with a terrific blow split the skull of the rebel who had shot young Eggleston into this deadly melee can corporal Francis a Waller who seized and held the level battle flag throw down your muskets the fight is over in less than 20 minutes there are 600 rebel dead wounded or missing das losses nearly half his men he's one of those rare soldiers that when everything else is chaotic Dawes was able to find clarity he's able to find purpose he understands that his soldiers have to be inspired by his presence but Dawes his win at the railroad cuts is the exception all around Gettysburg 28,000 rebel troops are overwhelming 20,000 Union soldiers the Confederate force 75,000 strong and streaming towards Gettysburg the Army of Northern Virginia is led by legendary battlefield commander Robert evilly we strategy shift the fighting out of the south and into the North threatening cities like Harrisburg in Washington DC he runs into the Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg this is where they'll fight if you look at Gettysburg on a map it looks like a wagon wheel almost with the town in the center on all the spokes going on to all these different directions the fact that Robert E Lena's troops ended up a get his burger was not what he wanted to happen at all this battle started by accident it started because of the roads and as more 24 year old lieutenant colonel Rufus Dawes leads the 6th Wisconsin regiment of the iron Brigade these are the crack troops of the Army of the Potomac 420 volunteers from the western frontier they faced down the Confederates and Antietam they're rugged and battle-tested the Confederates outnumber them two to one but Dawes and his men have them on the run retreating rebels find cover in a 600-foot railroad car the rebels now have the event my first mistook the manoeuvre full retreat but was undeceived by the heavy fire which they began at once to pour upon us from their cover in the country / dawes retreat is not an option heroism runs in his family his great-grandfather William dogs rode with Paul Revere of all the people that you didn't want to go up against on a battlefield like that was Rufus Dawes in his Westerners those Western troops were tough and he was tough more importantly he was tough and experienced there's no replacement for that on the battlefield just 175 yards to the railroad cut it will cost dawes one man for every yard they advance the whole field behind is streaming with men plunging in agony sinking to death on the ground [Applause] in the noise and thick smoke dawes must rely on the regimental flags the colors to command his troops but flags are a magnet for enemy fire men were being shot by the 20s and 30s but the boys crowded in right and left towards the colors and went forward Dawes loses 10 men carrying the color hoops arrived on these very roads that escalated into the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere having won a string of victories across the south these army invades the north at the peak of its strength one word would sum up robert e lee's feeling in marching to gettysburg and that word is confident they see the end of the tunnel they can feel that if they maybe win in the north that this war might finally end the moment was now in 63 lee knew it and he didn't want it to pass by what you got to remember is lee is not there to win another battle robert e lee's there to win the war on the northern edge of Gettysburg Union troops are taking a beating all that stands between the town and the rebel assaults is the 11th Corps among them sergeant Amos Humiston X Whaler father of three he enlisted after hearing President Abraham Lincoln's plea for 300,000 recruits Humiston was like so many Union soldiers who felt this deep love for family and for home but he also had a deep sense of commitment for the army and for his nation a bullet glanced off his ribs six weeks ago at Chancellorsville all I ask is I can die in battle like a man I hate the idea of dying here like a hawk the odds are against him battering the 11th Corps from a hill above town is Lee's newly appointed lieutenant general dick you'll tenacious eccentric profane you'll lost his left leg fighting the iron Brigade last summer at the Second Battle of Bull Run now he's out for revenge a month ago robert e lee's legendary second-in-command Stonewall Jackson was killed in battle you'll replaced him it's a lot to live up to today you'll as the union on the run after suffering 9000 casualties Union soldiers retreat from Gettysburg Humiston has orders to cover the retreat but they're under heavy fire by 4:00 p.m. his units outflanked and fall back into town they've got nowhere to go mewls Confederate troops are spreading out for the town it's a route for the rebels Amos Humiston is surrounded he's in for the fight of his life Virginia is on a roll mowing down Union troops with deadly precision after just ten hours of fighting the union's retreat nine thousand already killed or wounded the rebels are close to the victory we see living battle that Lee fights every victory that he wins where he does not achieve the destruction of the Army of the Potomac he just expended capital with no strategic effect Lee knows the Fox ticket who wants to stay on him so that he can destroy them sergeant Amos Humiston puts his life on the line covering the Union retreat Confederate troops overrun the town of the 2007 man and hummus tins regimen all but 18 are killed captured Humiston is trapped you have put the little ones to bed to your wife and cover them or with care my Frankie Ali and Fred and they have said their evening prayer perhaps they breathed the name of one who is far in southern land and wished he too were there to join their little band [Applause] oh when will this rebellion cease this curse at war be over and we our dear ones meet to part from them no more across Gettysburg terrified residents hide wherever they can even in the town's bank vault others flee as the rebels swarm through town especially african-americans to avoid being seized by the rebel army just seven miles north of the mason-dixon line Gettysburg is on the Underground Railroad a route of safe houses for escaped slaves fleeing to the north their destination cities like New York and Philadelphia where supporters provide food and protection if caught reprisals are brutal ears chopped off hamstrings cut it's no wonder slaves are the single largest financial asset in the United States the enslaved population of the south by itself is worth more than all the railroads and factories and banks of the United States together it's a business worth more than 3.5 billion dollars the wealth of the south is almost wholly dependent on enslaved persons whether you're looking at states rights whether you're looking at political aspects of it everything points back to slavery slavery is at the center of everything that caused the civil war by nightfall the Confederate flag is flying over Gettysburg homes and public buildings become makeshift hospitals to deal with the flood of casualties Fanny Bueller a housewife and mother risks home and family taking in wounded Union soldiers I never saw a more unsightly set of men with their dirty torn garments Pat las' shoeless and footsore I pitied them from the depth of my heart until now the bloody business of Nursing