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General Knowledge History Quiz:
Mesopotamia is considered the cradle, or beginning, of civilization. Here large cities lined the rivers and many advances took place. Mesopotamia at first glance does not look like an ideal place for a civilization to flourish. It is hot and very dry. There is very little rainfall in Lower Mesopotamia. However, snow, melting in the mountains at the source of these two rivers, created an annual flooding. The flooding deposited silt, which is fertile, rich, soil, on the banks of the rivers every year. This is why Mesopotamia is part of the fertile crescent, an area of land in the Middle East that is rich in fertile soil and crescent-shaped.
The Sumerians were the first people to migrate to Mesopotamia, they created a great civilization. Beginning around 5,500 years ago, the Sumerians built cities along the rivers in Lower Mesopotamia, specialized, cooperated, and made many advances in technology. The wheel, plow, and writing (a system which we call cuneiform) are examples of their achievements.
for nearly 5,000 years the scorching sands of the Iraqi desert have held relics of the oldest known civilization the Sumerian our world owes the Sumerians everything they invent in writing and the wheel they divided time into minutes and seconds they tamed nature and built gigantic cities they loved culture and the arts their caravans crossed the desert opening up the first trade routes their stories inspired our founding myths and their memory lives on in the old testament they wrote the history of the birth pangs of mankind yet 4000 years ago this brilliant civilization died out for a long time it's very existence remained a mystery but today the desert sands are at last yielding some of the secrets of this fascinating civilization and a river went out of Eden to water the garden and from thence it was parted and became into four heads the name of the first is Pisan and the name of the second river is Jehan and the name of the third river is Tigris that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria and the fourth River is Euphrates and the Lord God took the man and put him into the Garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it in southern Iraq a crushing silence hangs over the dunes the temperature is around the 50 degree mark the climate has not changed for thousands of years yet men and women once lived here sandwiched between the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf is the region that the Greek historian Polybius called Mesopotamia the country between two rivers it was irrigated by the Euphrates and the Tigris in the mid nineteenth century all we knew of ancient Mesopotamia was what we read in the Bible French and British archaeologists competed to discover more and their finds were amazing they uncovered an unsuspected buried past Mesopotamia had once been the cradle of a civilization but what was so special about these fines and why did a civilization develop in that part of the world at all so keyed exceptional nada covered receives a sincere Mesopotamian a key 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come Selena Lafleur that the veneer lacks a little Sport privilege or to do the man the economy difficulty compliment ale our journey begins in the mountains of Armenia where the Tigris and the Euphrates both rise fed by melting snow from the high plateaus the rivers tumble down the mountain slopes tearing away tons of silt as they go they run parallel for over 2,000 kilometers then merge to form the Shatt al-arab waterway the rivers are calmer in the wide desert plains to the south they deposit fertile soil all the way to the Persian Gulf but the Tigris and the Euphrates could also be a terrible enemy the spring floods would sweep away everything in their path how were people able to settle a land that was so vulnerable to the whims of nature that question takes us to Baghdad the Iraqi capital on the banks of the Tigris in the narrow streets of the old city the visitor is steeped in the scents of the Orient dense crowds and a cheerful tumult are all around in the colorful bazaars Iraqis display their ancient talent for commerce the heritage of the Sumerian civilization is everywhere Oh the markets have sold the same varieties of fruit and vegetables for thousands of years in the call of the arcades you can buy pomegranates from northern there are and the yoghurt that the Mesopotamians were specially fond on on street corners there are earthenware pots of drinking water the water beads on the surface of the jar and in evaporating keeps the water within cool a Sumerian invention 5000 years old but who were the Sumerians where did they come from on the Fertile plateaus of Anatolia several thousand kilometers from Mesopotamia archaeologists have solved one part of the Sumerian puzzle they discovered what made it possible for the population to expand and found a civilization it was einkorn wheat which grows wild throughout eastern Turkey people have lived in this fertile region at the crossroads of great migration routes since time immemorial tribes of hunter-gatherers found everything here that they needed for their survival the Kurds keep up the age-old traditions every day the women cook such Acme a weak pancake that forms the whole family's staple diet [Applause] in 1958 archaeologists discovered the nine thousand year old ruins of the village of Chora new 3500 years before Sumer people settled on this fertile land they didn't yet make ceramics but they were builders their houses had mud brick walls on dry stone foundations one day the people of China made a discovery that would change the world los gayo sucre vera gas mill Ave Oh Jared daun ceragem deca Lindo Sarah John Doe low fat ass oh not really los que Sucre you said situation play particular typically : deceleration Segundo sin Kamini so var Kiva permit Azam dosa Delta se set even Minnelli more extreme on oovoo Corazon de cuerpo Sangamon upon VZ n grin keep over T DT DZ k a basic tool enormous otar conserve a la conservation repoed really Montara Azria whole essence el 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first farmers were full of invention they developed their tools they bettered their daily lives and they left behind a legacy of immense importance writing cereals were the main source of wealth for the Sumerian civilization this alabaster vars more than a meter high depicts the Sumerians gratitude towards nature it also expresses their religious further the vegetable and animal worlds are represented as ears of wheat and herds of sheep the procession of men bearing offerings approaches the sanctuary of Inanna the goddess of heaven and earth the pilgrims are welcomed by the high priest in his robes thanks to these successes in agriculture the population grew the first groups began to colonize land along the rivers all the way to the Great Plain of Mesopotamia the main preoccupation of the farmers was finding ways to boost their production of crops this clay tablet shows a device for more economical sowing the seeds are deposited via a funnel that ensures regular even distribution in the furrows the Cimmerian secret lay in taming they're unpredictable sources of water for in Mesopotamia the balance between man and nature could easily tip against man to take control of their water the Sumerians invented the wheel and they dug hundreds of kilometres of irrigation canals reservoirs and dams irrigation was the mainstay of the Cimmerian civilization by subduing the turbulent waters of the Tigris and the Euphrates they turned the power of nature to their own use the farmers reap the benefits with bountiful crops from hundreds of thousands of hectares of fertilized land in some areas wheat millet and barley were harvested twice a year in the oases along the irrigation canals millions of palm trees grew as far as the eye could see it's the same when the Tigris and the Euphrates merged to form a single body of water the shut arab waterway on each side of the Shatt al-arab an agricultural province prospers thanks to the bountiful water from the two great rivers only barges can reach the heart of this maze of tall reeds the Sumerians built fishing villages here the people still live as their ancestors did they still build reed huts just like the one seen in ancient bar relief the huts stand on a foundation of layers of soil interlaced with braided reeds the floor roof and walls are made of interwoven stalks the supporting columns and beams very strong are made of tightly packed Reed bundles five thousand years ago forty thousand fishermen and farmers and entire people lived in the marshland around the port city of Earth in their frail Reed boats they had made a huge area habitable one meter at a time and they said one to another let us make brick and burn them thoroughly and they had brick for stone and slime had they for mortar and they said let us build us a city and a tower whose top may reach unto heaven the first archaeologists to see the ruins of Earth must have been speechless before them lay narrow streets squares and the remains of houses granaries and temples five thousand years ago when Western Europe was still in the Stone Age this was a city of 34,000 people when they built cities like her the Mesopotamians were shaping the world in their own image lattice for monsieur de modo de la fille homo parlays a bitola Mesopotamia Etta phenomen fundament an incessant possible cantata decreed evil are ESOL plotted a Sunday Cuchillo Paris with a Lepik de Ville so some picante delicious see de Ville ESO a menage elevation a la mode to Vicki so develop a editor Madhavi the domination planet u.s.a secure castle to the fetanyl most part to rule isn't terminal learn that you to carve a Alamut oh service deluxe over he made to last with fire bricks covered in tar the ziggurat of ur is impressive it's estimated that it took 1,500 men 5 years just to build its base farmers up to 20 kilometers away could see the house of their God drawings done by the British archaeologist Leonard Woolley in the early 20th century help us imagine what I looked like four thousand years ago this immense city was surrounded by 4,000 hectares of cereal fields traders from the Persian Gulf sailed into its harbor and exported food to the Arabian Peninsula several thousand kilometers away the daily life of the cities centered on the temple weather people prayed and political and economic decisions were taken behind an 8 meter high city wall the houses were haphazardly piled up the streets were narrow winding and unser word garbage was burnt outside the house when it wasn't simply left on the road three-story buildings jostled with single storey ones and none of the houses was aligned with its neighbors their facades have no openings just low doors and a few air vents in order to keep the interior cool and to keep the dust clouds out you for a long time little was known of life you know leonard woolley had spent years excavating the ruins when in 1926 he discovered what was dubbed the death pit it was the tomb of Queen puabi and of more than 20 servants and soldiers who were sacrificed and buried with her in order to serve her in the afterlife among the skeletons covered in gold and silver Willy found this the so called standard of Earl it's mother-of-pearl figures show sumerian fishermen slaves and soldiers walking for eternity against the sky of lapis lazuli you like stills from a movie it's amazingly detailed panels show war chariots crushing the enemy or the frozen smile of a scribe having a drink with friends in the arid desert that now surrounds the site the traces of the past are still visible when they found the ruins of Sumerian dams on this barren land several kilometres from the rivers 19th century archaeologists faced an enigma how had people lived in this desert so far from the source of water the desert city of Nepal 250 kilometers south of Baghdad the ruins of a temple rise above the dunes it was during excavations of this site that archaeologists found the key to the enigma this clay tablet is a map of Nepal it shows the exact locations of the temple and the city wall the Euphrates ran to the west of the wall it had been diverted to supply the city with water the cities had therefore been built beside the water but changes in land form and the sheer force of the floodwaters changed the course of the rivers satellite images helped us reconstruct the map of this part of the world as it was 5,000 years ago Nepal Luke EW and all the main cities of the Cimmerian civilization evolved in a vastly different landscape at that time the Tigris and the Euphrates ran through much of Mesopotamia as a single River they separated only downstream from Nepal sunrise over ancient earth it is midsummer and the day will be scorchingly hot slowly the city comes to life people slept on their rooftops which were much cooler at night than the small rooms of their houses ancient texts listing real estate sales show that the houses floor space was less than 70 square meters in the early morning people come onto the streets merchants try to entice the passers-by they try to do business while the day is still cool a new nigga in the courtyards of some houses men relax and drink beer through strong several ancient texts refer to the Sumerian temperament the Sumerians exposure to the hazards of nature made them conscious of the brevity and fragility of life you in the streets men often wear Canucks wraparound sheepskin skirts that go from the waist to the knees or ankles depending on the season and fashion the wives of dignitaries wear colorful lighter garments both men and women wear jewelry earrings bracelets and necklaces archeologists have discovered that forgers operating in the walled city could replicate gold and turquoise people who couldn't afford real jewelry could buy and wear fancy fakes this neighborhood was home to merchants shopkeepers and traders the homes of the scribes Mason's and carpenters and the slaves houses were all within a short distance of the temple you the treasures discovered in our are enormous ly important for archaeologists they revealed Sumerian customs and they demonstrate the quality of the craftsmen work Sumerian Goldsmith's had mastered the techniques of chiseling and soldering gold the Bulls head on this harp has eyes of lapis lazuli turned towards eternity the harp itself is decorated with shells and precious stones for their last journey with their queen the servants wore a spectacular diadem of gold bands and precious stones a braiding of beech leaves covered the brow and above the head Rose three golden flowers the gold used also in cups and ceremonial weapons as well as the lapis lazuli and turquoise all came from the east the mother-of-pearl and the shells came from Bahrain the raw material used to make this billy goat shows how prosperous I was and how thriving its trade archeologists have traced the origins of some of its materials to get the lapis lazuli the Sumerians sent their caravans 3,000 kilometres to the Braxtons mountains in what is now northern Pakistan beshal wa the merchant city in northern pakistan this rough lapis lazuli has been shipped from Afghanistan splashing water on the stones brings out the intense blue that fascinated the Cimmerians archeologists have established that the lapis lazuli trade began with a Sumerian civilization 3500 years before Christ 3,000 years before the Silk Road the Sumerians had opened up the trade routes that crisscross the East with the development of trade the Cimmerians invented the concept of the contract cylindrical stone seals were carved and finally engraved with a negative ba relief when a contract was entered into or goods needed to be identified the cylinder was rolled in clay the market left on the clay sealed the transaction that was also how the Sumerians who held contracts in great esteem began to make laws very few legal texts from the Sumerian period have been found but in the early 20th century in the Persian city of suzhen archaeologists discovered the stone of Hammurabi king of babylon it had been seized as a trophy by the illa mites who went on a rampage through Mesopotamia in the 12th century BC Hammurabi had the legal code that bears his name drawn up in 1694 BC it enshrined all of some areas laws and all 282 articles were carved on the stone they mostly relate to aspects of everyday life to commercial transactions marriages and inheritances as a judge the king ordered investigations protected the people from abuse by officials and oversaw a great public works the Code of Hammurabi proves that the Sumerians were precursors in many areas on the back of the stone article 196 warns and eye for an eye a principle repeated in the law of Moses to build their Garden of Eden the Sumerians roamed the world in search of commodities they lacked for example there was no wood in the Mesopotamian desert to get this rare commodity which they used exclusively as a building material the Sumerians ventured to Syria Turkey and the mountains of Lebanon today cedar forests a few and far between after the Sumerians all the ancient civilizations used cedar and gradually they cut down almost all the cedar trees legend has it that some Cedars are over 4,000 years old and grew in civilizations now vanished they could testify to the efforts of the Sumerians bar reliefs found in temples show Sumerian loggers felling hundred-year-old Cedars and loading them onto their ships before sailing down the Euphrates these expeditions lasted several months and show the enormous achievement of the people living in a hostile environment some discoveries made by the Sumerians 5,000 years ago are still used by Iraqis today tar for instance is used for waterproofing boat hulls and sealing the roofs of houses this is hate a small town on the banks of the Euphrates six hundred kilometers from the Cimmerian city's tar and sulphur erupt from the earth here tar floats and archeologists believe the Sumerians could have collected tar from the riverbanks as it floated down the Euphrates the people have hate still collect our by methods that haven't changed for thousands of years before taking the tar out of the water you have to cut your hands in sand the Sumerians too used tar for waterproofing boats but they mainly used it for sealing bricks and for waterproofing the foundations of public buildings this precaution reflected a major event in their lives floods George Smith a 19th century Londoner who studied Sumerian tablets in the British Museum deciphered some legends about devastating floods the wickedness of men so displeased Enlil the supreme god that he decided to swallow man up in a huge flood Enki protector of men pleaded with him but in vain so Anki decided to preserve a remnant he asked sue sudra to build an ark and to take animals in pairs on board with him after six days and nights of storm the world was submerged on the seventh day the storm abated Zeus Sutra released a dove that finding no resting place returned to him on the eighth day he released a raven that never returned mankind was saved you new niveau Auto V limit Mesopotamia CUDA PA paper de siècle Dali text Chianti debt over a particular bibliothèque de Nieva poor Claire de Luz sorry le t to to Lhasa recession Occidental to location is moxie totally terribly detector public aid omelet extra public Illya demet give Ian direct amount amount Mesopotamia a total Estrada christianism proxy Dalton Idomeneo paho cemet concrete pecan pre reinterpret observable pas Santi potato doll significant some poor food color Accord le seems a bit only Mesopotamia Mason Missoula a eurozone complete Malini the gods instilled fear and respect they symbolized the Cimmerians mistrust of nature each divinity in their pantheon played a role each one ruled over a city Enlil god of wind ruled over air and earth in the city of Nepal Enki god of water and the world was worshiped in era do-do-do god of justice and truth was worshiped in lhasa inanna known to the Babylonians as the fertility goddess Ishtar was worshiped in ruk she inspired both love and war to the Greeks she was Aphrodite and to the Romans Venus the smooth curves of this alabaster statue reflect the skill of the Sumerian artists their art and their religious devotion are highlighted by the statues finish and their expressive faces SOT Emily Judy Mesopotamia see geckos KGC rescission no – hallelujah the top no7 paratext de meat no Devon divest well today ho sake few accompli Lord o tell you tell ceremony may los últimos oh ho a tremolo Quneitra Malik's preemie yeah down whenever Mesopotamia concept a general dope reasons Davina Ella divorce allama a to service disposal dois de faire avec l into a composite of akela set religion which in religion the lung Oh service did you say service sexiest Rao's own existence Oh cotillion Sidonia Maugeri Dena blog called Pedrosa Cronus a derivative avec des Beaux vet mongrel te llamas a statue de medical headless olvido genres from Rijo Peter zoton solid you know the confetti Loma not available Eva found a seizure a year prior Vienna so top sin regard only fetid glory cannula whole resume is about the Mian Sita professor prayer was part of daily life for the Cimmerians the upkeep and ceremonies of the temple required a large body of priests and other staff and every day the faithful brought their offerings the archives of the city of Uruk described the daily meal of its four main gods as follows 250 loaves of bread a thousand tarts fifty sheep eight lambs two oxen and one calf celestial food that was offered to the gods and later fed the temples 1200 priests and staff the scribes recorded the hopes of the Sumerians in exchange for the devotion their virtue and their respect for the established order the Sumerians hoped for eternal life in the next world the neverending struggle to tame nature made them conscious of the fragility of life and inspired their most beautiful myths gilgamesh v king of Uruk in the third millennium BC was a historical figure he was the sumerians hero and the stories of his adventures were famous throughout Mesopotamia they sum up the history of the Sumerian civilization Gilgamesh was a just king and a great builder who also challenged the gods he tamed savages and he went to the distant forest to fragrant cedar to confront the fire eating monster Humbaba during their fight Gilgamesh cut off the monsters head he returned to orc in triumph to punish him the goddess in Anna sent the celestial bull to destroy the city the bull dried up the meadows and rivers and opened deep crevices into which people fell to their deaths so the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth and they left off building the city the Sumerians vision was prophetic after ruling Mesopotamia for 3,000 years their civilization attacked from all sides collapsed the pomp of their cities was over and so was their influence the irrigation canals gradually dried up the walls of the houses collapsed the temples themselves collapsed under the combined assault of the Sun the rain and the wind the clay of the bricks turned to dust leaving only a shapeless mass above the dunes the last vestiges of a civilizations grandeur how can we explain the complete disappearance of such a brilliant civilization or the decadence of a people who left behind only ruins and the remains of a looted temples es como parle de dikhhla dodging satin Maggiore me potato puto Deus clay hos trot segunda 8 reales a paha le rendez-vous Catalan millionnaire Dhokla passe G so concrete is Paha de manifestation chorizos dezadore ricardo de religion – taeho's la evil a view elongation on sap xwiki Lea de mas Amedda Liberty possible don't Lex patientís at Inova – rose par example la Mesopotamia yet Athena Moberg diva prefer floors Oh Oh twas a millionnaire coup oh poor me milady Casey space vatos overdose on said a grand affair low ferritin a tool effectual Pacifica's creep we're a parsec I cut em professor de travail immense avant Oberto preferred a day application Cochrane impose don't set a name elevation may love even more Lama Zopa Tammany Parish affair a problem de saucé Vasa Posey packs cry forever cuckoo one epic oosik o leary junkie on human rate fair wounds where whole book before cuz lamb is a pata be for almost a century in the tablets archived in the temples scribes patiently recorded the decline of crop yields from 2350 BC wheat production fell by 40% only barley production remains stable how could a people who had developed such advanced techniques be powerless to keep their resources from dwindling for decades archaeologists poured over texts for an answer but the answer lay in the field the irrigation system made the Sumerians powerful but it also contributed to their destruction as 3,000 years of irrigation water evaporated the salt buried deep in the land rose to the surface in the end of white cover of salt hardened by the Sun made the soil sterile and the wheat could no longer grow the local people are still plagued by this problem today in some areas the earth is cracked it resembles uncultivated desert this is what the great fields around the cities look like faced with climate change and desertification Sumerian farmers could find no solution but can one speak of the decline of a civilization Paulo da declare de Paco Hecht Satan presses key KC develop a insipid seok TV us o for assault Irma aunt oh no de Patri SuperVeloce a pas de cette pase el mapa TV set in Passaic Eva at trois miss Lily gray clip X key so Mendes integrity become completion de Mesopotamia Ribicoff a certain categories a Tanzanian Voe trans-med sets a slow ciose cosmetics agua es se Vasu Ferro particular planet olio direction Monica a paramour Greg Sabah so hot we de la méditerranée atoll basa méditerranée da l ET de set civilization Mesopotamian mesa prefer reference absolute as a former men decisions the weakened Sumerian cities were unable to face the economic competition from the large cities to the north of Mesopotamia other civilizations inspired by the Sumerian example planted their standards on the conquered land by 2004 BC Sumer was finished the Assyrians dominated Mesopotamia the epic of Babylon could now begin beneath the pitiless Sun the Sumerians wealth returned to the dust it's their story that the Bible tells like the builders of the Tower of Babel the men and women of Sumer were scattered upon the face of all the earth the water the Sumerians feared brought on their destruction having controlled the floods of the Tigris and the Euphrates having drawn their life force from their waters the Sumerians were swept away by history and disappeared they left mankind the legacy of their wealth traces of their creative genius and a sense of the extraordinary fragility of civilizations Oh